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8, 2010

**Intelligent Controller for Networked DC Motor Control
**

B.Sharmila

Department of EIE, Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College Coimbatore, India sharmi.rajesh@gmail.com

N.Devarajan

Department of EEE, Government College of Tech. Coimbatore, India

Abstract—This paper focuses on the feasibility of Neural Network controller for Networked Control Systems. The Intelligent Controllers has been developed for controlling the speed of the Networked DC Motor by exploiting the features of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Controllers. The major challenges in Networked Control Systems are the network induced delays and data packet losses in the closed loop. These challenges degrade the performance and destabilize the systems. The aim of the proposed Neural Network Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller schemes improve the performance of the networked DC motor and also compare the results with the Zeigler-Nichols tuned Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller. The performance of the proposed controllers has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The effective results show that the performance of networked dc motor is improved by using Intelligent Controller than the other controllers. Keywords- Networked Control Systems (NCS); Network Challenges; Tuning; Proportional – Integral - Derivative Controllers (PID); Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC); Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

I.

INTRODUCTION

Networked Control System is the adaptation of communication network for information exchange between controllers, sensors and actuators to realize a closed control loop. Networks reduce the complexity in wiring connections and the costs of Medias. They are easy to maintain and also enable remote data transfer and data exchanges among users. Because of these benefits, many industries and institutions has shown interest in applying different types of networks for their remote industrial control and automation. Regardless of the types of networks, the overall performance of NCS is affected by two major challenges as networked induced delay and data losses. The challenges of networked DC motor are generally controlled by Conventional Proportional – Integral Derivative Controllers, since they are less expensive with inexpensive maintenance, designed easily, and very effective. But mathematical model of the controller and tuning of PID parameters are difficult and generally not used for non-linear systems. Hence to overcome these challenges auto-tuning and adaptive PID Controller was developed with few mathematical calculations. The Intelligent controllers as Fuzzy Logic Controller and Artificial Neural Networks were used to overcoming the challenges. Thus this paper proposes Intelligent Controller for the compensation of the challenges.

The novelty of this paper lies in comparison of the application of NARMA-L2 Controller and Mamdani Fuzzy Logic Controller with conventional PID controller for the improvement of the performance of networked control DC motor. There are two approaches to utilize a data network as Hierarchical Structure and Direct Structure as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively. In the hierarchical structure the dc motor is controlled by its remote controller at remote station whereas in direct structure the central controller is used for controlling the speed of dc motor. Since the hierarchical structure has a poor interaction between central and remote unit, direct structure is preferred. Recently the stability analysis and control design for NCS have attracted considerable research interest [3], [4], [6] and [11]. The work of Nesic and Teel [2] presents an approach for stability analysis of NCS that decouples the scheduling protocol from properties of network free nominal closed-loop system. Nesic and Tabbara [3] extended [2] by stochastic deterministic protocols in the presence of random packet dropouts and inter transmission time and they also proposed wireless scheduling protocol for non-linear NCS in [6]. The networked predictive control scheme for forward and feedback channels having random network delay was proposed in [4], and [5] addresses the problems of how uncertain delays are smaller than one sampling period which affects the stability of the NCS and how these delays interact with maximum allowable transfer interval and the selected sampling period. Robust feedback controller design for NCS with uncertainty in the system model and the network induced delay has been addressed in [7]-[8], whereas [9] handles networked induction motor speed control by using linear matrix n equality (LMI) method. Ref. [1] measure the networked vehicle control performance using an H infinity norm with linear matrix inequalities conditions and markovian jumping parameters in communication losses. In case of time varying transmission times, model based NCSs has been proposed for stabilization problem of NCS. The stability analysis and controller synthesis problems are investigated in [11] for the NCSs with random packet losses by using H infinity control and linear matrix inequalities. A moving horizon method was developed by [12], which was applied as a quantized NCS in a practical context. Since these methods transmit data specifying only a region in which the measurements lie, it will reduce the

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network stabilization of the NCS. However, this method could reduce the stability of the control system by introducing uncertainty in the control system. The issues of limited bandwidth, time delay and data dropouts was taken into consideration when NCSs controllers were designed in [12] – [14]. The networked control system performance depends on the control algorithm and the network conditions. Several network conditions such as bandwidth, end-to-end delay, and packet loss rate are major impacts on networked control systems. Depending upon the control algorithm and network conditions the overall performance of the networked system may vary and hence the stability of the system. II. MODELLING

Figure 3. An overall real-time networked control system.

A networked control system can be divided into the remote unit, the central controller and the data network. Fig. 3 shows the general block diagram of the networked control system under investigation. In order to focus our discussion on the performance of networked closed loop control system with network conditions (delay, data loss), a networked dc motor control system has been illustrated. A. Remote Unit The Remote Unit consists of the plant (dc motor), sensor and an interfacing unit. Via the network the remote unit can send measurements like motor speed, current, temperature, and local environment information, back to the central controller. The electro-mechanical dynamics of the dc motor can be described by the loop equation as first order differential equations.

where u=ea is the armature winding input voltage; eb =Kbω is the back-electromotive-force (EMF) voltage; L is the armature winding inductance; ia is the armature winding current; R is the armature winding resistance; Kb is the back-EMF constant and ω is the rotor angular speed. Based on Newton’s law the mechanical-torque balance equation is

J

(2) J is the system moment of inertia; B is the system damping coefficient; K is the torque constant and Tl is the load torque. By letting x1 = ia and x2 = ω, the electromechanical dynamics of the dc motor can be described by the following state-space description:

•

dω + Bω + Tl = Kia dt

di u (t ) = ea = L a + Ria + eb dt

x1 (t ) = −

(1)

•

K R 1 x1 − b x 2 + u L L L

(3)

K B 1 x 2 (t ) = x1 − x 2 + Tl J J L

(4) The parameters of the motor Table 1 are used for determine the state space model of dc motor.

TABLE 1. DC MOTOR PARAMETERS J L R B K Kb Moment of Inertia Inductance Resistance Damping Coefficient Torque Constant Back EMF constant 42.6 e-6 Kg-m2 170 e-3 H 4.67 Ω 47.8 e-6 Nm-sec/rad 14.7 e-3 Nm/A 14.7 e-3 Vsec/rad

Figure 1. Hierarchical Structure.

B. Central Controller The central controller will provide the control signal uC(t) to the remote systems. The central controller will monitor the network conditions of the remote unit link and provide appropriate control signals to each remote unit. Similarly the output responses are taken as feedback signal yR(t) to the central controller. The proposed Intelligent Controllers will compensate the network-induced delays, data losses and external disturbances. The data losses and disturbances occur due to missing or disturbances in input reference signal, control signal and feedback signal.

Figure 2. Direct Structure.

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C. Data Network There are different ways to define network conditions for point-to-point (from the central control to a specific remote unit). Two of the most popular network measures are the point-to-point network throughput and maximal delay bound of the largest data. One factor of interest is the sampling time. To keep the illustration simple, the remote unit receives the data sent from the central controller as uR(t), which can be mathematically expressed as (5) where τR is the time delay to transmit the control signal uC(t) from the central controller to the remote unit. The remote unit also sends the sensors signals yR(t) of the remote system back to the central controller yC(t), and these two signals are related as y C (t ) = y R (t − τ C ) (6) where τC is the time delay to transmit the measured signal from the remote unit to the central controller. There are also processing delays as τPC and τPR, at the central and remote unit, respectively which could be approximate small constants or even neglected because these delays are usually small compared to τC and τR. The functions of network variables such as the network throughput, the network management/policy used, the type and number of signals to be transmitted, the network protocol used, and the controller processing time, and the network traffic congestion condition are taken as the current network conditions n(t) and let z-t be a time delay operator which defines the signals as

uR (t) = uc (t −τ R )

Figure 4. Neural Network Controller for NCS. TABLE 2. ANN PLANT SPECIFICATION No. of Inputs No. of Outputs No. of Hidden Layers No. of Training Samples No. of Training Epochs 3 2 2 1000 200

The error signals are trained for number of epochs by using the NARMA-L2 controller and the control signal are generated for any challenges in the network. B. Fuzzy Logic controller In general, fuzzy logic control is used for the control of a plant where the plant modeling is difficult. For such systems that are difficult to model, fuzzy logic controller has been successful by Mamdani. The basic principle of fuzzy logic lies in the definition of a set where any element can belong to a set with a certain degree of membership. Using this idea, the knowledge of an expert can be expressed in a relatively simple form and the inference for given inputs can be implemented very efficiently. Due to these advantages, fuzzy logic control is an attractive method for NCS whose modeling is very difficult because of the stochastic and discrete nature of the network. Fig. 5 shows the structure of FLC for a single input single output plant. In Fig. 5 r(t) is the reference input, y(t) is the plant output, e(t) is the error signal between the reference input and plant output and uC(t) is the control signal. The FLC consists of three parts as 1) Fuzzifier that converts the error signal into linguistic values, 2) Inference engine that creates the fuzzy output using fuzzy control rules generated from expert experience and 3) Defuzzifier that calculate the control input to the plant from the inferred results. The input and output signals to the FLC are error signal e(t) and control signal uC(t) respectively. In this paper, the trapezoidal fuzzy members are selected for membership functions. Three fuzzy linguistic variables, i.e., Small, Medium and Large are defined. The coefficients of the membership function depend upon the set point and are determined by several trial and error experiments with the plant without the network. In order for faster execution of the fuzzy logic controller, the Mamdani’s min-max inference method and the central average defuzzifier are used. The rules used in this paper are as If e(t) is small then uC(t) is small

u R (t ) = u c ( z − t R , n(t )) y c (t ) = y R ( z

−t c

(7)

(8) In this paper, we have chosen sampling time as 0.5 ms and simulations are done. III. MODELLING CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR NCS

, n(t ))

In this session the proposed Neural Network Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller as the central controller is described and the results are compared with the PID controller. A. Neural Network Controller The proposed scheme utilizes the neural-network NARMA-L2 Controller. The Neural Network Controller is designed to take the error as the input and computes the output stabilizing signal depending on the input error signal. The block diagram of Neural Network Controller for NCS is shown in Fig. 4. The NARMA-L2 controller, a multilayer neural network has two steps involved as system identification stage and control design stage. In system identification stage, a neural network model of the plant which has to be controlled is developed and in later stage the neural network plant model has been designed to train the controller. The ANN plant specification has been shown in Table 2.

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If e(t) is medium then uC(t) is medium If e(t) is large then uC(t) is large C. PID Controller It is used to compute the control signal to the remote dc motor for step tracking, based on the monitored system signals sent from the remote unit via the network link as in Fig. 6. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller used is

t

IV.

SIMULATION SETUP AND RESULTS

U PID (t ) = K p e(t ) + K I ∫ e(t )dt + K D

0 (9) where KP is the proportional gain; KI is the integral gain; KD is the derivative gain; r(t) is the reference signal for the system to track; y(t) is the system output; and e(t) is the error function. In our case, y = ω is the motor speed, and UPID(t) is the input voltage to the motor system. The results of model system with ANN, FLC and PID Controllers for network induced delays, losses and disturbance are simulated and compared.

de(t ) dt

In the simulation scenario, the direct structure of the networked DC motor control system is simulated using MATLAB/ SIMULINK under fully controlled environments for Neural Network Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller and PID Controller. Equations (3) - (4) are used as the main model, and it is controlled by the controller with the insertions of network delays according to (5) - (6). The delays are varied according to different effects of interests. The disturbance and loss of input signal, control signal and the feedback signal were made for few milliseconds at each stage and the results were studied. The system setup is illustrated in Fig.4, Fig.5 and Fig.6. Using (3)-(4) and Table 1, the state model of the dc motor is obtained. Then the results of the ANN and FLC are compared with the PID controller. Output Responses of the system are obtained for all controllers used in this paper. Fig. 7 shows the comparison of the system performance for all controllers without delays and data losses. Fig. 8 - 10 shows the response of the system for the controllers with different network induced delays and the comparison of these performances are tabulated in Table 3. The system responses with delay and data losses are obtained as in Fig. 11. From the simulation results as in Fig. 7 - 11, the overall system performance with Intelligent Controllers as ANN and FLC are better than the PID controller.

Output Response

2000 1800 1600 1400

Figure 5. Fuzzy Logic Controller for NCS.

M o to r S p e e d (rp m )

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

Fuzzy Logic Controller; ts = 7 ms; Mp = 3% PID Controller; ts = 10 ms; Mp = 23% Set Point = 1500 rpm Neural Network Controller; ts = 7 ms; Mp = 3 %

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Time (ms)

Figure 6. ZN Tuned PID Controller for NCS

Figure 7. Comparison of System Responses for ANN, FLC and PID Controller without delay and losses.

TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE OF THE NETWORKED DC MOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM WITH DELAY IN ANN, FLC AND PID CONTROLLER. (Set point = 1500 rpm; Sampling Time = 0.5ms) Time delay (ms) Feedforward path Feedback path 0.5 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 Maximum overshoot (%) FLC ANN 3.3 3 3.3 3 3.3 3 3.3 3 3.3 3 Settling Time (ms) FLC 7 8 9 9 10

PID 3.3 3.3 6.6 8 9

PID 30 40 62 70 75

ANN 7 7 8 8 9

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**

Output Response 1800 1600 1400 1200 M to S e d (rp ) o r pe m 1000 800 600 400 200 Set point = 1500 rpm FF: 0.5ms; FB: 1ms FF:1 ms; FB:1ms FF:2ms; FB:1ms FF: Feedforward Delay FB: Feedback Delay

0

0

5

10

15

20

25 Time (ms)

30

35

40

45

50

Figure 8. Response of the System using PID Controller with varying delays in forward and feedback path of NCS.

Output Response 1600

1400

1200

M to S e d (rp ) o r pe m

1000 FF: 0.5ms; FB: 1ms; Mp 3.3%:ts: 7 ms Sep Point: 1500 rpm FF:1 ms; FB:1ms;Mp: 3.3%;ts: 8 ms FF:2 ms; FB:1ms; Mp:3.3%; ts: 9 ms FF: FeedForward Delay FB: FeedBack Delay 400

800

600

200

0

0

5

10

15

20

25 Time (ms)

30

35

40

45

50

Figure 9. Response of the System using FLC with varying delays in forward and feedback path of NCS.

Output Response

1600

1400

Motor Speed (rpm)

1200

1000

800

600

Set Point=1500 rpm FF = 0.5 ms; FB = 1 ms; Mp = 3%; ts = 7 ms FF = 1 ms; FB = 1 ms; Mp = 3%; ts = 7 ms FF = 2 ms; FB = 1 ms; Mp = 3%; ts = 8 ms Feedforward Delay = FF Feedback Delay = FB

400

200

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Time (ms)

Figure 10. Output Response of the System using ANN with varying delays in forward and feedback path of NCS.

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Output Response

2500 Set Point = 1500 rpm PID Controller Neural Network Controller Fuzzy Logic Controller

2000

M o to r S p eed (rpm )

1500

**Feedforward = Feedback Delay = 2 ms
**

1000

500

Loss of Input Signal

0

0

50

100

150

Time (ms)

Figure 11. Comparison of system responses of ANN, FLC and PID Controllers with delay and losses. [8] D.Yue, Q.Han, and J.Lam, “Network-based robust H∞ control of systems with uncertainty,” Automatica, vol. 41, pp. 999-1007, June 2005. J.Ren, C.Wen Li De, and Z. Zhao, “Linearizing Control of Induction Motor Bsed on Networked Control Systems,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 6, pp. 192-197, May 2009. L.A.Montestruque, and P. Antsaklis, “Stability of Model-Based Networked Control Systems with Time-Varying Transmission Times,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 49, pp. 1562–1571, September 2004. Z.Wang, F.Yang, W.C.H.Daniel and X.Liu, “Robust H∞ Control for Networked Systems with Random Packet Losses,” IEEE Trans. Sys. Man Cybernetics-Part B, vol. 37, pp. 916-923, August 2007. G.C.Goodwin, H.Haimovich, D.E.Quevedo, and J.S.Welsh, “A Moving Horizon approach to networked control system design,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 49, pp. 1427–1445, September 2004. K.Li, and J.Baillieul, “Robust quantization for digital finite communication bandwidth (DFCB) control,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 49, pp. 1573–1584, September 2004. R.C.Luo, and T.M.Chen, “Development of a multibehaviour -based mobile robot for remote supervisory control through the internet,” IEEE. Trans. Mechatron., vol. 5, pp. 376-385, October 2000. J.P.Hespanha, P.Naghshtabrizi, and Y.Xu, “A survey of recent results in networked control systems,” Proc. IEEE. , vol. 95, pp. 138-162, January 2007. Y.Tipsuwan, and M.Y.Chow, “Control methodologies in networked control systems,” Control Eng. Practice, vol. 11, pp. 1099-1111, Feburary 2003. K.Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. J.G.Ziegler, and N.B.Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Trans. ASME, vol. 64, pp. 759-768, November 1942. C.C.Lee, “Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller-Part I, ”IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 20, pp. 404-418, Mar/Apr 1990. C.C.Lee, “Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller-Part II,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 20, pp. 419-435, Mar/Apr 1990.

V.

CONCLUSION

[9]

Networks and their applications play a promising role for real-time high performance networked control in industrial applications. The major concerns are the network induced delays and data losses that are provided by the network which affects the performance of the networked control systems. This paper has describes and formulates the Intelligent Controllers as Neural Network Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller in a networked DC motor control. The numerical result are obtained and compared for Neural Network Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller and PID Controller. The effective results show that the performance of networked control DC motor is improved by using Intelligent Controller than the convention controller in all network variations and deteriorations. The analysis on using intelligent controls improves and strengthens the networked control systems concepts in the future. REFERENCES

[1] [2] P.Seiler, and R. Sengupta, “An H∞ Approach to Networked Control,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 50, pp. 356-364, March 2005.. D.Nesic, and A.R.Teel, “Input-Output stability properties of networked control systems,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 49, pp. 1650-1667. October 2004. M.Tabbara, and D. Nesic, “Input-Output Stability of Networked Control Systems With Stochastic Protocols and Channels,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 53, pp. 1160-1175, June 2008. G.P.Lin, Y. Xia, J.Chen, D.Rees, and W.Hu, “Networked Predictive Control of Systems With Random Network Delays in Both Forward and Feedback Channels,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, pp. 1282-1297, June 2007. D.S. Kim, Y.S. Lee, W.H. Kwon, and H.S.Park, “Maximum allowable delay bounds of networked control system,” Control Eng. Practice, vol. 11, pp. 1301–1313, 2003. M.Tabbara, C. Nesic, and A.Teel, “Stability of wireless and wireline networked control systems,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 52, pp. 1615-1630, September 2007. D. Yue, Q. Han, and P. Chen, “State feedback controller design of networked control systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems II, vol. 51, pp. 640-644, November 2004.

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[7]

AUTHORS PROFILE Dr.N.Devarajan received B.E (EEE) and M.E (Power Electronics) from GCT Coimbatore in the year 1982 and 1989 respectively. He received Ph.D in the area of control systems in the year 2000. He is currently working as Assistant Professor in the department of EEE at Government College of Technology, Coimbatore. He published 135 papers in the national and international

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**

conferences. He published 37 papers in international journals and 12 in national journal. Under his supervision currently 10 research scholars are working and 7 scholars completed their Ph.D. His areas of interests are control systems, electrical machines and power systems. He is a member of system society of India, ISTE and IE(India). B.Sharmila completed B.E (EIE) from Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore in the year 2000. She completed her M.E (Applied Electronics) from Maharaja College of Engineering, Coimbatore in the year 2004. She is currently working as Senior Lecturer in the department of EIE at Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore. She is a Ph.D. research scholar and published 2 papers in international journals and also presented 4 papers in national and international conference. Her areas of interests are networked control system and intelligent controllers. She is a member of IEEE and ISTE.

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UsefulNot usefulThis paper focuses on the feasibility of Neural Network controller for Networked Control Systems. The Intelligent Controllers has been developed for controlling the speed of the Networked DC Motor ...

This paper focuses on the feasibility of Neural Network controller for Networked Control Systems. The Intelligent Controllers has been developed for controlling the speed of the Networked DC Motor by exploiting the features of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Controllers. The major challenges in

Networked Control Systems are the network induced delays and data packet losses in the closed loop. These challenges degrade the performance and destabilize the systems. The aim of the proposed Neural Network Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller schemes improve the performance of the networked DC motor and also compare the results with the Zeigler-Nichols tuned Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller. The performance of the proposed controllers has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The effective results show that the performance of networked dc motor is improved by using Intelligent Controller than the other controllers.

Networked Control Systems are the network induced delays and data packet losses in the closed loop. These challenges degrade the performance and destabilize the systems. The aim of the proposed Neural Network Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller schemes improve the performance of the networked DC motor and also compare the results with the Zeigler-Nichols tuned Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller. The performance of the proposed controllers has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The effective results show that the performance of networked dc motor is improved by using Intelligent Controller than the other controllers.

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