INTRODUCTION TO

BIBLICAL HEBREW

Thomas O. Lamdin HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Charles Scribner s Sons · New York

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Thomas O. Lambdin Introduction to Biblical Hebrew

1971 © Published by arrangement with the original publisher, Prentice Hall Inc, a Simon & Schuster company

© Ilepeson na PYCCKHH R3bIK, xYJlO>KeCTBeHHoe ocpopMJleHHe, POCcHHcKoe EH6JIeHCKOe 06mecTBo, 1998

I$BN 5-85524-047-9· (pyc.) ISBN 0-02-267250-8 (anrn.)

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Dpe~HCJIOBHe f( PYCCf(oM)' nepeaony 17

Baeaeaae 21

cJ)oHeTHK8 H nHChMO 24

§1. A.Jt¢>aBliT Ii CliCTeMa CorJIaCHblX 3BYKOB

zrpesneenpeacxoro H3bIKa 24

§2. Fnacnue 3BYKH U ux 0603HaqeHHe na nucsae 29

§3. CTpYKTypa cnora H ynapenne 36

§4. qepe.n:oBaHUe CMblqHbIX U meJIeBbIX COrJIaCHblX 39

§5. Qepe.noB3HUH rJIaCHbIX 40

§6. Ocofeanocrn rOpTaHHbIX corJIaCHbIX

(l't ~ 17 ~ i1 h, n b) H COrJIaCHOrO i r 43

y npa~HeHHJI AJlJI Ha'lHHaIOIItHx 47

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§ 12. I1MH cyuiecraarensaoe. POll 50

§ 13. qUCJlo 51

§14. Onpe.n:eJIeHHbIH aPTuKJIb rt ha- 52

§ 15. n peztnorn 54

§16. Mecro cxaayesroro B npeJ1,JIO)l(eHHlf. Hapexae HJIM cymecrearensaoe C npeztnorosr

B POJIU cxaayesroro 55

§ 17. CJIOBapb 1 55

YPOK 2

§ 18. Onpenenemrsni aprmors (npoztonaceaae) 58

§ 19. MHO)KeCTBeHHOe qUCJIO cyuiecraarensusrs: PCXlYKIUUI

rJIaCHbIX OCHOBbI; CerOJIaTHbIe CYIllecTBHTCJIbIIble 59

§20. CJIOBapb 2 60

YPOK 3

§21. Onpeneneamak apTHKJIb (oKOHqaHHe) 64

§22. I1MH npanarareasnoe 64

§23. Y norpefinemre npanararensasrx 66

§24. CJIOBapb 3 68

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YPOK 4

§25. MHO)l.(eCTBeHHoe qHCJIO cyllJ,eCTBHTeJIbHhIX~ pe,l.l,YKIJ,lul

rJIaCHbIX OCHOBbI....................... ,., ••••.••.••••••••••.••••• 00 71

§26. Tnaron: aKTI1BHOe upasacrue 71

§27. Ilpezinor npsnroro .D:OnOJIHeH11.H -n~ 'et- 73

§28. CJIOBapb 4 74

YPOK 5

§29. Ilpeztrrorn ~ be-, '? le- 11 ~ ks- 77

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§30. Jlpeanor 11;) min (113, OT) 00 78

§31. CpaBHI1TeJIbHaR 11 npeBOCXO,lJ,HaH crenens

npI1JIaraTeJIbHoro , .••.........•..•.•••.•..•.• 79

§32. i~~ 7iiSer 79

§33. CJIOBapb 5 80

YPOK 6

§34. MHO)l.(eCTBeHHoe QI1CJIO O.D:HOCJIO)l.(HbIX

cymecTBI1TeJIbHbIX _ 84

§3S. TIpl1QaCTHJI OT fJIaroJIOB C ropTaHHbIMH COfJIaCHbIMll

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B xopne 85

§36. CJIOBapb 6 86

YPOK 7

§37 .CJIOBa rD~ yes 11 r'~ 7en _ 88

§38. Ilpezurora -~ be-, -7 Ja- 11 -n~ 'el- C MeCTOI1MeHHbIMH

Cy<P<PHKcaMI1 88

§39. CJIOBapb 7 90

YPOK 8

§40. YKa3aTeJIbHble MecTOHMeH11J1 92

§41. II pI1QaCTH}1 (npononacenae) 94

§42. CJIOBapb 8 94

YPOK 9

§43. I'lejxpercr npanam.nsrx r JIaroJIOB 97

§44. 3HaQeHHe neprpercra 99

§45. Jlpennosceaae C fJIarOJIbHbIM CKa3yeMbIM 99

§46. cDOPMbI COI03a ! wa (11) 101

§47. CJIOBapb 9 102

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§48. Ilepdxncr rJIarOJIOB C rOpTaHHbIMH COrJIaCHbIMH

B KOpHe 105

§49. Ilepdieer fJIarOJIa lt1~ natan 1 05

§50. MHO>KeCTBeHHoe lJHCJIO cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX

(np0,ZJ;OJI)KeHHe) 106

§51. CJIOBapb 1 0 t 07

YPOK 11

§52. Ilepdiexr fJIarOJIOB III -N: N~D mii$ii{ ') 110

TT

§53. MHO>KeCTBeHHoe lJHCJIO cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX:

cyutecrmrrensnuc >KeHCKOro pO,ZJ;a

C OKOHtIaHHeM -ti " 110

§54. Bonpocarensnaa sacrnna n hd- (JIM) 111

§55. Eute 0 CJIOBe .,rt!~ 'aser 112

§56. CJIOBapb 11 112

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§57. Ileppexr r JIarOJIOB III -CJI.: iT)~ bana 115

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§59. CJIOBapb 12 117

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§60. llpeJlJIO>KeHHH co cKaayeMbIM-cymecTBHTeJIbHbIM 121

§61. r JIarOJI ;'''jI hayti (6bITb ) 121

TT

§62. MHO>KeCTBeHHoe lJHCJIO cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX:

cymecrsarensnere >KeHCKOro pona C OKOHlJaHHeM -I .. 122

§63. CJIOBapb 13 123

YPOK14

§64. Ilepdxncr nycrux rJIarOJIOB 125

§6S. Ilpeanorn 17;) min Ii :P k» C MecToMMeHHhIMH

cy$<l>HKcaMH 126

§66. "~kol 127

§67. CJIOBapb 14 127

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§68. Ileppexr y,ZJ;BoeHHbIx rJIarOJIOB 130

§69. Ilpeanorn C~ 'im H -M~ 'etc MeCTOHMeHHhIMM

cy$<l>HKcaMH " 130

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o CJlOBe i~~ , aser 131

§71. CJIOBapb 15 " """ 011 133

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§72 .. WnpB)KeHHOe cOlJeTaHHe ,u 135

§ 73. ConpH)KeHHa.H q,opMa CYIUccTBHTeJIbHoro

B eJ];HHCTBeHHOM tfHCJIe: OCHOBHble npanana

oopa30BaHHH ••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 138

§ 7 4. CJIOBapb 16 1.39

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§75. Wnp.H)£(eHHa.H q,opMa cymccTBHTeJIbHbIX B eJ];HHCTBeHHOM tfHCJIe:

.n:onOJIHHTeJIbHbJe npaaana 142

§76. WnpH)KeHHa.H «llopMa CYIUecTBHTeJIbHbIX )KeHCKOro

pona aa -0 B e.n:HHCTBeHHOM 'IHCJle 143

§ 77 .. Cnoaaps 17 , 144

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§78. 06paaOBaHHe COnpH)£(eHHOii q,OPMbI OT cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX

BO MHO)£(eCTBeHHOM tfHCJle C OKOHtfaHHeM -im 147

§79. 06pa30BaHHe COnpH)£(eHHOii q,OPMbI OT cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX

BO MHO)KeCTBeHHOM tfHCJle C OKOHtfaHHeM -0/ 149

§80. CJIOBapb 18 150

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§81. CaMoCTOHTeJIbHa.H (cy6'beKTHaJI) q,opMa JIHtfHOrO

MCCTOHMeHHH 153

§82. Bonpocarensasre MecToHMeHHH 154

§83. Ilpeanoru c,~, c,p, nlJ~ H ""Jq~ C MecToHMeHHbIMH

cy¢<l>HKcaMH 155

§84. CJIOBapb 19 155

YPOK 20

§85. CymccTBHTeJIbHbIe C MCCTOHMeHHbIMH cy¢<l>HKcaMH. 159

§86. Cnosaps 20 164

YPOK 21

§87. fJIarOJIbI COCTOHHHH 167

§88. CymecTBHTeJIbHbIe :Ut, nit H ;,!) 169

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§90. MMne.P<l>eKT " 174

§91. 3HaqeHHe HMnep<peKTa 175

§92.lI:BoHcTBeHHoe QHCJJO 175

§93. CJIOBapb 22 177

YPOK 23

§94. MMneP4>eKT C rJIaCHbIM a B ocnone 180

§95. MMnep¢eKT rJIarOJIOB III-It 180

§96. CymecTBHTeJIbHbIe T~ H Crp 181

§97. CJIOBapb 23 181

YPOK 24

§98. fJIarOJIbHbIe <pOPMbI B nOBeCTBOBaHHH 185

§99. Ilpacoenmrenne MeCTOHMeHHbIX Cy<l><PHKCOB

K CerOJIaTHbIM cymecTBHTeJIbHbIM 188

§ 1 00. 3aMeQaHHlI 0 HeKOTopbIX npeztnorax 189

§ 101 Cnoeaps 24 190

YPOK 25

§102. nOneJIHTeJIbHoe HaKJIoHeHHe 195

§103. fJIarOJIbI I-roPT.: HMnep¢eKT H nOBeJIHTeJlbHOe

HaKJIOHeHHe " 197

§ 104. Ilpacoeznraemre MecToHMeHHbIX CY<P<PHKCOB

K CerOJIaTHbIM CYIII,ecTBHTeJIbHbIM (npononxemre) 198

§105. CJIOBapb 25 199

YPOK 26

§ 106. I()CCHB H xoroprarns 203

§ 107. llo6Y.lJ;HTeJIbHbIe Q:>OpMbI B CBH3HOM TeKCTe 203

§108. fJIarOJIbI I-It: HMnep¢eKT H CB1I3aHHbIe C HI1M

¢>OpMhI 204

§ 1 09. CJIOBapb 26 206

YPOK 27

§ 11 O. 060c06JIeHHbIe 06CTOllTeJIbCTBeHHbIe 060POTbI C

"n"vn"n, 208

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§ 111. Cynrecrmrrensnue JKeHCKOro pozta C OKOHQaHHlIMH

-(e)[H -(0)[ 209

§112. CymecTBHTeJIbHbIe, OTHOClImJteCR K rnny "!~ 209

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§113. Cnonaps 27 210

YPOK 28

§ 114. I1HQ>HHHTHB 213

§ 115. Y nOTpe6JIeHHe HH~HHHTHBa 214

§ 116. Cymecrmrrensnsre, OKaH1:IHBaIOlUHeCH na -e 217

§117. Cnosaps 28 J ••••• 218

YPOK 29

§ 118. Fnaronu 1-): HMnep<peKT H CBH3aHHbIe C HHM

cPo pMbI 06 _ ••••• 220

§ 119. CJIOBapb 29 222

YPOK 30

§120. Fnaronu 1-"': HMnep<peKT, nOBeJlHTeJIbHoe HaKJIOHeHHe,

HH~HHHT"l:l _ _ 11 227

§ t 21. Cnonaps 30 110229

YPOK 31

§122. fJIarOJIbI III-cn.: HMnep¢eKT, nOBeJIIITeJIbHOe

HaKJIOHeHHe, HH~HHHTHB 233

§ 123. CJIOBapb 31 235

YPOK 32

§t24. Ilycrue rJIarOJIbI (ll-' H 1I-"t): HMnep<peKT,

rrOBeJIHTeJIbHOe HaKJIOHeHHe, HH<pHHHTHB 240

§ 125. CJIOBapb 32 242

YPOK 33

§126. YJl.BOeHHhIe rnaroms: HMneJXl>eKT, nOBeJlHTeJIbHOe

HaKJIOHeHHe, HHc!>HHHTHB 246

§ 127. CJIOBapb 33 248

YPOK 34

§128. Ilaccnnaoe npasacrne 252

§ 129. A6cOJIIOTHbIH HH<PHHHTHB. 253

§130. KOJIWleCTBeHHble QHCJIHTeJJbHbIe OT 3 AO 10 254

§ 131. CJIOBapb 34 255

YPOK 35

§ 132. Fnaronsmee q,OPMbI B nOBeCTBOBaHHH

(npoAOJI>KeHHe) 259

§ 133. W~ 111"'~ 261

§ 1.34. CJIOBapb 35 262

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YPOK 36

§135. ;'"T~~ 265

§136. NJ If NJ-;'"T!];'"T 267

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§137. ii17 If ;'"T~~ 268

§138. CJIOBaph 36 270

YPOK 37

§ 139. TIOpO,lI.hI rnarorra 274

§ 140. Ilopona NIP'AL : ana-renue 275

§141. Ilopona NIP'AL : 06pa30BaHIfe OCHOB 11 cnpaxcenae

(npaaansmae rJIarOJIhI; II- If III-ropT.) 276

§142. CJIOBaph 37 279

YPOK 38

§143. Ilopona NIP'AL: rJIarOJIhI I-J, 1-·" III-N, III-cJI 283

§144. NIP'AL : rJIarOJIhI, COqeTaIOIIJ.Ife ocooeanocrn

,lI.ByX KJIaCcOB 285

§145. CJIOBaph 38 286

YPOK 39

§146. Ilopozta NIP'AI..: nycrsre If Y,lI.BOeHHhle rJIarOJIhI 290

§147. CJIOBaph 39 292

YPOK 40

§ 148. Ilopozta PI'EL : snaxeaae 296

§ 149. Ilopozta PI'EL : o6pa30BaHl1e OCHOB If cnpaacenae

(npaBIfJIhHhIe rJIarOJIhI, II- If III-rapT.) 298

§150. CJIOBaph 40 301

YPOK 41

§ 151. Tlopona PI'EL: rJIarOJIhI III-N, III -CJI., Y,lI.BOeHHble 305

§152. AKlJ,eHTHbIe 3HaKM 11 rrayaansmae cpOpMhI. 307

§ 153. CJIOBaph 41 309

YPOK 42

§154. Ilopona PU'AL 312

§155. TIPOKJIIfCIfC, nepeaoc yziapenaa If coezunmrensnsrii

ztarern 314

§156. CJIOBaph 42 315

YPOK 43

§157. Ilopona HIp·jL: 3HaQeHl1e 319

11

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§158.1I0po.n;a lDP'tL: 06paaOBaHHe OCHon H cnpazcenae

(npaBl1JIbHbIC rJIarOJIbI, I-J, f-ropr.) 321

§ 159. CJIOBapb 43 323

YPOK 44

§160. Ilopona lDP'lL: rJIarOJIbI III-ropT., III-K 327

§ 161. QI1CJIlITeJIbHbIe (npo'[(OJI)KeHHHe) 328

§ 162. CJIOBapb 44 329

YPOK 45

§163. Ilopozia Hlp·tL: rJIarOJIbI 1-., 333

§ 164. QHCJIHTeJIbHbIe OT 11,[(0 19 334

§ 165. CJIOBapb 45 335

YPOK 46

§166. Ilopozta Hlp·jL: rnaronsr III-cJI 339

§167. QI1CJIHTeJIbHbIe OT 21'[(0 99 340

§ 168. CJIOBapb 46 341

YPOK 47

§ 1 {)9. Ilopona HIP'jL : nycrsre rJIarOJIbI. 345

§170. KOI-ICTPYKL{HJ1 C rJIarOJIOM 1~v 346

§171. CJIOBapb 47 347

YPOK 48

§ 1 72. Ilopozia lDP'jL : 06pa30BaHHe OCHOB H cnpaacenne

(ynsoeansre rJIarOJIbI) 352

§ 173. fJlarOJlbHhIH reazmanac 353

§ 174. CJIOBapb 48 355

YPOK 49

§ 175. Ilopona HOP' AL 360

§ 176. CJlOBaPb 49 361

YPOK SO

§177. HITPA·EL 365

§ 178. CJIOBapb 50 368

YPOK 51

§179. IIaCCHBHbIH sanor lIOPO,[(bl QAL 372

§ 180. POLEL, poLXL, HITPOLEL 372

§181. Pezuore nopoztsr. 373

§182. 3aKJIlOl1l1TeJIbHbIC 3aMCl.laHHfl 0 qJ1CJIHTeJIbHbIX 374

§183. CJIOBapb 51 376

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YPOK 52

§184. [JIarOJI C 06'heKTHbIMH MeCTOl1MeHHbIMl1

Cyqxpl1KCaMH 381

§ 185. 06'heKTHble cy¢qmKcbI npn ¢opMe 3-ro JIHl.{a

en, q. M. p. neprpexra 382

§186. 06beKTHble CY¢¢l1KCbI npn ¢opMe 2-ro nnna

ezt, q. M. p. neprpexra 383

§187. CJIOBapb 52 385

YPOK 53

§ 188. 06'heKTHble CY¢¢HKCbI npa Q:>0pMe 3-ro nnna

en, q. JK. p. neprpexra 389

§189. Ofrsercrnsre CYCPQ:>l1KCbI npa nposax cpopMax

neprpexra 390

§190. Fpynna HenpaBl1JIbHbIX rJIarOJIOB nopozna QAL 391

§191. CJIOBapb 53 392

YPOK 54

§192. 06beKTHble CYCPCPl1KCbI npn CPOpMax HMnep¢eKTa .... 396 § 193. 06beKTHble CYCPCPl1KCbI npa cpopMax nOBeJIHTeJIbHOrO

HaKJIOHeHl1,H 398

§ 194. Ofisercmsre CY¢¢l1KCbI npn l1HCPHHl1THBe 399

§ 195. CJIOBapb 54 399

YPOK 55

§ 196. Y CJlOBHbIH nepaon .402

§197. 3aKJIIOqHTeJIbHble 3aMeQaHH,H 0 rJIarOJIbHbIX cpopMax

B nOBecTBOBaHIfH 405

§ 198. CJIOBapb 55 409

UpHJIO)KeHHe A

CnpaBOQHa51 Ta6JIHl.{a H3MeHeHH.H cyntccrsarcnsnsrx

H npanararensrnax 415

UpHJIO)KeHHe B

CnpaBOQHMI Ta6JIHl.{a Cnp,HJKeHH.H rJIarOJIOB QAL .437

UpHJIO)KeHHe C

Ilpoaaaonmae noponsi: 0630p OCHOBHbIX cpopM 447

UpHJIO)KeHHe D

KpaTKa.H aHHOTl1pOBaHHa.H 6l16JIIfOrpaQ>H,H 450

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}lpeBHeeBpeAcKO-PYCCKHii CJlOuaPb 455

PYCcKO-.ApeBHeeBpeAcKHii CJIOuapb 489

Mll.AeKc 505

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IIpC)K)l;c ncero, 3TO nOCTOHHHOC HCnOJIb30BaHI1C TpaHCJII1TCpal.(l111. TaKHM o6pa- 30M ,lJ,OCTl1raIOTCJI TPl1l.(CJII1: so-nepaux, nOMoqb yqamCMYCJI C nepnsrx maroa BOCnpHHI1MaTb JJ;PCBHCCBPCllCKIfH Jl3bIK KaK Sl3blK, a HC KaK ynpa:iKHCHI1C no ,lJ,ClIIIf<pPOBKC; BO-BTOPbIX, 1136c)KaTh a6CYP,lJ,HOll cnryauaa, xorna Cry,lJ,CHTY HY)KHO YCBOI1Tb MHO>KCCTBO JJ;OBOJIbHO a6CTpaKTHbIX lPOHCTHqCCKI1X 11 opdorparpasecxax npaBI1JI npescte, qCM OH YBI1,lJ,I1T CBOI1MI1 rJIa3aMI1 XOTb OJJ;HO npCJJ.JIO)KCHI1C nO-,lJ,pCBHCenpetrcxa; B-TPCThI1X, C,lJ,CJIaTh 60JICC HarJIH,lJ,HbIMI1 napaztnrwsr (If TCM caMbIM 06- JIcr'-lMTb I1X aaysaaanac).

51 nOCTapaJICJI 113JIO)KI1Tb rJIarOJIbHYIO Mop<pOJIOrI1IO B TaKOH nOCJIC,lJ,OBaTCJIbHOCTI1, qTo6bI B Hal160JIhlIICH CTCnCHI1 I1CnOJIb30BaTb 06ll.1,IfC (T. C. HC 3aBIfCRlUHC OT Q;>OHCTI1QCCKOrO xnacca) 3aKOHOMCPHOCTI1 o6pa30BaHI1SI rJIarOJIhHbIX Q>OpM. 3TO JJ;aJIO B03MO)KHOCTb, no-nepasrx, JJ;OCTaTOQHO pano II03HaKOMI1Tb yxauteroca C Hal160JIcc ynoTpc611TCJIbHbIMH rJIarOJIaMI1, BO-BTOPbIX, npl1 pacCMOTPCHHM npOH3BOJJ;HbIX nopon HC OrpaHI1QI1BaTbCJI npl1MCpaMIf OJJ;HI1X TOJIhKO ~npaBI1JIbHbIX5.> rJIarOJIOB.

DOJIhlIIOC 3HaQCHI1C JI npl1JJ;aBaJI cMcTeMaTHQCCKOMY Onl1CaHI1IO MOPlPOJIOnm Cyru;CCTBHTCJIhHbIX, a TaK>Ke npMCOe.llHHeHMH MCCTOHMCHHbIX CY<P<PI1KCOB K rJIarOJIaM. CJIHlIIKOM MHOrl1C YQe6HI1KI1 TpaKTylOT 3TH JJ;BC TCMbI ynpomenHO, OKaabIBaH yxanreaycn Me,llBC>KblO yCJIyry. Ilepetiaa OT YQC6HI1Ka K IIO,lJ,JII1HHbIM, HCa,lJ,anTl1pOBaHHbIM TeKCTaM, CTY,llCHT na rtepsoii >KC crpannue CTaJIKI1BaCTCH C .HBJICHHHMH, xoropsre eMY CJlC,llOBaJIO 6bI pam.me 113yQHTh CI1CTCMaTH'-lCCKH, - 11 C ROTOPbIMI1 reneps CMY npl1JJ;CTCR 3HaKOMI1ThCJI 6ccpopJl,lJ,OqHO, YPbIBKaMI1 11 npCO,lJ,OJICBaH. HCMaJIble TPYJJ;HOCTH.

15

Ilpezracnonae K aHfJIHikKOMY H3.l1.aHHIO

HaKOHeu, oco6oe BHHMaHHe 6bIJIO Y.lI.CJICHO nOCJIC.n:OBaTCJIbHOMY H3JIO.>KeHHIO CHHTaKCHCa npeaaeeapekcxoa rrpoau.

Ha nCpBOM srane nO.nrOTOBKH sroro Y'Ie6HHKa MHe O'ICHb nOMOf npa orfope JIeKCHKH .. CJIOBapb npeaneeapeticxoro aasnca }l,JIH y'IamHXC}l» tl.>K. M. Jlanzreca (G. M. Landes. A Student's Vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew, New York, 1961). 51 Bblpax<aIO CBOIO npH3HaTeJIbHOCTb asrcpy, KOTOPblH nan MHC B03MO.>KHOCTb 03HaKOMHTbCH C ero pa6oToM euie .no ee asrxona B CBeT. OKOJIO .n:eC.HTH JIeT npOlIIJIO C TOM nopsr; aa STO BpeM.H MOH cryzterrrsr H KOJIJIefH, pa60TM C pa3HbIMH Ha6poCKaMH MoeM KHHfH, npeJVIO.>KHJIH MHe 6eC'IHCJICHHOC MHO)KeCTBO COBCTOB H ncnpaaJlCHHH, xoropue OKa3aJIH MHe HeoueHHMYIO rtoxrotus H 3Ha'IHTCJIbHO yJIy'IlIIHnH YQe6HHK. Ho OCOOeHHo npH3HaTeJIeH.H .lI.-py ABH fYPBHUY, ceiisac pa60TaIOmCMY B EBpeMCKOM YHHBepcHTCTe (l1epYCaJIHM), aa TO, 'ITO OH JlOOe3HO COfJIaCHJIC.SJ np01JeCTb o.nHH H3 CaMbJX paHHHX BapHaHTOB YQe6HMKa H npeMO.>KMJI pazt l{CHHCHlIIHX HCnpaBJIeHHH. 3a Te OlIIH6KH, KOTOPbIC BCC-TaKH OCTMHCb B TCKCTC, KOHC'IHO, oreesaio .H O.nHU.

Hanesaran, .npeBHeeBpeMCKHH TeKCT C OfJIaCOBKOH H C OC06bIM 3HaQI(OM, OTMe'IalOmHM ynapenae, - CJlO)J(HCUI aanasa, ztazce B HalII BeK TeXHH'IeCKHX synec, MHC XOQeTOi n06J1aro)(apHTb H3)(aTeJlJl H Ha6oplUHKOB, HC nO.>KaJICBlliHX CUll na TO, 'ITO- 6bI 06eCne'lHTb npaBHJlbHOCTb ncsaru.

TOMac O. JIaM6iJU1l

KeM6pud3IC, Maccaf4ycemc. Mail 1971

16

Upe.n;HCJIOBHe K PYCCKOMY nepenony

3 a BpeMJl, npomezanee C MOMeHTa nsrxozra B cser ~ Y qe6H11Ka npeeneeepeiicsoro .H3bIKa:~ T.O. JIaMQZU'lHa, sra KHHra CTMa CTaH,lJ;ap1'HbIM yqe6HbIM nOC06HeM B OOnhIlHIHcrse aHfJIO.H3bIqHbIX )'HHBe(JClITeTOB MHpa. Xoporno npoayaannaa nOCJIe.llOBaTeJIhHOCTb no,na'IH MaTepHaJIa, KpaTKOCTb M KOMnaKTHOCTb YPOKOB, o6wIHe ynpa:>KHeH11H - nee 3TO BbJ,ll,eJUIer yqe6HHK JIaM6.llHHa 1I3 MHO)KecTBa ztpymx, Onacanac CMHTaKCHCa y JIaM6.ll.Hna BbIXO,nHT ztaneico sa paMKH saonnoro KJPCa - H 3TO OruITb-TaKH BblrO.ll.HO OTJIHQaer ero YQe6HHK OT MHOfHX .n;pyrnXJ nonpoono pa36HpaIOllllIX MOPCPOJIOfHIO HMeHH H rnarona, HO ocraBJUlIOlUH?, cryneirra 6ecnOMOIllHbIM nepea CHHTaKCHqeCKHMH TPY.ll.HOCT}lMH

v

npesaeespeacsoro nOBeCTBOBaHUH.

HeY,llHBHTeJIbHO, qTO xorna Poccniicxoe BH6JIeHCKOe 061lleCTBO npHH»JIO pememre 0 nonroroexe H M3.n;aHlIH yqe6HMKa ztpeeneeepekcxoro asuxa, npaxraseCKH He 6bIJIO cnopos 0 TOM, KaKOH H3 CYllleCTBYIOIllHX na 3anaJ],e KYPCOB J],OJI)KeH 6bITb nonoacea B OCHOBY 'raxoro yqe6HMKa. Ilepesozt KHHrH JIaM6,llMHa, Ha60p H MaKeTHpOBaHHe enpeacxoro TeKCTa 3aH.HJIH HeCKOJIbKO JIeT, HO ente npezcae, qeM nepeaon yqe6HHKa 6bIJI 3aKOHqeH H no.n;rOTOBJIeH K nesara, ero pannae BepCHH CTaJlH HcnOJlb30BaTbC5I npa npenonaaanna ztpeaneeepeticxoro .H3bIKa B pazte YQe6- HbIX 3aBe,lleHMH MOCKBbI. ::hOT onsrr OKa3aJIC5I osem, BIDKeH .llJI}I Hac H, B qaCTHOCTH, y6e.l(HTeJIbHO npO,lleMOHCTpHPOBaJI, qTO crynerrrasr rpetiyerca He .n;OCJIOBHbIM nepeeon aHfJIHHCKOro TeKCTa na PYCCKlIH H3bIK, aero nepepaoorica M aztarrranna,

KopeHHOH nepepa60TKe nO,llBeprc}I BBO,llHMM pa3,neJI yqe6HHKa (~fjDoHerHKa M nI1CbMO~). C O.n;HOH crOPOHbI, 3TO CIDI3aHO C TeM, qTO 06'b}lCHeHHe zrpeeaeespeticxoil QxJHennm, paCCqlITaHHOe na aarnoroaopmnero -nrrarena, He MOrJIO 6bITb aBTOMaTHQeCKH nepeneceno B yqe6HHK, npe.llHa3HaqeHHbIH .llJI}I PYCCKOH ay,nHTOpHH. C ztpyroii croponsr, B anr JIHHCKOM OpMfHHaJIe YQe6HHKa 3HaKOMCTBO C .llpeBHeeBpeHCKOH CHCTeMOM nHCbMa npenrtonaranocs JIIDIIb nocne 1I3YQeHI1.H <PoHerHQeCKOH CHCTeMbI H <PoHemQeCKHX 3aKOHOB .H3blKa. Crynerrr, COrJIaCHO 3TOH Mero.n;HKe, .n;OJI)KeH anepnsre n03HaKOMHTbC.H C eBpeHCKHM aJI<paBHTOM JIlIllib B §7. )],o3Toro - npH H3JIO)l(eHHH TaKHX Jl3bIKOBbIX .HBJIeHHH, RaK oco6eHHOCTH roprannux cornacnux, sepezrosanae CMblqHbIX COfJIaCHbIX co llleJIeBbIMH lIJIH pel1.YKtJ,11.H rnacnsrx, - B aHrJIHHCKOM OpMfHHaJIe HCnOJlb3YeTC.H HCKJIIOqHTeJIbHO TpaHCJIHTepal{l15J. KaK nOKa3aJI HalII onsrr, TaKoH nopa,lI;OK H3JIO:IKeHI1.H MaTepHaJIa nopozctaer cepseansie TPY.llHOCTlI npn rtpenoztaaanaa, M B OKO~TeJIbHOH sepcaa YQe6HHKa 6bIJIO penreno nepenecra MaTepHaJI ~oJXPorpa<pMqeCKHX~ §§7 -11 B HaqaJIO paanena, pacnpeztenan 3TOT MaTeplIaJI Me)K,lt)' «lPOHerHqeCKHMH~ §§1-6. TaKHM 06pa30M, B namea YQe6HMKe, B OTJIHqHe OT ero anrnaitcsoro OPlIrnnana, H3JIO)l(eHHe <PoHerHKH H opporpadnr« npOHCXO,llHT napaJIJIeJIbHO.

17

I1pe,ll,HCJIOBlle K PYCCKOMY nepesony

Bonpoc 0 TOM, KaK COOTHeCTI-1 ztpyr C ztpyrosr BBO,llHblt'1 KYPC (q,OIlCTJ1Ka, nncsMO) H oeHOBI-IOM xypc (rpasoaararca), ,llOJDKCH, nCpO.HTIlO, peuiari.ca CaMJ1MH npenO,llaBaTeJI.HMJ1. MOJKHO (60Jlee Tpa,llJ1UI10HHbIH BaPJ1aHT) cnepua 1-13Y'-:lJ1Tb CHCTCMy nl1CbMa, a 3aTeM yace nepexozurn, K rpaMMaTH'-:leCKOMY KypCy. MO)f(HO nocrymrrs J1 no-ztpyroay (no BceM BI1,llJ1MOCTJ1, J1MeHHO TaKO" nyrs Ka3aJICH 60Jlce npe.n;IlO'-:lTI1TCJlbHbIM caMOMY JIaM6,llI1HY): nOCJIC nepnoro J1 caaoro 06m,cro anaKOMCTBa C <pOHCTI1KOH, TpaHCJII1TepaUJ1CH II CI-ICTeMot'1 IlJ1CbMa np.HMO upncryrnrra K ypoxy 1. nOCTO.HHHOe I1CnOJIb30BaHI1e B ),,-le6HJ1Ke TpaHCJIHTCpaUl-1J1 ztenaer 3TO BHOJIHe B03MO)f(HbIM; aJI<paBI1T 11 3Ha'-:lKI1 ,llJIH f JIaCHbIX 3aY'-:lI1BaIOTC.H B TaKOM CJIysae nOCTerreHHO, «no xony ztena». B JII060M CJIYLlae HaM rrOKa3aJIOCb rrOJIC3HbiM ,llaTb B KOHllC BBO,llHOrO paanena ynpaJKHeHI1.H na oanancnne CI1CTCMOH rrl1CbMa 11 na pa3JIHLleHI1C BHelIIHe rrOXOJKI1X 6YKB.

IlBa J13MeHCHH.H 6bIJII1 nnecensr HaMI1 B npl1H.HTYIO B yqe6HHKe cMcTeMY .rpancrrnrepanaa: BMeCTO torah MbI mnnea tora, a BMeCTO debaraw ~ dabiirii(y)w. To, '-:lTO JIaM6,llMH COXpaH>IeT h B TpaHCJIHTepaUl111 TaKI1X CJIOB, KaK torah (rne ;"'T .HBJI.HCTCH mater lectionis), 06b.HCH.HeTC.H, nO-BH,llHMOMY, )KeJIaHHeM C6JII1311Tb TpaHCJII1- repaumo C Tpa.n:J1UI10HHbIMI1 ,llJI.H anr JIl1i1:cKOrO .H3bIKa HanMCaHI1HMI1 Sarah, torah 11 T. u. .llJI.H PYCCKOfO CTY,lleHTa BKJIIO'-:leHl1e B TpaHCJII1Tepalll1IO HenpOI13HOCI1MbIX 6YKB (npM'-:leM 6C3 cK060K) nopozcztaer JIl1llib ,llOnOJIHI1TeJIbHbIe TPY,llHOCTI1 - He rOBOp.H YJKC 0 TOM, '-:lTO npn 3TOM rrpI1XO,llI1TC.H O,llI1HaKOBO TpaHCJII1Tepl1pOBaTb i1 KaK mater lectionis 11 i1 np0l13HOCI1MOe (c MannHKoM).

MbI CO'-:lJIJ1 'raroxe He06xo,llI1MbIM ,llOnOJIHI1Tb Ta6J1I1UY aJIcpaBI1Ta o6pa311aMI1 eBpei1:cKOH CKOpmmCJ1. BocnpOl13BO,llI1Tb 3aMblCJIOBaTbie O'-:lepTaUI-IH neLIaTHbIX enPCMCKMX 6YKBbI OT pyKI-I - HeJIerKaH sanasa ,l(JIH '-:leJIOBeKa 6C3 OC06bIX pHCOBarcnsnsrx HaBbIKOB. fI03TOMY, XOT.H OCBOCHl1e CKOpOrrl1CI1 (,llOBOJIbHO CI1JIbHO OTJIH'-:lalOmeHC.H OT nesarnoro mprspra) Tpe6yCT ,llOnOJIHI1TeJIbHbIX YCI1JII1H na rtepnOM srane J13Y'-:leHI-I.H .H3bIKa, 3T11 YCI1JII1H C JIHXBOH oxynaiorca BnOCJIe.ll,CTBMH.

CCPbC3HOM nepepaforxe noztsepr JIOCb onncanae Tex 06JIaCTei1 CHHTaKCI1Ca, rne PYCCKMM H3bIK npunuannansno OTJII1'-:laCTC.H OT aHfJII1MCKOro (apTI1K1Ib, yuorpefineIIl-1e BJ1,llOBpeMCHHbIX ¢OPM rnarona), a nOTOMY npa 06palIlCHI1H K PYCCKOMY -nrrareJIIO Tpe6yeTC.H 111l0M nOpNl.OK 113JIOJKeHJ1H, J1HaH paccranomca axnenroa Ilpn pafiore HaJJ. naparparpaenr, nOCB.HIlJ,eHHbIMI-I <PYHKUI10Hl1pOBaHHIO JlpeBHeeBpet'ICKI1X rnarOJIbHbIX ¢OpM B nOBeCTBOBaHJ1I1, 6bIJIH J1CnOJlb30BaHbI rroaekuure ny6JlJ1KallI1H, 110- CBHIueHHble srosry sonpocy, a rarcxe MaTepl1aJIbl ,llOKJla.n:OB H J(HCKYCCHH na CeMI1- nape no JIJ1HrBJ1CTHKe 6J16Jlei1cKOro TeKCTa npn I1HcTMTy-Te BOCTO'-:lHbIX xyzn-ryp POCCJ1MCKOrO rOCY,llapcTBCHHOfO ryeramrrapnoro YHHBepcHTCTa.

OT,lleJIbHble H3MeHeHMH 6blJll1 anecensr J1 B nexoropue ztpyrne paaaenu YQe6HI1Ka.

18

TIpe,lI;IICnOBlIe K PYCCKOMY nepesony

BpeMR, nporexnree C MOMeHTa ny6JUIKaUIU1 aHrJIHllCKOrO OpHrHHaJIa, 3aCTaBHJIO HaC nepepatiorars .llaHHYIO B npHJIO:>KeHHH 6H6JIHOrpaqmIO; .llJIH Y.ll06CTBa CTyztetrra ynossanaeasre B Hell pa60TbI 6bIJIH cHa6:>KeHbI KpaTKHMH aHHOTaLUUlMM.

l1MeHa coocrnemnae H reorparpasecxne Ha3BaHH.H, KaK npaBHJIO, nepeztaicrca na PYCCKHll .H3bIK B COOTBeTCTBHH C CHHO.llaJIbHbIM nepeaonoxr. B HeKOTopbIX CJIylJaH.X MbI .llaeM zma napaarrra nepeaaxa HMeHH c06CTBeHHOfO na PYCCKHll: 60JIee 6JIll3KHll K eBpellCKOMY npm{3HOlIIeHHIO H «CHHO.llaJIbHbIH>.> (B cK06Kax).

UHTHpy.H BeTXHll 3aBeT, MbI YKa3bIBaeM Ha3BaHHe KHHrH, HOMep rJIaBbI If CTHxa no eBpeUCKOMY mexcmu. ECJIH qHTaTeJIb nO:>KeJIaeT CBepHThC.H C PYCCKHM CHHO~aJIhHbIM nepesonoj«, eMY cnenyer nOMHHTb, qTO:

- KHHfH 1-2 Llapcrs B eBpellcKoll H aanazmoti Tpa,n;H[(lf.HX nocar Ha3BaHHe 1- 2 CaMYMJIa (y Hac 0603HaqeHbI KaK 1-2 CaM), a 3-4 Llapcrs Ha3blBaIOTC.H 1-2 Ilapeii; - HOMepa nCaJIMOB B CHHO,ll,aJIbHOM nepeaone H B eBpellcKoll EIf6JIHM, KaK npamlno, pa3JIHqaIOTCH na e.llHHHUY;

- HYMepa[(HH CTHXOB no CHHO.llaJIbHOMY rrepesony H eapencxoa EM6JIHH B PH~e cnysaea He connanaer.

OpH nepenone ynpazcaenail 6bIJIH HCnOJIh30BaHbI MaTepHaJIbI, nO.llfOTOBJleHHhle C. 3. Tnepnoncrora. Ha aasepuraioutefi CTa,n;HH pa60TbI pyxonacs 6bIJIa npoCMOTpeHa rrpenonaaarenaxra ztpeaneeapeticxoro H3bIRa pana MOCKOBCKHX yqe6- HhlX 3aBe.lleHHll: C. B. JIfuOBbIM, A. C. )lecHH[(KHM, JI. B. MaHeBHqeM, O. B. THTOBOH, A. 11. IIIMaHHOH- BeJIHKaHOBOll, JI. E. Koranoxr. 3aMeqaHIf.H If COBeThl KOJIJIer nOMOfJIH HaM acnpamrrs HeMaJIO nenoscron, Oc06ylO 6JIarO.llapHOCTh XOTeJIOCh 6bI esrpaaars C. B. JIC30BY, KOTOPbIll nO.llp06HO H KpHTHqeCKH H3yqHJI pyxonacs YQe6HHKa, npe.llJIO:>KHB MHO)KeCTBO [(eHHbIX nonpanox, a TaK)Ke K. K. Aanpeesy, JI. B. Manesaxy, B. B. PbIHKeBHqy H O. B. THTOBOll, COfJIaCHBlIIIfMC.H B3HTb na ce- 6$1 He6JIafO.llapHYIO pa60TY xoppexropoa. Pa3YMeeTcH, BCIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb aa Te ynYU.leHHH, HeTOqHOCTH H 01IIH6KH, xoropsre MorJIH B03HHKHYTb npn nepenone If nepepafiorxe YQe6HHKa, .lleJIHT Me:>K,n;y c060" nepesozruuc H penaxrop.

JIKOB 3iiBellbKUllB AfuxaURCelle31leB

MOCKBa, U101tb 1998

19

BBeJJ;eHHe

LIPe6HeeepeUCKUM npHHRTO Ha3bIBaTb R3bIK, na KOTOPOM narnrcana eBpeHCKM EH6JIIUI (BeTXHH 3aBer XpHCTHaHcKoii: EH6JIHH). B nocnezmee npexor napa- 1l.y C TepMHHOM iJpe6HeeepeiicKUii R3btK BCe IJalI.{e ynOTpe6JI.HeTC.H TepMHH 6u6JleuCKUU U6pUm. Espeiicxaa EH6JIH}l - e.uHHCTBeHHbIH naM}lTHHK aroro aasnca, ecJIH He CQHTaTb OqeHb CKY,Z.(Horo anarpadnrsecsoro MaTepmlJIa H ztoureznnax .n;o Hac q,pafMeHTOB KHHm Bca-Capsr (l1HCYca, CbIHa CHpaXOBa).

KOHeqHO, aa CTOJIeTH}l, B TeqeHHe KOTOPbIX C03,Z.(aBaJICR BerXHH 3aBeT 1, pasroBOPHbIH .H3bIK ,Z.(OJI)KeH 6blJl OQeHb cepseano H3MeHHTbCK Meacny TeM BeTX03aBeTnue TeKCTbJ OTpa)KaJOT 3TH H3MeHeHH}l )lHmb KOCBeHHO H B CM}lrqeHHOH <popMe. 3TO H HeY,Z.(HBHTeJlbHO - sezts nepen HaMH He aanncs YCTHOH pesa, a OC06bIH nlICbMeHHbrn .n;HaJIeKT, nexorna CJI01KHBlIIHHC}l, KOHeqHO, na OCHOBe paarosopnoro H3bIKa, HO 3aTeM 3aCTbIBlIIHH H BocnpHHHMaBlIIHHC}l nOCJIe.nyIOII.,{HMH nOKOJIeHH}lMH B xasecree He3bI6JIeMoii: JIHTepaTYPHoii: HOpMbI.

B nOCJIenJIeHHYIO 3noxy (HaqHHaH C VI B. ,z.(o H. 3.) 'z'(peBHeeBpeiIcKHH }l3bIK HCnsrruean CI1JIbHOe BJIH}lHHe .n.PYfHX }l3bIKOB - npexzie ncero apasreacxoro, ApaMeiicKHH, na KOTOPOM rOBOpMJIH B TO BpeM}l nOqTH BO Bceii: Ilepenneii A3HH, npaxrnqeCKH BblTeCHHeT ztpeeneeepeficxuii H3 YCTHoro ynorpetineana (B03MO)KHO, 3TO npOH30lIIJIO Y)Ke K KOHIzy I TbIC. ,Z.(O H. 3.). Ilo-apaaeticsa nanncansi nesoropsre rnaeu zmyx n03.n;HHX 6H6JIeii:cKHx KHHr - 33pbI (1-}l KHHfa E3'z'(PbI no CHHO,Z.(aJIbHOMY nepesony) H .l1.aHHMJIa.

EBpeii:cKHii: }l3bIK nasana H. 3. Y)Ke CHJIbHO OTJIHqaeTCR OT zrpeaneenpeacxoro H3bIKa Berxoro 3aBeTa. Ero 06bIQHO Ha3bIBaIOT nOCJIe600JIeHCKHM HJIH MHlIIHaHTCKHM. (MHlIIHa ~ cotipanae HopMaTHBHbIX TeKCTOB Jfy,Z.(aH3Ma, rrpeanetanaa qaCTb Tanayna; CJIO)Kl1JIaCb K 200 f. H. 3.)

B nepssre ,Z.(Ba nexa H. 3., nOCJIe pazta BOCCTaHHH npOTHB pHMCKoro rocnozrcrsa, 60JIblIIHHCTBO espeea 6hIJIO BbICeJ1eHO HJIH 6e)KaJIO H3 naJIeCTHHbI H paCCeRJIOCb

1 T. O. J1aM6AIIIH OTHOCIIIT cosnaaae TeKcToB, BXOARl1tI!IX B BeTXIllii1 3aBeT, K 1200- 200 rr. 11.0 H. 3. Ho 3TO He eAIIIHCTBeHHa~ TO'iKa 3peHIII~, 6bITYIOU(a~ B COBpeMeHHoii1 6111611e1llCTIIIKe. B nareparype MO}f(HO ecrpenrrs AaTlllpOBKY APeBHeii1- WIIIX TeKCTOB Berxoro 3aBeTa III snoxoa 1113pallll1bCKoii1 MOHapXlIIlII, III Aa)f(e nepCIIIACKOii1 anoxoa. Halll6ol1ee n03AHIIIM 1113 BeTX03aBeTHblX TeKCTOB 06bl'iHO C'illlTaeTC~ KHlllra )J.aHlIIlIIl1a (aaeepuieaa, csopee acero, B 60-e IT. II B. AO H. 3.). - npWM. pep,.

21

Baezrenae

no pa3HbIM CTpaHaM. B crpaaax .llHaCnOpbI (paCCeHHlU[) espen rrepeXO)(I1JII1 ua 1I3bIK MeCTHoro HaCeJIeHH}I. EBpeHCKHH }l3bIK rrpO)(OJI)KaJI CYIl(eCTBOBaTb B xauecrBe 1I3bIKa KYJIbTa Jf rrHCbMeHHOCTJf (T. e. BblnOJIH}{JI Y espeen TY)Ke <PYHKUJfID, 'lTO H narsnn, Y xpHCTHaHCKHX napozroa 3anana).

Korzta B XVI B., nozt BJIH.HHHeM rYMaHH3Ma H Perpopxsaua», cpezur Y'leHbIX XPI1- CTHaHCKOM Enponsi npo6Y.llHJIC.H mrrepec K .llpeBHeeBpeHCKOMY }l3bIKY, 11M npnllInOCb CTOJIKHYTbC.H C cepseanofi np06JIeMoH. OKa3aJIOCb, qTO B pasfipocannsrx no BCeMY MHpy enpeiicrcax 06Il(HHax CJIO)KJfJIHCb HenOXO)Kl1e .llpyr na zrpyra 'rpaztal(HH qTeHH.H CB~meHHbIX TeKCTOB. Ilpeacne scero pa3JII1'lH}I KaCaJIHCb nponanomeHH1I rJIaCHbIX 3BYKOB. B none 3peHH.H rornanmax eBporreMCKI1X ysenux MOrJIJf nonacre zme TaKHX Tpa)(HUJfH: aWKe1Ul3C1UlSl H cepapdcKaR. (AmKeHa3aMI1 Ha3bIBaIOTCR eapea CeBePHOH ct>paHl(HH, Tepsraaaa 11 CJIaB.HHCKHX crpaa, a TaK)Ke JfX nOTOMKH B npyrnx crpanax; cecpap.llaMH - )KHBYIl(Jfe rJIaBHbIM o6pa30M B Cpeaa- 3eMHoMopbe nOTOMKH HcnaHCKHX H nopryranscxax enpeen, 6e)KaBllIHX OT npecrre.llOBaHHM HHKBH3JfUHH.) TaK CJIYl.JHJIOCb, qTO BbI60p esponeiicicax ysenux nan ua cecpap.llCKYIO Tpa)(HUlIlO. 06bIqHO ::)TO pemenae CB~3blBaIOT C I1MeHeM BeJIHKOrO HeMeUKoro <pHJIOJIOra Horanna PeHXJIHHa (1455-1522), nOJIO)KHBlIIero Ha'laJIO cH~TeMaTHqeCKoMY H3yqeHHIO npeaneespeiicxoro .H3bIKa B XpJfCTHaHCKOM Ml1pe. OCHOBaHHOe na cecpap.llCKOH Tpa.llHUHH nponaaornenne ztpemreeapeacxnx 3BYKOB (Peuxnunoeo vmeuue) CTaJIO o6menpHH5ITbIM B eBpOneMCKI1X YHI1BepCI1TeTax.

B XX sexe aa OCHOBe 6H6JIeHcKoro, MJfllIHaHTcKoro H cpcnaeaexoeoro .mrrepaTypHbIX .llHaJIeKTOB 6bIJI 3aHOBO C03.llaH )KlIBOH pa3roBOPHbIH .H3bIK, na KOTOPOM rOBopHT ceiiuac B 113paUJIe. Em Ha3bIBalOT uepianou (HJIJf, 'lTo6bI OTJIH'll1Tb OT ero npe.llllIeCTBeHHHKOB, coepeueuuuu uepumosq. B OCHOBY <poHeTHKJf B03poJKJ.(eHHoro HBpHTa 6bmo nOJIO)KeHO peHXJIHHOBO npoaaaourenne, ECTecTBeHHo, rrOCJIe TOro, KaK lIBpHT BHOBb CTaJI JKHBbIM .H3bIKOM, ero JIeKCHKa, CHHTaKCHC H ¢oHeTHKa noneeprarorcx nOCTO.HHHbIM H3MeHeHlI.HM •

.ll.peBHeeBpeHCKHH .H3bIK OTHOClITCR K ceMHTcKoH rpynne }l3bIKOB, KOTOpa51 BKJIlOqaeT:

1. ceBepo-BOCTOqHYIO aermc aKKaaCKUU (HHaqe ~ accupo-eaeuioncxuiiy .H3bIK;

2. cesepo-aanannyio BeTBb: a. 36JlaumCKUU .H3bIK, 6. YlapumcKUu .H3b1K,

B. xauaaneiicxue .H3bIKH (dpeBHee6peuC'Kuu, uoaeumcxuii, PUlI.UKUUCKUU), r, apaMeUCKUU .H3bIK;

22

BBen;eHHe

3. ioro-aanazutyio BCTBb: 'KllaCCU1ieCKUU apatcxui; Jl3blK H MHO)KeCTBO COBpeMeHHbIX apa6cKHx ,l1,HaJ1CKTOB;

4. IO)J(HOCCMHTCKYIO eerns: opeenuii toxcnoapaeuucxuii R3bIK, a TaK)Ke zese (R3bIK Cpe,lJ.HCBCKOBOM JIHTCpaTypbI 8¢IIonlIlI, CCMqaC ~ KYJIbTOBhIM .H3b1K 3¢HoncKOM UepKBH) H 6JIH3K1Ie K HeMY COBPCMCHHhlC R3blKH IO)KHOM ApaBHH H 3qmollHH.

llo KOHua I B. H. 3., KaK nOK3.3bIBaIOT CBHTKH Meprsoro MOpR, pa3HbIC pYKonHCH EI16JII111 CI1JIbHO OTJIHqaJlHCb zrpyr OT npyra. C KOHua I B. H. 3. BCC espeiicicae 06- II_(I1Hhl, rnc 6hI OHH HH HaXO,llHJIHCb, CTaJIH nOJIb30BaTbCR cnHCKaMII EJ16JIHH, no-rTI1 To)KJleCTBCHHhlMI1 npyr zipyry, - no KpaMHeii Mcpe B TOM, 1.Jm KaCaeTC.H cornacHhlX 6YKB. B CHJIY oc06eHHOCTCH eapeiicxoro nHCbMa rJIaCHbiC B 6II6JIcilcKOM TCKCTC 0603HaQaJIHCh HCnOCJIC,lJ.OBaTeJIbHO H HCO,llH03Ha1.JHO (nO,llp06HCC CM. §§1- 2 HI1)1(e). fI03TOMY HaBbIK npaBHJIbHOrO ~CHHR 6II6JIcikKIIX TCKCTOB B TCQCHIIC MHOrl1X nOKOJICHHH nepenasanca II3YCTHO.

C cepezumu I TbIC. H. 3. espekcrcae Y1.JCHbIC (suicopenu« - OT eapericxoro CJIOBa ;'1iiC1'J uacopti -snpenannee crana 0603Ha1.IaTb rJIaCHblC C nOMOIllbID OC06bIX ,llH-

T T

aKpI1TH1.ICCKHX 3Ha1.JKOB, npoCTaBJICHHbIX B 6H6JIeiicKOM TCKCTC. 06IllcnpHIUITOll

CTaJIa mueepuaocxax CJ1CTCMa 0603Ha1.JCHII.H rJIaCHbIX, nOJIyqHBIIIruI CBOC HMR OT ropozia TI1BCPHH na 6cpcry Fenacapercxoro 03Cpa, rzre )KJ1JIH HaH60JIee H3BeCTHblC MacopCThl X B. ~ ,l1,HHaCTJ1.H ECH-AIIICpOB. HaM II3BeCTHbl no pYKOnJ1CHbIM c:PparMeHTaM erne ,llBC aHaJIOrHqHblC CHCTCMbI (n(1JleCmUIlC1W.R H 8a6UJlOIlCKa.R), 60JIec paHHI1C, 1.JCM TI1BCpHallcKaR, II OQCHb CKOPO nOJIHOCTblO BblTeCHCHHblC eID H3 ynorpe6JIeHI1.H.

Macopersi BHCCJIH B TeKCT EII6JIJ1II, nOMHMO ,llHaKpHTHqeCKJ1X 3Ha1.JKOB ,llJl.H rnacnsrx, TaK)KC H T. H. axuenmuue 31laKU (CM. §152); KPOMC roro, OHII COCTaBHJIH csoero pozta KPHTH1.JCCKIIH annapar K 6H6JIcikKOMY TCKCTY. HalI60JIce Ba)KHbIH 3JIeMeHT MacopcrcKoro armapara - npIIMC1.JaHH.H 0 1.JTCHIII1 OTACJIbHblX CJIOB. 1..J.ante ocero 3TO I1CnpaBJICHIIR MCJIKIIX opporpadnrsecrorx H rpaMMaTH1.JCCKHX OIIIH- 60K 11 YCTapeBIlIHx HanHcaHHM; peace MacopeTbl npeztnararor UCJIIIKOM 3aMCHJ1Tb O,lJ.HO CJIOBO ,l1,pyrHM (nanpioaep, rcaaannnreca 11M HcnpHCTOHHblMH CJIOBa 3aMeIDI- 101'C}I ~m¢eMH3MaMH). Ilpertnaraesssre HCnpaBJIeHII.H cHa6)KeHbI B MacopeTCKHX npl1MCQaHHRX nOMeTOM P (COKpamCHlIe apasseitcrcoro CJIOBa "ji? «QHTaH5.». PYKOnl1CHOe qTCHHC, IICnpaBJIRCMOC MaCOpeTaMH, Ha3bIBaIDT, BCJlC,ll aa Cpe,l1,HCBeKOBbIMI1 eBpeiicKHMH rpaMMaTHKaMH, TCPMIIHOM :J"l}:'p (no-apaaeilcsa: «HarrHCaH05.».

06 II3,lJ,aHH.HX cBpeMcKoH EH6JlHH CM. npHJIO)KCHHC D.

23

(DoHeTHKa H n"eLMO

3mom ouepx, cooepsauuui: nocneooeamemmoe onucauue opeeneeepeucxoii rjJm-le- 1TlUKU u nucuua, npeimocnan ypOKaM ytte6uuxa odHOOpeMellll0 U 0 xauecmee eeeoenus, U 0 xauecmee cnpaeouuuxa.Tlocne moeo, KaK Obi 031WKO.MUmeCb c §§1- 3, m. e. c OCHOOaMU tponemuxu U nucsua, eu uooceme npucmunums K ypo"y 1. Ilepeo meu, KaK nepeianu K ypOKY 2, npoumume § §4 -6, lde onucueasomcs Oa:JfCHeUWUe npaeuna uepeooeanusc 3BYKOB. Heooxsameumo CPa3Y yttumb smu npaeuna uausucm» (no- 1ta1laJlY ouu 1leu36eJICHO 30yttam lIeCKOllbKO a6CmpaKm1l0 u nnoxo sanouunasomcst). PeKO.MeuiJyeM nocmenenuo oceaueamu uamepuan §§4-6 no xoiJy U3yq,euUR OC1WB- 1l0l0 Kypca.

§ 1. Aml>3BHT H CHCTeM3 COrJIaCHbIX 3BYKOB

u

zrpeaaeenpeacxoro H3bIKa

1.1. Xapaxrep eapertexoro nHCbMa

EBpeMCKIIM ampantrr npe)lCTaBJIHeT co60M O,nHY H3 pa3HOBH,l.J;HOCTCM nepsoro na 3eMJIC aJIcPaBHTa, xoropsnr nOJIh30BaJlHCh CCMHTCKHC napozrsr BOCTOqHOrO CPC,nH- 3CMHOMOPhH Y)KC C CCpe)lHHhI Il-ro ThICHqeJIeTHH,no H.;:).

Bnposesr, «aJIcPaBIITOM~ ;:)TY ,npeBHIOIO cacrexy nHChMa MO)KHO Ha3BaTh JIlIllih C H3BecTHoM AOJICM YCJIOBHOCTH, nOCKOJIhKY 3BYKlI 3,nCCh 0603HaqaJIHCb HC BCC - monnxo coesacnue. Hanpasrep, PYCCKOC CJIOBO «,nOM~, aanncannoe CBpeMCKHM HJIH cPlIHIIKHHCKHM uacucsr, BhlrJIH,neJlO 6hI TaK: .l1.M. 11 roqHO TCMH )KC ,nBYMH 6YKBaMH nam llHCCU 3allHCaJI 6bI CPOPMY MHO)KeCTBCHHoro qlICJIa - «nOMa», a TaK)KC CJIOBa «}l,aM», «,nYMa~ H T.,n.! KOHCqHO, Koe-KaKHC cnocofisr «HaMCKHYTb~ na TO, KaKOM CJIe)lYeT nOnCTaBHTb rJIaCHbIM, l1,To6bI npaBIIJIbHO rrpoxecrs CJIOBO, 6bIJIH npHnYMaHbI ,nOBOJIbHO CKOPO (MhI n03HaKOMHMCH C HIIMH HH)Ke). Ho cnennansnsre 6)'KBbI.ZI.JI.fI 0603HaqCHlIH rJIaCHbIX 3BYKOB BBCJIH B aJIcPaBI1T TOJlbKO rpexn, saHMCTBOBaBlliHC nHCbMO Y cPIIHIIKHMUCB. (OT rpexecxoro aJIcPaBIITa npOlI30lIIJIH BIIOCJIe,nCTBHH JIaTHHCKHM aJIcPaBHT H KHpHJIJIHua.) A B eapeiicxov llHCbMC rnacHhIC 3BYKH B 60JIblIIHHCTBC CJIyqaCB TaK H OCTaBaJlIICb Hco603HaqCHHbIMH. JIl1lIIb B arroxy paanero CPC,nHCBCKOBbR enpettcrore yqCHbIC - MaCOpeTbI - BHCCJIH B TCKCT EH6JIHH ,nonOJIHIITCJIbHhIC 3HaqKH )l)IJI 0603HaqCHHH ncex fJIaCHbIX, a TaK)KC HCKOTOPhIX HIOaHCOB B npoH3HolIICHHH COrJIaCHblX.

24

<DOHETI1I(A 11 III1CbMO

I1TaK, .npeBHeeBpeiicKHH aJI<paBHT COCTOHT H3 22 6YKB, 0603HaqaIOmHX COfJIaCnue 3BYKH. Hanpaanenae IIHCbMa - cnpana HaJIeBO.

Ta6JIHIzy C aJI<PaBHTOM CM. na CJIeJI;YIOmefi crpauaue,

KOHeqHO, BHelDIDIH cpopMa IIHCbMa c npeaaeiunax apesren CHJIbHO H3MeHHJIaCb.

CaMbIM paJI;HKaJIbHbIM H3MeHeHHeM 6bIJI nepexon OT MeCTHO:H TpaJI;HUHOHHO:H MaHepbI HaqePTaHHH 6YKB (T. H. cmapoeepeiicxozo nUCb.Ma) K 3aHMCTBOBaHHOMY B anoxy Ilnena (VI B • .nO H. 3.) apaMeHCKOMY K8aopamUOMY nUCb.My. Ilpasna, AOJIroe

...

BpeMH crapoenpeacxoe nHCbMO npo,nOJI)KaJIO CYIlleCTBOBaTb PH,nOM C KBa,l{paTHbIM,

nOCTeneHHO BbIXO,n.H H3 YIIOTpe6JIeHH.H (nOCJIe,nHHH pa3 OHO IIO.HBJIHeTC.H aa MOHeTax BO BpeM.H BOCCTaHHR Bap-Koxfisr - 132-135 rr. H. 3.). JIHlIIb cetera CaMapRH npO,lJ.OJDKaeT, B HeCKOJIbKO H3MeHeHHOM nane, MCIIOJIb30BaTb crapoeapeiicrcnfi aJI<paBHT AO HaIIIHX ,nHeii.

KBa.n;paTHbIM IIHCbMOM HaIIHcaHbI cpezmenexoasre MaHYCKpHIITbI. Ceiisac OHO I1CnOJIb3yeTcH B IIeqaTHbIX M3.naHH.HX EH6JIHH, B CJIOBaPRX H rpasoaarmcax npeeueespencsoro .H3bIKa. Ha HeM zce OCHOBaHa IIHCbMeHHOCTb conpesrennoro .H3bIKa MBpHT.

B cpeanne aexa H3 xsanparnoro nHCbMa pa3BHJIOCb HeCKOJIbKO BH.nOB cxoponaCH. Ceiisac HaH60JIee IIpHH.HT O.nHH H3 HHX - alliKeHa3CKHii.

TIPM ormcanna .npeBHeeBpeiicKoH rpaMMaTHKH 06bIqHO HCIIOJIb3YIDT TpaHCJIHTepaItHEO - 3aIIHCb espeiicxoro TeKCTa JIaTHHCKHMH 6YKBaMM. 3TO II03BOJI.HeT HaQHHaIDmeMY, IIOKa OH erne He osens XOPOlliO anaaeer eBpeHCKHM nHCbMOM, nerse IIOHHMaTb 3BYKOBYIO CHCTeMY H rpaMMaTHKY .H3bIKa. (HapR.D:Y C IIPHHRTOH B namea yqe6HHKe, cymecrayer H HecKOJIbKO zrpyrnx CHCTeM TpaHCJIHTepaUMH.)

Ofipaaeu paasremenna 6YKB na CTpOKe:

n ri to .., p r ~~ 11 C 1 ~ c ~ " 1 ::! ., tj n T 1 if ~LK fl (j e / jJ f ] f Q) (J 0 J) P }( I' ? :2 1 6 n !J-L iJ r (; ;J Ie

EYKBbI CKoponHCH, KaK H nesarmae, He COe,l{HH.HIOTC.H Mem,l{Y c060ii:

P?/c NlaM, ?I? .llaBH,U

25

(J)OllETHI<A H IB1CbMO

t .2. EopeiicKHii aJI<»auHT

HaaBatu'Ie Ha~epTaHllle TpaHcnltl- CoBpeMeHHoe CKopom"cHO€ I
6YKBbi (KBa,QpaTHoe nltlcbMo) TepaUJllfi npoltl3HOWeHltIe HayepTaHHe
~c a.rre4> N , Ie
'l .. ~ -
n"~ 6eT ~ b 6 ;~
:J IJ B ;:)
~1:).,j , 11 C
rHMeJI g r
.
l g r C
n~~ , ~ d l'
.llaJIeT JJ.
.: T
, g JJ. ?
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,., BCm ., w B I
T
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1~! 3aHHH T Z 3 5
n"n xeT n b x n
n"ll TeT II ! T 6
,i" ... ., y H I
110.ll
'l~ Ka4> :!) (1) k 3 (J) ,
K I
:;) (1) Is x J (7)
,1:.l? , - ~ I
JIaMe.ll I ]I
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0"1:) MeM 1:) (0) m M }{ (P)
1~:I HyH :I (1) n H J </)
" caMex
1~9 e s c 0
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1~!1 al111H 17 -
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!J <'l) p 4> C) (I)
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.,,~ u;a)l,e ~ <f) ~ u
•• T
'lip Ko4> P q K P
to.,., peru ., r p -,
ptp CHH to S c e
pr?i rD " a
lIIHH S ur
,r-1 TaB r-1 t T ft
T
n I T fl 26

(])OIlETI1I<A 11 IIHChMO

1.3. OTJlHIlHJI ztpeaaero npoH3HOmeHUJI COrJlaCHbIX

OT coapesreuaoro

ITpIrIH.HTOe CCM1{ac B HaY1{HoM cpene npOH3HomCHHC OCHOBaHO na cpezmeeexoeoii rpa)ll1nl1H (CM. -«BBenCHl1e~). KaK npOH3HOCHJIliCb 3ByKH zrpeaaeeapeticsnrn R3hIxa B 6116JIeMcKYIO anoxy, MbI B T01{HOCTH HC 3HaCM, HO uexoropsie OT JIHqHR npenHero np0l13HornCHHR OT COBpeMeHHom MOryT 6hITb peKOHCTPYHP0BaHhI na OCHOBe cpasneaaa C .npyrHMl1 CCMHTCKHMH }[3bIKaMH.

1. COfJIaCHbIC p q H U I B npeBHOCTH OTJUllJaJIHCb OT :!J k H r-1 t 60JIee HanpRJKCHHOM (T. H. 3J1ujJamU1.leC1coii.) apTHKYJIRUHcM. (HecBOMcTBcHHruI enponeiicxau R3bIKaM, HO xaparcrepnas .llJIR ceMHTCKHX }[3hIKOB, aM4>aTHqecKaH apTHKyJIRUH}[ COOTBeTCTBY10InHX COrJIaCHbIX cOXpaHHJIaCb B apa6CKOM.) TaKliM JKC Hanp.HJKCHHhIM 6blJI H COfnaCHhIM:!:t $. B COBpeMCHHOM np0113HomCHHH nanpaaceanas apTHKyJIHUHR ::lTHX 3B}'KOB yrepana,

2. Vrepauo TaKJKC 11 pa3JIH1{He, cyutecrsoaaauree nercorna MCJK)ly to S H 0 s; ero 4>0- HeTI11{eCKaH npnpozra no KOHua HC RCHa.

3. OC06HSIKOM B CItCTCMC COrJIaCHbIX 3BYKOB rrpenaeeapeiicxoro .H3hIKa CTORJIH roprauusre N " n h , 11 ~ I n b . KaK rrpaBHJIO, N ' H 11 'ceMqac HC rrpOH3HOC.HT, a n h H n b 3aMeH}[IOT B npoaanourenaa na 3BYKH, 60JIee rrpHBblqHbIC l-(JI}[ enponeficrcnx H3bIKOB. 3a6crruI anepea 3aMefHM, lJTO HaJIHqItC roprannoro cornacnoro B KOPHC CJIOBa oxaasmaer 3Ha1{HTeJIbHOC BJIMHHC na 06pa30BaHHC ero rpaMMaTHlJeCKHX ¢OpM.

4. COfJIaCHhIM 1 w (aHrJIHMCKOC w) 6hIJI 6JIH30K K rJIaCHoMY [ul H B onpezrenennsrx yCJIOBl1}[X Mor sepenonarsca C Hl1M. B COBPCMCHHOM npoasnomenaa 1 W 11 :J b COImaJIH.

5. 0 cyiuecrsoaaeurea B npenuocrn pa3JIHQHH MeJK}l;Y COfJIaCHhIMH l g It l g, ~ d It , a, ntH n I CM. HHJKC, 1.4.4.

1.4. TIpHMe'laHHJI K aJI4>aoHTY

1.4.1. He cymecrnyer npoTMBOrrOCTaBJICHHR"CTPOqHbIX H 3arJIaBHbIX 6YKB:

1.4.2. KOHe1.JHbIe 6YKBhI. II.HTb 6YKB ItMCIOT rro zraa HaQCpTaHH.H, OnHO H3 KOTOPbIX ynorpednaerca B Ha1{aJIC 11 cepeznme CJIOBa, a zrpyroe - na KOHUC.

27

(})OIlF.THI(A H III1ChMO

B nanane H B cepeznnre:

:I

~

:I

!j

~

Ha KOHl{e:

1

e

1 ~ r

1.4.3. eUH U mUH. EYKBa fl), B 3aBl1CHMOCTl1 OT rrOJIO)KeHH.H TOqKl1 nazi JIeBbIM HJIH npaasra 3y6qHKOM, 0603HaqaeT ABa pa3HbIX 3BYKa:

fD (Cl1H) - (c], B TpaHCJIHTepal{l1l1 S, to (umn) - [rn], B rpancnnrepanna S.

B CJIOBaP.HX npesaeeapeacxoro R3bIKa Cl1H M lIIHH 06bIQHO paCCMaTPHBaIOTCR KaK ztse pa3JIWIHbIX 6YKBbI: cnaxana rrpHBo,n.HTCR CJIOBa na CHH, rrOTOM - na mHH.

1.4.4. IiYKBhI ::1, l, " :I, !j U n, B 3aBMCl1MOCrn OT rrOJIO)KeHl1R B CJIOBe (nocne fJIaCnoro, rrOCJIe COfJIaCHOfO, B nasane CJIOBa - nozrpotinee CM. §4), rrp0113HOCHJIl1Cb B MacopeTCKYIO snoxy ,nByM.H cnOC06aMl1 - CMblqHbIM l1JIH meJIeBbIM. B COBpeMeHHOM npOM3HomeHHl1 COXpaHHeTCR paameme TOJIbKO Me)K)J.Y :a (6] 11 ::1 (B], ::l [KJ H :I [X], !:l [rr] M !j (<p]. Illeneasre , (xoma -TO npOH3HOCl1JIOCb KaK aHrJIHHCKOe th B CJIOBe this), n (rrpo113HOCHJIOCb KaK th B CJIOBe thick) M l (BeJX).HTHO, ::ITO 6bIJI 3BYK nanozrofinc YKpaHHCKoro [f]) reneps npOH3HOCRTCR TaK me, KaK H COOTBeTCTBYIDntne CMbIQHbIe.

llJI.H pa3JIH~eHMR CMblqHOro H uienenoro np0113HOlIIeHHR 3THX 6YKB MacopeTbI BBeJIH OC06bIH 3HaqOK - ztareur (TOqKa BHYTpl1 6YKBbI), KOTOPbIM OTMeqaJIH CMbJ1IHbIH COfJIaCHbIH. 3TOT zrarem Ha3bIBaeTCR «CJIa6bIM~ (B OTJIHQl1e OT «CHJIbnoro», KOTOPbIH BbIfJI.H,nHT TOQHO TaK zce, HO HCnOJIb3yeTcR C ,npyroH lleJIbID - CM. 1.4.5). B TpaHCJIl1Tepal{l1H tuenesoe np0113HOlIIeHl1e 0603HaqaIDT QepTOH nozt MJIH nazi 6YKBOH:

'JJb ilg '"!'fd !Jk !:lp r-lt
::1b 19 'd :lis !jfi nl 1.4.5. Y,lJ;BOeHUe cornacasrx. ,lI,JI.H npeaneeapeiiceoro .H3bIKa xapaxrepno qaCTOe ynorpefinenae ynaocnnsrx COfJIaCHbIX (bb, dd, yy 11 T. J1..). Ilpn 3TOM, onnaxo, HHKOr}.1,a He YJ1.BaHBaIDTC.H ropraansre COrJIaCHbIe, menemae b, g, rJ, k, p, I H cornacHbIH r.

28

(1)(HI E T!1 K J\ !1 1I!1 C h M 0

Y,UBOeHHble COrJIaCHble 0603HaqaIOTC5I aiJlloU 6YKBOH, BHyTpH KOTOPOH CTOHT TOqKa - TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIH CWl'bUbIU oaeeiu.

1"1i);"'T hammelek ;:nOT naps

n":;J;"'T habbdyit :'ITOT ,ZlOM

3aMeTHM, qTO B IIOCJIe,ZlHeM npnxrepc TOqKa BHyTpH 6YKBbI ~ O,ZlHOBpeMeHHO BblIIOJIHSIeT CPYHKl{MIO H CHJIbHOro, H cnafioro ztarema. KaK )Ke IIOH.HTb, BCTPeTHB B TeKCTe 6YKBy:;J C roqKOH, qTO HMeHHO OHa oanasaer: b HJIH bh? Hazro nOMHHTb, qTO y,ll;BoeHHble COfJIaCHble BCTpeqaIOTC.H TOJIbKO IIOCJIe rnacnoro (06blqHO IIOClle xparxoro, B HCKJIIOqHTeJIbHblX CJIyqasIX - rrOCJIe zronroro, nnxorna - rrOCJIe csepxxparsoro). Hanporas, O,ZlHHOqHble CMblqHbIe COrJIaCHble b, g, d, k, p, t MoryT BCTpeqaTbCSI TOJlbKO JIH60 B nasane CJIOBa, lIH60 nOCJIe ztpyroro COrJIaCHoro. (IIoqeMY TaK nonysaercs, CTaHeT .HCHO H3 §4.)

§2. I'nacnsre 30yKH 0 ux 0603Ha'leHUe na nOChMe 2.1 . .lI:ua cnoco6a 0603Ha1.JeHHJI rJlaCHbIX

nOHaqaJIY rnacnsre B eBpeHcKoM IIMCbMe He 0603HaqaJIHCb BOBCe. B ,ZlpeBHeHIIIHX eBpeHCKI1X If <pHHHKHitCKHX Ha.n:rrHOIX (X B. ,lIP H.3.) CJIOBa melek -srtaps», m6lek ~~apcTByIOmHH>l>, malak 4l{apCTBYeT>l> H T.,Zl. IIHCaJIHCb O,ZlHHaKOBO: 1"7:). 3aTeM, erne B zronnenayio anoxy, CJIO)KHJIC.H 06blqaii: OTMeqaTb ncsoropsre rnacnsre C IIOMOmblO 6YKB ., H 1 ,a na KOHl{e CJIOBa - TaK)Ke C IIOMOmbIO 6YKBbI;"'T.

EYKBhl ., I 1 H ;"'T B :3TOM 3HaqeHHH nonyunnn y cpe.l1.HeBeKOBbIX espeiicxax yqeHblX Ha3BaHHe ;"'T~"'"1iP;:r ni1i)~ 'immo; haqqsri'a (4MaTepH qTeHH.H>l»; B eeponeiiCKI1X rpaserarmcax 06blqHO HCIIOJIb3yeTcH ,ZlOClIOBHbI:H IIepeBO,Zl :3TOfO TepMMHa na JIaThIHb - matres Iectionis (B e.n:. q. - mater lectionis).

YnoTpe6JIeHHe matres lectionis na KOHl{e CJIOBa 6bIJIO .l1.0CTaTOQHO peryJl.HpHbIM; B cepezume )Ke - cxopee TeH)l.eHl{Heit, qeM rtpaaanosr. qacro na O,ZlHOH crpannue eBpeHcKoM DH6J1HH MO)KHO BCTPeTHTb O,ZlHO H TO )Ke CJIOBO, uarracaunoe pa3JIHQHO: c I1CnOJlb30BaHHeM matres lectionis (T. H. nosuoe nanucanuey H 6e3 HX acnonsaoBaRIU! (T. H. nenonuoe uanucanues.

CI1CTeMa IIOCJIe,ZlOBaTeJlbHOrO 0603HaQeHH.H scex rJIaCHbIX 6b1J1a C03,ZlaHa JIHIIIb B cepezume - BTOPOH IIOJIOBHHe 1-1'0 TbICRQeJleTM.H H.:3. 3Ta CHCTeMa IIOCTeIIeHHO paspatiarsmanacs MHOfHMH rrOKOJIeHH.HMH MacopeTOB HeCKOJIbKMX IIIKOJI H 6bIJIa 33KOHQeHa B X B. MaCOpeTaMH H3 ropona THBepHH (oTCIO,Zla ee Ha3BaHHe - mueepUaOC1C{l.R) .

29

(})OHETl1KA 11 nl1CbMO

THBepHa.n;CKHe MaCOpeTbI 0603HaqHJIH BCe rJIaCHbIe C nOMOIUbIO cneuaansnux 3HaqKOB, KOTOpbIe rrOMeIUaJIHCb nozr I1JIH nan CTPOQKOM. He )KeJIa.Sl 113MeHI1Tb HH O,llHOM 6YKBbI B CB5IIUeHHbIX TeKCTax, OHH CTaBI1JIH csoa 3HaQKH TaK, lJTo6bI 're nonOJIHRJIH, HO He BbITeCH..RJII1 crapue 3HaKH.llJl51 rJIaCHbIX - matres lectionis. B pesynsrare B HeKOTopbIX CJIYlJruIX rJIaCHbIM 3BYK OKa3aJICR o603Hal-IeHHbIM B TeKCTe DH6JII111 ,llBa)KJlbI: H C nosroursro mater lectionis, H C rrOMOIUbIO MacopeTcKoro 3HaQKa.

2.2. CHcTeMa rJIaCHhIX npeaneeapeticxoro Jl3bIKa

CHCTeMa fJIaCHb}X 3ByKOB zrpeaneeapencxoro .H3bIKa nnepeere 6bIJIa OIII1CaHa eBpeMcKHMH yqeHbIMH-rpaMMaTMKaMH X-XIII BB. H. S. 11x KJIaCCH<pHKaU;HH, HeCMOTP..R na ornensnue I1MeIOIUHecR B HeM HeTOQHOCTH, zto CHX rrop 06bIQHO HCnonsayerca npn orrHCaH1111 <pOHerI1KI1 npeeueenpeiicsoro .H3bIKa.

COfJIaCHO 3TOM YCJIOBHOM KJIaCCI1<pHKaU;I1H, rJIaCHbIe ztpeaaeeepeitcxoro H3bIKa MOrJIM 6bITb ,llOJIrHMM, KpaTKHMI1 11 cBepxKpaTKHMH (3TO zrenenac B u;eJIOM COOTBeTcTByeT TOMY, KaJ( conpeaeunsie yxensre peKoHcTpYHPYIOT CI1CTeMY npeaneespeiicxoro H3bIKa KOHu;a I TbIC • .l1,O H. 3.). Ceii-rac M .l1,OJIrHe, M KpaTKHe, H caepxxparKHe rnacnsre npHH}lTO rrpOH3HOCHTb O,llMHaKOBO.

B TpaHCJIHTepaU;MH KpaTKOCTb He 0603HaqaeTCH HHKaKHM CrreQHaJIbHbIM 3HaKOM, CBepXKpaTKOCTb 0603HaQaerCR 3HaQKOM v , a ,llOJIrOTa - 3HaQKaMM - HJIM "', Pa3HHu;a MC)K)J,Y 3HalJKaMH - H ,.. TaKona: eCJIH ,llOJIfHM fJIaCHbIH 0603HaQeH B enpeHCKOM TeKCTe nocpencraosi matres lectionis 1 HJIM ", 1'0 B TpaHCJIHTepaUHH MCnonsayercs 3HaQOK ,.. , a ecJIH Her - 3HaQOK ". (q TO icacaerca 0603HaQeHH.H xparKHX rJIaCHbIX nOCpeJI,CTBOM matres lectionis, TO 3TO.llJlH eBpeiicKoM DH6JIHH HBJIReTCH aHOMaJIHeM; csepxxparxne rJIaCHbIe HHKOf.l1,a He 0603HaQaIOTC.H nOCpe.l1,CTBOM matres lectionis.)

30

<l>OHETHKA H IIHCbMO

BOT KaK CXeMaTHqeCKH MO)KHO H306pa3HTb CHCTeMY rJIaCHblX 3BYKOB npesaeeapeficxoro .SI3hlKa:

nonHble (nonr ae '" xparxue) r nacuue

i, i (i)

u, i1 (U)

e; ere)

0, a (6)

a,ii

Bnposea, B npoasnotnemra THBepHazlcKHX MacopeToB npoTHBOnOCTaBJIeHHe rJIaCHblX no ,llOJIrOTe-KpaTKocTH, cxopee scero, 6hlJIO yrpaxeno. Oztnaxo e H e, o If i5 pa3JIHqaJIHCb, XOT.SI He no npH3HaKY ,llOJIrOTbl-KpaTKOCTH, a no npH3HaKY OTKPblTOCTIf-3aKPhlTOCTH: e HOB THBepHazlCKOM npoH3HOllIeHHH 3ByqaJIH OTKPhlTO, a e If i5 - 3aKpbITO. (Pa3JIHQeHHe orxpsrnax H aaxpsrrsrx rJIaCHhlX CBOHCTBeHHO If J»I,lJ,Y COBpeMeHHblX .SI3bIKOB: aHrJIHHCKOMY, cppaHlJ;Y3CKOMY, HeMelJ;KOMY.) Fnacasre ii H a B THBepHa)lCKOM npoaanouremm TO)Ke pa3JIHQaJIHCb, nOCKOJIbKY ti CTaJI ory6.neHHblM H, nO-BH.AHMOMY, COBnalI C o.

CeepXKpaTK",e (peAy~",poBaHHble) rnaCHbie

Heonpezenenaua CBepXKpaTKHH rJIaCHblH a npoH3HOCHJICH, nO-BH,lJ,HMOMY, anaJIOfHQHO 3BYKY a B aHrJIHHCKOM .SI3hlKe (npmrepno KaK e B PYCCKOM CJIOBe lieJlo- 6amb). CeiiQac ero 06hlQHO npOII3HOC.HT npocro KaK [e].

Tpn J{PYfHX CBepXKpaTKHX rJIaCHhlX (0, e H 0) BCTpeQaIOTC.SI, KaK npaBHJIO, TOJIbKO nOCJIe ropramrsrx (nanporas, a nocne ropraunux HHKOr}(a He BCTpeQaeTCjJ). Ilpn 3TOM 0 BCTpeQaeTC.SI3HaQHTeJIbHO Qalll.e, qeM e H 0.

31

<J)OnET];JKA ];J II];JChMO

2.3. THOepHa,lJ,CKaSi CHCTeMa 0603Ha1JeHH.R fJIaCHblX nOJ1Hble (AOJ1rMe M KpaTKMe) rnaCHbie

npMMepbI npoCTaHOBKM. TpaHcn~1Tepa~R M COBpeMeHHOO npoM3HoweHMe
3HaK Ha3BaHMe 6e3 matres lectionis c mater lectionis
., , i1
" bi/bi (6") ":!l bi (6")
P-:)"f} !l
xfrpex
c be (6e) ":!l be (6e) be (6e)
"i~ :!l i1!l
"" .....
,
uepe
""lO :!l be (6e) ["# bi (6e)] i1# be (6e)
.
cerOJl
c :!l ba (6a)
nnE)
- - -
nar ax
" :!l ba/bo (6aj60) bii (6a)
f'?i? i1:!l
T T T
,
KaMell
. C"'ri ':!l to (60) ;!l b6 (60) i1':!l to (60)
XOJIeM
f!1!lj? :!l bu/bi; (6y) ~!l bfi (6y)
<, ".
KH66Yll N,rd :p ba/b (6ej6)
: T:
nma
"'l9 "~'J ;g be (6e)
..
xaredi-cerrin
< ~.bii (6a)
n~~ "~'J
xaredi- narax
c ~ bo (60)
r~~ 'lP.lJ
T: T:
xan§clJ-KaMell 32

t1>OHETI1KA 11 nl1CbMO

2.4. 3aMe1JaHH.R K Ta6J1Hl(e

o matres lectionis

1. KaK BH,Il;HO H3 Ta6JIIHlbI, 6YKBa ., HCnOJIb3yeTcH KaK mater lectionis TOJIbKO AJBI rJIaCHhIX nepezrnero pana (i, e, f), a 6YKBa' - TOJIbKO.AJI.SI fJIaCHbIX sazmero paaa (u, 0). EyKBa rr HCnOJIb3yeTc.SI KaK mater lectionis TOJIbKO JUlS fJIaCHbIX e, e. ii, 6 H TOJIhKO na KOHIle CJIOBa.

2. Ha KOHIle CJIOBa MorYT BCTpeqaThC.SI: TOJIhKO )lOJIfMe rnacnsre H fJIaCHbIH e (KOTOphIiI B :'noH n03HUHH, nO-BH)lHMOMY, TO:>Ke 6bIJI )lOJIOf, XOTR B Haweii YCJIOBHoil TpaHCJIHTepallHH STa )lOJIfOTa He OTMeqaeTC.H).

Y norpefinemre matres lectionis na xonue CJIOBa 06.S1:3aTeJIbHO (aa HCKJIIOqeHHeM HeCKOJIhKHX CYQ>qmKcoB, nanpmrep, ., -Isii).

BhI60p Me>K.ny HanHCaHH.SI:MH THna rr~ be H .,~ be, i1~ b6 H ;~ bo na KOHue CJIOBa 06YCJIOBJIeH STHMOJIOfMeii CJIOBa HJIH rpaMMaTHqeCKOii cl>0PMbI.

i~ bo BHeM

no"rd sal6mo COJIOMOH "inN 'abdre (npedJlOl) 3a

rr"iN 'arye JIeB

3. BhI60p Me>K.ny HanHcaHH.SI:MH .,~ be H ~ be, i~ bO H ~ bO B cepezmae CJIOBa TO)Ke 06YCJIOBJIeH BTHMOJIOfHeH CJIOBa MJIH rpaMMaTHqeCKOM cl>OPMhI; TaK, ,lI,JI.SI: CJIOB iT1"~ ~edtih (mnna) H "ip qol (rOJIOc) CTaH)lapTHhIM RBJI.SI:eTC.SI nanncanae C mater lectionis (T. H. nonnoe nanucauuey, a ,lI,JI.SI: CJIOB i~ ger (qY:>KaK) H :1~ dob (MenBe.llh) - nanncanae 6e3 mater lectionis (T. H. nenanuoe nanucauuey.

Brrposesr, B rex CJIOBaX H Q>opMax, .ltJI.SI: KOTOPhIX nOJIHOe uanncaane .SI:BJIReTC.H CTaH,UapTHbIM, matres lectionis aepeznco onYCKaIOTC.H: i17~ ~ediih, ".p q61. 3HaqHreJIhHO PC)Ke BCTpeqaeTC.SI: ofiparnoe .SI:BJIeHHe: i"~ ger, :li~ dob B nOJIHOM narmcaHUll. nO)106Hhle OTKJIOHeHH.SI: OT crannaprnoro HanHCaHH.SI: CBR3aHbl, BH)lHMO, C lIH.llIIBHnYaJIhHOH MaHepoii nncua.

4. Hanl1CaHH.SI ~ B 3HaqeHHH bi H ~ B 3HaqeHHH bii (T. e. 6ea matres lectionis)

.. . ..

BCTpeqaIOTC.H peznco (H JIHmh B cepeznme CJIOBa), npHqeM HX nOJlBJIeHHe onarsTaKH CB.H3aHO He C STHMOJIOrneH CJIOBa, a C MaHepoii nncua. MCKJlIOqeHHeM .SI:BJI.SI:ercs CJIOBO '11 diiwid (.llaBH)l),,lI,JI.SI: xoroporo HenOJIHOe HanHCaHHe .SI:BJI.SIeTC.SI: HOpMOH.

5. Ilepen HeKOTopbIMH OKOHqaHH.SI:MH H CYQ>$HKCaMH fJIaCHhIH e nozt yztapennesr 3ByqaJI B npoaanomeaan THBepHa]lCKHX MacopeTOB 60JIee OTKpbITO; nOBTOMY OH

33

<DOHETHKA Ii nHChMO

0603HaqeH He sepea " .. , a sepea "':' (KaK Y)Ke 6bIJIO CKa3aHO,.: ell .. e B npoaaaomemnr MacopeTOB paamrsanacs He no JlOJIfOTe-KpaTKOCTll, a no OTKPbITOCTH- 3aKpbITOCTll. )

B TpaHCJIllTepaIlllll np"USITO nepenasars 3TY oco6eHHOCTb MacopeTCKOfO qTeHll.Sl npOCTaHOBKOH non e aaasrca OTKPbITOCTll (i).

i"9~O sUsIlsii TBO.Sl rronrazts

6. B rex CJIyqMX, xorna rJIaCHhIH U Y)I(e 6hIJI o603HaqeH qepe3 mater lectionis 1, sracoperu He ncnonsaonaxa 3HaqOK KH66YIl C.), a OTMeqaJIll 6YKBY 1 Toql(oit

Ha3bIBaeMoH P"J~rD uqjpe1c .

~!l = bu.

7. KaK Y3HaTb, BbIllOJIH.SIIOT JIM B ,ltaHHOM cnysae 6YKBbI ., , 1 "i1 CPYHKllllH matres lectionis, llJIll OHll 0603HaQaIOT COfJIaCHhIH (y, W llJIM h)?

a) ECJI" 6YKBa i1 na xomte CJIOBa 0603HaqaJIa COlJlaC'HbIU h, TO MaCOpeThI nosseuraJIll BHYTPb i1 TOQKY (TaK Ha3hIBaeMhIH uannux): rTf77;l malkdh ee naps. Manrmx HeJIb3.S1 cnyrare C CMJIbHbIM )laremeM, nOCKOJIbKY cornacnuti h aaxorna He Y)lBaMBaerC.SI.

6) HaQepTaHMH ~ lli llMeIOT no zma anaseana: ~ "'" WWllJIll U'

,

; = WOllJIll O.

OJ(HaKO ,nBYCMhICJIeHHOCTH B TeKCTe He B03HllKaeT t nOCKOJIbKY B rex cnYQMX, KOrzta 6YKBa 1 ynorpefineaa B 3HaqeHllll mater lectionis, npeJI,mecTBYIOm:M 6YKBa He MO)l(eT llMeTb npn ce6e HllKaKOfO ztpyroro anasxa JlJI.SI fJIaCHOfO. (Cp. n"~~ m~6t «sanoaezrae II ni~~ massot -enpecasre nenenncne.) B aasane CJIOBa ~ qMTaeTCR KaK U.

B) nYKBa" B aaxepranaax Tllna"~ bi, .,~ 00 II .,~ b? scerna npe))'CTaBJI.HeT co6oii mater lectionis, aa llCKJIIOQeHMeM JIllmb rex CJIY(IaeB, xorzra 3Ta 6YKBa MMeeT ztarem.

.,c~ sUs; li~~ ~iyyon

MO.Sl .nomazts CllOH

34

(JJOHETI1KA 11 IIliCbMO

o 3Ha~Kax, MMelOUJ,MX A80SlKOe ~TeHMe

c ,

8. 3HaQOK T (f~i? KaMell) COOTBeTcTByeT OJ(HOBpeMeHHO M ,[(OJIrOMY ii,

o (B nOCJIe}lHeM czysae OH Ha3bIBaeTC.sI B eBpeHCKOH: Tp3,lU1ll;MM "~~fJ xamYrjJ)·

M KpaTKOMY

< ,

f7.?i? 1(aMe~

:In:;, kittalJ

-T

OH HanMCaJI

My,[(POCTb

3TO 06'h.RCH.sIeTCR TeM, lITO, KaK MbI Y:)Ke rOBOpMJIM, B npOM3HOllIeHMM TMBepM3,l(CKHX MaCOpeTOB Ii M 0 COBnaJIM. O,[(HaKO B ce¢ap,[(cKOH: TP3,l(MllMM, na KOTOPOH: ocHOBaHO Hallie npoM3HOIIIeHMe, raxoro COnn3,l(eHMSI He np01l30IIIJIO, M nOSTOMY MbI 06.R3aHbI p3.3JIHqaTb KaMel.{ M KaMell; xaTY<P npn qTeHMM TeKCTOB. KaK 3TO ztenars, MbI CKcDKeM B §3.S.1.

9. 3HaQOK: (NJrp Ulea) BHyrPM CJIOBa Mor nepeztaaars JIM60 CBepxKpaTKMM 3BYK a (cnp0U3HoCUMoe ursa») , nM60 OTCYTCTBMe rJIaCHOrO 3BYKa Me)l(.llY ,[(BYMSI cornacHbIMH (cHeMoe IIIBa»).

~:ln:;, kiitalJu

: IT

":;'''0 malki

OHM HanMCaJIM MOM naps

IlOApo6HbIe npasana 0 paamrseaaa .HeMoro» M .npOM3HocMMoro~ tnaa 6Y,[(YT naHhI B §3.5.2.

cHeMoe. uraa naorna CTaBMTC.sI raxace na KOHlJ;e CJIOBa ~ a MMeHHO, B CJIe,[(ylOII.J;HX JlBYX CJIyqruIX:

a) na xonue CJIOB, OKaHqMBaIOmMXC.sI ,[(ByM.H npoM3HocMMbIMM COrJIaCHbIMM:

1~~1 wayyelJk M OH 3anJIaKaJI; 6) aa xonne CJIOB, OKaHqMBaIOmMXC.sI na 1 Is:

Te6e ()I(. p.).

10. Bo MHonlX PYKonHC.sIX M nesarmsx M3,[(aHM.SIX 3HaqOK [0] CJIMBaeTC.sI C TOqKaMM Han: 6YKBaMM UlU1t M CUlt:

N·fal Jlu60 Nfal nliso(') nO,[(HMMaTb,

T T

rd·:!! Jlu60 rD:!! hos OH CTbI,[(MJIC.sI

35

ClJOHETHKA H IlHCbMO

11. B cxoponacn 3HaKH JlJ1S1 fJIaCHhIX BhIfJI.H.n.HT TOqHO TaK :me, KaK B neqa~HOM TeKCTe: ~ =bi

~ =be

~ =be

11 T • .n.

§3. CTpYKTYpa czrora H y.n;apeHHe 3.1. THnbl CJIOrOB

B zrpeaneeapeiicxosr .H3hIKe B03MO:>KHhI TOJIhKO ,llBa Tl1na CJIOfOB: omspumue CJIOf'H, I1MelOIllHe CTPYKTYPY «COfJIaCHhIM + fJIaCHhIM~ (bo, bi, be H T. rr.), w saxpumue CJIOrn, I1MelOIllHe CTPYKTYPY «cOrJIaCHhIH + fJIaCHhIH + COrJIaCHhIH~ (bar, bar H T. n.). I1Ha1.1e roBOP.H, CJIOf (a 3Haq11T, H CJIOBO) He MO:>KeT:

- naunnarsca C fJIaCHOfO (e,llHHCTBeHHoe HCKJIIOQeHHe; COlO3 , wa «H~ nnorna HMeeT <P0PMY 'u);

- Haq11HaTbC.H C ,llBYX H 60JIee COfJIaCHhIX (HCKJIlOqeHHe - <PoPMhl :>KeHcKoro pona qHCJIHTeJIbHOrO «,llBa~: C~~tp sttiyim, "~ffi ste ztse);

- aaKaHqHBaTbC.H na J(Ba H 60JIee COfJIaCHhlX (cyntecrayer PSlA I1CKJIlOqeHHJf). TaKHM 06pa30M, eCJIH ztaa COrJIaCHblX HenOCpe,llCTBeHHO CJIe.llYIOT zrpyr aa ,llPYrOM B cepezraae CJIOBa, TO cnoropaanen ncerna npOXO,llHT Me}l(.lzy HHMH: yi/-k6(/ «OH noHMaeT~. 3TOMY npaBHJIY nOJ(qHH.HIOTCSI 11 yzraoennsre COfJIaCHble: OHH pa36HBaIOTC.H CJIOrOpa3,lleJIOM nanaoe: dib-ber «OH rOBopHT~. CTeQeHHe 60JIee qeM ,llBYX corJIaCHblX (MJIJf COQeTaHl1e Y,llBOeHHOro COfJIaCHOfO C ,llpymM COrJIaCHhIM) .HBJI.HeT~ C.H, no H3JIO:>KeHHhIM BhIme npaBHJIaM, HeB03MO:>KHhIM.

3.2. Y.n;apeHHe

Ynapenae ncerzta naaaer JIH60 na nOCJIe.llHHH CJIor CJIOBa, JIH60 (ropaano peace) na npeJ(nOCJIeJ(HHH. B aToll KHHre yztapenae 6Y,lleT perynspno OTMe'IaTbC.H JIHIllb TOrzta, xorna OHO nanaer na npezmocnezmnf CJIor: ,,?~ melek naps ( e - YCJIOBHhIH 3HaqOK yJ(apeHI1.H, npHH.HThIH BO MHOrl1X CJIOBap.HX H rpasorarmcax npeaneeapetiCKOfO H3hIKa). OTCYTcTBl1e anaxxa ynapeaas roBOPIfT 0 TOM, QTO ynapenae rranaer na nOCJIe,llHIfH CJIOf.

CY<PQ>IfKChI If OKOHQaHHH, npacoeznmaacs K CJIOBY, 06hIQHO rteperarnaaror yaapenae na ce6H.

36

(NHIETHl{A 11 lIJ11CbMO

3.3. CU.R3b ,n;OJIrOTbI rJIaCHOrO co CTPYKTYPOii: cnora

3.3.1 . .llJI.H 6e3YJl,apHbIX CJIOrOB THn cnora M KOJm'lecTBo (crenens ztonrorsr) rnacnoro 6b1JIH B3aMMOCB.SI3aHhl:

- B 6e3Y,llapHOM 33.KPhlTOM CJIOfe BCTpe'laIOTC.sI TOJlhKO KpaTKMe rnacasre;

- B 6e3Y,llapHOM OTKPbITOM errore BCTpe'lalOTC.sI TOJIhKO Jl,OJIrl1e 11 CBepXKpaTKl1e

rnacaue.

3TO npasano aapymaerca TonbKO nepen ropTaHHbIMM M JII1Illb B znsyx CJIy'·mnX:

IIpH T. H. CKPhlTOM Y,llBOeHHH (§6.1) If npn BCTaBKe csepxxparxoro I'JIaCHOrO B coserannax ropranasni COrJIaCHhlH + ,llpyroH COrJIaCHbIH (§6.2):

<

:l"JlJlJ hab-ere!J STOT Me'l

P!t!~ yeb-ezaq OH CTaHeT CMJIhHee

B03MO)KHO, OJl,HaKO, 'ITO STO JIHIllh Ka)KYIUHeC.sl HCKJIIO'IeHl1.H, CB5I3aHHble C TeM, IlTO nama YCJIOBHaJI TpaHCJIHTepaUH.H He BnOJIHe al~eKBaTIIO orpaxcaer peansnoe nponsnomenene MacoperOB (nonpofinee CM. §§6.1, 6.4).

3.3.2. CYU-lecTBYIOT TaK)Ke 1f3BeCTHhle orpannxemra na pacnOJIO)KeHI1C B cnoue CJlOrOB co ceepxxparxasnr rJIaCHbIMH.

a) .llBa CMeJKHbIX cnora He MoryT cozrepacars CBepXKpaTKl1H rJIaCHbIH. 6) Ceepxxparxaii rJIaCHbIH He MO)l(eT HaXO,llHThCH na xonuc CJIOBa.

3.4. Merer

Orxpsrrue 6e3Y,llapHhle CJIOrH, aa KOTOPbIMH cneztyer CJIot co CBepXKpaTKHM a, IIOMeqaIOTC.SI B eBpeHCKOH 6H6JIHH 3Ha'lKOM Memel. Merer - 3TO KOPOTKCUI ueprnKaJIhHa.Sl sepru-nca non 6YKBOH (npn HaTlH'IHM sna-nca }lJI.SI r JIaCHOrO - 06bI'-lHO

1 CJIeBa OT Hero) •

c

"l:;'.,:1" yal!iira!seni OH 6JIaroCJIOBMT MeH.H

••• :IT:

;,r,::)N 'ii/salii OHa csena

T : IT

B IIOCJle.n;HHX JtBYX npasrepax MeTer YKa3bIBaeT na OTKPbITOCTb cnora 11 TeM caMbIM - na ,llOJIfOTY rJIaCHOrO, 0603Ha'leHHOrO 3Ha'lKOM 1(lL.\IB~.

1

VlHOrAa (BnpOl.feM, AOBQJ1bHO HenOC11eAOB8TellbHO) MeTer MO)KeT L1CnOllb30BaTh-

CSI B 6M611MM M B APyrMx 3H81.feHMJlX (H8npMMep, OTMel.faTh eropocrenesuoe YAapeHMe, YKa3b1B8Tb MeCTo, rne L1Cl.fe31l0 YABoeHMe cornacuoro L1 T. n.),

37

<1>OIlETHKA J.1 IIHCbMO

OTCYTCTBlie srerera B nO,ll06HbIX CJIyqaJIX YKa3bIBaeT na 3aKpbITOCTb CJIOra Ii TeM CaMbIM - na KpaTKOCTb rJIaCHOrO, 0603HaqeHHOrO 3HaqKOM K£J.MB'I1:

iTr,:>N 'okld ezra.

T : T -

Merer npa ztpyrax 3HaQKaX (xposre xasrena) HIiKaK He BJIII.SleT na IIX QTeHlIe II no- 3TOMY B TeKCTax namero yqe6HIIKa Bocnp01I3BO,llIITbCjl He 6Y,lleT.

3.5. CTPY'KTYpa cnora H npaaana 1JTeHH.H

Ilpasenemnse asnue npaanna nosrorasrr, B QaCTHOCTII, pa3JIMQaTb npa QTeHlI1I xaMel.!; II xasreu-xarydi, a TaK)I(e npoaanocaaoe II neezoe nma,

3.5.1. Tlpaaaza '1TeHHB 3Ha'lKa KaMe'l1

.LJ.JIjl npaBIIJIbHOrO QTeHIIR xasreua HY)KHO nOMHIITb, qTO KpaTKIIH rJIaCHbIH 0 1

BCTpe'£laeTCR TOJIbKO B nsyx CJIyqa.HX •

a) B 6e3Y,llapHOM 3aKpbITOM cnore:

.. ..r.

t:Ij?;1 wayyaqom

iTr,:>N 'okla

T : T -

II OH BCTaJI

e,lla

(ITOCKOJIbKY ,llOJImH a, HanpOTIIB, He MO)KeT HaXO,llIITbCR B 6e3Y,llapHOM 3aKpbIToM cnore, TO cnyrars KaMelJ,1I KaMelJ,-XaTY<P B ::nOH cliTyaIJ,1I1I HeB03MO)KHO. 06paTMTe BHIIMaHMe - B nOCJIe)l;HeM npasrepe IIMeHHO OTCYTCTBlie MeTera 3aCTaBJIReT Hac qMTaTb KaMeIJ, KaK KpaTKMH 0.)

6) Ilepezt CO'leraHHRMIi «ropraansnt COrJIaCHhlH + rJIaCHbIH o~ II ~ropTaHHbIM corJIaCHblH + rJIaCHbIM Q~: .,~~~ bo'on;Ha dxnore, ~''?v; yo'omdi; DHII 6ynYT noCTaBJIeHbI. Ilpaana, ,llOJImH ii roace B03MO)KeH B 3TOM" nOJIO)KeHIIII: .,~~~ btl 'on; na [3TOM] <pJIOTe.

3.5.2. Tlpaaana '1TeHH.H 3Ha'lKa W6a

3Ha'lOK WBa 'lMTaeTCR KaK caepxxparxaii rJIaCHbIH a B CJIe.nYIOlllHx xencpex cnysaSIX:

a) ECJIIi 3Ha'lOK W6a CTOIiT nozt nepsoii 6YKBOH CJIOBa: ;,~~ bayado B ero pyxe,

ECTb euie ABa CnOBa-MCKJ1IO .... eHIIISI: C"rp7~ qodiisim CBmblHIll M C"rp?rg soriisim KOpHM.

38

<l>OBETHKA H HHCbM{)

< •

(l1cKJUOlJeHHe - «l>OPMhI )I(eHCKOrO pozta 'lHCJIHTeJIbHOrO .)lBa~: C:~"P slayim,

.,t1rri Sfe zme, )

6) EC.lIH 3Ha'lOK tuea CTOHT non 6YKBOM C CIUlhHhIM ztaremesc

~i:;11 d;bbarii OHH rOBOpHJIH

B) ECJIH rnaCHhIM npeznnecrnyromero cnora - )lOJIrHM M 6e3Yl(apHbIM: ~Oi?~iT huqamu OHM 6hlJIH nOCTaBJIeHbl ~~..,~ b6ra/su OHH 6hlJIH 6JIarOCJlOBJleHbI

r) ECJIH npennrecrayromaa 6YKBa rosce HMeeT nozt C060M 3Ha'lOK tuea: ~i,?rp~ y;smarii OHH 6Yll.YT COMIO)laTb

(Ilepeoe ursa B nO)l06HhIX cnysasx scerna 6Y)leT HeMhIM, KaK B TOJlbKO 'lTO rtpnae,neHHOM npieaepe.)

Ho HaJl,O nOMHHTb, 'lTO HHKOr)la He 'lHTaeTC.SI 3HalJOK uiea na xonne CJlOBa:

1:r~1 wayyebk H OH 3anJIaKaJI

KaK .nenco MO)l(eT y6eJl,HTbC.SI 'lHTaTeJlb, see lJeThIpe npaanna BhlTeKaIOT H3 01(aoro-eaaacraeaaoro 06Il(ero nOCTYJIaTa: cnor He MO)l(eT HH Ha'lHHaTbC.sI, HH saKaHlJHBaThC.SI na )lBa corJIaCHhIX (HJIH Y)lBOeHHhIM COrJIaCHhIM) - CM. BhIme, §3.1.

1

Bo ocex OCTaJIbHhIX CJIYqaHX 3Ha'lOK uiea He 'lHTaeTC.SI •

§4. lJepe,n;ooaHHe CMbI1.JHbIX H IU,eJleObIX COrJlaCHbIX

4.1. Illeneaue COrJIaCHhIe b, g, q, Is, p, ! npoHCXO,l.l,.SIT H3 COOTBeTCTBYIOIllHX CMbIlJHbIX: B KaKOM-TO MOMeHT pa3BHTH.sI R3hIKa CMhI'lHhIe b, g, d, k, p, I B n03HllHM noCJIe rJIaCHOrO CTaJIH npOH3HOCHTbC.SI K3.K nieneasre. TaKHM o6pa30M B03HMKJIH qepe,llOBaHM.sI bib, gig, did, klk, pip, 1/1.

c bayi; < kabayil
n":!l )lOM n":l:=;) KaK)lOM
:l":b kileb co6aKa :l~~1 wakeleb Hco6aKa
M"~ delet J(Beph n~1'? ladelet K,IlBepH 4.2. Y naoeunue bb, gg, dd, kk, pp, It scerna, ztazce nOCJIe fJIaCHhIX, coxpanann CMbllJHOe npOH3HOIIIeHHe.

1

np .... HJlTO TalOKe If .... TaTb 3HalfOK WBa. ecnlil OH paanenser ABe OAHHaKOBble 6YKBbI

(AIDKe KorAa npeAWecmYlOlJ.(IiIjif .-nacHbljif KpaTOK): 'tf"'?ij halalu XBan.,1Te.

39

<DOHETHKA H rIHCbMO

" habbayil
n:~iJ STOT )lOM
:1r,:bi1 hakkeleb sra cooaxa
..
nr,~i1 haddele; ara ztneps Bonee 'rorn, B rex rpaMMaTMqeCKIfX cpopMax, rzte nreneasre COrJIaCHbIe !J, K, 4, Is, p, t nperepnesana Y)lBOeHMe, BOCCTaHaBJIHBaJIOCh CMbIqHOe nponanonrenae COfJIaCHblX.

":l~ diibiir CJIOBO

T T

rD~fp qodes CBJlTbIHJI

":!l~ dibber fDjj? qiddas

fOBOPMTh OCBJlmaTb

4.3. CMbIqHOe npOM3HOllIeHMe COfJIaCHbIX BOCCTaHaBJIMBaeTC.JI M rorna, xorzra meJIeBbIe b, g, d, k, p, t OKa3bIBaIOTC.JI B HaqaJIe CJIOBa MJIM nOCJIe COfJIaCHoro.

11") niigal OH KOCHY JICJI 11l ga' KOCHIfCb
-T
r,~) napal OH ynan r,'!:))r, tinpol qTo6b1 ynacrs
-T
,:Jr, lii!sa4 u ,~'?~ yilkiid on noieaaer
OH nOIfMaJI
-T B anoxy MRcopeToB npaBMJIO 4.3. C06JIIO)laJIOCh Y:>Ke He TaK crporo, B TeKCTe BeTxoro 3aBeTa BCTpeqaeTC.JI )lOBOJIbHO MHOfO HCKJIlOqeHMH H3 Hero (C~l~~ dabarkem name CJIOBO, r,'~~~ binpi5l BO BpeMJI naztenna). TIpaBMJIa 4.1 H 4~2 'no~ npessnesry C06JIIOJ.(aJIHCh HeYKQCHMTeJIbHo. DOJIhllIe roro, nepenxo npaBMJIO 4.1 }leiiCTBOBaJIO He TOJIhKO BHYTPM CJIOB, HO M BHyTpM CJIOBOCOqeTaHMM. eCJIM STH CJIOBOCOqeTaHM.JI npolf3HOClIJIMCh -sna O)lHOM }lbIXaHIfH~ (cp. liaison BO cppaHllY3- CKOM .JI3bIKe):

n~~ bdyi; )lOM

n~~ ')~ blinu !Jay;! OHM nOCTpOMJIM )lOM

§5. qepe.n;ooaHH.H rJIaCHbIX

TIPM M3MeHeHMM CJIOBa OTKpbITwe CJIorM nepeznco CTaHOB.JITCJl3aKPWTbIMM, aaxpsrTbIe - OTKPbITbIMM, yztapenne TO:>Ke MO:>KeT nepeztanrarsca. B COOTBeTCTBHH C npaBMJIaMM, M3JIO:>KeHHbIMM B §3, STO BbI3bIBaeT H3MeHeHMe KOJIMqeCTBa (a MHOf}la H xasecraa) fJIaCHbIx1• HM:>Ke npMBO)lJlTC.JI Ba:>KHeHmMe, HaM60JIee perYJI.JIpHWe 3aKOHOMepHOCTM xepcnoaaaaa rJIaCHbIX.

1 nOAo6Hble n03L1111010HHble ~epeAOBaHL1R rnacueax Oa)l(HO OTIlW-Ialb OT ... peseu ... aVlHO xapaerepuoa AJ1R npesaeeepeacxoro H APyrlo1x CeMLITCKIo1X R3b1KOB BHyrpeHHe" <!>lleKCIo1Io1 (kiilab nlo1can - kiileb nL1wylltL1" liI T. n.). n03L1111010HHble ... epencBaHHR npOlilCXOART aBTOMam ... eCKIo1. no <poHeTL>1 ... ecKliIM nplo1 ... Io1HaM. a BHyrpeH-

40

(]JOflETI1KA 11 III1CbMO

5.1. Coxpautenae ,lI;OJIrHX rJIaCHbIX B 6eaY,ll;apHbIX aaspsrrsrx caorax

.llOJInfe rnacnue ii, e, 0 B 6e3y,n;apHblx 3aKpbITbIX cnorax CTaHOB.HTC.H KpaTKHMH •

.

it> a: i!l":J diibiir CJIOBO O:Ji!l":J dsbarkem name CJIOBO
T T :
!:Ib" yiis6b .. wayydsob
6> 0: OH nOBepHeTC.H !:IC'!t, H OH nonepay JIC.H
T TT-
yiiseb .. wayydseb
t> e: !:I 0" OH nonepaer !:IC'" If OH nOBepHYJI
"T .: T- Ilepen y,nBoeHHblMH COrJIaCHblMH rnacmae jj H i He TOJIbKO COKpamaIOTC}I, HO H MeH.HIOT Ka1JeCTBO: jj nepexomrr B U, e - B i:

6> u: e-«

!:I'1 dob fer be$

5.2. Pe,ll;YKIJ;HJI rJIaCHhIX B 6eaY,lI;apHbIX OTKphIThlX caorax

Ilon pe.nYKIJ;HeH B rpasoaaraxax npeaaeenpeticxoro aasnca nOHHMaeTC.H nepexon l(OJIfHX If KpaTKHX rJIaCHblX B a (nocne ropraaaux - B al npH nepezuuosennn yztapeRH.H. Pe.zzyKIJ;HH nonsepseeasr TOJIbKO ,nOJIrHe ii, e, 6 H KpaTKHH a. (Onnaxo I'JIacasre ii, i, 6, crasunre ,nOJIrHMH B pe3YJIbTaTe 3aMeCTHTeJIbHOrO y.n;JIHHeHH}I nepezt rOpTaRHbIM IIJIH i, pe,nyKIJ;HH He nozrsepseensr - CM. §§6.1, 6.4.)

Pa3JIIf1JalOTC}I.n;Ba BH,na pe.zzyKUHH: B npenynapaoa cnore M B npeanpeaynapnoes cnore, I/peayaapJtbLM Ha3bIBaeTC}I CJIor, KOTOPbIH JIH60 Haxo,nHTC.H aenocpencrBeRRO nepea ynapasn«, JIH60 OT,neJIeH OT Hero <mOJIYCJIOrOM» CO CBepXKpaTKI1M rnaCRbIM. I/peanpeayaap1tbLM Ha3bIBaeTC.H CJIor, OT,neJIeHHbIH OT yztapnoro XOT.H 6bI OJI.HI1M CJIOrOM C rJIaCHbIM nOJIHOrO 06pa30BaHH}I (T. e. He-CBepXKpaTKHM). B CJIOrax, CJIe;ZYIOIIlHx aa ynapasrx, pe,l.l,YKIJ;HIf He 6bIBaeT.

5.2.1. B npe.ZI;Y,lI,apHOM cnore nozmepraerca pe.ZI;yKIJ;HI1 rJIaCHbIH e (B JlU1t1tblX ljJOPMax rJIafOJIa TaK.JKe 0 H a):

:l"N '6ye!J iElO sipper :lr:i:J" yi!st6!J :lM::J kiilab

-T

spar

OH paCCKa3aJI

sipparo yilstabu kiilabO

OHH paCCKa3aJIH OHH HanHIIIYT OHM nHCaJIH

OH narnnner

~:l~~~ 1!:1M::J

: IT

OH nHCaJI

HRR <l>neKc"'R - 3TO rpaMManlLJecKoe cpe,D,CTBO R3b1Ka, TaKoe >Ke, KaK Cy<l><I>"'KCbI ~'" npe<l>l'IKCbI.

41

<(>OIlETHKA H IIHChMO

5.2.2. B npezmpenyztapnoer cnore, KPOMC ncpcqHCJICHHbIX BbIIIIC, nonaepracrca PCJWKl{HI1 rJIaCHbIH ii.

~n:> kala/)

-T

OH rIHCaJI

C~~lJ=p ketabtem C'i:l "!'f da/}arfm

• T :

BbInllCaJIH

i:l1 dii!Jiir

T T

CJIOBO

CJIOBa

1. B ,lI,BYCJIOJKHbIX CJIOBaX C OrJIaCOBKOH a-e (rana li?! Ziiqen CTapHK, ,~~ kii!Jeq nDKCJIhIH II T. n.) H e-a (:l~'? le!Ja/) cepzme, ~~v. 'enab BHHorpaJJ., 17~~ $eltt' pefipo, i\.'fk' se'ar BOJIOC) rJIaCHbIH e COXpaH51eTC51 B npenyrtapaoer cnore, HO penyuapyerca B npennpenynapaosc

C"~P.T zaqenfm CTapHKH

~ ~" lebab_

T" - Cep,lI,lle

'~i?! ziqne CTapHKH (conp. ,p.)

ni~~,? laba/}6! cepznta

2. B O.n;HOCJIO)KHhIX CJIOBaX e, KaK npasano, He peztyuapyerca:

MepTBbIH

Mep1'BbIe

Jlams B HeKOTopbIX O,lI,HOCJIO)KHbIX CJIOBax <1~ ben CbIH, crp sem HM.SI, rv. 'e~ nepeso, C'~~ me'im BHYTpeHHOCTH) I'JIaCHbIH e B qaCTH CPOPM PC.zzyllHPYCTCH (nonpotinee CM. CnpaBOqHYIO Ta6JIHllY ll3MeHeHH51 cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX H npanaraTCJIbHhIX, IIPllJIO)KCHI1C A).

3. fJIaCHbIH e B ¢OpMax Tl1na C'l}'r zelim MaCJII1HbI (rzre e npOHCXO,lJ;llT ll3 CJIUSlHllH

., ,

J],11¢ToHra ay - cp, n~! zayil MaCJIHHa) H B 3allMCTBOBaHHOM H3 aKKaJlCKOI'O

CJIOBC "~"iJ he/stil (nnopeu, MH.. C"'?~"iJ he!salim) He PC,lI,YllHpyeTc.SI.

4. IIOMI1MO nCpClfllCJICHHbIX B nn. 1-3, B TeKCTe Berxoro 3aBcTa ncrpevaercx eme Hc60JIbLUOC l._lllCJIO <pOPM, B KOTOPhIX a II e He penyuaponanu (aanpieaep, ni17~~ sabu 'o! flCJ],CJIH, ni:!ot~;o m6'e$61 COBeThI II T. n.),

5.3. llpO.RCHeHHe caepxsparxax fJIaCHbIX

KaK MbJ yzce rOOOp"JIH (§3.3.2), cnora co ceepxsparscoaa rJIaCHbIMll He MorYT uaXOJ],HTbCH PH.n;OM. ECJIH (nanpasrep, B pe3YJIbTaTe npOI\eCCOB penyxuna) ABa cnora co cnepxxparxaaa rJIaCHbIMH J],OJI)KHbI OKa3aTbC.SI P51,lI,OM, nepnsni H3 3TllX rnacHbIX HCCr,lI,a nposcnnemcs (nepexomrr B KpaTKHH), BTOpaH )Ke 1Ill60 nsmanaer (CCJIH 31'0 a), JI1160 OCTaeTCH HCH3MeHlIbIM (eCJIll3TO ii, OHJIH i).

42

(})OIlETHKA H IIHCbMO

Ilpn npORCHCHHll rJlaCHbIH a nepexoznrr B KpaTKHM i, a rJIaCHbIC a, 0 H e ~ B KpaTKHC rJIaCHbIC 'roro xc Ka'lCCTBa:

a> i, a>«; 0>0, i> e.

TaKl1M 06pa30M, B03MOXHbI CJIC,lI,YIOIIJ;l1C CJIY'laH.

5.3.1. PMOM OKa3bIBalOTCH ,l{Ba cnora C rJIaCHbIMH a. B nepaosr a> i, BO BTOPOM a BhInaaaer. Hanpaaep:

" K fa

I:l"~"~~ npopoxa nabi1m

+

=>

x npoporcan

=>

Iinbfrm

+

5.3.2. Ilepasni CJIor ~ C rJIaCHbIM a, 0 HJIH i, BTOPOM - C rJIaCHbIM a. B nepeox errore CBcpxKpaTKHM CTaHOBHTCH KpaTKHM Toro xc Ka'lCCTBa (a> a, 0> 0, e> e), BO BTOPOM a ssmaaaer, Hanpasrep:

+ 1:l~~~:P BbI HanHCaJIM =>

.. .

rr JIM hd

1:l~~IJ~iJ HanHCaJIH JIM BhI?

haklabtem

+ ketabtem =>

06pannc BHHMaHl1C: meJICBOH COrJIaCHbI" nOCJIe nunaamero caepxxparxoro 06bI'lHO coxpaaaerca, B HapymCHHC npasnna §4.21

5.3.3. nepBbIH. CJIor - C rJIaCHbIM a, BTOPO" - C rJIaCHhIM a, 0 HJIH i. B ncpBOM CJIOI'C a nepexomrr B KpaTKHH. a, 0 HJIH e COOTBeTCTBCHHO:

~K La

+

I:l"~~q My.upellbI baKamim

=> 1:l"7;l~q,? K My.upcllaM

=> fabalsiimim

+

§6. Oco6eHHoCTH ropranastx COrJlaCHbIX (N ',11 I,:-r h, n b) H COrJIaCHOrO i r

06pamume 61tUMa1tUe: 6 6.1 peu» noiioem a zopmauuux coznacnux U air, 1tO (J 6.2, 6.3 u 6.4 - monsxo a eopmauuuxl

6.1. OTCYTCTBHe Y,lJ,BOeHH.R Hero KOMneHcaI(H1I

B onpenenennyto srroxy HCTOPHH npeaaeeapeacsoro H3hIKa ropraanue M r rrOTCP.HJIH B03MOXHOCTb y.uBaHBaTbCR. 1I0TepH y,l{BOeHHR same ncero KOMnCHCMpOBaJIaCb resr, 'lTO npe.ullICCTBYlOmMM KpaTKHM rJIaCHbIM CTaHOBMJICH .uOJIrMM (TaK ira-

43

(llOIUTMKA 111lMChMO

3bIBaCMOC sauecmumemmoe yi)JlUUellUe). Ho aaorna TI1BepMa,n;CKa.H OrJ1aCOBKa He nOKa3bIBaCT HaM HI1 YJlBOCHlUI ropraaaoro COrJ1aCHOrO, HI1 y,l(JII1HCHMH npemuecrBYIOU\cro rJIaCHOf'O. B 3TOM CJIYlJac npl1HHTO rOBOpl1Th 0 6upmYGJlbHOM., I1JII1 C1CPblmOM, YJlBOCHHH ropTaHHOI'O (nOMI1HHaH CPOHCTW:lecKa.H npapona sroro HBJIeHlUI HC BrrOJIHC RCHa).

Hanpnsrep, JlPCBHeCBpeiicKHH onpeneneansrf apTI1KJ1b HMeeT, KaK npaBI1J10, ¢>OPMY ha-, rrpHQCM CJICJlY10I1ll1H COrJlaCHbIH y,n;BaHBaCTCH:

i:J~ diibiir CJIOBO => i:J~i1 haddii/}ar
T T T T-
Ho cp.:
:JV, r{j'ttb ronozt => :lliiiT hiirii'iib «*harrii'iib)
T T T TT
< bireb :lini1 habere/} ( <* habbere!J)
:JiM Mct{ =>
. . .. B rrepBoM npasrepe norepa y,n;BoeHHH KOMneHCl1poBaHa 3aMeCTI1TCJIhHbIM YMI1HeHMCM a > d, BO BTOPOM - MbI HMeeM CJIYl:laH cxpsrroro y,n;BoeHI1H.

Ilpa 3aMeCTHTeJIhHOM YJlJII1HeHl111 I'JIaCHble U 11 i 113MeH.SIIOT Kal:leCTBO:

u > 6: 11:17-? mab6riik ( <* ma/)urriik} 6J1arOCJIOBeHHbIH

i > e: 1~~ me'en «*m;"en) OH OTKa3aJIC}I

(3aMC'ThTe, QTO 3'1'0 npasuno CMMMeTpHl:IHO npanany 0 ncpexone 6> u, e> i nepen YABOCUHbIMH COrJIaCHbIMH B §5.1.)

fJIaCHbIC, CTaBIJlHe JlOJII'I1Mlf B pesynsrare 3aMeCTI1TeJIbHOrO y,l(JIHHCHH.SI, He nonBCP.lKCHhI peAYKllMH:

,:J-=t ddbar CJIOBO

T T

IV,!;) piiriis< *parriis BCa,l(HMK

TT

C"i:J ~ dabiirim CJIOBa, no;

• T :

C"rDi5l piiriis;m< *parriisim BCa,lJ;HI1KH

. TT

(coxpanaercs ii B npezrnpenyztapaoss OTKPbITOM cnore).

6.2. Caepxxparsne r nacasre nOCJIe rOPT8HHbiX

6.2.1. ECJIlf B CJIOBC .uOJI.lKHa np0I130HTM, COI'JlaCHO rrpasanaa §S.2, peayxuas rnacnoro, a uepezr 3THM rJIaCHbIM HaX01(HTCH ropranasrti, TO BMecTO a nOHBJl.HCTC}I d (xpainre penxo i):

C"1;l;?q bdkiimim My,n;peQbI

C"j?~~ $0 'dqim xpaxanme

44

$OHETl1KA 11 1l11ChMO

6.2.2. B MacopeTCKOM npOH3HOllIeHHH cynrecraosana TeH.AeHllHH H36eraTb COqCTaHlrH ropTaHHbIH COrJIaCHblH + ,n;pyroH COrJI8CHbIH. MC)K)(Y ropraaaenr H cnenyioIlIHM sa HUM COrJIaCHhIM qaCTO BCTaBJU!JIC.H CBepXKpaTKHM rJIaCHhIM ii, e HJIH (1. Cp.:

~'r.1:J" yi!sti5b OH namnuer
'0"" yilmad OHH3YQHT
no:
,bv" ya'iimi5d OH BCTaHCT
.
i::ITn' yebizaq OH CTaHeT CHJIbHee
I - ..... (Ha rrcpBhIM B3I'JI.H)l" B 3TOM cnysae KpaTKHM r JIaCHhIM OKa3bIBaCTC.SI B OTKPbITOM 6e3YJI.apHOM errore. Ho B03MO)K.HO, 1:fTO COqCTaHH.SI runa ya'd, yebe socnpanauaJIHCb B MacopeTCKYro snoxy KaK O,nI-Ill cnor.)

TeH,IlCHllH.H pa36HBaTb CBepXKpaTKHM I'JIaCHhIM COqCTaHH.SI ropT8HHbIH eornacHhIH + )l;pyroH COrJI8CHblH TaK H He CTaJIa )K.eCTKHM npaBHJlOM. B TCKCTe Berxoro 3aBe'ra HCpe.nKO BCTpeqaroTC.SI HanHCaHH.H THrra:

:JWT}~ yabs6b OH nO,lJ,YMaeT.

6.3. ,n:oJlme raacasre nepezt rO)JT8HHbIMH na KOHu,e cnona

ECJIH C)lOBO 3aKaHqHBaCTCH aa ropraansni H nepen HHM HaXO,lJ,HTOI ,lJ,OJIrHM e (eJ, 6 (0), ii (u) MJIH i (iJ, TO rJIaCHhIM nonysaer npH3BYK a H CTaHOBHTC.H ,nHcpTOHrOM -

ea,6aHl.,lJ,.
n~ ki5a!) CHJIa
n~i rna!) BeTCp
17'" y6dia' ...
3HaroIItHH (310 rrpaBHJIO HC pacnpocrpaaaerca na M, KOTOPbIH na KOHIlC C]lOBa HC npOH3HOCHTCH - CM. §6.4.)

Ha rrHCbMC npH3ByK a 0603HaqaeTC.H 3HaKOM -snarax». KaK H 06hPIHhIH KpaTKHH

a. (TaKaH narax npHH.HTO Ha3bIBaTb -«6erJIhIM naraxosrs-, HJIH pdtab furtivum 1 .) ~EerJIbIii rtarax» CTaBHTC.SI 1I0,n roprannoii 6YKBOH, HO qHTaeTC.H HC nOCJIC HCC, a nepen HeM:

1

nO-IlaThIHIo1 furtivum 03HaI.JaeT «Kpa,o,eHbli1». 3TO 6YKBaJ1bHbl~ nepeson TepMIo1Ha

eBpei1cKlo1x rpaMMaTIo1KoB - ;-T~!!J~ n,o$ pdla/;z ganu!Jii.

45

(l>OIlETHKA H HHCbMO

VOW samoa I now siimeab

_ •• T

cnyurars

I

...

PMOCTHbUI

B HeKOTopbIX pYKonHOIX H nesarasrx H3,n;aHH}lX <t6erJIblH naraxs nHIIICTC.SI C,llBHHyTbIM llyTb snpaao: Slbrp.

npMMe"laHMe.

B JIHllHbIX rpopsrax I'JIaI'OJIa H HH<pHHHTHBe rnacmae e H 6 nepea KOHeqHblM ropTaHHbIM nepexoztar He B ,D;H<pTOHI'H ea, Oa, a npOCTO B KpaTKHH a:

:fn:J"J yilsto/)

.

OH HanHIIIeT

n'2~~ yiSlab OH nOIIIJIeT

n~rD" yasal/ab OH BblrOHHT

i:il,"J yadabber OH 6Y,D;eT I'OBOPHTb

Cp., O,D;HaKO, npHqaCTH}l3THX rnaronos:

OH nOIIIJIeT

i:il'O medabber rOBOp.Hll(HH

.

f1'p~P;) masalleal) OH BbIrOHHT

6.4. HeMon M

3BYK "aa xoaue CJIOBa H nepea COrJIaCHbIM nepecran npOH3HOCHTbCH YlKe B zrpeaHOCTH (xors 6YKBY M npO,D;OJI)KaJIH nncars). B TpaHCJIHTepallHH BblnaBIIIHH (<tHeMoii~) , npHH}lTO 3aKJIIOllaTb B cKo6KH. HenpoH3HOCHMaH 6YKBa M He ornacyerca 3HallKOM tuea:

rDNi ro( ')S rOJIOBa.

B CJIOBax THna M"1~l waY.Yar(') 4:H OH yB~eJI~, xoropue zro Bblna,lleHUSI ant$a KOHqaJIHCb na ,D;Ba COI'JIaCHbIX, npHHHTo non nepBblM COrJIaCHblM nncars HCMoe IIIBa.

Bsmanenne "xosmencapyercs 3aMeCTHTCJIbHbIM y.nJIHHeHHeM npezunecrayioll(CI'O rnacnoro:

M~~ ma$ii{ ') <* mdsa' OH HaIIICJI.

46

<DOIIETHKA H IIHChMO
Ynpa1KHeHHJI,ll;JlJI Ha1:lHHaJOIll.HX
1. He nyrairrc 6YKBbI:
, H ..,
,:JV pa60TaTb i:lV rrepeXO,Il,HTb
- T - T
l'D,n u Win KY3Heu;
HOBblH
TT TT
'iT.) BOCCTaBaTb iiT.) 6bITb ropbKIIM
-T -T
C H 0
C~ npeMaTb OJ y6eraTb
T T
Cin c
3aKJUlTHe Oin COJ1HI~e
.. . .
en XaM on JKaJICTb
T T
... ~ ~
H
i~~ YBeHqHBaTb inlV eaaars cnonst
iiJ~; OqHCTHT i;"'TT.)' nocneunrr
~ H :t
i~ CBeqa i!l qY)KaK
n~rD ro,Il, ;"'TlrD 6JIY)K,II,aTb
TT TT
, H T
i~ cnlIHa n crpaaoca (oBel1)
;"'T'i YTOJI11Tb iKIDK)1.Y ;"'TTi CTaTb TOIll,HM
TT T T
, H .,
;"'T~n EBa ;"'T~n 3Bepb
T- T-
ill cnlIHa ,~ ztonana
n " n
iTnrD nlITb ;"'Tnrd HaKJIOHHTbC»
T T TT
nEl xpaioxa XJIe6a n~ JIOBYlliKa 47

<l>OIlETI1KA I1l1l1CbMO

i1
"it" nYCTb 6y.n;eT
.
iTiiT aafiepesreaen,
yy
"~i:l BOCXBaJUITb
l'
C"iV ropo.n;a
'y
iT'V C06paHHe
y"
i1V np06y.n;Hcb
:J
i:JrD pa36HTb
-y
,~ CbIH
,i:J~ u
My.n;PbIH n
"n" nYCTb )KHBeT
,
iTin rHeBaTbCH
yy
"';,n OCKBepHHTb
~
C"i~ npara
'y
iT'~ rnnna
yoo
i~~ CKaJIa
:l
~ i:JrD onsaaers
-T
,~ qeCTHbIH
,i:J~ npOqHbIH 2. TIpHBe.n;e'HHbIH HH)Ke cnHCOK conepsorr o6m;eH3BecTHbIe HMeHa co6cTBeHHbIe 11 reorparpasecxae Ha3BaHHH, B3HTbIe H3 Berxoro 3aBeTa. lIpOqTIITe HX, TpaHCJIHTePHPYHTe H nocrapaiirecs onpenemrrs pyccxae COOTBeTCTBHH:

C'N

yy

"ni

,. y

,~~

cn

y

iTifD

yT

,iiq~ iTN"

y "

~iT~"N

y' ..

CiTi:JN

y y: -

"~"-':;J~ :JNnN

y : -

iT"i:JT

Y ,-, , .

"N':t:J"'!'f

... y

,,~

'y <

,~~

:Jp~~ ,roll

T ..

"1NW

y

iTti"rD .,~-.

iT'~iT"

y

,~~=p ":J::l

',' y

"N~OrD

:JNio

y

,i'''~ c',o

",,"~

'y

iTrDO n~i ~iT;Oi"

y :

n""ll

y:y

n~ ,iv,?rp

P1~"~'?~

,n"i"

,ii~Q

ir:10N

48

,iVl~ '''~~~~ r:rl~

,i:J~,?

C"r-1rD"El

....

,i~~

cDOHETI1KA 11 nl1CbMO

c~i!;)~ :l;;,M

c'J~-n":;J i~WM

.. .

~i1"JVfl1"

T' - •

t,MifD"J

.. T: .

p~~~ i1i?~!

3. BcnoMHHTe M3 npeznaaymero ynpazcaeaas M HanHIIIHTe no- zrpeaneespeacxa CJle.nYIOIUHe HMeHa coticrseaasre H reorpadnrsecxne Ha3BaHHJI:

HaKOB, CHxeM, I1caB, Xanaaa, Iosroppa, BaBHJIOH, CaMYHJI, COJIOMOH, MORce", Hoa, lIepeMHH, MeJIXHCeneK, Hyzta, Hopnaa, 113paHJIb, fOJIHa<p, E¢>peM, Hcaiix, Axas, BH¢>JIeeM, CHMeoH, lIJIIUI, faBpHHJI, ,lJ.aHHHJI, CHOH.

4. Ilepeaeaare TpaHCJIHTepallHIO B espencxyto rparpaxy:

'ararat, qdyin, rabel, 'adam, mO'a!J, sa'ul, ninewe, sinay, sad6m, 'ur, 'ahdron, yarfb6, sara, paliStfm, binyiimin.

49

YPOK1

Ilpoumume §§1- 3 pasoeui «([JouemuKa U nUCb.MO»

§12. HM.H cynteeraaremnoe. Pon

B ,lJ,pCBHeCBpeikKoM }l3bIKC pa3JUP-IaIOTC}I J],Ba rpaMManl'leCKHX p0J1,a: MYJKCKOH 11 JKeHCKHH.

CYIllccTBHTeJIbHbIC MYJKCKOrO pona HC HMelOT OKOHl.IaHH}I:

lj?! ziiqen CTapHK

nCCH}I

CYIllCCTBHTCJIbHhIC JKCHCKOro pozta HMCIOT OKOHqaHH.H -ii WIH -1. (KaK npannJIO, nepen OKOH'IaHHeM -[BCTaBJUleTC}I rJIaCHblH e HJIH a.)

iT:!)"C maiko uapaua
T : -
iT:Ji:;J hariikii 6JIarOCJIOBCHHC
T T:
< tiii'ere;
niMElf!'l KpaCOTa
........
< dd'at
n~1 3HaHHC
n~ hal J],O'Ib OTMeTbTC, 0,lJ, I-taKO , l.ITO K MY:»<.CKOMY pony OTHOCI1TCSI CYU\CCTBI1TCJlbHOC n"i hdyil (,l(OM), rne n }lBJI}leTC.H HC OKOH'IaHI1CM, a uacrsio KOpHSI.

K JKCHCKOMY po.ll.Y OTHOCHTC}I TaK:»<'C nefionsuroe qHCJIO CYUl,eCTBI1TCJIbHbIX 6e3 OKOHl.laHH}I, a HMCHHO:

- CJIOBa, 0603HaqalOIIJ;Hc JIHlll1JIH CYUlCCTua )f(CIICKOro nOJIa, Hallp"MCp:

eN 'em MaTb

"ni rtibel onua

•• T

- CJIOBa i"~ 'fr(ropo,lJ,) H r?~ 'eres (3CMJUI, crpana), a BCJIC,lJ,CTBHC aroro Dee Ha3BaHH5I rOpO,lJ,OB H crpan, uanpusrep:

":l:;J babel BaBI1JIOH

.: T

- Ha3BaHH5I rtapnsrx 'IaCTCH TCJIa, nanpnxtep:

,., yiid PYKa

T

1~~ qeren por

50

YPOK 1

- nexoropsre ztpyrne cyutecrnareasmse, narrpnstep:

'" 'eben
1~~ KaMeHh
rOM ,-v
es orcas
n~i raab serep, ,llbIXaHl1e, nyx Korna BbI 6Y,lleTe acrpeuars B 3TOM yqe6HI1Ke, B CJIOBapl1KaX B KOHue ypOKOB, cyutecrnarensaue, OKaHqI1BaIOIUl1eC.H aa -a HJII1 -I, I1X cnenyer OTHOCHTb K )l(eHCKOMY POllY, a nee OCTaJIbHble cytuecrnarensmae - K MJ)I(CKOMy. B Tex CJIyqa.HX, rne ::ITO npocreiuuee npaaano napymaerca, MbI 6Y,lleM YKa3b1BaTb pozt cymecrsnTeJIbHOrO B cxofisax nOCJIe pyccxoro nepeaona:

iTuht

T •

r":)~ 'ere$ 3eMJUI (:JIC. p.) 1"J1 derek nyrs (oM. WlU:JIC. p.)

i:l1 dabar

T T

CJIOBO

TIOCJIe.ztHee npaesesaaae oaaasaer, qTO C)'llleCTBI1TeJIbHOe 1":)1 derek MO)l(eT 6bITb KaK MY)KCKOrO, TaK 11 )l(eHCKOro pozta: TaKHX CJIOB osens MaJIO.

§13. 1.JHCJIO

Pa3JIHqaIOTC.H Tpl1 ql1CJIa: e,llI1HCTBeHHoe, ,llBO:HCTBeHHoe 11 MHO)l(eCTBeHHoe:

ea. 'It.

,., yad pyxa

T

ci" yom ,lleHh

1;1 ben CbIH n~ bat ,llOqb

aBo 'It.

c

C~1; yadayim

c"ci" yomtiyim

.MH. 'It. rrrr- yadol

T

Yiimim

• T

banim

banol

T

llBoiicTBeHHoe ql1CJIO ynoTpe6J1.HeTC.H OQeHh OrpaHI1QeHHO, B OCHOBHOM co CJIOBaMH, 0603HaQaIOIUHMl1 napasie QaCTH TeJIa 11 npenjaerta:

c

C:1~ yiiddyim

C"?17:J na'dldyim

PYKH

caaztannu

a TaK)Ke C Ha3BaHl1.HMI1 Mep 11 ~HCeJI, nanpaxep:

C~1Slt~ ma( ')layim

,llBeCTI1

c

C"C17E) pa'dmdyim

.

c •

C~t1~f¥ saniilayim

,llBa pasa ,llBa rona

l~ eM. HMlKe, §92.

51

YPOK 1

MHo.m:eCTBeHHoe qHCJIO otipasyerca npn nououta OKOHQaHIIH -im II -at (-ol).

Bbl60p OKOHqaHH.H 06blqHO onpezrenaerca PO.n.OM cytnecrnnrensnoro: -im HCnOJIh- 3yeTC.H B OCHOBHOM ltJI.H cymecTBIITeJIhHhIX MY)KCKOrO pozra, -at (-ot) - .n.JI.H cymeCTBIITeJIbHblX )KeHCKOro pozta;

i'rQ sir iT:li:::l bariika

T T:

neCHh 6JIarOCJIOBeHIIe

.MH. 1./..:

C',,'ro sirim ni:li:::l barti!sat

T~

Bnposen, ecrr. HeMaJlO I1CKJIIOqeHIIH, aanpauep:

:ut 'ab

T

OTeu;

.MH. '1/.:

ni:ut 'tibot

T

,."" ..... -

tssa

nasim

,llOBOJIbHO qaCTO rrpa o6pa30BaHIIII MHO)KeCTBeHHoro qIlCJIa I13MeH~JeTC.H II oc-

HOBa CJIOBa:
17~ melek u;apb .MH. u.: C':l"~ molakim
• T :
rQ'N 'is qeJIOBeK C,rz.;:lN 'iinasim
. T-:
0;' yam t:I,~, -"
.n.eHb yamim
~. :" °T npaBIIJIa, no KOTOPbIM npoacxoztar 3TIII13MeHeHII.H, MbI paCCMOTpIlM B 6JII1)KaHIIIHX ypoxax. <DOPMbI MHO)KeCTBeHHoro qHCJIa HeKOTophIX CJIOB 6y.n.YT ziaaarsca B CJIOBapHKe B KOHu;e ypoxa, )KeJIaTeJIbHO 3aYQIlBaTb I1X cpaay, 3TO Hal160JIee ynorpefiarensasre CJIOBa, II, KaK qaCTO 6bIBaeT B 513hIKe, OHII-TO II 06HapY)KI1BaIOT HaJ1- 60JIbIIIYEO HenpaBIIJIhHOCTb B o6pa30BaHHI1 <p0pM.

§14. Onpe}:leJIeHHbIii apTUKJIb D ha-

B npeaneeapeiicxon .H3hIKe ecrs onpezrenemrsrii apTl1KJIb (neonpenenenaoro apTIIKJI.H HeT). Ba)KHeHIIIHe <PYHKU;III1 orrpeztenennoro apTI1KJI~i TaKHe xce, KaK, CKa}KeM, B COBpeMeHHbIX esponeiicxnx H3bIKax: MH.l1;HBM.l1;YaJIH3aU;H.H 11 0606meHHe.

1) I1H.l1;I1BH.n.yaJIII3allIl.H

Ortpezreneumaii apTHKJIb CTaBHTC.H nepen cymecTBIITeJIbHbIM, ecJIII:

< °

C~~'iJ haSsamdyim HOO0

rO~rS;' hassemes COJIHlle

52

6) npenjser Y)Ke ynoMHHaJIC5I paasme:

rz.;"'Ni1 ha 'is

• T

3TOT 'IeJIOBeK (0 KOTOPOM MeT pest.)

8) H3 cnryauan HJIM KOHTeKCTa .HCHO, KaKOH npenjaer MMeeTC.H B sazty; llJ,?~iJ hassulbtin ;;nOT CTOJI (KOTOphlH CTOHT B 3TOH KOMHaTe, na KOTOPhlH.H noxassrsaio PYKOH)

r) CYllleCTBMTeJIbHOe O]];J103Ha'IHO onpezteneao npanararensnsnr (nanpasrep, npHJIaraTeJIbHhIM co 3Ha'IeHMeM npeBOCXOlJ,HOH CTeneHH):

lb~iJ l~iJ habben haqqaton

MJIa,uIIIMH cun

ECJIH cymecrmrrensaoe onpeneneno npyrax cymeCTBMTeJIbHhlM, TO B zrpesaeeBpeHCKOM aasnce apTIIK1Ib He CTaBMTC.H, CM. §72.

2) 0606IIleHMe

Onpenenemnra apTMK1Ih CTaBMTC.H nepezt cymeCTBI1.TeJIbHhIM, xorna OlIO aaasraaer lleJIbIH KJIaCC npeznreros:

C,NiT na: adam 'IeJIOBeK (aoofnne), 'IeJIOBe'IeCTBO

T T T -

06bI'IHO orrpenenemnaii apTMK1Ih na PYCCKMH .H3hlK He nepeBo.a;I1.TC5I. O.a;HaKO B ynpaX<HeHH.HX M, xorna Heo6xolJ,HMO, B npasrepax MbI 6YlJ,eM nepeeoznrn, onpezteJIeHHbIH apTHK1Ih CJIOBOM ~3TOT», 3aK1IIO'IeHHhlM B KBa.a;paTHhle CKo6KH.

KaK npaBMJIO, apTMK1Ih IIMeeT ¢OPMY ;:r ha-; nepBhn1: COfJIaCHbIH CJlOBa npn ero npacoezumeaaa ylJ,BaMBaeTC5I. ApTMK1Ib nMIIIeTC.H CJIMTHO co CJIOBOM, K KOTOpoMY

OTHOCHTC5I:
c bdyi; '" habbdyi;
n"'~ lJ,OM n~~iJ
'" nd'ar '" hannd'ar
il1:l IOH o III a iP~iJ
17.~ me/elf, l{aph l'?~u hammelek B OTJIll'IMe OT HOBoeBponeHCKMX .H3hlKOB, cymecrmrrem.aoe C onpenenenusns apTHKJIeM MO)KeT MCnOJIb30BaTbC.H B o6pameHM.HX:

l,?~iJ hammelek 0 uapsl

53

YPO K 1

§15. TIpeA1Iom

B ,llpeBHeeBpeilcKoM .H3hlKe OTCYTcTByeT CKJIOHeHHe: cymecrnarem.asre He l13MeH.HIOTOI no na,a.e)KaM. KaK H BO MHOfHX eaponeiicsnx .H3bIKaX, rzte HeT CKlIOHeHlUI, na,n;e)KHhle 3Ha':leHH.H no 60JIbilleH ':IaCTH Bhlpa)KaIOTC.H C nosronrsio npe,lI:JIOfOB. Bee npeztnorn MO)KHO paaaemrrs aa TPJ:I rpynnst;

a) Ilpeztnorn, xoropue nHIIIYTC.H CJIHTHO co CJIe,llYIOIIl,HM CJIOBOM. 3TO TpH npeztnora; ~ be- (B, nepeoaem maxsce snaueuue meopumeumoeo nadeJICa), '? le- inepeoaem

. .

snouenue damellb1l0l0 nadeJICa) H :p ke- (KaK).

1~~ melek u,aph
17~7 iamelek napio
< , 1~~~ bemelek. napesr
1~~:P kamelek KaK naps Ilpn HaJIH':IHH orrpeztenennoro apTHKlI.H 3TH npeztnorn CJIHBaIOTC.H C HRM B O,n,HH CJIOf: Ha':lanhHhlH i1 h nornomaerca, fJIaCHhlH apTHKlI.H nepexoznrr K npennory, nanpasrep:

1~~t1 hammelek [ 3TOT] naps
17~~ lammelek [ aTOMY] uapo
,,?~~ bammelek [aTHM] napesi
,,?~~ kammeiek KaK [3TOT] naps 6) Ilpeztnom, xoropsre 06hl':lHO npHcoe,n;HH.HIOTC.H K CJIOBY sepea .Ma1CKeljJ - KOPOTKYIO ':IepTO':lKY B BepXHeH ':IaCTH CTpOKH. Ciona OTHOC5ITC.H: -c,1t 'el- (K, no nanpaBJIeHHIO K), -c,~ 'al- (na) H -1~ min- (H3, OT)1:

n:~tT-c,~ 'ai-habbdyit aa ,llOMe

n:~iJ-c,~ 'el-habbdyit K ,llOMY

n:~iJ-l~ min-habbdyit H3 )lOMa

MaKKe¢ yxaasmaer na TO, ':ITO 3TH npeztnorn 6e3Y,llapHhl H npOH3HOC.HTC5I BMeCTe CO CJIe,llyrolllHM CJIOBOM (TaKHe 6e3Y,llapHhle CJIOBa, npHMhlKalOlllHe K CJIe,n,yIOmesry aa HHM ynapnoay, npHH.HTO naasrsars np01OlUmU1W.MU).

B) Tperss H CaMa5I 60JIbIlla51 rpyrma COCTOHT H3 npeanoros, xoropue nHIIIYTC5I OT-

.

nensao, aanpnaep:

I nOAJ)06Hee 0 npHcoe.Al1HeHHH -1'~ min - CM. §30.

54

YPOK 1

n~~ij "l:N 'e!jel habbayil PH,nOM C ,nOMOM

C¥'O ,~~ neged ha 'tim nepen Hapo,nOM

17.~;:r .,~~'? lipne hammelek B npacyrcraan napa

Hnorna npeztaora aTOM rpynma MOryT npI1Coe,nHHHTbCR K CJIOBY npa nOMOml1 MaKKeQ:>a, T. e. CTaHOBI1TbCH npOKlII1TI1KaMI1. 3TO 3aBHCI1T OT ,nOBOJIbHO CJIO)KHblX npasan lPpa30BOro yztapeana I1I1HTOHaQHI1, soropsrc Mbl3,n;eCb He 6y,neM paCCMaTpanars, MbI npeztnaraest QI1TaTeJIIO PYKOBO,nCTBOBaTbCR craanaprnusr Bap"aHTOM nanacaaaa, KOTOPblll ,naH B CJIOBapHKe.

§16. MeCTO csaayessoro B npeAJIO)KeHHH.

Hapesae UJIH C~eCTBHTeJIhHOe C npeAJIOrOM B POJIH exaayesroro

Cxaayeaoe qame scero CTOHT JII160 na nepaosr, JII160 aa BTOPOM MeCTe B npeztno)KeHI111. ECJII1 cxaayeuoe mapaxceno HapeQHeM IDII1 cymecrmrrem.maa C npezinoroa, TO, KaK npaBI1JIO, OHO CTOI1T na BTOPOM MeCTe B npe,nJIO)KeHHI1 (nOCJIe noanezamero ).

n:~;a "~~ij hanna 'ar babbdyit IOHoma B ,nOMe.

O,lJ,HaRO BOnpOCI1TeJIhHOe nape-me, nanpusrep :-r~tt "ayye(r,ne?), scerzta CTOHT B rrpe,lJ,JIO)KeHI1H na nepsosr MeCTe:

<

"17~i1 :-r~M 'ayye hannd'ar I'ne ioaoura?

06paTHTe BHHMaHl1e: KaK 11 B PYCCKOM H3blKe, BcnOMOraTeJIbHOrO rJIarOJIaCBR3K11 IIpl1 HMeHHOM cxaayeuoa He Tpe6yeTCH.

§17. CJIOuaPb 1
C Y III E C T n 11 T E JI b II bl E :
< na'ar
'VJ IOHOIIIa, MaJIhqHK; cnyra
li?i ziiqen CTapHK; crapeiuunaa
c bdyit ,n;OM (At. p.)
n"':l
,~) nahar peKa
TT
n'fD sage nOJIe
.: T
< derek
1~~ nopora, nyrs (At. WlU JIC. p.)
IIPE/lJIOr":
-',V 'al- Ha,H~;npOTHB;0;113-3a;QepC3 55

YPOK 1

:3 be-

(CM. § 15a) B; nepeoaem suaueuue meopumematozo naoesca (npu cY1l1;ecmeumellbHOM, O31ta'ltalOw;eM opydue WlU cnoco6 coeeptuenus deucm6Uft)

"l:N 'I$el oxcno, B03Re, PH,ll;OM C
HAPE1.JHJI:
crO v_
sam TaM
T
i1~tt 'ayye rne?
,if,
COI03: , wa

H, a, HO (nuuiemcn csumuo co Clledy'lOUI;UM CllOOOM, nanpuuep: i17~t.Tl wehannd 'ar H IOHOIIIa)

a) Pa3,l1,CJIHTe KIDK,l1;oe CJIOBO aa CJIorl1:

. . .

~i~ 1;1 waydabbarfi ';f"f:1rp~~ biqqastf!sii

0:

~iT:lr.1" yittanehu

.

r

<

":l:li:3 biird!senf

••• -: T

<

.,~t1'~~ higga(/tdnf

nr;~l wayydmot .,~~;~~ mikk6/sape

''',;al dal!iira(y)w c"flii"rO salolfm ~,ofli" yosmagu

: : T

1:I~"~;''f1 sa(jo/e!sem

~''r~~ ya lam(/u CiJ"~i?! ziqnehem

6) Y CTHO nepeaeznrre rra npeBHeeBpeRcKHR:

1. nOM, [3TOT] nOM, B [3TOM] nOMe, pHnOM C [STI1M] nOMOM

2. none, B nOJIe, B [STOM] nOJIe

3. ztopora, na ztopore, na [STOR] ztopore

4. fne MaJIh1JHK? - crapax? - nOM?

56

YPOK 1

S. MaJIbtHIK (CTapI1K, ,nOM) TaM.

6. CTapHK H MaJIbqIIK; .n;OM II nOJIe.

B) Hepesenme:

t. 'awe hanna 'ar? hanna 'ar babbayit.

'" .. c

.n~~~ i~~::r .i~~iJ iT~~

2. 'ayye hazziiqen? hazziiqen slim .

. t:I~ lP'~iJ . TP'~iJ il~~ 3. 'ayye habbayit? habbdyi; 'efjel hannahar. .

. iiTaiT '':!It n"!1il .n"!1iT il~N

TT- .: ••• -- •• -

4.haSsade '~elhannaha~

.iiTa:-r ":!N iT,tDil

T T - .: •• .; T -

5. hannd'arwahazzaqen basiade .

. il1~~ TPSiJ1 i~~::r 6. 'aWe hazzaqen? hazzaqen 'al-hadderek.

·l~~iJ-"~ li?$iJ ·li?$iJ iT~~

r) HamUUHTe no-npeaaeeapeiicxa:

1. 110M H nOJIe PH.ll:OM C pexok,

2. IOHOIlla na nopore.

3. Ine CTapl1K H MaJIbqHK?

4. MaJIbql1K B nOJIe.

S. Pexa PMOM C ,nOMOM.

57

YPOK2

Ilpoumume §§4-6 pasoena <f(fJouemU1«1 u nUCbMO»

§ j 8. Onpe.u;eJIeHHbIH: apTHKJIb (npoztonzcemre)

HnCKOJlbKY roprauuere COfJIaCHhle (N ~ ii h, n b. 11 ') M COfJmCHhIll ., r HC MoryT YlloaH BaThCR (§6.1). TO UpH npMCOC.llHHemU1 apTMK1I.H K CJIOBaM, HaQI1HaEOll{I1MC51 ua 3TH ~iBYKH, npOMCXO.llHT:

- Jm60 3aMCCTIITeJIhHOe YJlJlHHeHHe ha > ha;

- JlM60 cxpsrroe YJ1.BOCUMe COrJIaClmrO (y CJIOB C .llOJlrHM ii B nepeov cnore npn

3TOM MO)KCT H3MeH.HThC.H II rJraCHblll apTI1KJI.H: ha> he).

IIpaBMJlo 0 ¢opMe apTHKJI.H nepen roprannuera II r npoute scero H3JIO)KMTh B BHJ1.C Ta6JIMllKM.

+ yaapllbl'U : + 6e3yaapllbiU znac- : + apYlue znacnue
znacnui: a I llblU ii I
I I
Ilepezt ., r
f--------
Ilepcn N ' rr hii
T
r--------
J1cpe.ll17 '
f--------
llepe.ll ii h rt he rt ha
f-------
IIepezr rt b I npMMepbI;
a) nepezt M 'H" r:
rD"~ ''"'''' rti"MiT ha'ls
lS QeJIOBeK
• T
:::l17., ra'ab rOJIO,ll, :::l17.,iT hiirii'ab
T T T TT
.6) nepe.ll17 ':
""17 'ir ropozt ""17iT ha'ir
" T
0".,11 tarim ropO.lla O".,17iT he'arim
"T "T .:
:::l17 'til! rysa :::l11iT ha'iib
T T T
0) nepezt rt h:
":J"r.r he!siil nnopeu ":J"iTiT hahe/siil
T T "" - 58

YPOK 2

C".,iT harim ropsi
'T
f) nepen n b:
< bere!J
::l.,n Meq
....
C:lM balsam My.npell
TT C".,iTi1 hehiirim

• T .:

c

:J "JtriJ habere!J

C:lni1 he!zii!sam

T T':

KaK 6bIJIO OTMeqeHO B §15a, npezmora il be-, 7 ls- II ~ ke- nOfJIOmalOT onpeneJIeHHbIH apTIIKJIb, npIIqeM rnaCHblll apTIIK.lUI nepexoznrr K npeanory. 3TO, eCTeCTBeHHO, pacnpOCTpaH5IeTC.H H ua paccvorpeamae asnne cnysa« npHcoe.n;IIHeHIDI ap-

TllKJUI K C)lOBaM, HaqIIHaIOIllHMC.H na ropraanuii COrJIaCHblH:

rz.hHi1 hd'is

rzj"MC, ta 15

• T

qe.nOBeKY

qeJIOBeK

'T

C"!yV heharim ropsr

C"!y~ behiirim B ropax

§ 19. MHOlKeCTBeHHoe 1IlfCJIO cym,eCTBHTeJlbHbIX: peolly:KUHJl rJIaCHbIX OCHOBbI; CerOJIaTHbIe cyurecraarensnste

1) IIp.H o6pa30BaHlIIi MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro qHCJIa cymeCTBIITeJIbHblX ynapenae nepexo.AliT C OCHOBbI aa osonuaaae, qaCTo 3TO npaaornrr K pe.llYKlJ.HII ozmoro H3 fJIaCHblX OCHOBbI (CM. §5.2).,

"".A.

COfnaCHO npaBIIJIy 5.2.2, nonrae a II e, OKa3aBllIHCb B npennpeny.napHoM cnore (T. e. sa O.n;IIH CJIOf no yzrapenaa), pe.n;yu;IIpYIOTC.H:

i::l~ da/Jiir CJIOBO MH. "I.: C"i::l~ dabiirim
T T "T
li?! ziiqen C"~j?r _ A \ .~
crapnx zsqemm
C'P~ .... ni~ip,? maqom6!
maqom MeCTO
:J::Jc, le!Jab cep.nlJ.e ni::l::lC, labab6!
Too T : B cnose c,~"iJ he/siil rJIaCHblH e He peztyunpyerca (ofiparnre BHIIMaHlie TaK)I(e ua TO, IJ:TO 3TO CJIOBO scerna nmuerca C mater Iectionis):

c,:l"iT h€kdl zusopen

T" -

Ilocne ropratmsrx BMeCTO a nOHBJIHeTCH d (CM. §6.2.1):

i~O bii$er .n;BOP ::l:l17 'eniib anaorpan

TOO

n;.,~n bd$erot

"

PeJ(YKUIUI e B npenynapaoa cnore (npaBHJIO 5.2.1) 6y.n;eT paCCMOTpeHa B §25.

59

YPOK 2

2) Y TaK naasnsaeersrx «ceronarmaxe cYlIlecTBIITeJIbHhlX npa 06pa30BaHIIII MHO)KeCTBeHHoro 1JIICJIa II3MeHHIOTC5I 06a rJIaCHhlX OCHOBhl, IIpII1JeM 3TH 1Jepe,llOBaHIUI Y)Ke HeB03MO)KHO CBeCTIi K IIpaBWIaM, ,llaHHhlM B paaztene ~<l>oHeTIiKII II IIIICbMa». K CerOJIaTHhlM OTHOC5ITC.H ,llBYCJIO)KHhle CynleCTBIITeJIbHhle C yztapeaaeu aa nep-

1 BOM CJIOre :

17.~ mele/s u;apb .MH. 'I.. : C"::;:'''7.J malli/sim .
" T : c
'" zeba/:l zabti/:lim
n:lT )KepTBa c"n:n
• T :
'" ~- __ A
,£)O seper KHIIra C",£)O sspanm
... "'. "T :
.. na'ar ne'arim
,17:3 IOHOIIIa C".,17:3
'T:
.. lebed pa6 Idblidim
':117 C"':117
• T-: OCHOBa MHO)KeCTBeHHoro qIICJIa Y HIIX scerna CO,llep)KIIT B IIepBOM errore a (noCJIe ropraaaoro - d, §6.2.1), a BO BTOPOM - it 0

rz.;"N lS
iTrSN , .. vv_
tssa
T'
C"r-l~ bittinl
'T
,,,~ yiled
~~"iT h€kai
T ..
17~ melek
.. ~-
.,~~ seper
'" 'ebed
':117
..
l~':r!l k6hen
,"17 'ir
N~iT hu(')
N"iT hi(') §20. Cnoaape 2

C Y lit E C T B " T E 11 b H bI E :

(.MHo nenpae: C"rp~~ 'dntislm) 1JeJIOBeK, MY)K1JIIHa, My)K (.MH. uenpae: C"rp~ ntisim) )KeHIIlIIHa, )KeHa

J];oMa (nenpae.sen. om n~~ bayi; J];OM)

(.MHo -1m) MaJIh1JIIK, pe6eHOK

(.MHo -of, -1m) nsopeu, xpax

(.MH. -1m) naps, npaBIITeJIb

(.MH. -1m) KHIIra, CBIITOK, IIIICbMO (.MHo -1m) pa6, cnyra

(.MH. -1m) )Kpeu; (0 CUHOaflJlbHOM nepeeooe 06bltt1lO

q:CB.HlIleHHIIK~ )

(.MHo uenpae: C",V tarim) ropozt (JICo po)

MECTO"MEH"JI:

OH

OHa

(

1

CerOnaTHbIMM 3TI1 ~~_ npmtSITO ~ I 'ITO 06b1'tHO B (},(\HOM M3 enorOB MJ1M B

o6OMx y HMX ~ r1J3CHbiM e (reran); no.qpo6HblM paa60p sroro ntna cyI1{ecrBI11l!nbHbIX CM. B §§99&1104.

2 06pan1Te BHMMaHMe Ha CMbrfHblM t nocne rnacHOrO.

60

YPOK 2

;-r~ pii :-tb"N 'epa

3,l(eCh

rzte? (CU1l01lUM iT~~ 'ayye)

a) Ilpacoennaare npeanor '( le-, nepenaroundi aaaxemre ,l(aTeJIhHOrO nanezca, K CJIeJJ:yrolQlfM cymeCTBHTeJIhHhIM (CM. §4.1!):

lti:;) kohen '?:J~ babel

.,' T

OJ:' kerem

j'~ b6r :J'?:, keleb jp~ biiqiir

TT

iTiir-l torii

T

fdie piirlts

TT

'?g~ pesel

)Kpeu. BaBHJIOH

aanorpaztnmc .HMa

c06aKa

KpynHhIll porarsni CKOT HaCTaBJIeHHe

Bca)(HHK

H,l(OJI

P~~1 dammeseq ,lJ,aMaCK

1":)~ derek nyrs

ii~ dor "iiZl g6riil

T

..

ile peger

';1"'$ pikii

nOKOJIeHHe )Kpe6Hll Tpyn

TBOll pOT

6) 06pa3YWTe <pOPMhI MHO)KeCTBeHHoro qHCJIa cymeCTBHTeJIhHhIX, PYKOBO.n;CTBY»Ch npasnnaxa §§S-6, 1I HCnOJIh3Y.H ztaanue B cK06Kax OKOHqaHH.H:

l~V 'aniin (-1m) 06JIaKo
iiT) niihiir (-01) peKa
TT
N:J~ $iilJil(') (-ot) BOllCKO
TT
l~~ silken (-1m) coce,l(
'?::r~ qiihiil (-1m) c06paHHe
i~n bil$er (-ot) ,l(BOP
•• T 61

YPOK 2

a) npHCOe)U.fHHTe apTHKJIh K cJIe,nYIOlllHM cYllleCTBHTeJIhHhIM:

."iT hiidiir qeCTb,BeJIHKOnenHe
TT
iTr,:)'N 'ddamii 3eMR.H, noxaa
T T-:
"!)17 liipiir npax
TT
~'?n biilii!J MOJIOKO
TT
O'N 'adam nIO.uH (co6up.), qeJIOBeK (o606w,.), MaM
TT
iTr,:)::ln bokma My.uPOCTh
T : T
~"i rib cnop
'?::l"iT heklil .uBopell
T r) 06pa3Y:HTe ..pOpMhI MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro lJ:HCJIa CYllleCTBHTeJIhHhIX, HCnOJIh3Y.H • ztanHhIe B cxofixax OKOHqaHH.H:

"l~ peger ,~i7 le!Jed

" <.

i?~ feqel

1'?~ mele!s .,~~ qeber "~1 dabar

T T

,,?.; yeled

lP.! ziiqen

1":)1 dere!s l~~ 'e!Jen rO!)3 nepes

<

"17~ nd'ar

."ri beder iiT~ nahar

TT

<

~.,n bereb

..

(-lin) rpyn (-im)

(-1m) CHKJIb (Mepa aeca) (-1m)

(-1m) MOrHna (-1m)

(-im)

(-1m)

( - 01) KOCTb

(-im)

(-lin) KaMeHh ( -61) ztytua (-im)

( -im) KOMHaTa ( -61)

(-of) Meq

.n) Y CTHO nepeseznrre na ,n;peBHeeBpe:HCKHH:

1. MY)l(qHHa, MY)I(qHHhI, [3TOT] MY)I(qHHa, [3TH] MY)l(qHHhI

2. )l(eHlllHHa, )l(eHlllHHhI, [3Ta ] )l(eHlllHHa, [3TH] )l(eHlllHHhI 3.11aph,llapH,Ha[3THX]llapeH

62

YPOK 2

4. crapekumna, crapefinnmsr, na [3THX] crapefiumn

5. )lOM, )lOMa, P.H)lOM C [3THMH] )lOMaMH

6. KHHra, KHHrH, B [3TH X] xaarax

7. ropon, ropozia, B [3THX] ropoztax

e) Ilepeeennre:

t. hii' iiniisim bii 'fro

2. hannasim babbdyit.

3. hammelek wiJhli 'iibligim bahe/siiJ .

. "~"lj~ O"!~~iJ11,?~iJ

4. hassiJjilinm babbdyit.

5. 'ayye hanna 'lirim? hanns'drim basslide .

. iT'W~ C""1i'~iT .C"-'17~i1 i1"N

':T- 'T:- 'T:- .. -

6. 'ejiii habbiitim? habbiitim ba'ir. .

. -'''17~ C"r-1~iT .C"r-1~iT iT~"N

"T 'T- 'T- "

7. 'ejiii hannshiirot? hanneharo; slim .

. crO niiiT~iT .ni-'iT:JiT iT~"N

T T:- T:- ..

8. he 'arim slim wehadderek po.

.iTe 1~1iJ1 C~ O"""Vry

*) Hamnmrre rro-npeaaeeapeticxa:

1. [3TH] mO)l" B ropozte,

2. Ilaps 80 nnopue.

3. [3TH] )KeHI.l{HHbI szrecs.

4. Ine [3TH] IOHOlliH H pa6bI?

5. [3TH] KHMfH B ,l(OMe.

6. [3TH] ropona P.H)lOM c peKoiI.

63

YPOK3

§21. Onpe.u;eJIeHHbID apTHKJIb (oxoasaaue)

ECJII1 CJIOBO Haql1HaeTC.H co CJIOra ~ ye- I1JII1 ~ me-, onpeztexemnaii apTHKJIh, KaK npaBHJIO, HMeeT <P0PMY iJ ha-, npwieM nepBhlif COrJIaCHhIH CJIOBa He Yl(BaHBaerC.H,

3BYK iJ asmaztaer :
C","" YiJlii(/im neTH C"'''''i1 haylii(/im
• T : • T :-
iitrt., YiJ'or HI1JI iitrt~rr hay'or
C.,,?~~~ miJraggiJlim paaaensmca C""3i~i1 hamraggslim
.. - . - I1cKJIIOQeHl1e COCTaBJI.HIOT CJIOBa, BTOPOH CJIor KOTOPhIX HaQHHaerC.H aa 17 'I1JIH i1 h:

Hexoropsre CJIOBa, np"HHMa.H apTI1KJIh, MeH.HIOT OrJIaCOBKY OCHOBhI. BOT caMble ynorpeoarensnsre 113 HI1X:

" 'eres e hti'dre«
r~~ r~ttO 3eMJI.H, crpana
-,~ har i~i1 hiihiir ropa
T T
Cl1 'am Cl1il hii'iim HapOl(
T T
1~ gan ntr haggiin ca,n
ie par -,eil happar BOJI
T -
In I)ag lnil hel)iig npaaaaas
T ••
lii~ 'iiron TiittO hii'driin ammc (6 m. u. KOBQer HXBe)
§22. HMJI npnnararensaoe Ilpnnararensaoe cornacyerca C onpeztensesssn« cYlllecTBI1TeJIhHhIM B pone 11 qlfC· JIe. ECJIH Y cYllleCTBI1TeJIhHbIX pan He acerzta MO)KHO onpenemrn, no OKOHQaHH[{) (B qaCTHOCTI1, KaK MhI BH,n:eJIH, K )l(eHCKOMY pozty MOryT OTHOCHThC.H CYllleCTBU· rcm.nsre 6e3 OKOHQaHI1H; BO MHO)l(eCTBeHHOM QI1CJIe OKOHQaHl1e -im He scerna YKa- 3bIBaeT aa MY)KCKOll, a -ot - na )KeHCKHH pozt), TO Y npanararensnsrx pozr acerza o,n:H03HaQHO nsrpaacaerca OKOHQaHl1eM:

ea. tt. MH. fl.
~i~ !ob u c"~i~ !6bim
M. p. XOpOIllI1H
)1(. p. il:Ji~ (oba ni~i~ !obO!
T 64

YPOK 3

B JlBYCJIO)KHbIX rrpHJIaraTCJIbHbIX C rJIaCHbIM ii B rrepsou cnore 3TOT rJIaCHbIH penynapyerca, xorzta yztapeane nepezmnraercs na OKOHQaHHe (CM. §5.2.2):

,,;,~ giigol 60JIbIIIOH

T

iT~;'~ gat/alii

O",?i'~ gat/olim ni";'~ gtJdolol

nOCJIe rOPTaHHbIX BMeCTO i1 rrOjJBJUleTCR a (CM. §6.2.1):

c:;)n biilsam

TT

c.,~~t1 bdlsam;m nic:;)n bakiimol

T -:

iTC:ln bt1lsamii

T T -:

y npanararensnoro If;?~ qiiliin (MaJIeHbKMH) rtpn rrpHCOe)];HHeHHH OKOHqaHHH y.nBaH.BaeTCH KOHeqHbIH n. .llOJIrHH ii nepexoznrr B KpaTKHH, OKa3aBIIIHCb B 6eay.naPHOM 3aKpbITOM cnore (CM. §S.1 ~<DoHeTMKH M nacsssas-):

lr;~ qii!iin MaJIeHbKHH c"~~i? qstannim

iT~~i? qi11annii ni!l~i? Qi1fannol

[TIapaJIJIeJIbHO cymecrsyer 06Pa30BaHHOe OT roro )Ke KOpH.R npanararensnoe 1~i? qii!6n, C TeM )Ke 3HaqeHHeM. OT Hero, O,llHaKO )Ke, ynorpeoarensaa TOJIbKO <popMa MYJKCKoro pozta ennacraeaaoro qHCJla.]

B rpynne O.llHOCJIO)KHbIX npMJIaraTeJIbHbIX C KpaTKMM rJIaCHbIM a B OCHOBe rro-

U OJ

CJIe),:(HI1H COrJIaCHbIH TO)Ke Y,llBaMBaeTC.H:

~, rab MHOrOqMCJIeHHbIH

iT~i rabbii

T -

C"~i rabbim ni~i rabbol

T17 (az MoryqMH, cBMperrbIH

iT ·TV (aUa

T-

C"~V 'ozzim ni~v (auol

"n bay iT~1J I;zayyii

)KHBOH

C"~IJ bayyim
ni"n bayyol
c"~~ dallim
n;~~ dallol "":'J dal 6e)];HbIH

iT~~ dalla

T -

BMeCTO Y.llBOeHM.H rOpTaHHbIX M i npoacxoznrr 3aMeCTMTeJIbHOe YJ(JIMHeHHe maca oro (CM. §6.1):

65

YPOK 3
.,~ u C"i~ - '"
mar ropsxan manm
·T
iT"~ mara nii~ marot
TT T
l1i rat u C"l1i rd'im
3JIOM
T
i111i rata nil1i rii'ol
T T T Ilpanararensnsie, OKaHQI1BaIOmMecH na -e, M3MeH.HIOTC.H CJIe)),JIOlllHM 06Pa30M:

:-T!:)" yape u C"!:l" __ A
KpaCMBbIH yaptm
-: T • T
i1!:)" yapa n;!)-" ytijiOt
TT T
i1~~ -y u c-"rp8 -y ....
qase rpynnsm qastm
iTfDP -y- n;tO~ qiisot
qasa
T T §23. YnoTpe6JIeHHe npanararensasrx

B npe.llJIOJKeHIUf npanararensaoe MOJKeT 6bITb onpenenenaesr MJIM CKa3yeMbIM.

Ilpanararensaoe-onpezteneaae cornacyercs B pozte 11 QI1CJIe C onpe,lleJIHeMbIM cymCCTBI1TeJIbHbIM. KpOMe Toro, OHO cornacyercs c cymecTBI1TeJIbHbIM M no xareropan onpeaenenaocru - T. e. eCJIM nepezt cymecTBI1TeJIbHbIM CTOIIT apTHKJIb, OH CTaBI1TC.H 11 nepen npMJIaraTeJIbHbIM. Onpenenenae, asrpazcennoe npanararensHhIM, scerzta CTOlIT nOCJIe onpeztenaeesoro cyntecrsnrensaoro:

~i~ fL.hN 'is lob u
xopomna QeJIOBeK
::J itoiT fli"Ni1 ha 'is ha!1oQ
- T
- - 'iiniisim lobim
C"::J'~ C"rDjN xopOIIIMe JIIO.ll11
- - T-:
c"~itDi1 C"fDjNiT ha'iiniisim hattobim
- T-: T
iT:li~ iTrDN 'issa lobit XOpOIllaH JKeHIUMHa
T T •
iT::J itDiT iTrDNiT ha ';ssa halfoba
T - T - T
ni::Ji~ C"fD~ nasim lobo! xopOIIIMe JKeHIUMHbI
-T
ni:aitoiT C"rD~iT hannasim haltob61
- T-
iT'?;'l i"l1 fir gago/a 60JIbIIIOH ropozt
T . .
iT";,1\iT ""17 iT hii lir haggagolii
T - • T 66

YPOK 3

ni"i'~ C"-'~ 'arim gada/ol 60JIbIlllIe ropona

ni"i'3i1 C".,17iT he larim haggag%l

: - • T .:

06paTl1Te BHIIMaHlIe: COrJIaCOBaHHe B pone He 03HaqaCT, ~O npliJIaraTCJIbHOC II cymeCTBHTCJIbHOe nertpevenno IIMeIOT O,lllIHaKOBhIe OKOHqaHII.H (cp. nsnne npmre-

psr ni:J;~ C"rp~ niisim lab61, iT7i'~ i"~ 'ir gada/ii, n'i"i,l\ c"~~ 'drim gtJdO/ot).

ECJIH npanararensnoe BhInOJIH.HCT CIIHTaKClIqecKyIO cJ>YHKl.lIIIO cxaayesroro, TO apTIlKJIh nepen HHM He CTaBHTC.H. Ilpanararensuoe-cxaayesroe MO)KeT CTO.HTh KaK no, TaK If nOCJIe cymeCTBHTCJIbHOrO- noanescamero:

rd"Ni1 . :J i~ tab hii 'is

• T • -

:J;~ rd"~O - ha 'is lob

iTrSNi1 i1:Ji~ loba ha';ssa

T • T T

iT:Ji~ iTrSNiT hii'issa {oba

T T • T

BTOT qCJIOBeK XOpOIll •

BTa )KeHIllMHa xoponra,

ECJlH cymecTBHTCJIhHOe He HMceT apTMKJI.H, TO MO)KeT B03HIIKHYTb HeKOTOpa.H ,ll;BYCMbICJIeHHOCTh:

~~~ ;,~=?r::r hokma {oba XOpOIlla.H MY,llPOCTh WlU MY,l(POCTb xopoma

OJ),HaKO TaKHe cnysaa peznca, II sonpoc 06hIqHO JIerKO peunrrs IICXO,l(.H H3 KOHTeKCTa.

B HeKOTophIX CJIYQ3JIX npanararensnoe (06hIqHO C apTIIKJIeM) BhInOJIH.HeT CMHTaKCIfQeCKHe cJ>yHKltHII, 60JIee CBOHCTBeHHhIe cymecTBMTCJIhHhIM - cJ>YHKltIiM nomexaurcro M np.HMOrO MJIII KOCBeHHoro ,l(OnOJIHeHIUI. BTO MO)KeT npOIICXO,l(HTh, xorna npnnarareneaoe 0603HaqaeT:

1) HOCIfTeJUI onpeztenennoro xaxecraa;

C~r::rtJ hehakam TOT, KTO MY,llP; 2) a6crpaKTHoe nOH.HTlIe:

l1iiT hdra I TO, qTO ITJIOXO.

-T

..

67

YPOK 3

i:J"'!'T diibiir
T T
:njj ratilb
T T
.. 'eres
r":)~
iil har
017 tam
1~ gan
:J;~ fob
";'3 gilgal
T
19~ qatan
(1~~ qii!6n)
il!Y' yape
.: T
17i rat
,i-t7:l miJ'6g §24. CJIOBapb 3

CYlllECTBI1TEJ1bHbIE:

CJIOBO; npeneser, aenn., ,l(eJIO (.MH. -fin) f'OJIO,l(

(.MH. -01) crpaaa, 3eMJUI (31(. p.) f'opa

HapO.ll

can:

IlPl-IJ1AfATEJ1bHblE:

XOPOIIIHH, ,l(06PbIH 60JIhIIlOH, BeJIHKlIH

MaJIeHhKl1H, MJIa,l(IIIHM; He3HaqHTCJIhHbIM

KpaCHBbIM, npHBJIeKaTCJIhHbIH ITJIOXOM

OqeHh (cmaeumcs nocne npunazamematoeo, nanpuuep, 'N~ :J;~ fob me'od osem, XOpOIIIHH)

a) 06pa3YHTe ace xertape <pOPMbI (MY)KCKOM H )KeHCKHM PO,l( eJl,HHCTBeHHoro H MHO)KeCTBeHHOf'O qHCJIa) OT CJIe.llYIOIUHX npHJIaf'aTCJIbHbIX:

rD;'~ qiigos CBHIUeHHbIH

,:J!) ka!Jeg UI)KCJIbIH

•• T

pin1 ral;l6q .llarreKHH

N~~ $ame( J )KaJK.llYIllHH

:J ;.,~ qiirob 6JIH3Kl1H

t:l"fd salem llCJIbIH

.- T

6) Y CfHO nepeneznrre na ,l(peBHeeBpeHcKHH:

\

1. [3TOT] XOpOIIlHH qeJIOBeK, [3TOT] MaJIeHhKHH qCJIOBeK, [3TOT] 3JIOH qeJIOBeK

2. [3TOT] 6oJIbIIlOM f'OPO,l(, [3TOT] MaJIeHbKl1H f'OPO,l(, [3TOT] 3JIOM f'OPO,l(

68

Y POK 3

3. [3Ta] xpacaaaa )KeHIUIIHa, [era] MaJIeHbKa5I }l(eHIUIIHa, [::ITa] XOpOIlIa.H )KeHIUHHa

4. xopomaii MaJIbQIlK, 60JIbmOH ropon, MMeHbKoe nOJIe, 60JIbiliOll ,n;OM

5. B [3TOM] ropozte, B [3TOM] "60JIbIlIOM repone, P.HJlOM C [3TllM] 60JIbllIlIM roponosr

6. B [3TOM] BeJIlIKOM naopue, PjI.ZJ;OM C [~HO"] 60JIbIlIOH pexoii

7. ropoaa, [arn] ropona, B [3TllX] roponax, B [3TIIX] 60JIbIlIliX roponax

8. JIIO.n;H, [3TH] JIIO,llH, [3TH] ansre JIIOJlll, [3TIIMll] 3JIbIMli JIIO,n;bMI1

9. )KeHIlllIHbI, [ 3TH] >KeHIItHHbI, 06 [3TllX] 3JIbIX )KeHIUllHax

10. crpaaa, [3Ta] crpana, [3Ta] 60JIbIlIa5I crpana

B) Ilepesemrre;

2. hu( ') yape.

3. na 75 wahli ';ssa yiipim ma'iid .

. ,irt~ C"!)" iTWNiT' rO"~iT

: 'T T'T: 'T

4. 'ayye hii'{jniisim hal!obim .

. c"::JitoiT O"rlhNiT rT~N

• - • T-: T •• -

ha'iiniisim halto/}im bii 'ir haqqetannii .

. rT~~iPiJ ..,.,~~ C":;IitoiJ c"rp~~iJ 5. '€ft6 hanna 'ar hiira '?

.17iiT i17~rT iTb"N

-T --- •.

hu(') babbdyit haggadol.

6. 'ayye hammelek?

hu(') bah€kiil haggadal .

. "i'liT "::>"iT:;J N~iT

T- T"-

7 A "'b? . mllo_.

lobii ha ';ssa hayyiiftii.

8. haddiibiir !ob me 'ad.

69

YPOK 3

9. gadal harii tab sa 'ir.

10. hii'iibadim rii'im ma'6d .

. ,Nr.l C"17i C"'~17i1

: • T • T -: T

11.hazzaqenfm 'e$elhabbdyit

.n~~iJ "¥~ C"~j?·riJ 1 2. he tarim haqqstanno; 'e$el hanniihiir haggiid61 . . "i,~;:r iV~iJ ,,~~ ni3~PiJ C""lVry

1') HanHIlIHTe no-zrpeenccopeiicsa:

1. [3TH] )KeHmHHbI o-reas KpaCHBbI.

2. Topozt oxens BeJIHK.

3. Jl.OM [CTOI1T] B03JIe ,l(OPOfH.

4. [3TH] MY)KqHHbI H )KeHmHHbI B nOJIe.

5. Bonsnnre nosra - B ropozte,

6. [3TH] )KeHmHHbI 3JIbI.

7. [3TO] ,l(eJIO HeTPY,l(HO (6Y1(6.: «MaJIO»).

8. [3TOT] MaJIeHbKHH can OKOJIO ,l(OMa.

70

YPOK4

§25. MHOlKeCTBelDfOe '1HCJlO cym.eCTBHTeJlbHbIX: pe,llyKllHJI rJlaCHbIX OCHOBbI

ECJU1 B e)'U1HCTBeHHOM qHCJIe fJlaCHblii e 6bIJI YJJ:apHbIM, TO BO MHO)l(eCTBeHHOM QHCJIe DB Tep.HeT Y napeuae H peJJ:YUHpyeTC.H (CM. §5.2.1). n pH MepbI:

:t"'N '6ye!J Bpaf .MH. 11,.: C ... :t ... ·N '6ya!Jim
l;:'~ k6hen >Kpeu C ... );-y~ k6hdnim
n::lTD mizbeah >KepTBeHHHK Min::lTD mizbahot
. . .
Ba)lCHeiillHe HCKJIIOqeHH.H: t) OJJ:HOCJIO>KHble CJIOBa, nanpnsrep, fO /:tiS H f;? tes (CM. §34);

2) llBYCJIO>KHble CJIOBa C OfJlaCOBKOH ii-e, uanpmrep, li?~ ziiqen (CM. § 19).

Y ClIOB C YJJ:BOeHHbIM BTOPbIM COfJlaCHbIM aa peJJ:YKUHeii fJlaCHOfO 06hIl.{HO cJIeJJ:Yer ynpomeune COl.{eTaHH.H ~Y.llBOeHHbIii cornacnsrit + umas: * 'iwwerim > '" 'iwwarim > * 'iwerim > 'iwrim 1

C"'j,V 'iwrim MiNe:;) kis 'ot

.

cJIenoii

N~:;) kisse(? TpOH

3aMeThTe: fJlaCHbIii ti, B OTJlHqHe OT fJlaCHOfO e, B npenyztapuosr CJIOfe He peJJ:YUHpyeTCSI:

U!)rDD mispiil CYJJ: C"'U!)rDD mispiilim
T : • • T : •
,~'?~ mal 'ii/{, BeCTHHK C"'!)Nt,D mal'dkim
• T : -
:t:li:;) ko/{,ii!J 3Be3JJ:a c"':1!)i:;) ko!sa!Jim
T • T
t,!) ... ry h€!stil .llBOpeu c ... t,!) ... n hi/{,iilim
T • T ..
§26. Tnaroa; aKTHBHoe npH'IaCTHe Kopeas CJIOBa B npesueeapencxoa .H3bIKe COCTOHT H3 O.llHHX COfJlaCHbIX; nanpnMep: brk ~6J1afOCJlOBJI.HTb:r., ~6J1afOCJlOBeHHe:r.. 06bIQHO 3THX COfJlaCHbIX YpH, pe)ICe -,llBil, -rersrpe HJlH nsrn., CTO.HIUHe Me)f(J(Y HHMH rnacuue (TaK Ha3bIBaeMaJI 01- llaC081Ca) He BXO.ll.HT B COCTaB KOPH.H, nOCKOJIbKY npn CJIoBoo6pa30BaHHH H CJlOBOH3MeHeHHH Ha60p HX MeH.HeTC.H:

'~jf biiru!s

6J1arOCJlOBeHHbIii

1 3ro o6tqaQ TettneHltMJI ~ Ji3blK3. cpo §§ 21, 118 M 149.

- -

71

Y POK 4

-:rJ?~ mabiire!s 6JIarOCJIOBJUlIOmHH
-:r:i~ bora!s OH nOJIYQHJI 6JIarOCJIOBeHHe
1J~ bera/s OH 6J1arOCJIOBlfJI
iT!)"~ barii/sii 6JIarOCJIOBeHHe
T T: KOHeqHO, COCTO.SIIllHH H3 0.nHHX COrJIaCHbIX xopem, - 3TO rpaxotartorecxaa a6- crpaKUH.SI, TaK KaK OH He cymecrnyer CaMOCTO.SITeJIbHO, OT.neJIbHO OT CJIOB.

Bo MHorHX CJIYQ3..SIX OrJIaCOBI<a 0.nH03HaqHO COOTHOCHTC.SI C onpenexeauuu rpaaMaTliqeCKHM 3HaqeHHeM. TaK, OrJlaCOBKa o-e peryJI.SIpHO CJIY)I(HT .nJI.SI 06pa30BaHHJI aKTHBHbIX npaxacmtc

:lt1~ ko/ell v
nHIlIYIUHH
1'?n hoie/s H.n.YIUHi1
:lrD~ yosell CH}l,~I1lHH
,.,~ yorio cnYCKaIOIUHHCH ITpHqacrH.SI H3MeH.SIIOTCH no po.naM H qHCJIaM:

eo.lL MH.lL.
:lrD~ yiisell u C":lrD" y6sabim
M. p. CH.n.51IItHJ1
< •• yosille/ Mi:lrD~ yiiSab6[
)1(. p. M:lrD" CJ1}l,~IUaH
. . OKOHqaHJ1.SI MH. q. Y npHqacTI·di - 're )l(e, QTO J1 Y cYIUecTBHTeJIbHbIX H npnnaraTeJlbHbIX. KaK H Y cYIUecTBHTeJIbHbIX (CM. rrpe.[(bI'[(YIUHi1rraparpa<t» rnacnun e, rep.SI.SI yztapenne, nepexonnr B a.

<DopMa en, q. )1(. p. 06pa3yeTC.SI C nosronnao OKOHqaHH.H -f. ITOCKOJIbKY OCHOBa 3aKaHqHBaeTC.SI na COrJIaCHbIH, nepezt -/ BCTaBJUleTC.SI ecnovorareasauf rJIaCHbIH e. ITPH 3TOM B OCHOBe npHqaCTH.SI e 3aMeH.SIeTC.SI ua e. <DOPMbI C OKOWIaHHeM -0 (;-Y~rp~ y6sabii) BcrpeqaIOTC.SI, HO pexce.

ITpHqaCTHe BblnOJIH.SIeT B rrpennozcenaa TY )l(e <t>YHKUHIO, qTO H npnnararensHoe (CM. npe.nbl.nYIUHi1 ypox). OHO MO)l(eT 6bITb onpezteneuaexc

:It'l~iJ' rD"~::r hii'is hakk6[ell nHllIymHi1 qeJIOBeK (qeJIOBeK, KOTOPbli1 rmurer)

HJlH CKa3yeMbIM:

:lM'~ rD"~::r hii'is kotell lJeJIOBeK runner (6YKB.: 4: lJeJIOBeK - nHIlIYlllHi1» )

72

YPOK 4:

B lPYHKllIU1 onpe,ll;CJICHH.H npnxacrne He HMeeT HH epeuenaoro, HH BHJlOBOrO 3Ha'leHIUI (uanpmiep, :If.1~iJ rD"~::::r hti'is hakk6/e!J MO)KCT nepeBOJlHTbC.H: ~nHIIIy-

~ v u

mMM qeJIOBeK~, ~nHCaBI1IHH qCJIOBeK~, ~HanHcaBIIIHH qCJIOBeK»-, ~qCJIOBeK, KOTO-

PbIM HanHIIICT~), a B <PYHKllHH cxaayessoro, KaK npannno, 0603HaqaCT JlJI.HIllCeOI .neMCTBHe B HaCTO.HllleM, npOIIIeJlI1IeM HJlH 6YJ1,ymeM BpeMeHH, B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KOHTeKCTa. B npHMOH pesn npasacrne MO)KCT TaK)Ke 0603HaqaTb 6J1H)I(aiiIIIee 6ynyutee HJlH HaMepeHHe.

TIPH rrepesone ynpIDKHeHHM cnenyer npennonarars KOHTCKCT HaCTO.HmerO apeMeHM:

iT~j,? cry,? lt1'~ rD"~y hii 'is no/en libem laddallii qCJIOBeK naer (UJlU co6HpaCTcfl nars) XJIe6 HHmeM.

TIollo6HO npHJlaraTCJIbHOMY, npnsacrae MO)KeT 6bITh cy6cTaHTHBHpoBano:

CElrD sopel cY,A}lmHM = cy JlMI :lrD'" yoleo )((HBym"M = )KHTCJIb

Ilpnsacnre 6e3 cymecTBHTCJIhHOrO H ,lJ,aJKe 6e3 onpe,lJ,eJICHHOrO apTHKmI qaCTO 03Haqaer. ~TOT, KTO .•• s-; ~BC}lKHH, KTO ..• ~; ~KTO 6bI HH ••• »:

n~~~ 1,?M holeg be 'eme;

TOT, KTO (UJlU BC}lKHM, KTO) XOJ1,HT B HCTHHe (m. e. nocrynaer no HCTHHe)

§27. Hpennor npJlMOrO ,lJ;OnOJIHeHHJI -n~ 'e/-

EcJIH npanoe J1,OnOJlHeHHe npn r narone SlBJI.HeTC.H onpenenemrsnr (onpeneneunuMM C'lMTaIOTCSI, no-nepssix, HMeHa c06cTBeHHble, BO-BTOPbIX, cymecrmrrem.uue C onpenenemrues apTHKJIeM1), 10 nocne rJIarOJIa 06bIqHO CTaBHTC.H npeanor -n~ 'et-

(mIH, 6C3 MaKKc<pa, n~ 'et): .

n,ir-1iT-nl-t ir.irD rD"Mi1 hti'iS somer 'et-hattora qeJIOBeK C06J1IOJlaCT 3aKOH.

T - .:.. • T

'11-n~ :I:JM c~O hiriim 'ohe!J 'e!-diiwfd Hapon JlI06HT .llaBHJla.

Ilepen neonpeneaennsn, JlOIIOJlHeHHeM npeztnor -n~ He CTaBHTC}I:

'11 :If.1~ rl.;.,~~ hti'fs k6te/J dabar qeJIOBeK IIHIIIeT (uexoe) CJlOBO.

ECJIH npjIMbIX .n:onOJlHCHHH y rnarona HeCKonbKO, -n~ 'et- MO)((eT nOBTOpjIThCSI nepen KaiK.l(bIM H3 HHX:

1

npslMOE! }:lononHeHlte SlBJlSIeTai onpe,lleJleHHblM raoce B HeKOTOpbIX .l:Ipyntx CJJY'I3RX - CM. §§72 It 85.

73

YPOK 4:

n·':3J'!)~-MN' nii~n-nN C"ir.l·rD C"g:bNfi

: . - .:-: T -... • : .. T-:""

hii'iinasim somarfm 'e/-hattorii wa 'el- hammi$WQf

JIIO.llH C06JHO.llalOT 3aKOH H 3anOBeJ(H.

§28. Cnoaaps 4

C Y III E C T B 11 T E JI b II hi E :

(MH. -1m) CyJtMI (amUM. CJl080M uacmo nasueasomcn maKJICe BOe1l11b1f BOJICiJU U3paWlbC'KUX nJlBMeH do ycmanOBlle1lUJI. uonapxuu - omao~~ naseauue 'KUUlU CyiJeu)

1tt7Q mal'ak (MH. -im) BeCTHHK, anren

N:~:P kisser ') (MH. uenpae. MiN:9~ kis'Iit) KpeCJIO, TpOH (napa, eepxonuoro )I(}lf.

:ln~ k6te!?
"~N '6gtl
lt1) nO/en
1';-' holels
::l~'" yose/}
n~ 'e!
-nN 'et-
t, la- ua H.nH naoro BblCOKonOCTaBJIeHHOrO .nnua)

ITPl1lJACTI1H:

nmnyunrii eMll(HM

.llaIOll(HM; cranaumii, nOMell(aIOll(H:H:

H.n;YlUHH

CH.ll..HmHH, 06HTaIOll(I-Ji.i:, JKHBYlIl,HH

IIPEJJ.JIOfl1:

} npea~n~o~neHun

nepeoaem snaseuue iJame.nbHOlO naoesca; K, AlU.

nepeoaem ma'KJICe suauenue npuuaOJleJICHocmu: iT~~~ n:~1

habbdyillii'ilsa [BTOT] .nOM npHHa.llJIe)KHT [3TOll] iKeHIUHHe

-,,~ 'el K, B (o603Ha1iaem nanpaesenue i)6UJlCeHUJI.; CU'I{01tUM. '? ls- )

.,~.,~~ be 'ene B rJIa3aX, no MHeHHIO

a) 06pa3YHTe CPOPMbI MHOiKeCTBeHHoro lJHCJIa CYll(eCTBl-fTeJIbHbIX:

i£)C soper (-1m) nnceu
::l~l\ gannii!J (-1m) BOp
T-
iVir.l mated (-1m) CpOK
1'J'?~ sulbiin (-61) CTO.n 74

YPOK 4

1~ff1J? miskan (-1m) )f(HJlHIIte; CKHHHSI rDli?J? miqdas ( - 1m) CB~TI1J1HIUe

6) YCTHO nepesezurre na npenaeeapeficrcaii:

1. CY,llMI CU,llHT.

2. Ilaps naurer,

3. MaJIbl:lHK nzter,

4. )l{eHlllHHa eCT.

5. BeCTHHK nner.

6. MY)((IlHHa CHJJ.HT.

7. Pa6 eCT.

8. )l{eHIUHHa H,lleT.

B) llOJlyqeHHble npeztnoxenaa nepecrpoirre TaKHM 06pa30M, llT06bI nozineacantee H cxaayeuoe HaXO,llHJIHCb BO MHO)((eCTBeHHOM llHCJIe. Hanpaaep; 4CY,llbH CH,n.HT~ 11 r.n,

r) Ilepecrpolrre 3TH npe,llJIQ)KeHH.H B CJIOBOCOlleTaHHSI cyntecrmrrensnoe + onpezteneHHe; sanpaaep, 4CHJlHIUHH CY,llb.H~ H T.,ll.

A) Ilepesenare:

1. hass6pe! no!en 'e!-hasseper lafs.

. rD"~~ i~~iJ-M~ lr.i) o~m;tt 2. ha'issa y6si!Jel wa'6!sile! babbdyi; .

. M":!l~ n"=)N' n::UD" ~IZ7Ni1

• - - .:.: : ••• , T • T

3. ho'aniisim hiila!sfm 'el- hah€!siil haggiid6J .

. "i'liT ":l";-yn-r,N c":;,"M C"rD:lNn

T - T" - .: .: • T-: T

4. hammelek y6se!J wa/s61e!J basseper .

. i~~~ :lr.':l1 :lrP.-" '~~iJ 5. hammal'akim hiila/sim 'el-hah€/siil .

. r,:,,"niT-"N c":;,"M C":;'N"~~

T •• - .: .: • T : - -

6. ra I haddiiIJiir be lene hii lam .

. CVi1 ")"V~ i:l,n Vi

T T •••• : T T- -

1. hanna 'drim hiila!sfm 'el-hanndhdr. .

. iiUn-"N c":l"M C"iV3i1

TT- .: .: 'T:-

8. hammelek y6se!J 'al-hakktsset') bahekat .

. "~";:';1 N~:PiJ-";J :lrP.'" l~~iJ 9. ha'am yiise!J ba'dre« hagga(j61ii .

. i1~i'~t.1 r':J~# :lrP.'" C~t;r

75

YPOl( 4

10. hii 1S wsha 'issa yosabim bd'ir hara 'a .

. nViiT i"V:;) C":1rD'" i1au..ti1' rD"NiT

T TT • T • = T • T : ' T

11. hassopalim h6lakim 'el-hanndhiir. .

. iiT ;'iT-t,N C":""";' C"OE>W;,

T T - ': ': .:-

12. hayliidim yosa!Jim 'esel hannahtir haqqaton. 'It)~tT iiJ~iJ t,~it C":;1rp-" C"1~~iJ 13. hu( ') k6teb 'et-haddebarim 'al-hasseper.

, i~t!ln-t,~ C""'1~l;:T-M~ :1f.1ll N~n

14. 'ejiii y6sabal hannastm?

. C"rD:l;' ni:1rD-" ;'£)"N

• T- : ••

15.16bim ha'tI!Jadim be 'ene hammelek.

·17~iJ "~"~f C""~~O C":;1W

1. MaJIb'U1KI1 I1J~YT B ropozt,

2, Pa6bl CI1,l1;.HT PH,llOM C MarreHbKllMI1 .l1.0MaMI1.

3. MaJIh'lI1K OT)),aeT xanry [3TOMY] 'leJIOBeKY.

4. MY)KQI1Ha H zceumana )KI1ByT B ca.LI.Y.

5. [31'111 JlIO,llH OTJ~aIOT MarreHbKoe nOJIe 11 can uapro.

6. [3TH] Jl101.(11 )KI1ByT B xoponreii crpane,

e) Hanl1Il1MTC nO-J~peBHeeBpeMCKI1:

76

YPOK5

,

§29. TIpe,lJ;J10rH ~ ba-, '? la- H ~ ke-

. . .

B CBOeH 06bIqHOH (CJ10BapHOM) ¢OpMe 3TH npeanorn conepxar rnaCHbIH a. Ho, B 3aBllCllMOCTH OT TOrO, Ha KaKOH error HaQHHaeTCH CJ1eJlYIOmee CJlOBO, a MO)KeT aaMeHHTbCH ,npyrHMH rJIaCHbIMH:

a) ECJU1 3a nepBbIM COrJlaCHbIM cnosa (HO He ") cnezryer fJlaCHbIH a, TO npeztnora ~

bs-, ~ Ia- H ~ ka-npH06peTaIOT ¢OPMY ~ bi-, '? li-, ~ ki- ( §S.3.1): .

"~~P:)~ samu 'el CaMYHn ..

"~~P:)tfi~ "M~P:)rD"

.. -.

biSmu'el lismu'el

B CaMYHJle KCaMYHny

fJIaCHbIM a B nepBOM cnore cymecTBHTeJIbHOfO ssmanaer: bis-mu- 'el, a He bi-s» mu-el. Onnaxo, eCJIl1 BTOPOM COfJlaCHbIH CJIOBa - :::l, l, i, :J, t), n, TO ero nteneaoe npOH3HOIlIeHMe COXpaH.HeTCJI: C"""~9:P kis-j5ii- rim.

6) ECJIll CJ10BO HaQMHaeTCH na CJ10f ~ ye, TO COQeTaHH.H be+ys; le+ye H ke+ye rrpe06- pa3YIOTCH B "~ bi, "'? Ii H ":p ki: .

ct;rD~i" yarusiildyim 11 epyCaJIHM
.- T
Ct;rO~i":!l birfisiildyim B l1epYCaJIHMe
.- T
Ct;rD~i"" lirusiildyim K l1epYCaJIMMY
.- T .
Ct;rD~i"~ kfrfisiildyim KaK l1epyCaJIMM
.- T 8) EC1IH cnOBO HaQMHaeTC.H na ropranuuii COfJIaCHbIH CO CBepXKpaTKHM rJIaCHbIM 0, e 111111 0, TO npeanor CO.l1.ep)KMT KpaTKHM fnaCHbIH TOfO )Ke KaQeCTBa (COOTBeTCTBeHHO - a, e MJlH 0, §S.3.3):

ci"n bolom COH
ci"n~ babolom BO CHe
ci"n'? labalom KOCHY
ci"n~ kabolom KaKCOH
n~~ 'eme; HCTHHa
. ..
n~~~ be'emet BHCTHHe
nDM" le'emel K HCTHHe 77

YPOK 5

n~N!) ke'emet KaKHCTMHa
....
;-Y'lt)N 'oniyyii Kopa6J1b
T' T:
~'ltJN~ bo'oniyyii B xopafine, u m. d.
T' T:T ,

r) ECJIH nepBbIH CJIor CJlOBa - Y,llapHbIH, TO rnacuuk npeanora MO)KeT 3aMeHJlTbCH

nonrnsr ii. ilOCKOJIbKY 3TO npOHCXO,llMT ueperynapao, Bee CJIY1JaH TaKoro pozta 6yzryr B )J,aJIbHeHlIIeM oco6o orOBapHBaTbCJI •

zr) BbIII1e Y)I(e rOBOpHJlOCh, l-JTO npeJ.(JIOfH ~ be-, ~ le- 1-1 ~ ke- CJIHBaIOTCJI C onpezie-

. . .

JleHHblM aprmcnea, npHl-JeM B apTl1KJIe ~ h aunaaaer. B 3TOM cnysae K npeanory nepexoznrr rJlaCHbIH apTHKJIJI •

n:~'? labbdyi; l{ ,llOMY

e) Bo acex OCTaJIbHblX cnysaax npeztnorn BbICTynaIOT B ceoeii 06blI.J:HOH <):>opMe: f be-, ~ le- M :p ke-, nanpaaep;

i"17~ be'ir B repone
.
1~~:P kfJmele/s xax uapr, -:» l
(
"hN" laTj qeJIOBeKY·
.
§30. IIpeJJ;J1or 17;) min (H3,OT) a) KaK npasano, 3TOT npeztnor HMeeT <P0PMY J? mi- M nHlIIeTCJI CJlHTHO. Ilpn 3TOM

rrepmaii CorJIaCHbIH CJIOBa Y,llBaJ.IBaeTCJI:

1~~ mele!s naps

1~~J? mimmelek OT napa

6) Ilepen ropraam-nr COrJlaCHblM HJlM i r npeanor 06bl1JHO HMeeT <PoPMY ~ me- H IIHmeTCJI CJIHTHO:

ropo,ll

H3 ropona

rDNi r6(js rOJIOBa

rDltl~ mer6(?s C ronossr

B) B HeCJIHTHOH ¢opMe (OHa)Ke C1JHTaeTCJI CJIOBapHoH) npeanor lJ? min, KaK npasnJlO, BCTpeI.J:aeTCjI TOJlbKO nepen apTHKJleM. B 3TOM cnysae 01-.1; 06bll-JHO npHCOe,llHHHercs K nOCJIe)I,YIOm:eMY CJlOBY sepea MaKKe$. Ho ,lla)Ke H nepen apTHKJIeM B03MmKua CJIMTHaR ¢opMa ~ me-:

1~~iJ-1J? min-hammelek }

OT napa

1~~tr~ mehammele!s

78

Y POK 5

r) ECJI" CJIOBO Haql1HaeTC.H aa ~ ya, TO COQeTaHl1e * miyy» 06bIQHO npeoopaeyerca B mi-:

;-Yl~;-Y"P;) mihu(jii (BMeCTO * miyyahudii)

1 113I1Y.llel1

§31. CpaBHHTeJIbHaJl H npeaocxonaaa erenens npanararensnoro

B npeeaeeapeiicxosr }]3bIKe npanararensaoe He 06pa3yeT ¢OpM CpaBHI1TeJIhHOH 11 npeBOCxOJI,HOH crenena. 3HaQeHI1e CpaBHI1TeJIbHOii CTeneHI1 nepeztaerca C nOMOmblO npennora lP;) min:

i~ ~iJ~ C~O rD"~V ha 15 biilsiim mehannd 'ar [3TOT] MY)((QI1Ha MY.llpee [sroro] MaJIhlJl1Ka.

BnOJIHe B03MO)((eH 11 npyrori nopaztoic CJIOB:

i1l~~iJ~ ;-y,~V iT~~ yiipii hii'iS§ii mehanna liirii [cha] )KeHlIll1Ha KpaCI1BeM [3ToH] JJ.eBOQKI1.

Oztnaxo Ta )((e CaMaJI KOHcrPYKUl1jl MO)((eT 03HalJaTb CJlUlU1COM ••• aJl.H:

rO"~::;r~ :-Tl:J~O i1~~ qii5ii hit 'iib6dii meha'iS [3Ta] pafiora CJII1IIIKOM T}])KeJIa .llJI}] [sroro] QeJIOBeKa.

Ilpn nepesone ua PyccKHH }]3hIK BbI60p Me:>K}l,Y CpaBHI1TeJIhHOii creneusro npl1- nararensnoro 11 KOHCTpYK1ll'IeiI CJlUlU1COM •• , allR 3aBI1CI1T OT KOHTeKCTa.

qTO KaCaeTC..Si npenocxonnoti creneun, ee 3HaQeHI1e nepeaaerca C nOMOIUhIO onpeJ].eJ1eHHOrO apTI1KJm; nocne npnnararensnoro MO)((eT cramrrsca npeanor :l be-:

1C~iJ 1;10 habben haqqaton MJIa,nIIII1H CbIH

c"rp~~ ;-y~~o hayyapii banniisim KpaCI1BeiiIIIaJI 113 )KeHIUI1H

§32. i~~ 'aser

ECJ1H CYIneCTBI1TeJIhHOe C npennorou BbIflOJIHj{eT ¢YHKUI1IO onpeztenenna, TO OHO saute acero BBO.llI1TC.H CJIOBOM irP.~ 'aser(KOTopbIH).

~?~~i"P;) it#~ "~~i.:I hannd'ar 'aser mirusiilayim MaJIhQI1K 113 Y1epYCaJIlfMa (6Y1C6.: (tKOTOPbIM 113 Hepycamoaa» ) i"17~ irOM rO"N:-T hii is 'aser bit'ir

• T .... -: • T

1 ~CXOJ\HasI cfX>pMa STOfO npe,qoora -17;) min, xont ~~I ooa TOllbKO Ilef.)eA apTMKI1E!M. I1oHB1IeHMe cfJoPM 7;) mi- M ~ me- ~ ~M I1XJ.,WXIM actMMMJlSI~M KQHetlHOrO n: CO'IeTaHMe «n + nep8bll4 cornaCHblM CIJe)J.yoqero cnoaa» 3aMeHHeTC1I w,..~ STOfO corraooro. neJ)e,A ropraHHblMH M i r MMeeT M€CTO ~ YWlMHeHMe rllaCHoro (CM. §6.1).

79

YPOK 5

qeJIOBeK, [uaxonaunmca] B ropozte (6Y'K8.: ~KOTOPbIM B ropones ) rj~~ i~~ cV~ hiram 'aserbii'are$

napon, [)KHBYIllI1M) B [sroit] crpaae (6Y'K8.: ~KOTOPbI" B crpanes )

KaK BI1.llI1M, B aTI1X cnysaax CJIOBO i~~ 'aser B PYCCKOM nepenone Jm60 npocro nponycxaerca, JlI160 3aMeH.HCTC.H, CMOTP.H no KOHTeKCTY, CJIOBaMI1 ~)I{I1BY~lfii», ~HaXO,llHllll1ik.H» M T. n.

i¢~ 'aSerHe M3MeH.ReTCH no po.n;aM M 'II1CJIaM:

=l":J1iJ "~it i~~ i~~ hahiir 'aser 'ese! hadderek: ropa y ztoporu (6Y'K8.: -sxcropaa y noporn») ":l"~:;J irDl-t C"rDlM~ hii'anasim 'aser baheka!

T •• - .: -: • T -: T -

JlIo,llM, [HaXO.llHmHeC.R] B xpasse (6Y'K8.: ~KoToPbIe B xpaxe» )

:li1T Ziihii!J
TT
iTr.l:lM bokmii
T : T
-e kisep
.,~~
..
;"'Jj':lP. ~ii!Jodii
T
;''-£17 ~e$ii
T •• ip" yiiqiir

TT

irD" yiiSiir

TT

P"'~ $addiq

iT~~ qase 17rDi r{jscJ~

T T

j'~ diiwi(}

• T

"1-t~r.lrD samu 'el

~?r9~i~ yarosiildyim

§33. Cnoaape 5

C Y HI, E C T B 11 T E JI b II bl E :

30JIOTO

MY,llPOCTb

cepe6po, JleHbrH pa6oTa,cJlYJK6a,pa6cTBo (cp. j~¥ 'ff!)e(} pa6, cnyra)

3aMbICeJI, unau, COBeT

IT P If JI A rAT E JI b H bl E :

,llparOUeHHbIH

npHMOH, cnpaBe.n;JII1BbIH

cnpaBe.n;JII1BbIH, npaeennun, HeBI1HOBHhIM; ('Ka1( cyw,.) np& BC,llHMK

TpY,llHbIH, T.HJKeJIbIH, CYPOBbIH

3JIOH, npecrynuuk, He'IeCTMBhIH; 'Ka'K anu. - npecrymns He'IeCTMBeU,arrO.lleH

I1MEHA COBCTBEHHbIE:

)laBH,ll; CaMYMJI

Hepycanmr (06pamume euuuanue ua mo, 'limo 8 apeellee~· peUCKOM nanucauuu csoea ~?rg~i: nocse ". omcymeyem 6~·

80

YPOK 5

1C6a ". Ta1CaJl opljJolpafjJWl, 603MO:JICUO, Y1Cll3bl6aem na opeeHUU iJuWle1CT1lHblu eapuaum: yarosd/em. rJlac1tblU 31ta'lOK, 1C0- mopblu dOJIJICeH 6bUl 6bt cmonmu nod 6y1C60U ", nuuiemcs y npaeozo HUJfC1telO YZJla 6y1C8'bt C.)

JlPYrHE 1.JACTH PE1.JH:

17;) min

(npeiJJzol) H3, OT KOTOPhlii (-CUI, -sie)

itDN 'aser

a) IIpHcoe.n;HHHTe npennor iI btl- K CJIe.n;ylOIJJ;HM CJIOBaM, CHa1.JaJIa 6e3 aPTHKJHI, 3aTeM C aprnKJIeM. Hanpaxep: kisep, ba/sesep, bakkesep.

C":l"P:) mald/sim

• T :

C"!~~ yaliidim

C"i~l1 Idbadim
'T-:
C';>i~ dariikim
T :
C".,l1 'arim
'T
C".,l1:J ne'drim
• T :
C".,iM btIdiirfm (xoxaana)
• T-:
i1P:)iN 'ddiima (3eMJUI, n01.JBa)
T T-:
i1":JN 'oniyya (Kopa6JIb)
T' T: 6) YCTHO nepeseznrre aa JlpeBHeeBpeiicKHll (npnnararensnoe CTaBbTe B <popMe MY)I(csoro pona eJlHHCTBeHHoro 'tJHCJIa).

1. JIY'lIlIe, 1.JeM [iITOT] MaJIb1.JHK

2. 60JIbIlIe, 1.JeM [3TOT] JlOM

3. 60JIbIlIe, 1.JeM [3Ta] pesa

4. MeHbIlIe, qeM [oro] nOJIe

B) YCTHO nepeseznrre na zrpesaeeapetlcxari, 3aTeM nepecrpoare 3TH npeanozceana, HCnOJIb3yjl"~~ 'dser.06pa3en:

5. xyzse, qeM [3TH] JIIO](H

6. nparoneaaee, 1.JeM 30JIOTO

7. crrpasezcnraee, 1.JeM [3TOT] naps

Iopozt - B [3TOii] cTpaHe => ropoJl, KOTOPblll [HaXO,ll;HTcH] B [aroti] cTpaHe r?~~ ""~iJ hiilfr ba'dre$ => rJ~~ .,'#~ ""J;10 halfr 'aser bii'tJre~

81

YPOK 5

1. MaJIbl.JHK - na 60JIbIlIOM nOJIe.

2. [3TH] CJIOBa ~- B KHHre.

3. [3Ta] )KeHI.l\HHa - ua nopore.

4. 30JlOTO - B xpasre.

S. Cepe6po - B [3TOM] AOMe.

r) Ilepeseznrre:

1. Y3qiirii bo!smii mizziihiib .

. ::liJ!~ :-T9~1J i11~; 2. qiisii hiriib6{jii mehii'iiniisim .

. C"rp~~V~ i11":1~v il~~ 3. yesarim hii tiibiidim mehammslakim .

. C":J"7Zlil~ C",:n1il C".,rd"

• T : - •• • T -: T • T :

4. yasar diiwj{j be tine hit 'am .

. CVil")"V~ '11 .,r.;"

T T .... : • T TT

5. hiu") no[en hokm« lammelek hayyoseb 'ai-hakkisset ') . . K~:Pi]-"P ::l~'~;:r 1'?~'? i1~~1J 1r.1) K~i1

6. ra'im haddebiirim ~iiSer basseper.

< •

. '!jt::)~ iWK C"i::l1iT C"V.,

.: .. - •• -. • T : - • T

1. ,obii bo/smii mikkesep.

B. yasiirim hii'aniiSim.

9. diiwjd wahii 'aniisim yosabim birusiildyim .

. c"Iti~""!1 C"'::l rtf" c",rtj :JKil1 '11

• - T • • : • T-: T : • T

10. misaddiq m;ssamu'en

. "K~ ii17i il~Vi1

: T T T .. T

12. 'ayye haysdrim waha$$addiqim?

. C"'j?"1~rr~ c"'..,~;;:r i1~~

82

YPOK 5

~) Ham-murre no-npeaaeespejicxa:

1. Ilaps zaer 30JIOTO H cepe6po JIIO.lVIM, xoropsrc [HaXO,l{HTCJI] BO zrsopne.

2. MYAPOCTb nparonenaee cepe6pa.

3. BecTHHKH, [HaxO,lVIIIJ.HecH] B Hepycanasre, nesecraasr.

4. CaMYI1JI H ,llaBH1l cnpaaennansr H npaaemna,

5. [3Ta] pa60Ta CJIHllIKOM TH>KeJIa AlUl [sroro] MaJlbqHKa.

6. [3TO] nOJIe 60JIbIlle, qeM can PH1l0M C 1l0MOM.

7. UapH xyace CY1leH.

83

YPOK6

§34. MHOmeCmeHHOe 'lHCJlO O)l;HOCJlO)l(HbIX Cyw.ecTBHTeJlbHbIX

OJlHOCJIO)KHble cymecrsarensnsre MO)KHO paanenars ua zme OCHOBHbIX rpyrrrnr; y OJlHllX MHO)l(eCTBeHHOe 1.JllCJIO o6pa3yeTcH 6e3 H3MeHeHllH B OCHOBe, y zipyrnx Yll.-

... u
BaHBaeTCR nOCJIeJlHllH CorJIaCHbIH:
a) ""'rD fir C"'i"'rD "'" A
neCH51 stnm
C~C A C"'C~C A "
sus rrourazn, SUSlm
nitt 'ot 3HaK rliniM 'otot
c., diim KPOBb C"7;)" damim
T T
rv. 'e$ .n;epeBO C.,:!tl1 'e$fm
6) Cll 'am Hapo.n; c"rnl1 'ammim
. -
fry be$ CTpeJIa c"'~n bi$$im
pM boq 3aKOH C"'Pt! buqqfm
3aMel.laHMs:I: 1) Bee cymecrsarezremse, HMeromHe B OCHOBe rnacasre u, i, (j, OTHOCRTC.H K nepaoa rpynne: y HHX OCHOBa He H3MeH51eTC.H. Crona )Ke OTHOCllTC.H H 60JIbllIHHCTBO cymeCTBHTeJIbHbIX, HMeIOmHX B OCHOBe .n;OJIfH" a.

2) CY1uecTBHTeJIbHble, llMeromHe B OCHOBC rJIaCHblH e, BXOJVIT B o6e rpynnu:

-a) 6e3 H3MeHeHRw: rv. ies - C"'~p. iesim,

6) C y.n;BoeHHeM nocnenaero COfJIaCHorO - npn 3TOM rJIaCHbIH e MeHaeTCR ua i (§S.1): fry bes - C"'~l} hissim.

3) Cynrecrmrrensasre, llMeIOmHe B OCHOBe KpaTKllH a, OTHOCHTC.H KO BTOPOH rpynne:

C,!, 'am - C"'7p'!1 'ammim.

Ho eCJIH nOCJIe.n;HHw COfJIaCHblH - rO_pTaHHbIH HJIli ., r, YJlBOCHlfe CarJIaCHOrO 3aMeH51CTC.H YAJIllHeHHeM fJIaCHOrO a (CM. §6.1):

i:1 har - C".,:1 harim.

- 'T

84

YPOK 6

4) Cyru;ecTBIITeJIbHbIe, IIMelOIUlie B OCHOBe rJlaCHbIH 0 (He 0 - T. e. JI.OJlrIIH, HO He 0603HallaeMbIH xepea '), OTHOCHTCH KO BTOPOH rpyrme:

pn boq - C'j?r. huqqim (0 nepexozte 0 B U CM. §S.1 ~CDOHeTMKII II nliCbMa» ).

Hescropsre OJI.HOCJIO)KHbIe cym.eCTBIITeJIbHbIe 06pa3y1OT <pOpMy MHO)KeCTBeHuoro lllICJIa HenpaBHJIbHO. Hanpnvep:

rDNi r6(')s rOJlOBa

.MH. u.:

C'rDlti ra( ')sim

T

C;, yom 1~ hen i'11 'ir

rD'N 1S

.lleHb

C'O' yamim

'T

C':J~ bdnim

CbIH

• T

C'i11 'arim

ropoJI.

'T

l.JeJIOBeK

Henpaannsnsre ¢OpMbI MHO)KeCTBeHHoro l.JHCJIa np"BOJI.HTC.H B cnonapnxax B KOHl{e ypoxa.

§35. llpH'lJaCTHJI OT rJIarOJIOB C rOpTaHHbIMH COrJIaCHhlMH B xopne

ECJIH BTOPOH COrJlaCHbIH KOpHH - ropranasrti (It " 1.7 I, ~ h IIJIII n ~), TO B <l>0pMax MHO)KeCTBeHHoro l.JIICJIa npnsacran r JIaCHbIH a 6Y,ll;eT 3aMeH.HTbCH aa d (CM. §6.2.1):

ed. 11..

p~~ $0 (eq KpMQam.IIH

nR~~ ~o(eqet

.MH.1I..

C"j?~~ ~6 'dqim nip~~ ~o(iiq6t

M.p. )K. p.

ECJlli TpeTIiH COrJlaCHbIH - 11 IIIJlM n h, TO B e.lllIHCTBeHHOM qlICJIe MY)KCKOrO pOAa nOHBJUleTCH 6erJlbIM narax (pdlab furtivum - CM. §6.3), a B eJI.IIHCTBeHHOM QHCJIe )I(eHCKorO pona B ,lI;Byx nOCJIellHHX cnorax r JlaCHbIM e 6Y,ll;eT 3aMeH.HThC.H ua a:

ni~ bareab 6erYIUliH

<c.

nlJ"1~ hardbat

c'ni~ hariJbim

.

nini!l bjjriJ~ot

ECJIH T{>ernH COrJIaCHbIH - It ' (HenpoH3HoCHMbIH B KOH.Qe CJIOBa II nepen cofJIaCHbIM - CM. §6.4), TO OKOHl.JaHlie )K, p. ell. q. -[ He nonysaer ocnOMOraTeJIbHOfO fJIaCHOrO e (OH He HY)KeH, nOCKOJlbKY OCHOBa nOCJIe esmaztenas ' 3aKaHl.JIIBaeTCH na maCHbIH, a He na COfJlaCHbIH). Ilpa aTOM B OCHOBe OCTaeTCH e, KaK B MY)KCKOM pone;

85

YPOK 6

K"JP qore( ') 3()BYIl\HH nKjp qore( ')l

t:I'~-;'p qora'lm niK-;p qora 'ot

n PH"IaCTHjI OT r JIarOJIOB C nepasnr rOpTaHHhIM 06pa3YIOTcjI no o61IlHM npasaJIaM.

"ip qo/
rv. le~
c kerem
Ci!)
.....
pp.~ ~6leq
",,·W s6/eab
p~~ no/eal
K~"' yO$e(')
e tabat
nnr-l
"!) kf
~i rab §36. Cnoaapz, 6

C Y ill E C T B M T E }] b H bI E : (MH. -(1) rorroc, 3BYK, IIIyM;

"i'~ "ip:p baq6/ gii{/o/- rpOMKO, BO sees rOJIOC (MH. c'~v. le~fm) nepeso

(MH. -fm) BHHorpa..n;HHK

KpHqaIIlHH, 30BYIll,HH na nosrours IIOChIJIalOI.QHH, OTIIpaBJI.HIOInHH ca)KalOlIlHH (ztepeeo) BhIXOMIIlHH

(npeiJ1l0l) non; BMeCTO

(C0103) nOTOMY 'ITO; 'ITO; xorna; eCJIH

(npWlalamellbHoe) MHOrOqHCJIeHHhIH (ifJOPMbl iJaHbl B §22)

YnpwKHeHMSI:

a) YCTHO nepeneznrre na JlpeBHeeBpeHCKHH: ~',--

1. CTapHK BhIXOJlHT.

2. )l{eHIIlHHa caxaer (nepeso).

3. CYJlbjl II OChIJIaeT (rmcssro).

4. Hapon KPHqHT. S. Pa6 BhIXOJlHT.

6) nOJIYl.JeHHhle IIpe.l{JIO)KeHHjI ncpecrpoare TaKHM 06pa30M, qT06hI rroanescamee H crcaayessoe HaXOJlHJIHCh BO MHO)KecrBeHHOM l.JHCJIe.

86

Y POK 6

u) Ilepeaemrre:

1. hiranaslm n61a'fm ~e$fm rabbim 'ai-hahdr. .

. iiTn-"l1 C"':!Ii C"~l1 C"'l1ti::J C"'W::JNiT

T T - • •• • • T-: T

2. hanna 'ar y6se!J tdhat hii le$ 'dser baggan.

. <... <

·1~~ i~~ rv.~ nIJ0 :lrg'" i~~iJ

3. gad61fm ha le$fm ' aser behdrim mehii le$im 'Mer 'd$el hannahar. . . ii1~iT "~N irDN C"'~l1iTC C"'iiT:!I irDN C"'~l1~ c"'''i.,l\

T T - .: •• • .. -: • " T •• • T .: .: -: • •• T • :

4. 'ammim rabbfm yosabim ba 'dres ki ha 'are$lobii me 'od.

... • < < ••

. 'N1? iT~'C3 r":J~iJ "~ r?tt~ C":;lrp" C"~"'J C"'~~

5. hii'dm $o'aqim baqol gii(j61 kf qiisii me 'o(} hii 'aboda . . iT1':l~v j'N,? i1~j; "'~ ";j~ "ip~ C"'j?~~ C~iJ

6. miyo$e(') min-ha'ir hiirii'ii?

. iT~1~ i"'~~-l~ N~~ "'~ 7. ra 'im haddebarim be 'ene hammelek hayyiisitr .

. i~~iJ "!J?~iJ "'~"'v.~ C"'"'1~liJ C"'~1 8. hit 'iSiit Y6$e( ')1 mehabbdyit.

< ••

. n~~iJ~ nN~'" iT~~iJ

9. hii 'abiidim nola 'fm kerem qitlon 'I$el hassitde . . ii1~iJ ,,~~ lbj? C"1~ C"'~tii::J C"'!~~iJ

r) Hanaunrre no-npesneeepeiicrca:

l.Ilaps nOChIJIaeT BeCTHIiKOB K cyzrse, KOTOPhIll [HaxoAIITC.H] B repone.

2. Jho.n;11 BblXOlVlT H3 Hepycamnia, nOTOMY 1.JTO ronozt 01.JeHb BeJIIiK.

3. KTO KP",IHT BAoMe?

4. BHHorpa)J.HHK II call. - PHAOM c AOMOM.

5. OH CI1AI1T nOA 60JlblIIIIM ACpeBOM.

6. [3tH I mOAIi xopoume, a [3TII] pa6b1 nnoxne.

7. [3TH] pa6b1 rrysme, 1.JeM [31'11] BCCTHIIKH.

87

YPOK7

§37. CJIOBa rri~ yes H r'~ 'en

3Ha1.JeHlle HaJIllqll.H (cytuecreosanaa) esrpascaerca B Jl,peBHeeBpeMCKOM H3bIKe CJIOBOM tD~ yes -secrs, llMeeTCH». CJlOBO tD~ yes He H3MeHHeTC.H no Jlll.QaM, pozraa 11 1.JlICJlaM:

rlhK iitl tD'" yes po 'is 3Jl,eCb ecrs My)I{t.JllHa.

i1rDK CtD tD'" yes silm ';ssil TaM ecrr, )KeHrn;HHa.

T' T ••

n"'i1~ C"'rp~~ tD'" yes 'antislm babbdyit B Jl,OMe ecrs JlIOllll.

3Ha1.JeHlle OTCYTCTBllH (ne-cyurecrsosanaa) ssrpaacaercs CJIOBOM 1"'~ 'en «HeT, He llMeeTC.SI», TaK)I{e HeIl3MeHHeMbIM:

rD"'K im 1"'~ 'en po 'is i1~~ c~ 1"'~ 'en silm 'iNa

3Jl,eCb HeT MY)I{'111HbI. TaM HeT )KeHIUllHbI.

n~~~ C"'rp~~ 1"'~ 'en 't'inilslm babbdyit B }lOMe HeT JIIOlleu.

CJlOBa rD~ yes 11 1"'~ 'en sacro COqeTaIOTC.H C npeanorosr ~ le-, Bblpa)l{aIOll~HM npa Ha,lJ,JIe)KHOCT b:

:'1~~~ tD"'~ rD~ yes is lii'jssii ~9~ rD"'~~ 1"'~ 'en litTs kesep cp. rD"~~ ~9~tr hakkeseji Iii 'is

y [aroii] )l{eHrn;IlHbI ecrs MY)I{.

Y [3TOro] l.JeJIOBeKa HeT ziener. [3Tll] ztensra ~ [eroro] 1.JeJlOBeKa, m. e. npanaancacar 3TOMy 1.JeJlOBeKY.

§3S .. I1pewIom-~ be-, -'? la- H -n~ 'etcMccro~BGnlbIMIt>~

. . .

JIIl1.JHble MeCTOllMeHll.H B ztpesneenpeficxow H3bIKe 6bIBaIOT Jl,ByX aaztoa:

1) CaMoCTOHTeJIbHble, no ynoTpe6J1eHHIO cooTBeTCTBYIOIUHe PYCCKllM JlIl1.JHbIM MeCTOllMeHllHM B llMeHllTeJlbHOM nanesce (CM. §81).

2) Cmrrnsre, cooreercrayionure PYCCKllM JIlll.JHbIM MeCTOllMeHll.HM B KOCBeHHblX nanezcax. Crnrrmae MeCTOllMeHll.H np"COe.ll,IlHHIOTC.H K npemuecrayrotueesy CJlOBY nanO}10611e cy<pqmKcoB 11 IIOTOMY 06blqHO Ha3bIBaIOTCH MeCTOllMeHHhlMH Cy<pq>HKCaMH. B 3aBHCllMOCTH OT Toro, K KaKOMY CJIOBY OHll np"COeJl,IH.HIOTC.H, MeH.HeTC.H HX <popMa.

3HaKOMCTBO C JlllqHhlMll MeCTOllMeHll.HMll MbI Ha1.JHeM C MeCTOllMeHHbIX CYQJCPllKCOB, np"COeJl,IHHeMbIX K npeztnory '? le-:

88

YPOK 7
",t;, Ii MHe ~:Jt; lilnfi HaM
T
';f7 laka Te6e(M.p.) e:l" ldkem BaM (M.p.)
.; T
17 lals Te6e (.11('. p.) 11~7 laken]t BaM (.11('. p.)
i" 16 eMY Ci1" liihem llM (M. p.)
•• it T
j"!Tt;, liih en lv? liihen llM (.1IC. p.)
T KaK BHJI.llM, JIlltIHbIe MeCTOllMeHll.H nroporo II TpeTbero nnua paanaxarorcx no po.n:aM (3TO xacaercs KaK CJIllTHbIX q,0PM, TaK II caMOCTOHTeJIbHbIX). TaKllM 06pa- 30M, B npeaaeeepertcxosr .H3bIKe cymecrsyer no ztaa MeCTOllMeHllH, COOTBeTCTBYIOIllHX PYCCKllM ~ThI., ~BbI. II ~OHll».

<DOPMhI MeCTOllMeHHbIX Cycl><J>llKCOB.llJIH npennora ~ be- HllqeM He OTJllltIaIOTC.H OT nsnnenpaaezreaasrx, KpOMe oznroro: BMeCTO CV~ bahem anorna BCTpeqaeTC.H BapHaHT C~ bam.

T

PYCCKHM JIHtIHbIM MeCTOHMeHHHM B BHHHTeJIbHOM nanezce COOTBeTCTBYIOT coseranaa npeanora -n~ 'et C MecroHMeHHbIMH cycl>qmKcaMH:

"'MK 'oli < • '6/anu
MeH.H !I:JnK Hac
T
';Jt;'K 'a/aka Te6.H (AI. p.) e~~~ 'etkem nac (.M.p.)
It'K '61iils Te6.H (.11('. p.) 11~~~ 'e/ken nac (.1IC. p.)]
inK 'OlD ero en'K 'a/am HX (.M.p.)
T
iiMK 'olah ee l~K 'i51iin HX (.11('. p.)
T BapHaHThl,WUI 3-ro .mrua MHO)KecmeHHoro tIMCJIa: CiJ~~ 'e!hem H lvt;'~ 'ethen.

Ilpuxepu ynorpetineaaa npeaaoros C MeCTOHMeHHbIMH cycl>4mKcaMH:

[3TOT] tIeJIOBeK ziaer HaM XJIe6.

~9~ "''? 1"'~ 'en Ii keseji Y MeHH HeT nener,

1~~ eV~ rD~ yes kihem mele/s Y HHX ecrr, naps,

,,~O-,,~ QI.;1K r:r'?ro 1~~iJ hammelek soleab 'o/tim 'el-ha 'ir Ilaps nOCbIJIaeT HX B ropozt,

1 ~mtbIe ctCo6kM 03Ha"l8lOT. 'ITO Ai3Httasl4KJpMa HM paay He ~1ffiiIJ~ B 6MOOMM M pet(OHClJlY'1pyeTCR ~~p~ - no aHallOO'lM Mmt no AaHHblM nocne6M6neMaa.tx espei100tx TetcCTOB.

89

YPOK 7

lK~ ~jj(')n
..,p~ biiqar
TT
C,O!1 gamal
TT
en'; leoem
..
,." yiire(/
i'tDV ~iisir
. T
,,~ dal
tD' -v
yes
1'~ 'en §39. Caoaaps 7

CYI1lECTIiI1TEJlbllbIE:

(.1IC. p., co6upam., 11£ uueem .MH. 1t.) MeJIKHH porarsrii CKOT:

OBl.{bI H K03bI

(co6upam., He uueem .MH. 1t.) KpynHbIH porarsui CKOT: 6bIKM, BOJJbI H KOPOBbI

(.MH. uenpae: e',?~~ gamallim) Bep6JIIO]l XJIe6; nama

IIPI1'"lACTME:

cnYCKaIOlUHUC.H

11 PH 11 A rAT EJI b II bl E:

60raTbIH 6e]lHbIH

HeT, He HMeeTC.H

a) Y CTHO nepeaemrre aa JJ;peBHeeBpeHCKHii:

1. Y MeHa. HeT (JJ;OMa, caaa, nOJUI, BHHorpa.AHHKa)

2. Y nee HeT (MY)Ka, patios, neaer, KHHr)

3. Y Hac ReT (naps, CY]lbH, ropona, Bep6JIIO]lOB)

4. Y [aroro] 'IeJIOBeKa HeT )KeHb!.

5. Y HHX (.M. p.) eCTb (MeJIKHH CKOT, Bep6JIIO]lbI, 30JIOTO, cepe6po)

6. Ha [aroii] rope HeT nepensea.

7. B [3TOM] repone MHoro ]lOMOB.

8. 3]leCb ecrs MHoro BeCTHHKOB.

9. OH nOCbIJIaeT Hac.

10. OH nHIIIeT HaM.

11. OH naer HaM xJ1e6.

12. OH )KHBeT TaM.

13. OHa nOCbIJIaeT HX.

t 4. OHa cascaer ero If.JlH HHX.

90

YPOK 7

6) Ilepeaezare:

1. 'en 'is yiiseb 'al-hakkisset") .

. M~:PiJ-"~ :l~" rD'a_t r~

2. yes seper siim.

. CrD i£)C rD'

T ': •• ••

3. 'en sope1 yasiir bii 'fro

. i'~~ i~~ ~~fD r~

4. hammal'ii!sim yoradim mehiihiir kf 'en lahem lihem slim . . C~ CIJ? CiJ~ r~ '~ i~~~ C" .. t' C':;>~~~iJ

5. ha'dsirim nolanim ltfbem laddallim hayyosabfm siint . CrD C':lrD'''iT C'~"'=I" cn'; c':Jn) C'j'rDViT

T .: - • - - .: ._. • : • • -: T

6. hii'aniisimyo$a'fm min-hiilrwahiila/sfm 'el-hiihiir . . i~~-"~ c'~~Ml i'~~-l~ C'a_t~' C'~~~~

7. hanniisim YO$a'ol mehii'irwayoradol 'el-hanniihiir . . iiT~iT-"M ni'i" j'ViTC niM~', C'rD~i1

TT-'" ::. T" : ' T-

8. yes Idna bay;l gadal wagan qiil0n .

. l~j; 1~1 "i'~ n~~ ~:J7 rD~ 9. mfhii'aniisim hahola/sim 'el-hii'fr?

. i'ViT-"M c':J"MiT C'rD:JMiT 'c

• T .: .: - • T -: 'T •

10. hayliidfm yasabfm wa 'aka/fm bakkerem .

. Cil>:O C''':JM' C':lrD', C""'iT

.: .: - .:: .: • T :--

11. ha( ') 'iisir me 'ad. yes 10 keseji waZiihiib .

. :lyt1 "9~ i" rD~ . 'M7f i'rp¥ M~iT

B) Hanaunrre no- npeeaeeepeacioc

1. Y napa HeT HH crpaasr, HH ropozta (6Y1C6.: «< Y napa HeT CTpaHhI, H ReT Y Hero ro-

poaas-),

2. Ine CH,ZtIlT H eaar [3TH] IOHOIIIH?

3. Y 60raThIx ecrs XJIe6, a Y 6e.n;HhIx XJIe6a HeTY.

4. Beaasre KpH'IaT, llOTOMY 'ITO Y HHX HeT nama.

5. CYAbH nOChIJlaIOT KHHrH uapro, llOTOMY 'ITO B HHX ecrs MHoro xoponrero (6Y1C6.: ~XOpOIlIHX Bem;eu. ).

6. Ilaps nocsrnaer MeHII K cyztse, llOTOMY 'ITO Y Hero TPY,llHaH llp06JIeMa (6Y1C6.: ~Belllh.).

7. 3Aech ecrs MHoro Bep6JIIO,llOB.

91

§40. YKaaaTeJIbHble MeCTOHMeHHJI

YPOK8

ea. u. Mit. u. I
M. p. ilT ze 3TOT } il'-,M 'elle l
.. 3TH
nMT z6(')t -
)K. p. 3Ta
M. p. M~i1 hft(') 3TOT, TOT )Ke Ci1 him 3TH, 're acc ,
(BhI lIIeynOM.H HyrhIll ) (BhllIIeynOM.HHYTbJC) I
I
hi(') -c henna
)K. p N"j1 3Ta, Ta)Ke i13i1 3TH, 're zce
T"
(BhI lIIeynOM.H nyras ) (BhllIIeynOM.HHYTbJe )1 B PYCCKOM .H3b1Ke pa3JIHQaIOTC.H MeCTOHMeHH.H ~3TOT» (YKa3blBaIOT na 6JIH)KaHIIIHH npezcacr) H ~TOT» (YKa3hlBaIOT na .n.aJIhHHH npensacr). B .n.peBHeeBpeHCKOM .H3hIKe raxoro pa3JIHqH.H HeT: i1r ze, nMT ziJ(')1 H il'p~ 'elle MoryT HCnOJIb30- BaThC.H B 060HX CJIyqa5Ix:

11j iln :J;~ ilr ze foil waze ra I 3TOT [QeJIOBeK] .n.o6p, a TOT 30JI.

Y xaaarensnsre MeCTOHMeHH.H N~il hu( '). M"j} hi( '), cry hem H i1~ij henna IICnOJIh3YlOTCSI 06hP·IHO AJlSl OTChIJIKH K JIIOJUIM H npe.n.MeTaM, 0 KOTOPhIX nepen 3TlIM TOJIhKO qTO rOBOpHJIOCb:

3TOT qeJIOBeK (0 KOTOPOM MhI fOBOPHJIH)

OTMCThTe: npn npacocnnneaaa onpeaenenaoro apTHK.7I.H K MeCTOHMeHII.HM c~ hem H i1~ij hennii apTHK.7Ih, nonpexa 06meMY npaBHJIY, IIMeeT cllopMy;:r hii:

erm hdhem, il3fril hahennii

•• T T" T

B npeJ],JlO)KeHHH yKa3aTe.7IhHOe MeCTOHMeHHe MO)KCT BhlnOJIH.HTh cllYHKllHIO orrpeztenenns. Torna OHO aezter ce6S1 noztofirro npHJIaraTeJIhHOMY: CTaBHTC.H nOCJIe onpeztenaevoro CJIOBa H COfJIacyeTC.H C HHM B pone H QHC.7Ie. 06hIQHO cyniecranTeJIhHOe, K KOTOPOMY OTHOCHTC.H yKa3aTeJIhHOe MeCTOHMeHHe, HMeeT onpeztenenHhIH apTHK.7Ih; B TaKOM cnysae onpeneneausiii apTHK.7Ih nOBTOp.HCTCJI H nepea MeCTOHMeHHeM:

92

YPOK 8

il ~il rd"'MiT hii'is hazze

00 - 0 T

n~~:1 :1rBM:1 hii';ssii hazz6(')t

T • T

~'='it:1 C"rD :lMiT

.: •• T • T-: T

~'='it:1 C"rDJiT

.: •• T • T-

N~:1:1 rD"M:1

o T

hti 'aniis;m hli '~l/e hannasim hli '~lle hii'fs hahid')

N":1:1 iTrBM;"'1 hii';ssii hahi(')

TOT

3Ta )KeHlllHHa

3TH JIIO.n.H (MY)KqHHhl)

3TH )KeHlIlHHbI

3TOT (BhlIIIeynOM.HHYThlH) qeJIOBeK

3Ta (BhlIIIeynOM.HHYTaH) )KeHlllHHa 3TH (BhlIIIeynOM.HHYThle) JIIO.l(H

C;"T:1 C"rD:lM;"'1 hii 'aniisim hiihem

•• T • T-: T

;,~;i:1 C"rDJ;"'1 hanndsim hiih~nnii 3TH (BhlIIIeynOM.HHYThle) )KeHlllHHbI

T" TOT-

ECJIH CYllleCTBHTeJIbHOe HMeeT npn ce6e O.n.HO HJIH HeCKOJIbKO onpeneacann, BbIpa)KeHHbIX npnnararensueeaa, TO YKa3aTeJIbHOe MeCTOHMeHHe craBHTC.H nOCJIe HHX:

:1~:1 :J;~iT rD"N;"'1 hii'is hattob hazze

• • T

n~1tT :1~~rt ;"'1~~y hii'issii hayyiipii hazz6(')1

3TOT XOPOllIHH qeJIOBeK 3Ta KpaCHBaH )KeHlllHHa

Crt;"'1 C":J;~;"'1' C""iil\;"'1 C"r-1~;"'1

O'T • -: 0 :- 'T-

habbatim hagga(j6lim waha!f6bim hahem

3TH 60JIbllIHe xopounre .n.OMa

Kpoue roro, YKa3aTeJIbHOe MeCTOHMeHHe (6e3 apTHKJI.H) MO)KeT HCnOJIb30BaTbC.H .l(JUI npocmii arChlJIKH K npncyrcmyronteery JIHIzy HJIH npenxery (COOTBeTCTBYeT PYCCKIIM CJIOBaM 4:3TO., 4:BOT.):

rD"~iJ ;"'1~ ze hii'is 3TO - [TOT CaMbIH] qeJIOBeK.

;"'1'~y ilMT z6( ')1 hii'i§Sli 3TO ~ [ra casras] )KeHlUHHa.

C"i:J~;"'1 ;"'1~M '~lle haddebarim 3TO - [re castsre] CJIOBa.

0T:- 0: ..

3aMeTbTC, qTO H 3,n:eCb MeCTOHMeHHe cornacyerca B pone H qHCJ1e C cyntecrmrTeJIbHbIM (B OTJIHqHe or pyccxoro .H3bIKa, rne B no,n:06HbIX CJ1yqaHX ncerna CTaBHTC.II <popMa cpeaaero pozta ~3TO. ).

93

YPOK 8

M. p.

)K. p. {

§4 t. IIpHQacTHR (npOJJ;OJI)I(eHHe)

eo. 't.

iT~~ bone iT:J~ bOna

T

iT~~~ honiyya

.MH. 't.

C":J~ bOnim ni:J~ bOnot

B xopne sroro rJIarOJIa aenocraer rpersero COrJIaCHOrO (6YKBa iT aa xonue CJIOBa il ~':!I bone npe,l{CTaBJI.HeT co6ou mater lectionis H He OTHOCHTCJI K KOpHIO). B HeKOTopbIX q,opMax MeCTO aenocraiouiero TpeTbero COrJIaCHOrO aaHHMaer" y (cp, il~~':!1 biiniyya). TaKou ., y npHHJlTO Ha3bIBaTb CJIa6bIM, a rJIarOJIbI nO,l{o6· noro pozta - «rJIarOJIaMH C TpCTbHM CJIa6bIM. (III-CJI.).

06paTHTe BHHMaHHe: rrpasacrna 3THX rJIarOJIOB 06pa3yIOT <P0PMY )KeHCKOro pozta e,l{HHCTBeHHoro qHCJIa ,l{ByM.H cnocotiaxn: C ., H 6e3 Hero. Bnposev, 06pa3o· BaHH.H C ." npozte iT~~':!I boniyya, acrpesaiorca ,l{OBOJIbHO peznco,

ilj":!1 bind
T
c $i(/eq
P1~
rD~ 'es
M":J:J nii!Jf(,
• T
iT:J~ bone
il"'l1 iole
"~;:J nopei §42. CJIOOaph 8

CYllJ.ECTBJfTEJIbHbIE:

nOHHMaHHe, paayxr

npaszta, cnpaseanneocrs, npaneaaocrs (cp. P"~~ $addiq) (MH. Hem) oroas (:JIC. p.)

(.MH. -1m) npopox

crposmaa nO,l{HliMaIOmHiic~ na,naIOlllHU

a) Y CTHO nepeaeznrre na ,l{peBHeeBpeUCKHU:

1. 3TOT rOJIO,l{

2. 3TH ,lJ.OMa

3. 3TOT (BbIllIeynoM5IHYTbIH) ropon

4. 3TH .n,eHbrH

94

YPOK 8

S. 3Ta (auureynoeomyraa) pafora

6. 310T COBeT

7. 31H ropona

8. 3TH ropu

9. 31H (asmteynoscmyrsre} uapoztu

6) Ilpeotipaayiire CJIOBOCOqeTaIUI.H ynp3)KHeHl1.H (a) B npell.JIO)KeHM.H no o6pa3UY:

310T [OJIO,l( => 3TO ~ rOJIO,l(.

B) Ilepeaemrre:

1. dal hanniibi( ') hazze wa'en lolebem .

. cry? i" T'~1 i1:rrT M":;1~rT ""':1 2. ha'anasim hii'~lle 'olim 'el-heharim.

, C".,i1i1-"M C.,,,·V :-tL;,Nir C"rz.;)Mi1

• T .,'.,' , ',' .. T • T-: T

3. hannebi'im haysarim h6lalsim bafji(}eq .

. P1~f c"~,?M C"'"1~~iJ C"~":;J~iJ 4. bind wabolsma (obo! mi:a.iihiib .

. :Ji1'T~ n;:l;U i1~:Jn' i1)":!l

TT' T:T: T'

5. hii'es nopele; 'al-habbdyu 'iiser '~$el hahi/siil .

. ":J";'~ "~it irOM n":!ii1-"V n"£)) rDM:-t

T .. - .: •• •• -. • - - - .. •• .. T

6. na 'aniisim bonim bayt! gii(}ol ba 'ir hahi(?

. M"i1~ ""V:!l ";'3 n":!i C.,j:;J C"rz1:lMiT

• - • T T' - • • T-: T

7. rii'im ha'am ki 'in liihem binii .

. n~"~ cry,? 1"~ .,~ C¥'y C"+'l 8. hu( ') soleab lc1nu nabi(? saddiq .

. P"l~ M":;1~ ~)'? TJ~rD M~i1 9. 'en melek birfisiilayim.

r) HanHIIIHTe no-ztpesneespeiicxa:

1. 3TH Bep6JIIO,lJ,hI ~ MOM, a 3TM Bep6JIIO,l(hI - TBOM.

2. Y Te651 Her paayua.

3.0H nO,lI;lIlfMaeTC.H K CKOTY, KOTOPhlH [HaXO,l(MTC.H] B ropax.

4. OHa naztaer.

5. MaJIbqHKM CTpo.HT MaJIeHbKMH .D,OM P.H,l(OM C canosr.

95

YPOK 8

6. [3TII] JIIO,l(H )KHByT B ::no" crpaae, nOTOMY lITO OHa BeJlHKa II xopoura,

7. OR aacsrnaer (6YKB.: 4:.naeT, nonemaers-) orcas aa 3TOT (BbIIIIeynoMRHYTbIH) 3JIoii ropon,

96

YPOK9

§43. TIep4>eKT npaBHJlbHblX rnarOJIOB

Jlae OCHOBHbIe cnparaesuse CPOPMbI npeaneespeacxoro fJIafOJIa (fOBOP.H YCJIOBHO, )lBa ~BpeMeHH. ) npHH.HTO Ha3bIBaTb JIaTHHCKHMH TepMHHaMH neJXPe1Cm H uunepfjJeKm1, DHH 06pa3YIOTC.H OT ,llByX pa3JIH':IHbIX OCHOB, HMeIOlllHX O,llHH H TOT )Ke TpeXCOrJIaCHbIU reopens, HO pa3HyIO OfJIaCOBKY. Ilpn 3TOM B nepdiexre npa cnpsx<emm MeH.HIOTC.H OKOH':IaHH.H, nanpavep:

:lM!J kala/} OH nHCaJI

-T

..

'r.l:lM:;:) kiild!Jtf .H nHCaJI

• : - T

B HMnep<peKTe MeH.HIOTC.H -npecpHKcbI H OKOHtIaHH.H:

:l'r-l:r~ yikt6b OH HanHIIIeT

i1~~r.,:;U:l tikto/}na OHH (1IC. p. MH. 'Il.) HanHIIIYT

Mw Ha':lHeM H3yqeHHe fJIarOJIbHbIX upesren C nepdiexra. B xasecrse npaerepa paCCMOTpHM Cnp.H)KeHHe rJIafOJIa :lrt~ kiitab:

~:lM:;:) kiila!Ju

: IT

OHH nHCaJIH

llU~O pod eo.».
3-e M.p. :lM:;' kalab OH nHCaJI }
-T
)1(. p. il:lM:;:) kiila!Jii OHanHCaJIa
T : IT
2-e c kald!Jta
M.p. r-l:lM:;:) TbI nHCaJI
T:-T
)1(. p. 2 c kald/}t
r-l:JM:;:) TbI nHCaJIa
: : - T
t-e < kiild!Jtf
' r-l:lM:;:) .H nHCaJI, nHCaJIa
• : - T
3aM8'f8HMSI: .MH. 'Il.

Cr-t:lM:;:) kt1labtem BbI nHCaJIH
... - .
.. .
T~:;trt:P ketabten BbI nHCaJIH
< kiildbnu
~:J:lM:;' MbI nHCaJIH
: - T 1) <I>opMa 3-ro JIHu;a en, ':I. M. p., He HMeIOllla.H OKOH':IaHHH, C':IHTaeTC.H HCXO,llHOU (CJIOBapHoH). I1MeHHo 3Ta q,opMa (a He HHq,HHHTHB) B CJIOBap.HX zrpeaaeeepeaCKOro H3bIKa npHBO,llHTC.H B aarOJIOBKaX CJIOBapHbIX CTaTeU. B pe3YJIbTaTe CJIOBapH npenaeeepeiicsoro .H3hIKa BbIfJI.H,ll.HT, na nepBbIH B3fJI.H,ll, HeCKOJIbKO CTpaHHO:

I

Cpa3Y f1O,[t'fePKHeM, 'ITO 3nt H83B3HMSI Mane OTJ}lDK8m ~'3H8'teHMe 06eMx cSqJM. So BCSIKOM cny-

'l3e, ac:t:X)UM8LlMM c naTMHCKMM MnM rpeqecKl1M nep4)eKrOM M MMnep4)eKrOM, a TalOKe c aH8l1Ollt'tHblMM 8peMeHaMM COBpeMeHHbIX eaponePlCKMX R3b1KOB MOryT TOnbKO BBeCTH B aa6nyJr,qeHMe.

2

06parMTe BHMM8HMe: 3TO <>AMH M3 HeMHOrMX CJ1Y'iOO8, KorAS ttapyWaeTCR npaBMnO §3.1 0 TOM, 'ITO CJJOr

He ...axer 38K8H'tMB8TbaI H8 AB8 corl18CHbIX.

97

YPOK 9

.l(peBHeeBpeUCKlle rJIarOJIbI .l(aIOTC.H B cPopMe 3-ro rrmta ezt, q. rtepdiexra, a llX rtepe BO,l(hI - B llH<pllHllTllBe, nanpasrcp:

:ln~ kiitab rnrcars.

- T ~-

Ta6JIllUhI CnpHJKeHll.H npeaneeapeiicxax rJIarOJIOB np"H.HTO .llaBaTb B -snepeeep HyrOM. Blf,lJ;e: OT 3-ro .nnna K 1-MY, qTo6bI CJlOBapHa.H <PoPMa CTO.HJIa B nasane,

2) B ztpeeneenpeiicxov fJIarOJIe paarnrsae Me)K.l(Y MY)KCKllM II )KeHCKMM pO.l(OM cyntecrnyer TOJIhKO BO 2-M II 3-M rnruax, B rrepdieare COBna,naIOT <PoPMhI 3-ro JII1l{a MHO)KeCTBeHHoro QllCJIa MY)KCKOrO II )KeHCKOro pozra,

3) TIPll cnpaacernnr MeHHIOTCH He TOJIhKO OKOHQaHH.H, HO II OrJIaCOBKa OCHOBbI. 113- MeHeHI1.H B OCHOBe aannesrr OT Toro, K KaKOMY xnaccy CnpH)KeHI1.H OTHOCllTC.H fJlarO~ (CM. CJIe.n.YIOlUllU nYHKT), O.ll,HaKO Ha60p OKOHQaHllH O,D,I1HaKOB ,n;JI.H scex rJIarOJIOB.

4) fJIarOJIhI, rcopmr KOTOPbIX conepzcar roprarrnsni COrJIaCHhIM HJIll OTJII1Qarom ,n;pyrllMll <PoHeTllqeCKllMll ocooeanocraau (narrpnsrep, ~~':J bone), OTKJIOH.HIOTCE OT npaaeztennoro nsnne o6pa3ua. Hx cnpazcemre MhI paCCMOTp"M B CJIe.llYIOlllJIX ypoxax. fJIarOJIhI rnna :l.r'l~ katab, He HMeIOm:lle <pOHeTlPleCKllX ocooeaaocrd 06pa3y1OT KJIaCC npaeumasux. H3MeHeHH.H B nx OCHOBe perYJIl1pYIOTC.H CJIe.ll.YrolUllMI1 3aKOHaMll:

a) OKOHqaHll.H -td, -ti, -nii ll, KOHeqHO )Ke, -/6e3y,napHbI. IIoCKOJIhKY yztapenae OCTaeTCH na MeCTe, COxpaH.HeTC.H OrJIaCOBKa llCXO,nHOH <pOPMbI (ii -_ a).

6) OKOHqaHll.H -a II -u yztapnsr, KpaTKHu a, OKa3aBllIHCb n omxpumou npeiJyaap'HoJi. cnore, penynnpyerca B a (c~. §5.2.1): ;"'1 ~I;1~ kataba, ~:l~# kil/abu.

n) OKOHqaHll.H -tem II -ten yztapnsr, KpaTKllH a B 3aKphITOM 6e3Y.llapHOM cnore coxpa H.HeTC.H; .llOJIrllH ii, OKa3aBIlIHCh B npeiJnpeiJyiJap1l0M omxpumou cnore, pe.n.yll.l1py· eTCH B a (CM. §5.2.2): Ct1~.r'I:P ketabtem. l~~D:P ketabten.

5) ECJIll nOCJIe,nHllu COrJIaCHhIH KOpH.H cosnaztaer C nepmrsr COrJIaCHhIM OKOHl£aHH.H, TO na nllChMe OHH H306pa)KaIOTC.H O,nHOU 6YKBon C CHJIhHhIM ztaremesc

nj~ karat OH orpytian 1;Jr9 siilsan OH nOCeJIllJICH

"r-1":;l kiirdtti

• - T

~~~rri siilsannu

-T

51 orpytian

MhI nOCeJII1JIHCh

6) 2-e JIllUO MY)KCKOro pozta oznmcracnncro ql1CJIa nnorna rnnuerca c mater lectionis :1:

<

;"'1r-1:ln~ katabta.

T : - T --

98

YPOK 9

§44. 3HaqeHHe nepdiescra

C<popMl1poBaHHble B euponeiicxoii rpaMMaTlIqeCKOH Tpa.n;HUIUI, na OCHOBe asyseHUH eBpOneHCKI1X .H3bIKOB, xareropan BpeMeHH, BH,lI.a, HaKJIOHeHH.H He BnOJIHe nOJlXO));.SlT ,lI;JIH onHCaHH.H rJIarOJIbHbIX £POpM ztpeaneenpeiicxoro .H3bIKa. TIo-HaCTOHIIJ,eMY nOHHTb anaxenne ztpeaneeapericxax fJIafOJIbHbIX <PoPM Mhl MO)KeM TOJIbKO H3YQa.SI YCTPOHCTBO CB.H3HbIX TeKCTOB. Pa3YMeeTC.H, B nepnsrx ypoxax yQe6- HHKa CTaBHTb nepea co6oii TaKYIO sazraxy CJIHIIlKOM pano. TIOKa qTO HaIIlHM MaTePHaJIOM 6y.n;YT OCTaBaTbC.H He CB.SI3Hble TeKCTbI, a yrrpazcnenaa, COCTO.HlllHe H3 JIHIlIeHHbIX KOHTeKCTa, OTqaCTH HCKYCCTBeHHbIX £ppa3. TI03TOMY H aaaseaae rrraroJIbHbIX CPOPM MbI 6y.n;eM onpenenars YCJIOBHO, B nepBOM npH6JIH)KeHHH.

IhaK, B YQe6HbIX cppa3ax nocneztyroumx ypOKOB CPOpMhI neprpexra cneztyer nepeBOJlI1Tb:

1) 06bIQHO npOIIle.n;IIlIIM BpeMeHeM coaepmennoro llJIH HeCOBepIIleHHOfO nnzra:

"i-I:111::J kiild/!ti .H nHCaJI, .H HanHCaJI;

• : - T

2) B CJIYQae fJIarOJIOB -ryacraemroro BOCnpH51TH.H II 3MOUHOHaJIbHOrO COCTO.HHM5I - nponreztnnea IIJIH HaCTO.HIllHM, B 3aBHCHMOCTlI OT KOHTeKCTa:

'"

.,r:t~iJtt 'iihd/!ti .H JII06JIIO (WlU .H JII06HJI, .H nOJII06llJI)

'"

"J:!¥1~ yiidd~ti .H 3HalO (WlU.H 3HaJI, .H Y3HaJI);

3) B CJIYl.Jae rrenepexoznnax rJIaroJIOB, 0603HaqaIOlllHX <ilH3HqecKoe llJIH nyuresHoe COCT051HHe cy6'beKTa, ucppexr MO)KHO nepeeecrn xparxoii CPOPMOH npnnararenaoro:

"J:!?~! ziiqdnti.H cTap (WlU 6bIJI crap, cOCTapHJIC.H)

§45. Upe,ll;JIO)KeHHe C rJIarOJIbHbIM cKa3yeMbIM

Inaronsaoe cxaayestoe, KaK H HMeHHoe, 06bIQHO CTOHT JIH60 na nepnosr, JIII60 na BTOPOM Mecre B npe.n;JIO)KeHHH (cp. §§16, 23).

C"i:J~i1-nN rti"Ni1 i:JT zakar hii'fs 'et-haddebarim

• T : -.: • T - T - - -

[3TOT] QeJIOBeK 3anOMHHJI [3TII] CJIOBa.

i~~~ i~1t_T-ntt :lrt~ rti"~::r hii'is kiitab 'et-haddiibar basseper [ 3TOT] qenOBeK 3anHCaJI [3TO] CJIOBO B KHHry.

B nOBecTBoBaTeJIbHOH npose (B penn paCCKa3QHKa) B03MO)KHbI JIHIIlb CJIe.n;yIOuae uapaarrrsr nOCTpOeHII.H npe.n;JIO)KeHH.H C rJIafOJIbHbIM cKa3yeMbIM:

1) Cxaayesroe - TIO,l(JIC)KaIllee - Bropocrerrermsre QJIeHbI

2) Ilonnosauiee - Cxaayesroe - B'ropocrenennsre qJIeHbI

99

YPOK 9

3) ,llonOJIHeHHe HJIH 06CTO.HTeJIbCTBO - Cxaayeuoe - Iloztnexamee - OCTaJIbHble nropocrenemnae qJIeHbI

BapHaHT 1) -HeHTpaJIbHblH; BapHaHTbI 2) H 3) B03MO)KHbI TOJIbKO B crporo onpeaeneamrx CJIyqruIX (CM §132).

B np.HMOH pesa nOp.H)lOK CJIOB 60JIee fH6oK. B n033HH aapsnpoaaane nopanxa

CJlOB - O.lJ.HO H3 cpencrn nocrpoeaaa n03THqeCKOfO TeKCTa.

Fnarorr COfJIacYCTc5I C nO.lJ.JIe)Kam;HM B JIHu;e, qHCJle H pone. B Tex cnysaax, xorna no-pyccxa noztneacannru .n;OJI:>KHO 6bITb JIHqHoe MecToHMeHHe, B npesaeeapeiicsoa OHO, KaK npaBHJIO, onYCKaeTC.H:

C"!~1;:r-n~ i~t ziikar 'et-haddsbarim OH BCnOMHHJI [3TH] CJIOBa.

C""'1~liJ-n~ ;'11~J zii!sarii 'et-haddebarim OHa BCnOMHHJIa [3TH] CJIOEa C"i:l.,i1-nM "r-ti:jT ziikcirti 'et-haddebdrim H BCnOMHHJl [3TH] CJIOBa •

• T : - .: .: - T

Ilepezt onpeztenemrsnur IIp.HMblMH .lJ.OnOJIHeHH.HMH HCnOJIb3yeTC.H npeztnor -M~ 'et- (CM. nsmre §27).

B OTpHu;aTeJIbHblX npe)lJIO)KeHH.HX nepezt <pOPMOH ueppexra CTaBHTC5I orpnuaTeJIhHruI xacraua M''' 16(') «ne»:

i~1iJ-n~ "i:ll~! at" /0(') zii!¢rti 'et-haddabdr 51 He BCnOMHHJI [3TO] C]lOBO.

IIp.HMOe .lJ.OnOJIHeHHe 06b1qHO CTaBHTC.H nepezt KOCBeHHblM:

i1'~~ ;" H~"M 10~ natan 'oliih /6/a';ssii rD"~? i1,~o-n~ 10~ ndtan 'el-hii';ssii /d'is

OH nan ee eMY B )KeHbI.

OH MJI [3TY] )KeHlllHHY [3TOMy] MY)KqHHe.

Ho eCJIH KOCBeHHoe ,lJ;OnOJIHeHHe BblpaJKeHO npennorosr '? la C MeCTOHMeHHbIM cy$qnIKcoM, a npauoe - cyrrtecmurem.nerv, TO 3TO cym;eCTBHTeJIbHOe, KaK npaBHJIO, orcrynaer aa nropoe MeCTO:

iI',~O'-n~ ;" 10~ ndtan 18 'e!-hii';sfii OH ,lJ;aJI eMY [3TY] )KeHm;HHY·

100

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