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8, November 2010

**Evaluation of Vision based Surface Roughness using Wavelet Transforms with Neural Network Approach
**

*T.K.Thivakaran

*Research Scholar, MS University, Tirunelveli – 627012.INDIA

**Dr.RM.Chandrasekaran

**Professor, Department of CSE, Annamalai University, Chidambaram – 620 024.INDIA result in inconsistent estimation of roughness of components using machine vision primarily due to the fact that illumination, shadow on the images is likely to be different. In this work, the machined surfaces are captured using a Machine Vision system. Following the image enhancement, the features are extracted and then the roughness parameters are estimated and analyzed. Here wavelet is used to extract the features of the enhanced image, and an artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to predict the surface roughness. The results are compared with that obtained using the standard stylus method. II. ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS The machined surfaces are generally characterized by three kinds of errors (i) form errors, (ii) waviness, and (iii) surface roughness. The concept of roughness is often described with terms such as ‘uneven’,’ irregular’, ‘coarse in texture’, broken by prominences’, and other similar ones (Thomas,1999). Similar to some surface properties such as hardness, the value of surface roughness depends on the scale of measurement. In addition, the concept roughness has statistical implications as it considers factors such as sample size and sampling interval. The one parameter that is standardized all over the world and is specified and measured far more frequently than any other is the arithmetic average roughness height, or Roughness Average. Universally called Ra, it was formerly known as AA (Arithmetic Average) in the United States and CLA (Center Line Average) in the United Kingdom. It is defined as the arithmetic mean of the departures of the profile from the mean line. Rq (or also known as RMS) is the root mean-square average of the departures of the roughness profile from the mean line. Rq has statistical significance because it represents the standard deviation of the profile heights and it is used in the more complex computation of skewness, the measure of the symmetry of a profile about the mean line.

Abstract---Machine vision for industry has generated a great deal of interest in the technical community over the past several years. Extensive research has been performed on machine vision applications in manufacturing, because it has the advantage of being non-contact and as well faster than the contact methods. Using Machine Vision, it is possible to evaluate and analyze the area of the surface, in which machine vision extracted the information with the help of array of sensors to enable the user to make intelligent decision based on the applications. In this work, Estimation of surface roughness has been done and analyzed using digital images of machined surface obtained by Machine vision system. Features are extracted from the enhanced images in spatial frequency domain using a two dimensional Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform. An artificial neural network (ANN) is trained using feature extracted values as input obtained from as output. The wavelet Transform and tested to get Rt estimated roughness parameter (Rt) results based on ANN is compared with the Rt values obtained from Stylus method and the best correlation between both the values are determined. Keywords--- Surface roughness, Machine vision, Milling, Grinding, Wavelet Transform, Neural Network.

I. INTRODUCTION The quality of components produced is of main concern to the manufacturing industry, which normally refers to dimensional accuracy, form and surface finish. Therefore, the inspection of surface roughness of the work piece is very important to assess the quality of a component, which is normally performed using stylus type devices, which correlate the vertical displacement of a diamond-tipped stylus to the roughness of the surface under investigation. But, the limitations of stylus techniques have already been reported in detail in [6, 5, 4]. Machine Vision typically employs a camera, a frame grabber, a digitizer and a processor for inspection tasks where precision, repetition and/or high speed are needed. The histograms of the surface image have been utilized to characterize surface roughness and quality. Fourier transform (FT) of the digitized surface image in which the magnitude and frequency information obtained from the FT are used as measurement parameters of the surface finish. These methods use the basic assumption that the surface of the specimen is completely flat and there is no inclination when the images are captured. Even a small inclination of the specimen may

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A. Profiles for Turned Machined Components Figure 1(a) and figure 1(c) shows the profiles obtained for a turned component with a stylus instrument. Similarly, figure 1(b) and 1(d) shows the gap profiles obtained for the same turned components by diffraction method. In both graphs, ‘z’ is the deviation of the points on the profile from the mean-line. It can be observed that appreciable differences in the diffraction pattern are seen for large variations in the gap and therefore good comparison of results is guaranteed in both only for turned components of medium roughness. For very rough surfaces scattering is observed. A limitation in the usage of the different methods is that the smoothness of the edge plays a crucial role in the evaluation of the finish of the components.

Fig. 1(a), (c) The profiles obtained for a turned component with a stylus instrument. (b), (d) the gap profiles obtained for the same turned components by diffraction method. B. Profile for Ground Machined Components Figure 2(a) shows the profiles obtained for a ground component with a stylus instrument. Similarly, figure 3(b) shows the gap profiles obtained for the same ground components by diffraction method. In both graphs, ‘z’ is the deviation of the points on the profile from the mean-line.

Fig. 2(a) The profile obtained from a ground component with a stylus instrument, (b) The gap profile obtained for the same ground component by diffraction method. III. SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION A. Fourier spectrum The Fourier spectrum is the frequency domain counterpart of the autocorrelation function. The FT of the correlation is used, which corresponds to the power spectral density function and describe how the power in a signal is distributed over frequency. The power spectrum can reveal the presence of offset, or periodic structures in a data set. B. Wavelet Transform (WT) The wavelet is a tool in surface texture analysis and can decompose a surface into multi-scale representation in a very efficient way. The wavelet transform (WT) is a mapping of the signal to the time-scale joint representation. By WT, the decomposition of a signal with a real

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orthonormal bases Ψmn(x) obtained through translation and dilation of a kernel function Ψ(x) known as mother wavelet as given in eqn. [2], … (2) Where, m,n are integers. To construct the mother wavelet Ψ(x), it is required to determine a scaling function φ(x) given in eqn. [3],

where,ψ H ( x, y ) , ψ V ( x, y ) and ψ D ( x, y ) are called the horizontal, vertical and diagonal wavelets. Thus, DWT is well localized and allows decomposition in three directions, namely, horizontal, vertical and diagonal respectively. D. Features of Wavelets In this application, the features are extracted using a wavelet which belongs to a family of orthogonal wavelets. The mother wavelet (DB4), its corresponding scaling and wavelet functions and the decomposition filters are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively.

… (3) Then, the mother wavelet Ψ(x) is related to the scaling function as in eqn. [4], … (4) where, The coefficients h(k) have to meet several conditions for the set of basis wavelet functions to be unique, be orthonormal and also have a certain degree of regularity. C. Wavelet Transform for Signals In two dimensional cases, the one dimensional wavelet transforms are applied along both the horizontal and vertical directions φ ( x) is a one dimensional real, sequence integral scaling function defined as in [5]

Fig. 3 wavelet extraction

φ j , k ( x ) = 2 2 φ (2 j x − k )

j

j

… (5)

Translation k determines the position of this one dimensional function along the x- axis, scale j determine its width along x axis and 2 2 controls its height and amplitude. This one dimensional scaling function satisfies these conditions: φ j ,k is orthogonal to its integer translates. The set of functions that can be represented as a series expansion of φ j ,k at low scale is contained within those at higher scale. So, the difference between any two sets of

**Fig. 4 Decomposition of low-pass filter h φ(-n) and highpass filter h ψ(-m) The DB4 scaling function is given by
**

a [i ] = h0 s [ 2i ] + h1s [ 2i + 1] + h2 s [ 2i + 2] + h3s [ 2i + 3]

ai = h0 s2i + h1s2i +1 + h2 s2i + 2 + h3 s2i +3

…(10) … (11)

**The Daubechies DB4 wavelet function is given by … (12) ci = g0 s2i + g1s2i +1 + g 2 s2i + 2 + g3 s2i +3
**

c [i] = g0 s [ 2i] + g1s [ 2i +1] + g2 s [ 2i + 2] + g3s [ 2i + 3]

… (13)

φ j ,k

is

represented by a companion wavelet function ψ j , k defined in eqn. [6], ψ j , k ( x) = 2 … (6) Then, the 2 dimensional DWT functions are the linear products of scaling and wavelet functions φ ( x) and

H

**IV. NEURAL NETWORKS FOR SURFACE ROUGHNESS
**

ASSESSMENT

j

2

ψ (2 j x − k )

ψ ( x)

yielding the eqn. [7] through eqn. [9]. … (7) … (8) … (9)

ψ ( x, y ) = ψ ( x).φ ( y ) ψ V ( x, y ) = φ ( x).ψ ( y )

ψ D ( x, y) = ψ ( x).ψ ( y )

The roughness features extracted from the machined images, are fed as input to an ANN to predict the roughness value Rt. ANN consists of a number of elementary units called neurons. A neuron is a simple processor, which can take multiple inputs and produce an output. Each input into the neuron has an associated weight that determines the ‘‘intensity’’ of the input. The processes that a neuron performs are: multiplication of each of the inputs by its respective weight, adding up the resulting numbers for all the inputs and determination of the output according to the result of this summation and an activation function. Data is fed into the network through an input layer, it is processed through one or more intermediate hidden layers and finally

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fed out of the network through an output layer as shown in Figure 5.

Horizontal, Vertical and Diagonal components). Calculate the weighted standard deviations of three detailed images.

…(14) = Standard deviation of the M detail image at ith Level M=H(Horizontal)/V(Vertical)/D(Diagonal) component The standard deviation of each sub image at level i is weighted by the factor (1/2i-1), where, (iv) Repeat steps 1-4 four times for original image and images at orientation 90º, 180º, and 270 º (achieved by rotating original image). The final feature set consists of 4*(3L) features. B. Wavelet based Feature Extraction Since, the wavelet coefficient are orthogonal, the original profile can be re-obtained after wavelet decomposition by simply adding the sub-scales signals as shown in Figure 7. Furthermore, using this simple summation technique the concepts of roughness, waviness and form can be preserved. This is reflected in Figure 8 where, an arbitrary decomposition of a surface texture is obtained by casting into three frequency components, representing the form, waviness and roughness, using Daubechies wavelet of order 20. A dimensional step can now be cleared. Indeed, the same kind of decomposition process can be performed using images instead of profiles, because surface roughness can be measured precisely using for instance optical surface measurement systems. The arbitrary decomposition into form waviness and roughness of surface textures obtained by casting, grinding and vertical milling respectively, using wavelet of order 20 is shown. The roughness average of each component (i.e. form, waviness and roughness) is also shows in order to illustrate the roughness scale. The measured area is of a few millimeters square. Hence, the wavelet tool allows the decomposition of surfaces into form, waviness and roughness components and can successfully replace standard filters that are commonly used in surface texture characterization and hence, give a solid theoretical base for the standardization of these filters.

Fig. 5 Typical ANN network

**V. PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR SURFACE ROUGHNESS
**

EVALUATION

The methodology and block diagram of proposed Machine vision system is shown in Figure 6(a) and Figure 6(b).

Fig.6 (a) Block diagram of proposed system

Fig.6 (b) Methodology in the proposed computer vision system for measuring surface roughness A. Algorithm for feature extraction (i) (ii) (iii) Carry out image enhancement of machined image Subject the enhanced image to a L-level discrete wavelet decomposition. At each level (i=1, 2, … L), there are four sub-images. One approximation image and three components/images (LH, HL and HH or

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Fig. 7 Multiscale decomposition of a surface texture profile obtained by casting under seven different scales using the wavelet of order 20

Fig. 9 Comparison of multiscale decomposition of a surface texture profile obtained by casting under seven different scales using the wavelet of order 20 and its frequency normalized equivalent. C. ANN based surface roughness estimation ANN with a variation of the classic back-propagation algorithm is employed to predict surface roughness. Compared with more conventional approaches, ANN demonstrates certain advantages that make them much more attractive. They have the ability to recognize patterns that are similar, but not identical, it can store information and generalize it. There is no need for explicit statement of the problem or for a problem-solving algorithm. Due to their massive parallelism, ANNs display increased computational power that can be used to deal with complex problems. Back-propagation neural network used for estimating the surface roughness of the machined surfaces with is a four layer network with six nodes in the input layer, six nodes in the first hidden layer, five nodes in the second hidden layer and one single node in the output layer. Each layer is fully connected to the succeeding layer. The outputs of nodes of one layer are transmitted to nodes in another layer through links. The structure of an ANN is shown in Figure 10 where the Energy maps are fed as inputs into the trained neural network and the surface roughness parameter (Rt) is estimated . In the training phase, the desired value of the node in the output layer is the actual roughness value, Rt obtained by stylus method. The ANN adjusts the weights in all connecting links such that the mean square error, i.e. the averaged squared error

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Fig. 8 Multiscale decomposition of a surface texture profile obtained by casting under three different components (form waviness and roughness) using the wavelet of order 20. In Figure 9, the FNWT maxima indicate at each scale the location of a frequency component. Those features can also be quantified according to both the shape of the corresponding peak and its height. For an image, when using a multiresolution scheme for a dyadic standard decomposition of a function into sub-bands a filter bank with a power of two number of filters should be used. When using orthogonal wavelets like ones, one can easily simplify the problem by gathering the channels by scale in both directions. This process applied to a discrete wavelet is called the scaled DWT. The frequency normalization can then be performed based on these filters.

between the network output and the desired output is minimized. Training of ANN is stopped as soon as the specified number of epochs has reached and the values of weights corresponding to the minimum error are restored. Once trained, the ANN is then tested for different sets of input data. In the testing phase of the neural network, the predicted roughness, Rt is the value of the node in the output layer.

… (14)

… (15)

… (16)

… (17) Fig. 10 The System architecture of ANN used for predicting Ra for surfaces VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Case 1: Feature Extraction using Scaled DWT The blocks contain time reversed scaling and wavelet vectors. The hφ (-n) and hΨ (-m) are low pass and high pass decomposition filters. Blocks are containing a down arrow and represent down sampling extracting every other point from a sequence of points. Each pass through the filter bank in Figure 11 decomposes the input signal into four lower resolutions (or lower scale) components. The Wφ coefficients are created by two low pass (hφ based) filters and are thus called the approximation coefficients and {Wφ i for i = H, V, D} are the horizontal, vertical and diagonal detail coefficients. In Figure 12, f(x,y) is the highest resolution representation of the image being transformed. It serves as the input for the first iteration and for the succeeding iterations; the approximation coefficients Wφ (j, m, n) are given as input to the filter bank, to obtain the next set of wavelet coefficients.

Fig. 12 Sub-band image decomposition for wavelet based feature extraction Thus the energy for each subband is calculated up to 4 levels of decomposition and the image features Et, Eh, Ev and Ed are obtained from the energy map which is determined using tree-structured wavelet transform for each image. Few Sample enhanced machine images [Figure 13(a) to 18(a)] are applied with DWT and the respective transform outcomes are shown in [Figure 13(b) to 18(b)] along with the energy details in Table 1.

Fig. 11 2D DWT filter bank Mathematically, the series of filtering and down sampling operations are used to compute the DWT coefficients Wφ (j,m,n) and {Wφi (j,m,n) for i = H,V,D} at scale j.

Figure 13(a)

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Figure 16(a) Figure 13(b) Transform absolute coefficient

Figure 16(b) Transform absolute coefficient Figure 14(a)

Figure 17(a). Figure 14(b) Transform absolute coefficient

Figure 15(a).

Figure 17(b) Transform absolute coefficient

Figure 15(b) Transform absolute coefficient

Figure 18(a)

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Table 2 ANN estimated Rt for milling parameters (Image enhancement done and image features extracted using FT)

Figure 18(b) Transform absolute coefficient Fig. Name 13(a) 14(a) 15(a) 16(a) 17(a) 18(a) Table 1 Energy maps obtained from DWT Ea Edetail Values Values Et Eh Ev Ed 99.0286 0.0396 0.1714 0.4482 0.3122 99.0088 97.7414 98.5546 98.5984 96.8104 0.0204 0.0272 0.0393 0.0606 0.0282 0.1183 0.2686 0.3785 0.2933 0.1311 0.3862 0.6214 0.7579 0.5217 0.5938 0.4663 1.3414 0.2697 0.5260 2.4364 Table 3 ANN estimated Rt for milling parameters (Image enhancement done and image features extracted using WT)

Where Et is Energy total, Eh is Energy horizontal, Ev is Energy Vertical and Ed is Energy diagonal. Ea is Energy Approximation. Case 2: Estimation of Rt using ANN (a) For Milled surfaces Two types of feature extraction and surface roughness estimation using ANN is performed in this work. The first one extracts the features using FT and the second uses the WT. In FT approach the key input features collected for training the network consist of (i) average grey scale value (Ga) (ii) major peak frequency (F1) and (iii) Principal component magnitude squared value (F2). The WT based feature extraction is already discussed in case (i) of section VI. In the training phase (for both FT and WT) the desired value of the node in the output layer is the surface roughness Rt obtained using the stylus method. The surface roughness Rt from ANN along with the stylus measurement values for the milled samples after image enhancement with FT (WT) extracted features is given in Table 2 (Table 3).

The results obtained are validated by plotting the correlation graph between stylus measured (conventional method) Rr and vision measured (proposed) Rt for both the FT and WT techniques for milled components is shown in Figure 15.

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Table 5 ANN estimated Rt for grinding parameters (Image enhancement done and image features extracted using WT)

Figure 15 Comparison between predicted roughness values using vision approach and stylus approach for FT features and WT features (milling)

(b) For grinding operations The Rt value predicted using the trained ANN and that measured using the stylus approach for the grinding process after image enhancement with features extracted using FT (WT) is given in Table 4 (Table 5). The results obtained are validated by plotting the correlation graph between stylus measured (conventional method) Rr and vision measured (proposed) Rt for both the FT and WT techniques for grinding components is shown in Figure 16.

Table 4 ANN estimated Rt for grinding parameters (Image enhancement done and image features extracted using FT)

Figure 16 Comparison between predicted roughness values using vision approach and stylus approach for FT features and WT features (grinding). VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT. The developed model is tested online on images of specimens grabbed by computer vision systems with linearly decreasing intensity. The features of the grabbed enhanced image (to remove noise present in the captured image) are extracted using two different schemes, one using Fourier transform (FT) and the other using wavelet

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decomposition. The FT method is used to extract the features of image texture, namely, the major peak frequency F1, and the principal component magnitude squared value F2. Using the wavelet (Db4) multi resolution decomposition algorithm, the energy details of the sub band images, namely, energy total (Et), energy horizontal (Eh), energy vertical (Ev) and energy diagonal (Ed) are extracted. These extracted features of the enhanced image are given as input to a trained neural network (back propagation network) and the surface roughness parameter Rt is estimated. From the obtained results, it is concluded that the wavelet based image feature extraction of the enhanced images gives better correlation between vision Rt and the stylus Rt both for milled and grinding surfaces. Future direction of research shall focus on implementing the proposed algorithms using high speed hardware units thus making the present work ideally for high speed real-time machine vision applications. VIII REFERENCES [1] G.A. Al-Kindi, R.M. Baul, K.F. Gill, An application of machine vision in the automated inspection of engineering surfaces, International Journal of Production Research 30 (2) (1992) 241–253 [2] M.B. Kiran, B. Ramamoorthy, B. Radhakrishnan, Evaluation of surface roughness by vision system, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 38 (5–6) (1998) 685–690. [3] Du-Ming Tsai, Jeng-Jong Chen, Jeng-Fung Chen, A vision system for surface roughness assessment using neural networks, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 14 (6) (1998) 412–422. [4] M.Y. Rafiq, G. Bugmann, D.J. Easterbrook, Neural network design for engineering applications, Computers and Structures 79 (17) (2001) 1541–1552. [5] K. Venkata Ramana, B. Ramamoorthy, Statistical methods to compare the texture features of machine surfaces, Pattern Recognition 29 (9) (1996) 1447– 1459. [6] P.G. Benardos, G.C. Vosniakos, Prediction of surface roughness in CNC face milling using neural networks and Taguchi’s design of experiments, Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing 18 (5–6) (2002) 343–354. [7] Shengyu Fu, B. Muralikrishnan, J. Raja, “Engineering Surface Analysis with different wavelet bases”, Trans. of ASME, vol 125, Nov. 2003, pp. 844-852. [8] H.T. Hingle and J.H. Rakels, The practical application of diffraction techniques to assess surface finish of diamond turned parts, Ann. CARP, 32(1)(1983)499501. [9] B. Josso, D.R. Burton, M.J. Lalor, Wavelet strategy for surface roughness analysis and characterisation, Comput. Methods Applications. Mech. Eng. 191 (8– 10) (2001) 829–842.

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[10] Daubechies, The wavelet transform, time-frequency localization and signal analysis, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 36 (1990) 961–1005. [11] Xiaodong Gu, Daoheng Yu, Liming Zhang, Image shadow removal using pulse coupled neural network, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 16 (3) (2005) 692–698. [12] X.Q. Jiang, L. Blunt, K.J. Stout, Three-dimensional surface characterization for orthopaedic joint prostheses, proceedings of institution of mechanical engineers. Part H, J. Eng. Med. 213 (1) (1999) 49–68. [13] Grzesik W., Rech J., Wanat T.: Comparative study of the surface roughness produced in various hard machining processes. 3rd International Congress of Precision Machining, Vienna, Austria, 2005, pp. 119124. [14] Josso B., Burton D., Lalor M.: Frequency normalized wavelet transform for surface roughness analysis and characterization. Wear, Vol. 252, 2002, pp. 491-500. [15] S.S. Liu, M.E. Jernigan, Texture analysis and discrimination in additive noise, Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing 49 (1) (1990) 52–67. [16] Zawada-Tomkiewicz A., Storch B.: Introduction of the wavelet analysis of a machined surface profile. Advances in Manufacturing Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2004, pp. 91-100. [17] S.-H. Lee, H. Zahouani, R. Caterini, T.G. Mathia, Morphological characterization of engineered surfaces by wavelet transform, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Götebarg, Sweden, 1997, pp. 182–190. IX AUTHORS PROFILE 1. Mr. T.K.Thivakaran is presently a research scholar in MS university, Thirunelveli in the faculty of Computer Science and Engineering. He is working as Assistant Professor in the faculty of Information Technology, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering, Chennai. His area of research includes Image Processing, Cryptography and Network Security. 2. Dr.RM.Chandrasekaran is currently working as a Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamilnadu, India. From 1999 to 2001 he worked as a software consultant in Etiam, Inc, California, USA. He received his Ph.D degree in 2006 from Annamalai University, Chidambaram. He has conducted workshops and conferences in the area of Multimedia, Business Intelligence, Analysis of Algorithms and Data Mining. He has presented and published more than 32 papers in conferences and journals and is the co-author of the book Numerical Methods with C++ Program( PHI,2005). His research interests include Data Mining, Algorithms, Image processing and Mobile Computing. He is life member of the Computer Society of India, Indian Society for Technical Education, Institute of Engineers etc.

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

by ijcsis

Machine vision for industry has generated a great deal of interest in the technical community over the past several years. Extensive research has been performed on machine vision applications in ma...

Machine vision for industry has generated a great deal of interest in the technical community over the past several years. Extensive research has been performed on machine vision applications in manufacturing, because it has the advantage of being non-contact and as well faster than the contact methods. Using Machine Vision, it is possible to evaluate and analyze the area of the surface, in which machine vision extracted the information with the help of array of sensors to enable the user to make intelligent decision based on the applications. In this work, Estimation of surface roughness has been done and analyzed using digital images of machined surface obtained by Machine vision system. Features are extracted from the enhanced images in spatial frequency domain using a two dimensional Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform. An artificial neural network (ANN) is trained using feature extracted values as input obtained from wavelet Transform and tested to get Rt as output. The estimated roughness parameter (Rt) results based on ANN is compared with the Rt values obtained from Stylus method and the best correlation between both the values are determined.

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