18390112 Gas Tankers Advance Course[1] | Liquefied Natural Gas | Natural Gas


Advanced Course




1.1 ABOUT STCW International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978, as amended, sets qualification standards for masters, officers, and watch going personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted in 1978 by conference at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London, and entered into force in 1984. The Convention was significantly amended in 1995. The 133 current stateparties to the Convention represent approximately 98 percent of the world’s merchant vessel tonnage. 1.1.1 Limitations discovered Between 1984 and 1992, significant limitations to the 1978 Convention became apparent. Many people felt that the Convention included vague requirements that were left to the discretion of parties to the Convention. Others felt that there were growing problems with: (a) a lack of clear standards of competence, (b) no IMO oversight of compliance, (c) limited port state control, and (d) inadequacies that did not address modern shipboard functions. Meanwhile, the U.S. deferred ratification efforts and worked for almost a decade to effect necessary changes to our licensing regulations. 1.1.1 Amendments adopted in 1995 On July 7, 1995, a conference of parties to the Convention, meeting at IMO headquarters in London, adopted the package of amendments to STCW. The amendments entered force on February 1, 1997. 1.1.2 Effective dates The provisions of the Convention not tied to individual mariner certification became effective when the IFR (Interim Final Rule) was published. However, provision was made for certain new requirements to be introduced over a longer period. Full implementation is required by February 1, 2002. For issuance of licenses and documents, the effective dates of the new requirements will be according to transitional guidance published by the STW Subcommittee. Mariners already holding licenses have the option to renew those licenses in accordance with the old rules of the 1978 Convention during the period ending on February 1, 2002. Mariners entering training programs after August 1, 1998 are required to meet the competency standards of the new 1995 Amendments. For persons seeking original licenses, the Coast Guard anticipates that most new training requirements will be incorporated into courses approved by the Coast Guard, or by equivalent courses. To ensure that the competency objectives of the 1995 amendments are met, parties must implement quality assurance programs, with IMO reviewing each parties’ national program. Again, this represents a fundamental change in thinking for the international community. It will be mandatory that the "pulse" of the new system be checked on a recurring basis to ensure its "good health."

1.1.3 Familiarization training: Both the STCW Convention and the U.S. implementing regulations use the term familiarization training or similar terminology five different ways: a. Companies are required to ensure that seafarers who are newly assigned to a ship are familiarized with their specific duties and with all ship arrangements, installations, equipment, procedures and ship characteristics that are relevant to their routine or emergency duties. Written instructions are to be issued by the company to each ship to ensure this ship-specific familiarization takes place. b. All persons who are employed or engaged on a seagoing ship other than passengers are required to receive approved familiarization training in personal survival techniques or receive sufficient information and instruction to be able to take care of themselves and take proper action when an emergency condition develops. This includes locating and donning a lifejacket, knowing what to do if a person falls overboard, and closing watertight doors. c. Officers and ratings who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo or cargo equipment on tankers must complete an approved tanker familiarization course if they have not had a minimum period of seagoing service on tankers. d. Masters, officers and other personnel who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities on board ro-ro passenger ships must complete familiarization training which covers subjects such as operational limitations of ro-ro ships, procedures for opening and closing hull openings, stability, and emergency procedures. e. Masters, officers and other personnel who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities on board passenger ships other than ro-ro passenger ships must complete familiarization training which covers operational limitations of passenger ships. 1.2 THE COURSE The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW 78/95), which contains mandatory minimum requirements for training and qualifications of masters, officers and ratings of chemical tankers. This training is divided into two parts: Level 1: Chemical tanker familiarization - a basic safety training course for officers and ratings who are to have specific duties and responsibilities relating to cargo and cargo equipment

Level 1 training can also be covered through an appropriate period of supervised shipboard service where an approved shipboard training programme is conducted by qualified personnel Level 2: Advanced training programme on liquefied gas tanker operations. An advanced training programme for masters, officers and others who are to have immediate responsibilities for cargo handling and cargo equipment. In addition to level 2 training, such personnel must have completed level 1 and have relevant experience on liquefied gas tankers before signing on to these positions on board This course covers the requirements for level 1 and level 2 training required by STCW 95 Chapter V Regulation V/1 - 1.2, 2.2 and Section A-V/1 regulations 15 - 21


Actual Gas Cargoes



In the late 1920th transportation of liquefied gases in bulk started. In the very beginning it was transportation of propane and butane in fully pressurised tanks. When the steel quality became better and the knowledge about propane and butane was better they started to carry those liquefied gases under temperature control. From the mid-1960th we have carried fully refrigerated liquefied gases and now the biggest gas carriers are more than 125 000 m3. Liquefied gas is divided into different groups based on boiling point, chemical bindings, toxicity and flammability. The different groups of gases have led to different types of gas carriers and cargo containment system for gas carriers. • • • • • • • IMO divides liquefied gases into the following groups: LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas LEG - Liquefied Ethylene Gas NH3 - Ammonia Cl2 - Chlorine Chemical gases

The IMO gas carrier code define liquefied gases as gases with vapour pressure higher than 2,8 bar with temperature of 37,8oC. IMO gas code chapter 19 defines which products that are liquefied gases and have to be transported with gas carriers. Some products have vapour pressure less than 2,8 bar at 37,8oC, but are defined as liquefied gases and have to be transported according to chapter 19 in IMO gas code. Propylene oxide and ethylene oxides are defined as liquefied gases. Ethylene oxide has a vapour pressure at 37,8oC on 2,7 bar. To control temperature on ethylene oxide we must utilise indirect cargo cooling plants. Products not calculated as condensed gas, but still must be transported on gas carriers, are specified in IMO’s gas code and IMO’s chemical code. The reason for transportation of non-condensed gases on gas carriers is that the products must have temperature control during transport because reactions from too high temperature can occur. Condensed gases are transported on gas carriers either by atmospheric pressure (fully cooled) less than 0,7 bars, intermediate pressure (temperature controlled) 0,5 bars to 11 bars, or by full pressure (surrounding temperature) larger than 11 bars. It is the strength and construction of the cargo tank that is conclusive to what over pressure the gas can be transported.

Examples of some gas pressure at 37. . LPG can be cooled with water. Fully pressurised gas carriers mainly handle coastal trade.0 -5 2.8oC bars in oC absolute Gas .0. Large atmospheric pressure gas carriers carry most of the LPG transported at sea.2 LNG LNG .6 .33 5.Butane C4H10 Ammonia NH3 Vinyl Chloride C2H3Cl Butadiene C4H6 Ethylene oxide C2H4O 2. for example. Propane.161 12. but also contains Ethane. The sea transport of LPG is mainly from The Persian Gulf to Japan and Korea. Gas carriers transport the remaining 5%. butane and a mixture of these.west Europe to USA. Small LNG carriers have cargo-cooling plants. and from the western Mediterranean to USA and Northwest Europe. gas pipes from the oil fields in the North Sea and down to Italy and Spain. When LNG is transported on gas carriers.7 . and most LPG carriers have direct cargo cooling plants that condenses the gas against water.43 3.9 . and they will use a lot of energy.7 .Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a definition of gases produced by wet gas or raw oil. and can also be utilised for LPG transportation.Liquefied Natural Gas is a gas that is naturally in the earth.1 LPG LPG .14 4. Cargo cooling plants for large LNG carriers are very large and expensive. LPG is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry 2.8oC and boiling point at atmospheric pressure: Condensed gas Boiling point Gas pressure at atmospheric pressure 37. However. The LPG gases are taken out of the raw oil during refining. It is also from the north. the ROB and boil off from the cargo is utilised as fuel for propulsion of the vessel. Mainly LNG contains Methane.5 14. or from natural gas separation. some LPG is transported with intermediate pressure gas carriers. LPG gases are defined as propane.7 10.7 at Methane CH4 Propane C3H8 n . Butane etc. About 95% of all LNG are transported in pipelines from the gas fields to shore.

This will create too high condense pressure if using water as cooling medium. such as. Ethane can only be transported by semi-pressurised gas carriers. LNG is used for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry.Natural Gas Liquid or wet gas is dissolved gas that exists in raw oil. Wet gas is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East. This is because Ethane has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of –89oC. and Butane or from Naphtha. and therefore has be transported in gas carriers equipped with cargo compartment that can bear such a . Korea and from the Mediterranean to Northwest Europe and the East Coast of USA and from Alaska to the Far East. The composition of wet gas varies from oil field to oil filed.8oC.5 LEG LEG . Atmospheric pressure gas carriers and semipressurised gas carriers carry the most of the wet gas.Liquefied Ethylene Gas.3 NGL NGL . NGL is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry. but is produced by cracked wet gas. which have direct cascade cooling plants and are allowed to carry cargo down to –104oC. This gas is not a natural product. The gas separates by refining raw oil. There is also some transport of wet gas in the Caribbean to South America. Propane. The wet gas consists of Ethane. Ethylene has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of -103. Europe to USA and some within Europe. The cargo is condensed against Freon R22 or another cooling medium with boiling point at atmospheric pressure lower than –20oC. 2. Ethane. Pentane and heavier fractions of hydrocarbons or a mixture of these. LPG.The sea transport of LNG is from the Persian Gulf and Indonesia to Japan.4 COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GAS 2. 2.

colours and detergents. from USA to South Africa and from Venezuela to Chile. carrier. 2. Because of the toxicity of Chlorine it is therefore transported in small quantities. zinc. we can replace the volume. chapters 14. with air. A decreased tank pressure will occur if there is water in the tank when commence loading ammonia and the tank hatch is closed. and must not be transported in a larger quantity than 1200m3.low temperature. Ammonium carbamate is a powder and can blockage lines. Normally. Ethylene is utilised as raw material for plastic and synthetic fibres. The definition for ammonia tanker is LPG/NH. Gas carriers carrying Ammonia must be constructed and certified in accordance with IMO’s IGC code for transportation of liquefied gases. There is a lot of transportation from the Black Sea to USA. explosives. the Mediterranean to the East and Europe. there are demands for less than 0. aluminium.7oC one can not utilise water to condense Ethylene. Indonesia and Korea 2. lie B/5 “Breadth/5” up to 11. One can cool ammonia with all types of cargo cooling plants. That means the cargo tank must. it has TLV of 25 ppm and the odour threshold is on 20 ppm. plastic. which is produced by combustion of hydrogen and nitrogen under large pressure. valves and other equipment. Ethylene is very flammable and has a flammable limit from 2.5 meter . There are stringent demands regarding the oxygen content in Ethylene. originally taken up by the ammonia gas. The volume of ethylene must be less than 2% in the gas mixture to keep the mixture below the LEL “lower explosion limit”. 17 and 19. The gas carrier carrying chlorine must be type 1G with independent type C tanks. The definition of Ethylene tankers is LPG/LEG carrier. and must be transported at a temperature colder than –20oC. Ethylene is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East. There is also transport of Ethylene between the countries Malaysia. We can locate the rules in the IMO Gas Code.5% to 34% by volume mixed with air. Ammonia is utilised as raw material for the fertiliser industry.6 AMMONIA NH3 The next gas we will focus on is Ammonia. nor galvanised surfaces.2% oxygen in the gas mixture in order to prevent pollution of the cargo. It responds to water and there are special rules for vessels that transport Ammonia. Cascade plants are used to condense Ethylene. a decreased pressure is formed by 1 volume part water absorbing 200 volume parts ammonia vapour. When ammonia gas is mixed with water. at the least. the Caribbean to South America. Ammonia is transported with atmospheric pressure gas carriers or semi-pressurised gas carriers. Inert gas that contains carbon dioxide must not be used to purge ammonia. Ammonia is a poisonous and irritating gas. With an open hatch. As critical temperature of Ethylene is 9.7 CHLORINE CI2 Chlorine is a very toxic gas that can be produced by the dissolution of sodium chloride in electrolysis. The boiling point for ammonia at atmospheric pressure is –33oC. as these results in an carbamate formation with the ammonia. One must not mix ammonia with alloys: copper.

even though the vapour pressure does not exceed 2. Condensed gases are liquids with a vapour pressure above 2. ethylene oxide and propylene oxide or a mixture of these. at all times.8 bars at 37. . chapters 14.8oC.from the ships side. Ethylene oxide must be transported on gas tanker type 1G. To transport Chlorine. often below 0. Chlorine is utilised in producing chemicals and as bleaching agent in the cellulose industry. these gases must be carried on gas carriers as specified by the IMO gas code. Chemical gases like propylene. Cooling of Chlorine requires indirect cargo cooling plants. they are still in the IMO gas code as condensed gases.2% by volume.8 CHEMICAL GASES The chemical gases mentioned here are the gases produced chemically and are defined in IMO’s rules as condensed gases. Because of the gases’ boiling point at atmospheric pressure and special requirements for temperature control. butadiene and VCM. butadiene and VCM are transported with mediumsized atmospheric pressure tankers from 12000 m3 to 56000 m3.8 bars at 37. Gas carriers that are allowed to transport ethylene oxide or propylene oxide must be specially certified for this. 17 and 19 must be fulfilled.8oC such as. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide have a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of respectively 11oC and 34oC and are therefore difficult to transport on tankers without indirect cargo cooling plants. Chemical gases are mainly utilised in the petro-chemical industry and rubber production. 2. In addition. stringent demands for low oxygen content in the cargo tank atmosphere. This involves that we have to use nitrogen to purge out air from the cargo compartment before loading those products. the requirements of IMO IGC code. Chemical gases that are mostly transported are Ethylene. Chemical gases are transported all over the world. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide can not be exposed to high temperature and can therefore not be compressed in a direct cargo cooling plant. There are. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are also used in chemical gas trade and then in smaller quantity as from 2500 m3 to 15000 m3. The difference of Chlorine and other gases transported is that Chlorine is not flammable. and especially to the Far East where there is a large growth in the petro-chemical industry. Chemical gases that have to be transported by gas carriers are those mentioned in chapter 19 in IMO IGC code. Propylene.



11 PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL GASES 2.12 CONNECTION TABLE Table showing connection between cargo temperature and type of compartment and secondary barrier requirement Cargo temperature at atmospheric pressure Basic tank type Intergral Membrane Semi-membrane Independent Type A Type B Type C Internal insulation Type 1 Type 2 .10oC and above No secondary barrier required Below -10oC down to –55oC Hull may act as secondary barrier Below -55oC Separate secondary barrier where required Tank type not normally allowed Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Partial secondary barrier No secondary barrier required Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier is incorporated .2.

03- Cargo Compartment Systems .

Cargo tanks that will be used on gas carriers must at all times have a documented strength and certification of welded joints and steel quality. The space where the cargo tank is installed is called hold space. and tanks with MARVS less than 0. The group division indicates how the cargo tanks transfer dynamic strength to the vessel hull. cylinder tanks. If the hull around the cargo tank is used.10oC and above Below -10oC down to –55oC Below -55oC No secondary barrier required Hull may act as secondary barrier Separate secondary barrier where required Integral Membrane Semi-membrane Independent Type A Type B Type C Internal insulation Type 1 Type 2 Tank type not normally allowed Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Partial secondary barrier No secondary barrier required Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier is incorporated Cargo tanks that are built for fully refrigerated gas carriers. . but rather tanks installed into the hull and isolated from the hull. either in the insulation between cargo tank and hull. When utilising the hull around the cargo tank as the secondary barrier the vessel is limited as it will not have the capability to transport cargo colder than –55oC. ships side or cofferdams that is the secondary barrier. must at all times have full or partly secondary barrier.3 CARGO COMPARTMENT SYSTEMS Cargo compartment systems on gas carriers are divided into groups and types. Secondary barrier is a tank or hull construction built outside the cargo tank itself. or in the hull around the cargo tank. Cargo tanks isolated from the hull. for example.7 bars. Gas carriers are built with two or more spaces where the cargo tanks are installed. it will be the ballast tank. Table showing connection between cargo temperature and type of compartment and secondary barrier requirement Cargo temperature at atmospheric pressure Basic tank type . The cargo tanks on gas carriers are rarely a direct part of the hull. must be electrically grounded with a wire or steel strip to the hull. How much hold space volume the cargo tank absorbs depends on the cargo tank’s shape.

When the cargo is Ammonia one must under no circumstance utilise inert containing CO2 in the spaces. This is arranged with independent ejectors or bilge pumps in the spaces and usually one in each side of the space.Membrane tanks Independent tanks. for example the ship sides. The secondary barrier must have a construction that. keeps the cargo liquid away from the surroundings for at least 15 days and maintains its full function at static lurch of 30o. is stated in accordance to specification and pressure test. The tolerance of vacuum on the cargo tanks is stated in bars. The safety valve’s maximum allowed set point. MARVS and vacuum for each cargo tank must be specified in the vessels “Certificate of Fitness”. B. US Coast Guard has more stringent rules for safety margins for pressure tanks than IMO. stated by the manufacturer of the cargo tank. In hold spaces and inter barrier spaces there are demands for an own bilge system that is independent from the vessel’s other bilge systems. called MARVS. The bilge arrangement is meant to pump out the cargo if there has been a leakage from the cargo tank. On atmospheric pressure tankers. either by dry inert or nitrogen when loaded with flammable cargo. All cargo tanks on gas carriers are constructed to a given excess pressure and vacuum. Inter barrier space is the space between the cargo tank and the secondary barrier. kg/cm2 or percentage of vacuum. this indicates that cargo compartment on gas carriers have different MARVS pressures for IMO and USCG. type A. because Ammonia has a reaction on CO2 and form a material called Ammonium Carbamate IMO divides the cargo tanks into 4 main groups: Integrated tanks Membrane tanks Semi . membrane and semi membrane tanks is that they all transfer static stress in the form of tank pressure to the hull around the cargo tank when this is loaded. at a minimum. If we have to pump water we must be sure that all connections to the loading system is disconnected. but does not transfer static pressure. . hold space and inter barrier space must at all times have a neutral atmosphere. The system can also be utilised to remove water from the hold space or inter barrier space if there is accumulation of condensed water. Independent tanks only transfer the weight of the cargo tank and the cargo to the hull fundamentals.Secondary barrier will prevent cargo liquid from any possible leaks coming from the cargo tank cooling the environment around the cargo tank. and C The characteristics of integrated. Nitrogen or dry air must be utilised when the cargo content is Ammonia or nonflammable cargo.

this type of cargo compartment is not approved. The membrane thickness is normally of 0. stainless steel or ferro nickel steel with a content of 36% nickel. while semi-membrane system have a membrane against the cargo and metal or veneer as secondary barrier.2 MEMBRANE TANKS Membrane compartment are divided into two groups. and the membrane .1 INTEGRATED TANKS The first cargo compartment system we will look at is integrated cargo tanks.1 Membrane tank system Membrane tank is a cargo tank built of thin plate of invar steel. International rules also require a minimum distance from the ship's side to the cargo tank of 760 mm for guiding of toxic or flammable cargo.3. Membrane tank system is built up with two equal membranes. 3. OBO carriers and product tankers. It is the same type of cargo compartment that we have on oil tankers.5 to 1. membrane tank system and semi. Then low temperature steel in the cargo compartment is required. The cargo tank is an integrated part of the hull so the hull absorbs the weight and pressure from the cargo. This prevents pollution from collision or run grounding. The hull takes up all weight from the cargo. Example of integral tank 3. There is insulation between the secondary membrane and the hull.2 mm. Characteristic for these types of steel is a very small thermal expansion coefficient approximate equal 0.2. or polyurethane gradually sprayed directly on as the tank is built up.membrane tank system. but is built up with a trunk for narrowing the tanks up against the top of the tank. Common for all membrane tanks is that there is no centre bulkhead for reducing the free liquid surface. placed outside each other like building blocks. This type of cargo compartment is less suited and rarely approved for gas transportation. The insulation is often perlite filled in plywood boxes. If we transport cargo colder than –10oC. The tank shell and the secondary barrier are built in profiles formed as a membrane. this renders the material thickness small and no more than 10 mm thick.

3 SEMI . These tank types are utilised on large LNG and LPG tankers. The insulation is mostly perlite. The main membrane is welded together of small plates by a special shaping so that the tank tolerates expansion. as secondary barrier and balsa as insulation. The tanks are built of aluminium. We can utilise the hull as secondary barrier for cargo temperatures down to –55oC. but one must utilise low temperature steel in the hull around the cargo tank. Normal excess pressure for such cargo tanks is 0. but can also be polyurethane or polystyrene. but we must utilise low temperature steel in the hull round the cargo tank. 3. insulation.takes up the thermal expansion.2 mm. One can use the hull as secondary barrier for cargo temperature down to –55oC. Semi-membrane tanks are built up with an inner tank.MEMBRANE TANKS These are tanks used on large LPG tankers. Frequently ballast tanks or cofferdams form the hull structure around the cargo tank. French Gaz-Transport patent utilise two identical membranes outside each other as primary and secondary barriers. One cannot utilise the hull as secondary barrier for temperature colder than –55oC. membrane and insulation against hull. and there are demands for secondary barrier. or built of stainless steel. ferro nickel steel with 36% nickel. The hull absorbs all dynamic loads from the cargo tank when the tank is loaded. Normal excess pressure for such cargo tanks is 0. One can also place a tank into the insulation as secondary barrier. For cargo colder than –55oC a tank must be placed into the insulation as secondary barrier. The first tanks from Technigaz utilized veneer plates.2. A membrane inside is then . and there is a demand for secondary barrier. the plate thickness is about 1. The insulation in Gaz-Transport patent is perlite filled with plywood boxes.25 bars. with 36% nickel steel or invar steel. Polyester-coated aluminium foil is now utilised as secondary barrier.2 Sketch on membrane tank 3. and polyurethane foam for insulation. It is the membrane that takes up the thermal expansion.25 bars. Technigaz membrane system utilises stainless steel in the main membrane and veneer in the secondary membrane.

Therefore. 3.1 Example of semi-membrane tank 3.3.2 Cross-section of gas tanker with membrane tank 3. Japanese yards have started to utilise this tank type on large LPG tankers. only the tank weight is transferred to the cradles or the support points in the hull. but no LPG tankers are built with this tank type. Independent tank Type A has the weakest strength of the independent tanks. and only demands a partly . In recent years. The cargo tanks are built with support to prevent the tank from slipping forward.3. This tank type was designed for LPG transportation. and there are demands for full secondary barrier. Independent tank type B has greater strength than type A does.built in the insulation as secondary barrier. This division distinguishes between the pressure the tank must tolerate and the demands for secondary barrier. Independent tanks are divided into three types: A. to the side or floating up. B and C. astern.3 INDEPENDENT TANKS Independent cargo compartment is cargo tanks that do not transfer the pressure loads to the hull when they are loaded.

secondary barrier. 3. coal manganese steel or aluminium. and they have better quality than type A tanks.25 bars. The cargo tanks are mounted on building blocks so the tank can expand freely. This tank type is used for large LPG and medium-sized tankers. The tanks are insulated with polyurethane or perlite. The material is a recognised standard.2 Example of “anti float” brackets A full secondary barrier for this type of tank is required. . Independent tank type C is a pressure tank with no demands for secondary barrier. On top of the tanks and in the ship side or up under deck.4. Normal operating pressure is 0. Prismatic tanks are produced in aluminium or 3% nickel steel in stiff plates.1 Independent tanks type A Independent tank type A could be a prismatic tank and built in 3. These tanks are designed and model tested. spherical tank or membrane tank. 3. One can also use nitrogen or inert between the tanks as insulation.7 bars. This type of cargo tank is utilised for carrying LNG. If the hull is not utilised as secondary barrier an extra tank around the main cargo tank are constructed. Submerged pumps or deepwell pumps are utilised as discharging pumps. the hull is generally used as secondary barrier as low temperature steel is used in the hull construction around the cargo tank. On LPG tankers designed for minimum temperature of –48oC. 3. LPG and ammonium. steel quality approved by the class companies. This is done by building a tank of veneer plates around the cargo tank with polyurethane foam as insulation in between. This type of tanks is built for excess pressure less than Independent tanks type B Independent tank type B is a prismatic tank. The tanks are normally provided with centreline bulkhead to reduce the free liquid surface. brackets are welded to prevent the tank from floating up.5% nickel steel. The tanks rest on reinforced plywood supports for free expansion.

The other cradle functions as a support for the tank to expand freely.4. Tanks type C utilised on gas carriers are built in sizes from 300 m3 to 2500 m3. Tanks designed for cargo colder than –10oC must have insulation. The insulation on spherical tanks is spinned on from the bottom and up. The tanks are supported with cargo tank shirt at equator and down to the hull. Around the tank that is above deck there is a waterproof cover. Another patent is to weld “anti float” brackets on top of the cargo tank and up under deck to prevent the tank from floating up. Either submerged or deepwell pumps are utilised as discharge pumps. this is sprayed directly on the tank shell. The tanks are built in carbon manganese steel. Normally polyurethane or polystyrene is utilised as insulation.4 Independent tanks type C Independent tanks. Polyurethane is often utilised as foam on type B tanks as insulation. or perlite either filler around the tank or placed in small veneer cases. The tanks are equipped with submerged pumps. Other types of insulation are polystyrene plates placed in layers. The thickness of the insulation on tanks that carry ethylene is about 200 mm. 2 – 5 % nickel steel or acid-proof stainless steel. The thickness of the insulation is dependent of the quality of the insulation material and the temperature of the cargo. This type of tank has a large rate of security.Spherical tanks produced by Moss-Rosenberg patent are produced in aluminium or 9% nickel steel. type C are either spherical tanks or cylinder tanks. Some patents keep the tanks down in the cradles by steel bands that are extended over the tank and fastened to the cradle. The insulation is either sprayed directly or placed on in blocks on the cargo tank. and therefore does not need secondary barrier. . The tanks are stored on cradles and welded to one of the cradles. This tank type is utilised for fully pressurised gas carriers and semipressurised gas carriers. 3.

is given one of the following description types: 1G. Also.5 – 11 bars. steel qualities in cargo tanks.: toxicity. Gas carriers are divided into three main groups and four types. Then. The latest gas code is for gas carriers that keel is laid and 1% of the construction mass is used on 1st October 1994. Gas carriers are built according to IMO’s Gas Codes. Ship type 1G is a gas carrier that can carry all products mentioned in chapter 19 in the IGC Code.). cargo tanks. the international rules determined by IMO. Ship type 2G is a gas carrier that can carry the products marked in 2G. and has the largest rate of security to avoid pollution of the environment. etc.3 bars. 2PG or 3G. flammability. Ship type 1G is the type that can carry all cargoes mentioned in chapter 19 of the IGC Code. the first deals with existing gas carriers and passes for gas carriers delivered before 31st of December 1976. The gas code has a content in demands for damage stability. 2PG and 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. IMO defines liquefied gases as products with a vapour pressure exceeding 2. the pressure is normally 0. Ship type 2PG is a gas carrier of 150 meters or less that can carry the products marked 2PG or 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. There are three versions of gas codes. the pressure is normally 3 – 5 bars. but before 1st of July 1986. It is the ship owner’s specification of the gas carrier. which are designed for MARVS of at least 7 bars. . national rules and class companies rules that decide to which group and ship type the carrier belongs. personnel protection. The third gas code.7 bars. where the product is transported in independent tanks type C. and requires largest rate of security to prevent leakage from the product to the surroundings. The next code passes for gas carriers delivered on or after 31st of December 1976. and that requires defensible security to prevent leakage of the product. IGC Code passes for gas carriers started or the keel set after the first of July 1986. gas tankers cargo handling equipment. reactivity etc. safety valves. and that requires defensible security to prevent leakage of the product. pipe systems for cargo handling. Fully refrigerated carriers: designed for excess pressure in the cargo tank below 0. The three main groups are: • • • Fully pressurised carriers: designed for excess pressure in the cargo tank above11 bar.25 – 0. Semi-pressurised carriers: designed for excess pressure the cargo tank on 0. All gas carriers classed according to IMO IGC Code for transportation of gases mentioned in chapter 19.e. 2G. Each of the groups is again divided into ship types dependent on the cargo's hazardous properties (i.5 TYPES OF GAS CARRIERS Gas carriers are tankers constructed for transporting liquefied gases in bulk.8 bar absolute at a temperature of 37.3. according to the freight the vessel will trade. The gas carrier owner decides which group and type the carrier should have.8oC.

as 2PG ships must be calculated as 2G ships. the cargo tank must lie at least B/5 parts up to 11. damage stability. . All information of the demands made for the different ship types is located in IMO Gas Code. floating capability and of what material the cargo tank is made. and that requires moderate security to prevent leakage of the product. but with the same specification. Ship type 3G is a gas carrier that can carry the products marked 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. there is also a product list of which products the vessel can carry. On the certificate. The ship type is reported in column c in chapter 19 in the IGC Code.5 meters from the ship side. From the bottom plate and up to the tank no less than 2 meters or B/15 parts. As an example on ship type 1G. and all gas tankers must have this publication onboard. The type of gas carrier is specified in the vessels IMO Certificate of Fitness. This type of carrier must tolerate any damage to the ship side along the whole ship’s length.the cargo tank system is calculated for temperatures of –55oC or warmer. The type description of the gas carrier is given by the year when the keel was laid and the cargo tanks distance from ship side. B is equal to the vessel breadth. Gas tankers of 150 meters or more.

6 FULLY PRESSURISED CARRIERS Fully pressurised gas carriers were the first generation of gas carriers that were built to transport liquefied gases in bulk. This type of gas carrier trades mostly where LPG is consumed as energy. This type of gas carrier is still built. Propane has a saturation pressure of 17. this because it is transported under pressure at the surrounding temperature.6. because the cargo does not need to be cooled down on the sea voyage. There are no requirements for insulation of the cargo tanks because these carriers are not allowed to transport cargoes with temperature colder than –10oC. The cargo tank construction itself is heavy as these are built of common ship steel with a thick tank shell to endure high pressure.1 Fully pressurised LPG carriers This type of gas carrier is the type that in proportion to displacement can carry the lowest weight of cargo. Hot gas from shore can be used to hold the excess pressure in the cargo tank. To prevent vapour into the atmosphere when loading. generally by draining the discharge line to the ventilation mast. but is built to be more modern with discharging pumps in cargo tanks and indirect cargo cooling plant for more flexible cargo handling. and are built for an excess pressure corresponding to an ambient temperature of 45oC. one for LPG trade and one for Chlorine trade. consequently. It is the pressure in the shorelines that determines the manifold’s pressure and whether we should use the booster pump or not. This pump is used to discharge against a higher pressure than the excess pressure in the cargo tanks. We must always prime the booster pump before starting it. Booster pump is a one-stage centrifugal pump installed on deck close to the ship manifold. We must bear in mind that when running the booster pump against maximum pressure. This type of gas carrier is easy to operate. then we can manage 16 bars on the discharge line with the booster pump. These gas carriers are built in sizes up to about 3000 m3. The type of cargo determines the excess pressure for which the tanks must be built. “ambient”. Fully pressurised gas carriers don’t need discharge pumps in the cargo tanks. If the cargo tank’s pressure is 7 bars. When the tank pressure increases the cargo’s temperature also increases and the density of the liquid will be lower. such as house heating and cooking etc. Some fully pressurised gas carriers are equipped with booster pump(s) (auxiliary pump) on deck. the cargo tank’s excess pressure must at all time be higher than the shore backpressure. because the excess tank pressure will discharge the liquid to shore. Normally a booster pump manages to increase the pressure up 9 bars. they can remove the excess vapour by having vapour return to shore. they can also carry propylene in tropical waters. .3. IMO has a requirement when building fully pressurised tanks that they must be able to bear ambient (surroundings temperature) cargo with a temperature on 45oC. If there is no utilisation of the discharging pumps while discharging. fully pressurised carriers LPG have a relief valve setting at 18 bars. 3.18 bars at 50oC. We divide this type of gas carrier into two. Normally. The trade area is often limited to near coastal waters. the flow through the pump is very low.

The kind of cargo each vessel can carry is stated in the vessel’s IMO Certificate of Fitness. mainly in the Far East. Actual cargo for fully pressurised carriers is LPG and some chemical gases. Low costs in building because common steel is utilised in the cargo tanks. Fully pressurised gas carriers are most utilised for carrying of ambient LPG and some chemical gases as propylene. South America. Advantages: • • • • • • Easy to operate because all discharging takes place without pumps. These are tanks installed on “cradle-like” supports down in the hold space (the space around the cargo tank). Limited trade area because of dependence of discharging to pressure tanks on shore. The heat exchanger is used when we are loading a cargo with temperature below 0oC. Then the cargo has to be heated to above –10oC before we load it down to the cargo tank. for example. When the heat exchanger is not in use it is segregated from the liquid line.8oC directly into the vessels cargo tanks. and one can easily inspect the cargo tanks and the lines from the outside. no cooling of the cargo gives low energy consumption. No insulation of tanks or liner. . and hot vapour is returned back to the cargo tanks. Vapour is sucked from the cargo tanks to the compressor. Unable to have cold cargo in the tanks because of the steel quality. no need in maintenance of the insulation. Disadvantages: • • • • • Small amount of cargo in proportion to displacement as the cargo is transported ambient. and are utilised only for holding the temperature on the cargo.Fully pressurised gas carriers are equipped with a heat exchanger (cargo heater) connected to the loading lines with vales and spool piece (adapter). cylindrical or spherical tanks. the Caribbean and The Mediterranean. Fully pressurised gas carriers are constructed with independent tank type C. Fully pressurised gas carriers have a small cargo compressor to produce excess pressure in the cargo tanks or remove over pressure from the cargo tanks. because there is little mechanical utility equipment for cargo handling. Simple discharging/loading equipment on deck. and the ship hull doesn’t recover dynamic loads from the cargo tanks. Heavy cargo construction because of toleration of the pressure. Transporting the cargo by surrounding temperature (ambient). propane at atmospheric pressure corresponding to –42. These compressors are in general small. Low costs for maintenance. Limited cargo volume because the tankers are not built large than 3000m3.

Chlorine vapour obtained from shore via the ship’s vapour lines can also be used for discharging. This type of ship must not have cargo tanks larger than 600 m3. It is prohibited to use any kind of direct cargo cooling plant on chlorine. Tanks and lines must be built in steel quality that tolerates a temperature down to –40oC. line from safety valve. The gas detector must scan the bottom of hold space. Consequently. Advantages: They are easy to operate. Cargo lines must at maximum have an inner diameter of 100 mm. which is saturation pressure for Chlorine at 45oC. but because of the toxicity of chlorine. these gas carriers are smaller than the common fully pressurised gas carriers LPG. Some chlorine carriers are also equipped with submerged pumps in the cargo tanks. Simple cargo handling equipment on deck. The gas detector onboard must measure 1 ppm chlorine and alarm setting at 5 ppm. This information is at all times specified in IMO Certificate of Fitness. Tanks and lines are insulated. To discharge these type of gas carriers the cargo tanks excess pressure is used. into ventilation for accommodations and all of the gas area on deck. There is also a summary in the certificate of fitness as to what type of cargoes the actual tanker is allowed to carry. Either the pressure established by dry nitrogen or only the tank pressure is used. This type of gas carrier mostly stays in the chlorine trade. The requirements are stated in the IGC code chapter 14.3. Because of the toxicity of chlorine it is necessary that the chlorine carriers are equipped with a chlorine absorption plant connected to cargo tanks and cargo lines. Tanks and lines must be insulated. also carry LPG and some chemical gases depending on the relief valve’s set point.2 Fully pressurised chlorine Cl2 carrier These tankers are built as fully pressurised tankers LPG. The cargo tanks must be built for an excess pressure not lower than 13. and are thereby capable to cool cargo. . the outlet from chlorine absorption plant. The absorption plant must neutralise a minimum 2% of total cargo capacity. There are few cargo owners that accept to load other products after Chlorine. In general ethanol is used as cooling medium against Freon (R22) in a small freon cooling plant.5 bars. They have an indirect cooling plant.6. This type of gas carrier often has an indirect cargo cooling plant with coils welded to the outside of the tank shell. 17 and19. because of the toxicity of the cargo. and total capacity must not exceed 1200 m3. if they are accepted. Other indirect cargo cooling plants utilise freon as the cooling medium by directly pumping freon in and around the coils. Chlorine carriers can. Polyurethane or polystyrene is utilised as insulation. special requirements are set on this type of gas carrier.

Expensive to build in proportion to the cargo amount they can transport. and have thereby low loading capacity.Disadvantages: They are small tankers. The tankers are mainly designed for Chlorine. .

We must be attentive to this. This renders the ship type with more flexibility than other gas carrier types.7. Ethylene and Ammonia. Before loading cold cargo.3. Thereby we can cool down the shell by 10oC an hour until it is about 10oC above the cargo temperature. If the tanker is carrying LPG or Ammonia with a boiling point at atmospheric pressure warmer than –48oC.1 Semi-pressurised LPG/ LEG carriers Semi-pressurised carriers are more complex than fully pressurised carriers due to their extended cargo handling equipment. because uneven thermal shrinkage of the cargo tank can lead to damage to the cargo tank. 3. Semipressurised tankers are divided in two types . It is common that the first 30oC can be cooled the first hour. Propylene. the time for loading will be reduced and thereby reduces the time ashore. Which type of cargo cooling system the gas carrier is equipped with depends on the type of cargo it is meant to carry. Butadiene. the tanks and lines are insulated. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are utilised for transportation of petrochemical gases. . That will save harbour expenses for the ship owners or the charterer. such as. the vessel must be equipped with cascade cooling plant. heat exchanger (cargo heater) and booster pumps. such as. They are designed to carry cargo with temperatures down to –48oC for LPG and Ammonia. In addition. the choice is generally direct cargo-cooling plant.7 SEMI PRESSURISED GAS CARRIERS Semi-Pressurised gas carriers are a development from fully pressurised carriers. Semi pressurised tankers are equipped either with direct cargo cooling plant or cascade cargo cooling plant. If the vessel will transport cargo with a boiling point at atmospheric pressure colder than –48oC. but also for gases. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are normally built in sizes from 2000 m3 to 15000 m3. A tank of 1000 m3 that is cooled from 20oC to –103oC shrinks about 5 m3. The cooling of the tank steel must be done to prevent thermal expansion and crack in the tank shell. It is specified in the operating manual for each vessel how to cool down the cargo tank shell.Semi-pressurised carrier LPG/LEG and Semi-pressurised tanker combined gas and chemicals. In addition. and –104oC for LEG. the cargo tank steel must be cooled down to approximate 10oC above cargo temperature. when the shell is cooled down. normally with polyurethane or polystyrene. cargo cooling plant. Semi-pressurised carriers are equipped with discharging pumps in the cargo tank.

Between the cradle and the tank shell there is a layer of hard wood that acts as a fender to prevent damage to the cargo tank against the cradle. The spherical tanks are also installed in a “cradle-like” construction. there is also a summary of cargo the vessel can carry. at all times. The tanks are placed in “cradle-like” constructions and are welded to one of the cradles. but they are still not built.Propane. lower temperature. Butane and Ethane. and brackets (anti float) are welded on top of the cargo tank to prevent the cargo tanks from floating up. can load and unload temperate cargo. no dependence at loading to remove excess pressure. The tanks are placed below deck. Disadvantages: • • • • Expensive to build. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are the type of gas carriers that is most flexible for change of cargo and cargo handling. specified in IMO Certificate of Fitness. and thereby handle heavier cargo. (Notice the safety valves set point). There have been plans to build semi-pressurised tankers up to 36000 m3. costly cargo handling equipment. On some vessels. but some vessels also have cargo tanks on deck. . the other cradle then functions as cargo tank support by expansion of the tank. Limited cargo amount (maximum approximate15000 m3). and free in the other cradle for free expansion of the cargo tank. Can heat the cargo while at sea and while discharging. Semi-pressurised carriers with spherical tanks utilise the same steel quality as in cylinder tanks. The support goes towards a bracket in the hull of the tanker. Uses more energy than fully pressurised tankers.5 – 11 bars. The cylinder tanks are often a combination of twin tanks that are situated longitudinally of the ship. and acts as insulation against the steel in the cradle. This information is. Complicated to operate because of the cargo handling equipment. and larger density. Can transport fully cooled cargo. Ammonia. Can cool the cargo on route. either up under deck or in the ship side. Ethylene and some chemical gases. Advantages: • • • • • Very flexible. The tanks are either strapped down with steel bands or the brackets are welded on to prevent the tanks from floating up. Actual cargoes for Semi-pressurised gas carriers are LPG. Semi-pressurised gas carriers have independent tanks type C either as cylinder or spherical tank designed for tank pressure between 0. and a single situated abeam. the cargo tanks are attached to one of the cradles. In the IMO Certificate of Fitness. LEG. Either nickel steel or coal-manganese steel is used in the cargo tanks. Easier tank construction than fully pressurised tankers.

This is specified in the operating manual and the stability book for the tanker. These gas carriers are normally designed for 3 . in order to segregate all cargo tanks from each other.Semi-pressurised tankers with deck cargo tank or some transverse cargo tanks can have stability problems in loading/discharging. the Ethanol is cooled with the help of freon (R22) cooling plant. where Ethanol is used either to cool or heat the tank steel. lines. Access to many smaller ports/harbours because of relatively little draught. They are constructed to transport cargo from –104oC to 60oC. Advantages: • • • • • The tankers are very flexible. . and these gas carriers are equipped with indirect cargo cooling plant in addition to cascade cargo cooling plant. and valves are constructed in stainless steel. Direct and indirect cooling/heating. can transport both chemicals and gas. generally single transverse or small alongside twin tanks. When cooling the tank steel. Actual cargo LPG / NH3 / LEG / chemical gases and chemicals. This is specified in the operational manual and the stability book. Disadvantages: • • • • Expensive to build. The cargo tanks on this type of gas carrier are the independent type C cylinder. This involves separate liquid and vapour lines from each tank to the manifold. and the operators onboard must consider this. The Ethanol is also utilised to heat the tank steel.4 bars excess pressure and are built in sizes from 4000 m3 up to 15000 m3. This means that this type of gas carriers can load equally as much different cargo as they have cargo tanks. 3.7. Cargo tanks. Demanding to operate because of complicated cargo handling equipment.2 Semi pressurised tankers (Combined gas/chemical) These gas carriers are constructed like other Semi pressurised tankers. Tanks and lines are stainless steel. Limited cargo volume because of the tanker’s size. Can load and discharge tempered cargo and fully cooled cargo down to -104oC. but they are classified both according to IMO gas and chemical codes. it is then heated with the tanker steam in a heat exchanger and pumped in and around the coils. The indirect cargo cooling plant is often equipped with a coil welded outside the tank shell. The stability is a problem when loading/unloading when there are many transverse cargo tanks or deck cargo tanks.

8.1 Fully refrigerated LPG carriers The cargo tanks on fully refrigerated LPG carriers are normally built of low temperature carbon-manganese steel. Some of the older fully refrigerated gas carriers have Perlite as tank insulation. the first atmospheric pressure gas carrier was delivered at the end of the 1950s. or with membrane tanks. 3.3.8 FULLY REFRIGERATED CARRIERS Following semi-pressurised gas carriers. only a partly secondary barrier is demanded. With spherical tanks. These gas carriers are built either with independent tank type A or type B as prismatic or spherical tanks. and are designed for excess tank pressure less than 0. These gas carriers are built in sizes from 15000 m3 to 120000 m3. Ammonia and some chemical gases with minimum temperature of –48oC. The cargo tanks are normally insulated either with Polyurethane or Polystyrene. Fully refrigerated gas carriers are normally equipped with independent type A or B prismatic cargo tank or membrane tanks. about half of the cargo tank is above deck because the vessel’s hull is lower than what you find with prismatic or membrane tanks. Fully refrigerated carriers with independent tank type A must have a full secondary barrier.7 bars. This is achieved by using low temperature steel in the hull structure around the cargo tank. If independent tank type B is utilised either prismatic or spherical tanks. This is achieved by utilising low temperature steel in the hull under the cargo tank. The cargo tanks are designed for LPG. The centre . With prismatic or membrane tanks the volume of the hull is utilised. Independent prismatic cargo tanks are normally divided into two in longitudinal direction with a centre bulkhead that runs to the top of the tank dome. and tank construction is below deck.

When carrying non-flammable products. the hold space or the inter-barrier space must have a content of neutral atmosphere with either dry inert gas or dry nitrogen. Some carriers also have coils in the pump sump that is used for liquid free the tank.bulkhead is built to improve the stability on the carriers by reducing the effect of the free liquid surface when the tanks are loaded. These intermediate valves are installed down in the pump sump for the liquid to flow from one side to the other. Fully refrigerated carriers with membrane tanks are without a centre bulkhead. this is utilised when loading naphtha etc. Large tankers are more efficient (cargo weight). Normally there are two pumps in each cargo tank. Easier cargo tank construction than Semi pressurised tanker Tanks and lines are insulated. . There are normally one or more valves in the centre bulkhead that is called intermediate valves. Naphtha. such as. This gas carrier type carries a lot of LPG from the Persian Gulf to the Far East and USA. Advantages: • • • • • Transports large weight in proportion to volume because the cargo is at all times loaded and transported at atmospheric pressure. With the intermediate valves open. Propylene. When atmospheric pressure gas carrier are carrying flammable products. Some atmospheric pressure tankers do not have booster pumps or heat exchangers (cargo heaters). hot gas is blown through the coils. Ammonia. Such gas carriers are built with a trunk on deck that the membrane tank is formed out of. and thereby reduces the effect of the free liquid surface. Actual cargo for this type of gas carrier is LPG. Some carriers are also equipped with strip lines in the tank that either are connected to ejectors or transportable membrane pumps. Butadiene and VCM. Have large cargo cooling plant. one can discharge the entire cargo tank with one pump. and some chemical gases. Fully refrigerated carriers are generally equipped with the same cargo handling equipment as Semi-pressurised carriers. It is important that the intermediate valves are closed when there is no loading or discharging of cargo. Information of the type of cargo the tanker transports is located in IMO Certificate of Fitness. Ammonia is transported from The Black Sea to USA and the Far East. one utilises dry air or dry nitrogen on the hold space.

18% to 0. Common for all these steel types is that they have a thermal expansion coefficient close to 0. These tankers are special in that the vapour boil off from the cargo is utilised as fuel to the vessels propulsion. It is possible to produce cargocooling plants for the large LNG tankers.8. This indicates that this is too expensive. 3.2 Fully refrigerated LNG carriers These gas carriers are special as they are designed for loading gas at atmospheric pressure with a temperature down to –163oC. French patents with membrane tanks are built either in stainless steel. Fully refrigerated LNG carriers are either built with independent tanks type B Moss-Rosenberg patent with spherical tanks or French patents that utilises membrane tanks. The LNG tankers compete with gas transportation in pipelines on shore. not possible to heat up cargo on route. contracted on basis of long cargo contracts over about 25 years. and they transport some in LPG/LNG/LEG trade. and are designed for LNG trade. Limited access on terminals and ports with limitations to draught. The smaller LNG tankers on the other hand have a cargo cooling plant.25% of the cargo capacity per 24 hours. the vapour boil off is between 0. 9% nickel steel or ferro nickel steel that have a 36% nickel content.These gas carriers are built from 20000 m3 to 125000 m3. Pressure limitation. and the sea transport amount to about 5% of the total LNG transport. The largest LNG carriers are. Spherical tanks of Moss Rosenberg patent are built in aluminium. .Disadvantages: • • • • Not so flexible for cargo change as Semi pressurised tankers. For the large LNG tanker. but to cool 125000 m3 LNG about 6000 kW/h is required. and it is more appropriate to utilise the vapour boil off for propulsion. This is because these tankers are very expensive to build. Carrier without heat exchanger (cargo heater) can only unload at atmospheric pressure (fully cooled). at all times.

.LNG carriers have a special procedure for cooling the cargo tanks before loading. which is specified in the tanker’s operation manuals and certificates. Understandably. which is installed inside the cargo tank. The tankers are equipped with a spray plant where Methane is pumped into the tank’s spray line (perforated lines). or by the tank’s equator. One must never begin to load a cargo tank before there is –136oC in the middle of the tank. one must cool the cargo tanks a considerable amount of degrees to be ready to load.


The regulations in the “Bill of . American cargo owners had agreements in the American court of law saying that many of these clauses had no value.FREIGHTING The right to charter has an international colouring. and in 1924 as a result of several maritime court conferences. and to which extend. the owner is responsible to the economical loss the cargo owner suffers by loss or damage on goods or by delay during the voyage while it still was in the ship’s owner custody. A new conference was held in Hamburg and the purpose is that the Hamburg rules shall take over for the Haag-Visby rules when they are ratified by a satisfactory number of marine trading nations. In these days the owners of the ships had a limited responsibility due to miscalculations. nations and traditions closer together and creates a need of uniformity. The convention changed in constitution and now called the Haag-Visby regulations. as well as the understanding of what a bill of landing shall contain and the responsibility connected to the information about the product. This is naturally because the activity over the world’s oceans is linking countries. but still there is a long way to go. and this resulted in an almost united regulation of the most important conflicts concerning transporting of goods. and in extreme cases this fact was recognised in the days of sail-ships.1 HISTORY In the last century the ship owners signed off any responsibility due to damages during the voyage. by the commitment in a freight contract.1 The Conventions decisions Usually the parts in negotiations can request their desires concerning transport of a product or an entire ship cargo. in other words: the clauses liberating the ship owners responsibility due to miscalculations and negligence was not valid. “Bill of Lading” convention was established. Still the need to improve existed and after the conference in Stockholm in 1963. But the participants can not make the deal totally as they want. for instance to general cargo transporting. The ship owners themselves decided that something had to be done. 4. Ship trading is risky. 4. Norway acknowledged the Haag regulations in 1938. and where held responsible the limitations to the area accounted for was the value of the ship and the freight. Clauses were made to liberate the owners from almost everything. another protocol was developed with some proposals to improvements due to the Haag regulations. The Haag regulations was ratified of most maritime trading nations. The rules concerning the responsibility during transport gives the answer to how far. The motion was against the hip owners both in USA and Europe. The Haag-Visby regulations represent no longer fully and updated international accepted regulations. called The Haag-Regulations.1. That is why common regulations concerning transporting products is so important.

So the company then contacts their broker in London delivering a brief description of the cargo. In freighting. which is to be loaded in Al Jubail in the time 17-20th of May. It is quit obvious that a charter party for a load of cattle will have to consist of a number of regulations totally different from a ship carrying a cargo of gas or a ship carrying crude oil. Thereafter we will talk some about the partners involved. and a little about technicalities during negotiations. 4500 metric tons of propylene. and the shipping language with the expression habits. according to the responsibility rules and not a smaller amount. is used. for example an oil company has a cargo and wishes this cargo to be shipped from the Arabian Gulf to SE Asia. In a simple way. must be. it referred to . Offer and demand control the whole scenario. the freight market.2 Freighting in General We shall now go through a little extra about the different ways of freighting. the mechanisms in the market. based on this brokers knowledge and considerations due to where hip owners with suitable tonnage is established around the world.Lading” has to be followed. the rate system. A Bill of Lading is a document confirming the acceptance of the cargo (product) to carry from one determination place to the other. This is not the case any more. therefore look at the enclosure list with commonly used expressions in the end of this part of the compendium. In bill of lading the ship owner is described as the freighter of the cargo. but first let us briefly say a little of what normally happens before the negotiations start. This deal is called A «charter party». and the amount the ship owner have to be responsible to. the opportunity to commit the shipping company to be responsible to a higher amount is available. These brokers have a wide information of ship types and companies and when the ships are available which is extremely useful and necessary. As mentioned before a «charter party» is a contract about a transport mission. For example. It exists a number of different charter party formulas due to load and trade. the customary practice will play an important role when it comes to how a freight contract shall be understood. Such a deal was in the past considered to be a quit simple document. When the partners implicated have come to an agreement. The London broker will then send off a telex with this cargo information and send this telex to his broker associated in various countries. a contract is established and ready to sign. On the other hand. So. 4. there is no way to avoid the regulations due to the bill of lading and the transport responsibility according to the conclusions in the international Haag-Visby regulations. In addition to the decisions by the court of law about the partner’s deal.1. Two of the partners often mentioned in freighting are the charter one having the cargo and the freighter whom is the ship owner. A number of the larger charterer have today their own charter party formula. When it concerns shipping the free marketing mechanism is ruling. When the product is taken on board a document shall be issued called a “Bill of Lading”. a number of expressions which is important to be fully aware the meaning of. When little activity in the market. and the one who go cargo needed to be transported is called the charter.

and since several is competing. This due to the fact that both ship owner and the broker instantly read which way the demand is going. send a rundown with all the conditions agreed to.3 Basic Rate The basic rate is calculated and intended a standard oil tanker with a loading capacity of 75000 metric ton. discuss the different shipping expressions. . and we find a number of basis rates for oil cargo voyages between typical disembarkation ports and receiving ports throughout the world. it is referred to as a lively demand. and because there is shortage of tonnage. It is really extremely expensive to lie up the ships and then break open again. He will often as the negotiations is ending. the contract is written. and that ships want contracts. and the one valid these days is called «World scale». In world scale (World-wide Tanker Normal Freight Scale) is abbreviated to WS or W. usually on a standard formula called a Charter Party. When the market is active.5 knots. will on the other hand the contracting increase. A ship owner will probably not choose to lay up the ship until the freight market is so low that the transporting income does not cover the running costs. but what make it difficult to understand is all the abbreviations and special expressions. so both parts can read through it and confirm the conditions agreed on. plus 5 metric tons in each port. The shipping language itself is English.1. In a short period the owners may choose to sail with loss. reading the market and consider this as a temporary down period. The freighting level will rarely be constant. 4. When the market is strong and active. Similarly a quit market will lead the oil companies to acknowledge that there is no competition in market. Further on the low rate over a longer period will lead to less contracting. so we will try to get the most important ones with us.as quit and slow. the oil company can press the market down and have a ship with the lowest freight rate signed up. and an average speed of 14. Often the owner or his broker who is signing the charter party on the ship owners behalf. The broker as a connecting link is extremely important and must be accurate and see that no mistakes are being made which can cause conflicts leading to claims for compensation. The owner’s broker usually signs the charter party according to received power of attorney after the owner have controlled a «working copy» of the charter party Common procedure is that the charter himself sign the document. Usually the charterer’s broker finishes the charter party and often signs the contract on behalf of the charterer. Since the wars ended oil tankers have developed different rating systems. Therefore the freight rate gets higher. The same is to be said about buying and selling «second hand tonnage». In a n active market with lively demand the freight rates increase. and a day and night consumption estimated to 55 metric tons HVF (heavy fuel) and 100 metric tons to other purposes. When the partners have agreed. How far down the rate is pressed is dependent of the conditions. Later on we will. the oil company has no other alternate than to pay. Some of these special expressions will be found in the loading instructions. The brokers then draw the contract. when viewing the different types of transport forms.

not the negotiation form. The owner «Transporter Gas» has just the oil tanker available. LPG «Seagull» which can load about 4500 metric tons of propylene and is found in the right position to be ready for loading at the requested time. The owner is Norwegian and it is morning. The charterer is the part who has cargo to transport and need tonnage.4. Now a few words about the negotiations itself. This offer stand on hold for . The ship owner is the one offering the ship services due to transport of cargo 2.2 THE NEGOTIATION The parts in the negotiations 1. the picture above symbolise only the negotiation. the order came ticking into the owners office around the world. Naturally no deepen details is mentioned. The parts have start the negotiations. so the owner is ready to set up LPG «Seagull». but in this case the English broker sent the order to several of his broker connections in countries which he meant had suitable tonnage in hand. Only few minutes after the Oil Company informed the market about the cargo. 3. among others several Norwegian brokers. The broker is the part negotiating a final contract between owner and charterer.(many owners have their own charterer sections). These brokers passes on the request from the oil company to the different owner connections. The owner work out the conditions and makes an offer which the Oslo broker send via London to the oil company. Let us go back to the oil company which had a cargo of 4500 metric tons from Al Jubail going to SE Asia: The procedure in the negotiations can vary. and no especial time difference between London and Oslo.

Reply London 1245hrs. Propylene. that means what cargo the ship has been carrying on previous voyages. 1982/class GL/flag Norwegian. One safe port SE Asia. in our example. Load: Disch. «subj. there is no negotiations yet. The Owner (company) will now wait in excitement for replay. Other shipping companies may have reacted even faster with a replay. Summer draft. so that a “counter” is received. It can also happen that another owner offers a lower freight rate. English law to apply. Accept discharge range. Max. 4500 metric ton up to full cargo. but it is a way to check the interest in the market for business. on 8. Details and C/P conditions». Oslo time. Laytime.5% commission on FRT/DEM. Min. 2. ASBATANK (Tanker Voyage Charter Party ) Sub further terms details. meaning a counteroffer. (followed by a short description of the ship). arbitration) London. your order Ras Tanura . May be nothing happens. Mostly of our offer is accepted and we receive the following telex: Subj. «subject reply within 1230 hours». May 17/20 1994. (98%). a ship with better equipment and position or a better previous cargo history. 8073 cbm. Replay here 1230 hrs. 8250 metric tonn dwt. this is due to the fact that a new opportunity is likely to occur sudden in the market. DEM: USD 9000 PDRP .about half an hour in our example. Laycan: Rate: Demurrage: Haag-Visby: GA/ARB: WSHT: TTL(total) CP form: 126. One safe berth Al Jubail. this ship is favourable to the charterer. (general average. USD 14000 pdpr (per day pro rata) Haag-Visby rules. LPG «Seagull». Ref. Loa/beam: Blt: Tank cap: Last 3 cargoes: Cargo: Segregation. and rapid replays is necessary.Europe pleased to offer you: Subj.1m/17. Such a primer offer is usually very short .8m. Rate: 62 USD/mt. (worldscale`s hours terms)-72hrs. But any way.2 mtrs. 68 USD/mt. 2 grades within vessel’s natural segr.

which confirms that the cargo is received for transport.” Along the Norwegian coastline no Bill of Lading is used. Further on it can be clauses concerning responsibilities damaging the cargo. This Bill of Lading is called a “Through” Bill of Lading. The cargo is then simply received with a confirmation of the Bill of Lading. We have different types of Bill of Ladings. the cargo owners. Today a charter party is a extensive document with standard clauses which are supplied with several additional clauses (riders) which are fastened to the charter party. freight and the voyage. after checking when the ship is ready to embark. 4. the charterer send a rundown. The charter party is written later. A promise to deliver goods at a determinate place in return of the document “Bill Of Lading”. When the negotiations are completed. A promise to transport the goods to a certain destination. From time to time.Naturally. The strict rules for Bill of Lading responsibilities do not apply to the Freightbill. but a Freight-bill is issued instead. this “booking note” is skipped over. This third party is the one who owns the cargo and is the receiver. A document for the whole transport can be issued. If the cargo is loaded on board a known and named ship. A bill of lading is defined as a document consisting of: A confirmation from the owner on the acceptance of specific goods. the Bill of Lading will be an “Onboard” Bill of Lading. dividing expenses and other information about the ship. like the Northern Sea and in North Atlantic trade. When the cargo is transported by an oil tanker. This will be handed over to the shipper so that the cargo can be delivered to the one holding the original Bill of Lading (the shipper or the buyer). This is called Combined Transports and the document is called a “Combined Transport Document. These additional clauses is regulating the charterer special needs or other more practical conditions connected to the transport. or railroad. shut downs. A Bill of Lading can also state that the transportation may be executed with more than just the owner’s ship. The tank company then issues a “booking note” referring to the company’s Bill of Lading conditions and this ensures that the Bill of Lading is issued when the cargo has been loaded. ship. the ship captain or the vessel’s agent issues a Bill of Lading. but there is always written a charter party . cargo. a Bill of . and after negotiating to and from one agrees that the owner and the charterer commits to a rate on 62 USD/mt and a DEM 9000. clauses of war. and this is functioning like a contract between the owner and charterer. but the regulations are the same.3 BILL OF LADING Choose to enlighten the document Bill Of Lading before going further into the other variants of charter parties. which will be of interest to the charterer. Earlier this was a relatively simple document written in a few lines describing the ship. In special areas. where the total contract is confirmed. in the cards played one has to compromise. cargo to transport (carry). The parts involved have committed themselves on the basis of negotiations and the rundown which have been read and accepted. deliver the cargo to the tank company’s “Warehouse”. when transport is executed by car. After receiving the cargo.

A Bill of Lading functions as a certificate that the cargo is as described in the document. In addition. . the shipper can in the Bill of Lading suggest a special person. On the Onboard Bill of Lading. If more receivers appear and can legitimate themselves by presenting examples of the Bill of Lading. However. if the shipper demands. nationality and location where the cargo was loaded. The buyer of cargo. if there is any reason to suspect they are incorrect. The owner must be critical and should. based on the shipper’s written task.Lading is not always used. the following will be noted: The type of cargo and either the cargo weight measure or quantity of goods. the day receiving the cargo. in no way avoid controlling the shipper’s information. Therefore. The shipper is accountable to the owner for the accuracy of the cargo information regarding his task or as requested in the Bill of Lading. Protests from the owner to the shipper cannot be set in force if the Bill of Lading has been acquired from a credulous third person. An Onboard Bill of Lading will provide the ship’s name. If this is the case. A Bill of Lading is issued in as many copies as the shipper demands. which is under transportation or scheduled for transport. As receiver. if the others are delivered to their right owners. order or holder. he is regarded as the legitimate receiver of the cargo. The regulations concerning the Bill of Lading responsibility are very strict. It is enough that one Bill of Lading is presented where several are issued. has paid for the cargo and in return was granted the Bill of Lading. of course. “Indemnity Clause”). provided that the marks are clearly indicated on the cargo. before the loading starts. Further. The Bill of Lading shall state the day and place where issued along with the shipper’s name. This is because a Bill of Lading is a negotiable document .a document which represents the cargo (the cargo’s ID card) and which can be negotiable in form of buying and selling several times during the ships voyage. When the person at the receiver location shows a Bill of Lading. The shipper will deliver the necessary identification marks in writing. the cargo will be held back until the correct receiver is found. a document referred to as “Waybill” is used and this document is not enforced as a Bill of Lading. (This will be viewed on the next page. The person standing as a receiver can give this right to another who can demand the cargo be delivered to him. Where to and to whom the cargo will be delivered. Upon arrival the buyer receives the cargo upon presenting the Bill of Lading. On the receiver Bill of Lading. the day when the loading ended. but the number should be referred to in text and the wording should be similar. The size of the freight and the other terms related to the transportation and the cargo delivery. a recipient Bill of Lading will state the destination for cargo delivery. he must control the information himself to ensure accuracy. the information in the Bill of Lading must be correct. The visible condition of the cargo.

as required by law. The owner is also responsible to the third person if cargo damage or cargo lack has been kept hidden without being noted in the Bill of Lading. or someone he answers for. When delivering cargo. if a Bill of Lading is issued under a charter party. The owner’s would have to face claims of responsibility as a result of delivering cargo without having accepted the necessary Bill of Lading from the receiver. So. the owner will be responsible. The owner. If an owner knew. Also. therefore any remark concerning the cargo and its condition etc. When a ship is time chartered. and that this is valid as evidence -confirming. Be aware. A charterer will press a captain to issue a clean Bill of Lading regardless. If another receiver than the one presenting in the Bill of Lading appears. that P/I companies do not cover the owner’s loss if something goes wrong. have agreed to use the Convention in the transport situation. according to its Convention rules or laws. The situation will then be to judge. The same regulations concerning responsibility is valid as long as a document is issued. Law in its execution forces Haag-Visby regulations. but be careful and leave the decision to the owner. between two flag states when: The Bill of Lading is issued in a country which has ratified the Convention. The Bill of Lading must in such a case show that this information proved otherwise. The conditions in the Convention concerning responsibility for loss and damages is not an impediment for changes in the preserving of the cargo and the handling before loading and after discharging. if the third party involved suffers loss when cashing in the Bill of Lading. or: The transport is from one port in a country using the Convention already. it must satisfy the conditions set in the Convention. There is no way to avoid any responsibility for the conditions. However. there is no way to be free of responsibility. The Haag-Visby regulation’s Bill of Lading paragraph does not apply to freight contracts.. based on the Haag-Visby regulations for all Bill of Lading issued for transport of a cargo. A large reputable company can accept a “Back Letter” or “Letter of Indemnity” as satisfactory. the captain must make sure that no Bill of Lading is signed which could lead to claims of responsibility against the owner which was caused by incorrect description of the cargo. Here the same sort of difficulties as mentioned earlier can occur. Here the time charterer is important. or: The contract contains information which confirms that the country. even when the owner should have discovered this information. Counter evidence cannot be produced if the Bill of Lading has been acquired in good faith from a third person.We already have mentioned that the Bill of Lading represents the cargo. it necessary to . the captain must ensure and control that the cargo is exclusively delivered to the one presenting the original Bill of Lading. must be noted in the document before signing it. is responsible for losses regarding his obligation to keep the ship in seaworthy condition at the start of the voyage. This is true when he has or should have realised that the information in this document was incorrect. and could have caused misunderstandings for a third party. the charterer will request that a Bill of Lading is issued. trusting that the information stated is correct. or ought to have known that information about the cargo was incorrect.that the owner has accepted and loaded the cargo when no other information is available.

Be aware that the charter party outline also can be divided in sub groups. the load/discharge port . as well as.3. Most of the oil companies have their own charter party formulas which. two organisations have been especially working hard to accomplish standard charter party outlines. Whether this turns out to be a success is no guaranty. But in an active good market. the owner or the charterer and in some situations this can be hard to determine.1 Indemnity Clause This can cause some bother. Here the shipping company (owner) watches out for this and makes an effort to improve the terms. follow each other. 4.4. the ship’s captain must respond similarly due to the Bill of Lading. especially in short voyages. The ship’s captain has to show the utmost of caution when treating the loading contracts. in some cases. The owner’s instruction must. be followed by the captain in charge. with a shortage of ships available in the right location. This is nothing like a bank guaranty. The central issue in any charter party is who the owner is and who is controlling the ship. the solution will be to accept the terms and be happy that the ship is in trading. Some oil companies use this. which almost completely favour of the charterer.4 FREIGHTING FORMS A charter party is a document. both when on time charter party or travel charter party and in the owners regular trading. broadly speaking.1 Voyage Charter Party Voyage chartering is probably the most common type of freighting. then better conditions can possibly be negotiated with success. Besides. There will. be clauses in the document. That is The Baltic and the International Maritime Conference (BIMCO) in Copenhagen and the English shipping organisation Chamber of Shipping of United Kingdom in London. If the original Bill of Lading cannot be produced. 4. A number of charter party formulas exist that are used. and cannot always be considered satisfactory security for the cargo delivery. however this will not be viewed her. frequently there is a situation described as “take it or leave it”. The best-known voyage charter party within the tank trade is “Tanker Voyage Charter Party”. In this freighting form (voyage charter party). especially the Bill of Lading. Large charterer usually have their own formulas with specific conditions added.examine if the person involved is right according to the transport declarations (notes added on the back side of the Bill of Lading. prospectively contact the owner’s charterer office for further information. remember to follow the owner’s instructions. Any doubt whatsoever. which is a written confirmation between the owner and a charterer about a commissioned transport. Several standard charter party outlines exist concerning different types of freighting and their single type of cargo. 4. then the owner has a duty to deliver the cargo in exchange for a “Letter of Indemnity” (a written guaranty from the charterer). the owner is responsible for the operating expenses including bunker costs. will confirm this). in these cases. If the market activity is slow. To get a more neutral charter party formula and better adjusted to the interests of both parties.

in this example the 20th of May. Europe. If the ship arrives later than the cancelling date.e.expenses which are specified in the charter party. PART I A: Description and position of vessel: The ship’s loading capacity for the cargo to be transported (on oil tankers it is smart to note the pumping capacity). We will view the most important facts in the charter party negotiations. but this can be described in different ways: A determined dock: for example berth 1. Mongstad. Discharging port(s) range: The discharging ports can be agreed to as referred to in point “D”. the charterer may cancel the contract or renegotiate. Several ports: for example Rotterdam. Read the charter party. A determined port: for example one safe port. and which ship this concerns. An ordered port: for example Gibraltar for order. Here we should remember the expression: % MOLOO or % MOLCO. If several grades are to be loaded . In voyage freighting. the ship’s captain can adjust the amount of cargo as specified by a % up or down. C: Loading port(s) Range: It is important to agree on the load and discharge place. B: Lay days/Cancelling (lay/can May 17-20 1994): Lay/can estimates the time frame (window) when the ship can arrive in loading port and be ready to load. Part I and Part II. the written word is preferred over the printed. if these should come in conflict to each other. % MOLCO means “charter option”. Mongstad. D. MOLOO & MOLCO are possibly used. unless other terms are agreed to. According to common interpretations practice. in other words. In one part of the charter party. as described in Part I and Part II. The position of the ship and when it can be ready in loading port. In the end of this chapter you will find a copy of a voyage charter party “ASBATANKVOY” which we use as the starting point here. m3 or in metric tonnes. The ship is paid based upon the transported quantity. this is divided in two. it cannot demand to start loading before the lay days start. we have a so-called near clause which protects the owner from impediments which may arise after the charter party has been agreed to “or so near there to as she may safely get and lie always afloat”. the charterer makes an agreement on the freight before each single voyage. If the ship appears ahead of time. Cargo description: It describes here how much and what kind of cargo the ship should load. in this example 17th of May. E. The conclusions included in Part I have higher priority than the conditions in Part II. A determined area: for example one safe port. Preamble: Here is the information about the partners committed in this deal. % MOLOO means “more or less in owner’s option”. As you will notice. It is then the owner’s duty to bring the ship to the determined port. The loading capacity can be noted in i. We will look at a typical voyage charter party and go through the most important content.

can appear.the expression “Within vessel’s natural segregation”.550.g. Demurrage is agreed to when the charter party is negotiated and is likely to be set to a fixed cost per 24 hours.94 07:00 Loading complete arm disconnected 18.94 03:30 . as follows: (185000 x 62 x 16. not only the ships.94 22:00 Total hours used on loading 39 Timer Total hours NOR accepted to loading 40 Timer complete Discharge port Arrival anchorage discharge port 06.05.892.94 06:00 NOR delivered 17. Demurrage: This is the compensation the owner can claim from the charterer if the charterer use a longer time for loading and discharging than estimated.per 24 hours.94 06:00 Commence loading 17. . We will look closer at this when some of the parts in Part II of the charter party is viewed. Freight payable to: Noted here is the name and address of the receiver of the freight income. The freight incomes in our example should be based on the agreement in the charter party. G. We here show a demurrage calculation based on the information from a completed voyage charter party: Total laytime according to CP 72 Timer Agreed demurrage according CP 11 500 USD pdpr Loading port Moored at loading port 17. F. Paying currency is also noted.05.05.05. World Scale is viewed earlier in this part of the compendium. Lay time: Normally agreed lay time in loading/discharging port is 72 hours (agreed in World Scale). Freight rate: Here the freight rate is given in World Scale or prize pr unit either metric ton or cubic meter.50): 100 = US dollar 1.05. 4500 mt x 65 USD/mt = 292 500 USD. metric ton as in this example 65 USD/mt.06. abbreviated to (WVNS). In our example we negotiated a demurrage of US dollars 11500. I. We then multiply rate with estimate cargo as e.94 06:00 NOR accepted 17. H. This time is also dependent on the capacity of the discharging port. For cargoes based on price pr.

Before looking at Part II.06. Signatures: Here the owner and the charterer’s broker sign the charter party.e.94 16:00 NOR delivered 06. Usually the agreement is a fact when the agreement is abandoned. We will take a further look at the clauses in Part II of the charter party. M. the owner is bound. Often the charterer.06.94 09:30 Commence discharging 06.94 08:00 Total hours used on discharging 39 Total hours NOR accepted to discharging 46.06.94 17:00 Completed discharging arm disconnected 08. that the confirmation is approved be the company’s management or that the cargo is being sold.06.5) Moored discharge port Timer Timer Timer Timer Timer USD Based on these facts.75 13.94 03:30 NOR accepted 06. let us be enlightened on the issue “Subjects”!. Until this is a fact. before the affair is completed. takes into consideration certain circumstances.5 Total laytime according to CP 72 Demurrage base 13. we now know what the charterer has to pay the owner if all delays are to be claimed on the terminals. K. TOVALOP: It is now cancelled Special provisions: The amount of numbered additional clauses is given here. Total hours on NOR in both ports 85. that the shipper accepts the ship. i. This was Part I in the charter party. Commission of: Here it is written the percent owner has to pay e.5 Demurrage claim is then (11500 / 24 x 6468. the cargo can be delivered to the loading place (subject stem).06.5 comp. 2. . The place of General average and arbitration: Here it is stated if London or New York rules have to be used to settle claims.06. L.g. If the cargo is abandoned both parties are free.5%. J.

In our example. 4925 metric ton. you must read the charter party very closely. Full cargo is determined by what stands in the charter party Part I. NOR is not provided until the lay day (agreed to in Part I) starts. If the charterer does not deliver cargo at all. Now we will look at some of the clauses written in Part II of “ASBATANKVOY”. . The dead freight base will be: (4725 . and make the shipper aware of the ship’s capacity to load more. we will find the dead freight claim based on the charter party. Dead freight is the freight which compensates for the difference between the cargo the ship could have loaded if the charterer had supplied full cargo versus the real cargo the ship actually received. When not receiving cargo the ship is booked for. Dead freight: (clause 3) This clauses puts a claim on the charterer to come up with full cargo for the ship. the owner will suffer a freight loss. and at the same time calculate how much cargo is lacking. A. Warranty – Voyage – Cargo: (Clause 1) The vessel must have all certificates valid that is required according to PART 1. The lay time starts to run 6 hours after NOR is sent. the captain has to deliver a written protest in the load port. The owner should not be better off than he would have been with full load. Notice of readiness/Running time: (clause 6) This is the message. then this will be considered when calculating the dead freight. Laydays: (clause 5) Commence of laytime does not start before the date and time stated in Part 1. If the vessel has not delivered NOR before 04:00 PM the cancelling date the charterer have option to cancel the chart.PART II. The ship can load 4725 metric tonnes based the charter party. The charterer will not give the vessel more cargo than 4725 mt even if the captain say he can take e. the freight received is called fault freight. Naming loading and discharging port: (clause 4) Charterer have to name the load port 24 hours before the vessel readiness to sail from previous discharge port. bunkering port or when the charter party is signed. the lay time starts to run even before the end of the first mentioned 6 hours. For example. If the ship goes straight to port and starts loading/discharging. If the owner has had advantages like less load/discharge expenses and shorter time in loading and discharging. the maximum cargo the captain can request (4500 : 100 ) x 105 = 4725 metric tonnes. NOR is given when the ship arrives and is shown the waiting place. if our cargo is described at 4500 metric tonnes 5% MOLOO. which is given when ready to load/discharge.g. iii. this is IMPORTANT. Received cargo is 4650 metric tonnes.4650) = 75 metric tonnes. Therefore. but if he does not. if the charterer does not deliver full cargo the charterer must pay dead freight costs.

and after a maximum settling time the separated water is pumped over board as stipulated in MARPOL 73/78. concerning sending and receiving of NOR. pilot. is correct. These agents should be considered to be the owner’s agent and is paid by the owner. There after the charterer should be informed of the amount of oil and water which is left on board in addition to details concerning slop left over from . Pumping in and out: (clause 10).This will be specially noted in the charter party. the time is counted. when the cargo is received onboard it is on the owners account. Cargo is loaded on the charterer account. Time for stops which owner and ship causes. The important point here is that the ship's captain follow the nominated ports at all times. Safe berthing/ Shifting: (clause 9) The charterer can rightfully shift the ship within the limit of load/discharging port. Delay in time caused by quarantine is counted as lay time. 2. but the lay time continues to run. Quarantine: (clause 17). The company in the nominated load/discharging ports must use the charter agent. Time for tugboat. Read this text thoroughly. Ice: (clause 14). if the quarantine was in force at the time the charterer nominated the port. Oil pollution prevention: (clause 26) The owner shall ensure that the ship captain is performing the following: 1. The freight does not cover this. Demurrage (clause 8): This is discussed on page 3 in this part. Oil and oily water should be collected in the ships slop tank while cleaning tanks. The determined number of hours for loading/discharging is written in this clause. The charterer must cover running expenses. Note specially here “and all other Charter’s purpose whatsoever”. The ship should not trade in ice or be forced to follow an icebreaker. Agency: (clause 22). particularly Regulation9/Chapter 2 of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships 1973. etc. 3. If an impediment is caused due to the charterer’s responsibilities. Ballast handling (when this prevents load/discharge). strike. Lay time: (clause 7). The lay time only counts as long as the ship’s loading/discharging capacity is fully used. It is important that all hours. Running lay time is cancelled in the following situations: • • • From waiting place to load/discharge place. Everything based on MARPOL 73/78.

The charterer has the right to decide whether this slop will be delivered ashore or be kept on board to eventually be loaded on top of this (LOT. called collected washings. .earlier voyages. In addition to the printed clauses we have option to write specified clauses. See the section of Bill of Lading chapter 3 in part 4 This was some of the printed clauses in Charter party ASBATANKVOY. The type of charter party vary from company to company.) Bills of Lading: This clause is extremely important and comprehensive and has to be studied carefully.






but the opportunity to make large profits if the activity in the market suddenly explodes. the time charter party has many different formulas. The characteristics of the ship are of particular value for the time charterer. During a time charter party. The regular shipment of large quantities of goods. If it is discovered that the owner has given incorrect information concerning the ship. A charterer will usually watch closely and make sure the ship redeems the claims in the charter party. The time charterer pays freight for the time disposal of the ship. In the chartered period. Just as in the voyage charter party. If the ship is at sea. running satisfactory. it is important that the description of the ship is accurate. load/discharge equipment. the discussion has been endless concerning speed and consumption. The owner is seeking . the charterer can demand a reduction or compensation for the damage he proves to suffer. He supplies cargo. a discussion most likely to appear. can be one reason. or as a rolled-out sum per month or per fortnight. an owner is often interested in getting a long-term charter party for the ship. That will ease the business financing and offer security. pays the variable expenses such as bunkers. or the ship does not fulfil the description. This is likely to continue as long as time charters are involved. With a time charter. In association with an expensive new building. especially in the first years of a ships active time. if the freight income is higher than the time charter rent you are paying. instructs the ship. Others can be covered by using own tonnage. Time chartering is a way to take advantage of the market. and the time charter (freight) he will pay. the charterer can cancel the contract and demand compensation. the owner will have secure income. either at a certain freight rate per tonnes dead weight per month. 6 months. Over the years. The time period can vary. when you fail you lose money because you do not get covered for the time freight or the variable expenses. for a special oil company. some will possibly be covered by time chartering available ships and the marginal need will be covered by voyage freight. 2years or 15years. When it is a success you earn money. the time charter party is the most important form of chartering. In long-term charter parties it is common practice to have a clause protecting the owner completely or partly of rising running costs (Escalation Clause). canaland harbour costs in load/discharging port. 6months. Here the charterer hires a ship for a certain period of time. the time charterer can freely dispose the ship for his purposes within the frames which the charter party contract is drawn. There are several reasons for using the time charter. and especially when it comes to talking about heavy cargo like oil. for example 1month.5 TIME CHARTER PARTY Besides voyage freighting. speed and the consumption of bunkers. or as regular rate per 24 hours if it is a short termed time charter. concerns the ships ability to load. So the ships speed and consumption is of great importance. An owner may also have faith in a rise in freight rates and charter a ship for i. Usually the time charter will be determined due to the dead weight of the ship indicated by the summer marking. The owner is paid for the time the charterer uses the ship. but the principle will remain the same.4.e. is shut off. In situations where the error is essential. One can say that time charter is not quite as exciting as voyage chartering. The time charterer operates the ship and pays the bunkers expenses.

It is of extreme importance that the ships captain is not influenced by the charterer on behalf of the owner. This relationship is very important. This is . pay the incoming expenses while the charterer is paying the outgoing expenses.the business and has. In voyage freighting the owner pays all expenses connected to the voyage. This can be a heavy load and interfere both with the safety and the conditions of the ship which may not always be in the interest of the owner. navigation and security. Upon delivery time. and the time charterer shall operate the ship. if nothing else is agreed to. quick sailing. and therefore it is important to know whether the expense is put on the charterer or the owner’s bill. in a port or out at sea at a determined position and on a determined date. but since the charterer is paying he will watch the consumption from month to month. The charterer will of course be interested in a quick load. A time-chartered ship is rented fully crewed and equipped. The time charter is payable from the moment the ship is delivered. therefore. part payments and administration The following expenses will be paid by the charterer: • • • • Bunkers Port expenses Load/discharge expenses Pilot and canal expenses The ship is delivered when the owner can present the ship to the charterer. The owner will be responsible for the following expenses: • • • • • • • • Salary and other crew expenses Food Ships insurance Deck-and machine accessories Lubricating oil Repair expenses/dock setting Classification expenses Interests. and quick discharging. If the delivery is executed in a port the owner will. In a time charter it is different. discharging and sailing. He also will take orders from the charterer concerning loading. The captain’s position on board can also appear difficult in this connection. The owner company is obligated to have crew and a seaworthy ship at the charterer’s disposal. If the ship arrives at delivery port in ballast. described the ship as positively as possible. The owner employs him for the responsibility of the ship handling. it is important to check that all bunkers are surveyed on board. but still within reasonable limits try to maintain a healthy relationship with the charterer. if nothing else is agreed to. the usual procedure is to charge the charterer all the arrival expenses from the time the ship embarked the pilot on board.

Some difficulties can arise. so a little room has to be allowed. this is a successful way to pressure an unwillingly charterer. If not specially determined. as soon as the ship is delivered on time in the right place. In extremely late re-deliveries. ice conditions and wars.e. but with the enclosure “within institute warranties limits” (I. which would have earned profit above the market level.L. When ordering a ship to areas where additional insurance are to be paid. For example. the charter party can add a clause saying “14days more or less in charterer’s option” or something similar to this. except from the usual. Upon re-delivery. because of breakdown or other delays the owner is responsible.1 Delivery Certificate During the charter party’s valid time period. A ship can be used for worldwide trade. 4. The charterer should use the ship for its missions in the determined period. If the charterer cannot use the ship. normal fair wear and tear. for 4 months freight in advance. A middle sized or middle solid charterer can be influenced to get a bank guarantee. made by the charterer. the time freight is due to be paid in advance. Usually the time of return will be noted. which are consumed in an “off hire” situation. date and remaining bunkers at delivery. which affects the use of the ship.W. The payment is usually in advance. . because it is hard to schedule a ship to be delivered on date. compensation can be claimed. The ship will appear in “off hire” and then the charterer does not pay freight until the ship is operating again. the charterer may use the ship as he wishes and may plan voyages wherever he wants. With this I hope you have got some understanding of a time charter party. At return a Redelivery Certificate is signed which will note the time. Usually both parties sign a delivery certificate. Bunkers.the owner’s property and must be paid for by the charterer.5. The owner will be very interested in this in order to plan further activities for the ship.). if the market freight is higher than the time freight. it is called “overlap”. The off hire period is not added in the charter party unless expressively agreed. Therefore it is especially important to examine the time charterer’s financial capacity in long-term charter parties. The charter can be limited by geographical limitations. have to be paid by the owner. If the captain is instructed not to sign the Bill of Lading. and fully equipped according to the charter party. monthly or in 14 days termin. the ship should be in the same condition as at the delivering time. if the charterer causes cancelled business. i. When overlap occurs the owner can claim market freight for the time lost. When the charterer has kept the ship beyond the reasonable agreed time. The time charter has a set duration and is then returned to the owner. This can be done within the limits set by the charter party. the owner should preserve these expenses to be charged by the charterer. The market is of vital importance regarding the choice. to return as soon as possible or as late as possible.

This is a contract for the transport of large quantities of oil. maintenance and all running expenses. but the owner accepts to make a suitable ship available. the charterer can.tonnes oil pr year in a period of 2 years. The afreightment contract is usually an agreement between owners of big quantity cargo and transport companies as big ship owners. Demise charters is. During such a transport contract the owner company is not obliged to use a special ship.000. in some situations. Very often the shipments are carried out regularly through the time period (fairly spread out). crew payments. It is easy to realise that in a long-term transport contract many unforeseen situations may occur and the common procedure is. etc. what the freighting element will be. for example. within the limits of responsibility drawn in the contract. 4. and in this way he avoids having to find a charter for every shipment. under a COA (Contract of Afreightment). if he is short of tonnage. Furthermore. where the renting contract says the charterer shall pay all expenses concerning. In addition. and can in this way secure himself against down periods. Just as in the time charter. This form of charter lets the charterer rent the whole ship from the company.7 DEMISE CHARTER The fourth charter form is demise charter. when selling the cargo. the freight is pre-payable per month in a demise charter. grain. over an agreed period of time. it is especially important to obey the reporting regulations at all times.. but occasionally the activity in shipments vary with the season. He knows that in the contracting period. The crew is hired by charterer and employed by charterer and not by the owner. The ship owner however may believe that the activity in the market is sinking. . The afreighting contracts are often valid for a rather long period of time and large quantities.4. to make clauses in the contract to protect against these unforeseen situations. is provided with the regulations commonly found in a voyage charter party. Every single voyage. He can go in the market and include tonnage in time charters or voyage charters at a lower freight than he himself receives and be compensated by the difference in income. In juridical sense a demise charter is an owner. therefore. The charterer uses the ship in the chartered period as if he is the owner and pays all expenses and maintenance in the period including the crew expenses. negotiate a freight contract in a time when he expects the future rate to rise. 1. So a freight contract stipulates no special ship and the owner can freely use any suitable ship to execute the transport mission. etc. The charterer is obligated to deliver the cargo.000. An example. ore. Usually the loading dates are determined within certain marginal (windows) and then it is important to follow these and the determined quantity accurately. The advantage for a charterer is the covering of the shipping program with only one company or group.6 CONTRACT OF AFREIGHTMENT (COA) The third charter form is the freight contract (transport contract) or the quantity contract which is almost similar to the voyage charter party.

Some times the charterer reserves the right to have some of their own senior officers on board the ship. the charterer can not cancel the contract. In other cases. the demise charterer has bought the ship. Now the charter party forms are viewed. cancel the contract. With the demise charter. The following will illustrate “seaworthiness”: · (Cargo-worthiness) the ship is able to receive cargo at determined date and time · Sufficient amount of bunkers. Usually only the owner will pay the capital expenditures relating to the ship. and here we choose to enlighten you on the word “Seaworthiness” as a conclusive and very important part of negotiated contracts. . Seaworthiness cover many areas we do not have in mind daily.7. but other arrangements can be made. The expenses connected to this are agreed to before hand. or in the worst case. paying the freight in monthly terms. This has two elements . 4. and often in combination with special finance and sales contracts. The demise charter is usually a long-term contract. it can be agreed that at the end of the charter party period. When the voyage is started and lack of seaworthiness is discovered.a freight element and a buying element. which is already included in the monthly hire. the ownership passes to the demise charter.Occasionally. Often the charterer has an option to buy the ship at the end of the charter party period. Still the assumption of delivering cargo from the charterer is that the ship is seaworthy. If the charterer will arrange this before hand. but will then claim compensation for losses due to the lack of seaworthiness. the company reserves the right to insure the ship or at least the charterer. and quality · Load/discharge equipment should be operative · Authority Regulations and Classification companies must be satisfied · Complete and fully qualified crew · No heating coil leakage. if nothing else is noted.1 Seaworthiness The owner is obligated to make a completely seaworthy ship available. or leakage between cargo tanks · Seaworthy at the departure load/discharging ports If the charterer discovers lack of seaworthiness before a voyage he can demand this to be improved within reasonable time. then the terms must be accepted regarding the insurance amount and the conditions. The company has to make sure that the demise charter insures the ship responsibly and with a first class insurance company.

Usually. 4. the charterer pays the time loss.. etc.4. Be quite sure that the samples are representative of the actual cargo. 4.3 Frozen in If the ship is icebound because of the charter’s orders to lay in this specific port.7. before you sign any receipt approving the samples.4 Maintenance The owner of the vessel pays for classification. Keep samples as evidence. all maintenance like docking period and if the ship goes off-hire. This is important. The samples should be kept on board at least 12 months. and be prepared in case claims from the receiver should eventually come. .7. in case of requests later on concerning the quality of the loaded oil.2 Cargo samples Make sure that samples are taken of the cargo.7. samples of the cargo are delivered on board and then to be handed over to the receiver of the cargo. (For receipt only).

Chemistry And Physics .05.

The electrons move with high velocity around the nucleus. . There are equal numbers of protons as electrons in an atom. The levels are numbered from K to Q and called electron shells.BASIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic chemistry mostly deals with chemical compounds containing carbon. there can be 8 electrons in the outer shell. 5.1 THE PERIODIC SYSTEM The periodic system is built on the principle that the electrons in the outer shell determine the chemical properties of a material. The number of electrons in the outer shell is always equal to the atom’s main group number. and fall under group IA and VIIA. The elements in the group IA have only one electron in the outer shell. Two of the main elements in the periodic system are Hydrogen and Helium. An atom consists of protons. neutrons and electrons. The atomic models are illustrated as follows: Carbon falls under group IVA and has 4 electrons in the outer shell. at different levels and orbital. At maximum. The periodic table arranges the 106 elements in increasing number of electron shells. Protons and electrons form the atomic nucleus. meanwhile the number of neutrons may vary. Each vertical column is one of the periodic table’s main groups.

and is thereby positively charged. Sulphur is located in row 3 (period number 3) and has thereby 3 shells. Na + Cl Na+ + ClNaCl Sodium “emits” the only electron to Chlorine. There are 8 side groups between the main groups IA and IIA. Chlorine “receives” the electron and is thereby negatively charged. The rows in the periodic chart indicate the periods. The individual element has numbers from 1 to 106. The elements in group VIIA are named noble gases. When two or more atoms bond together. The metals form metal bonding where the atomic are organised close together. The periodic system’s number is the element’s atomic number. The 7 periods indicate the number of electron shells. Noble gases occur only in atomic form.It is therefore easy to emit one electron to elements within group VIIA. . We call this mutual sharing of electrons. which has seven electrons in the outer shell and is “short of” one electron to fill up the outer shell. All the elements in the side groups are metals. Covalent bonding is common in both organic and inorganic chemical reactions. they form a molecule. We also look at the electron shells as the electrons’ energy level. The atomic number also indicates the total number of electrons in the atom. and they easily form alloys with one another. Such mutual sharing of an electron is called ion bonding. An example for such a bonding is when Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) bond with one another and form Sodium chloride or cooking salt. Most inorganic elements are metals. covalent bonding.


Isotopes have the same number of protons. Carbon monoxide is odorless and a very poisonous gas that always is present in a real combustion process. These relations are very important to notice. The gas (H2). CO2. Inert gas produced in an inert gas generator or flue gas plant onboard will always contain carbon monoxide due to incomplete combustion. which has four electrons in the outer shell number 2. We say that the carbon is combustible. 5. Hydrogen is the smallest main element. CO. Oxygen. Following sketch indicates an example of a natural gas’ composition: . There are many isotopes of carbon. graphite and diamond. It is not reactive in room temperature. Poisoning of carbon monoxide occurs because the hemoglobin in the blood reacts much easier with CO than with oxygen. which is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon. Carbon is the element that naturally forms most natural chemical compounds. When heated.1 Carbon You find the element Carbon in the main group IVA/period number 2. but it will when heated up react more easily with. You must always check the cargo tank atmosphere for carbon monoxide before personnel are allowed to enter the tank. Crude oil and natural gas consist mainly of a mixture with various unequal hydrocarbon compounds. Hydrogen is strongly widespread. The combustion is exothermic. There are two natural forms of Carbon. Carbon is not particular reactive in room temperature. A partly incomplete combustion produces both less heat and more formation of carbon monoxide than a complete combustion. CO is thereby first absorbed in the blood and seizes the absorption of oxygen. The result of this poisoning is a sort of suffocation at very low concentrations. is the product of complete combustion of carbon and carbon monoxide.1. When you breathe a mixture of these two gases. Both reaction products are also gases. it will easily react with for example. for example. There are small quantities of hydrogen in free natural form on earth. C + O2 = CO2 + 393 kJ (at complete combustion) (at incomplete combustion) C + 0. and 2 electrons in the innermost. The atomic number for carbon is 6.5 O2 = CO + 113 kJ Both reactions are exothermic. the oxygen in air. Carbon dioxide.5. as graphite and as diamond. The different products of the combustion are dependent of accent to oxygen. is light and is flammable in air. that means heat is produced in the chemical reaction. first of all in form of water and naturally compounds together with carbon. but different number of neutron in the atomic nucleus. which means there are totally 6 electrons divided between two electron shells with 4 electrons in the outer shell. You find the element carbon in only two different natural conditions.2 HYDROCARBON GROUPS Hydrocarbon is a common expression for all chemical compounds that includes carbon and hydrogen. which is a reaction that produces heat. especially when the air excess is reduced. We say that carbon is combustible.

and creates hydrocarbon compounds.Carbon has four electrons in the outer electron shell that can be divided with others. The most important hydrocarbon groups are: · Alkanes. also called Paraffin’s · Alkyls · Alkenes. You may look at the four electrons as four “arms” that can connected to the hydrogen atom’s single “arm”. Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are naturally created. also called Olefins · Alkynes. and all new hydrocarbon compounds that is created in the petrochemical industry. To simplify the overview of these natural components. also called Di-olefins · Cyclo-alkanes · Arenes · Alcohol · Aldehydes · Ketones . other are only created in chemical controlled processes. the different hydrocarbon compounds are grouped dependent of how the “arms” or the chemical bonding are between the two atoms. also called Acetylides · Alkadienes.

and at the same time maintain the same simple form of binding. Ethers etc. The third component in the alkane group is propane. new alkanes are formed. etc. 5.1 Alkanes Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbon compounds and is the major part of crude oil and natural gas. we get ethane. and is the main component in natural gas. but the properties (boiling point. A methane molecule consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Many materials may have the same molecule formula. By adding carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Esters. The gas methane is the smallest molecule.) are different because the atom structure is different. The carbon atom’s four arms are united to the hydrogen atoms’ single arm and has this general molecule-formula: CnH2n + 2 where “n” is a positive integer. Normal-butane and iso-butane are examples of isomers where both have the same molecule formula.2. the number of possible bonding between the atoms increase. but different properties. C3H8. Such bonding is called isometric bonding. which is the next component in this group.In addition to above listed hydrocarbon groups there are others like Carboxylic acid. All alkane compounds have the ending “-ane”. By adding one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms to methane. . density. You can arrange 20 carbon atoms and 42 hydrogen atoms in 366319 different ways. When the number of carbon atoms increase.

These names are called trivial names.5 -0.6 -88. That means “five”.2 -189. Other names like methane and ethane are not following this system.7 36 69 98 126 151 174 Number of isomeric compounds 0 0 0 2 3 5 9 18 35 75 . C4H10 Chemical formulas and names are many times derived from each other.and boiling point at atmospheric pressure. C4H10 iso-Butane. some of the most common alkanes are listed with melting.5 -183.5 -11.n-Butane.6 -42. Pentane is derived from the Greek word “pent”.9 -135 -145 -130 -95 -91 -57 -54 -30 Boiling point o C -161. Note that melting point and boiling point increase by the length of chain for the straight-chained hydrocarbons. it refers to the number of carbon atoms in the material. In the following list. Name: Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane iso-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 Melting point o C -182.

3 3.7 -6. C2H4.2.2 Alkyls If one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule.4 -138. which is produced by cracking other hydrocarbons or naphtha. The different compounds are named by the alkane. but with the ending “-yl” instead of “-ane”.5.7 Number of isomeric compounds 0 0 4 4 . ethane. These compounds are produced in a cracking process within the petrochemical industry.2 -185. The double bonding may easily loosen up. butane or naphtha. The general molecule formula for alkyl groups are: CnH2n + 1 The compounds in this group are chemical products where the CH-group is attached to various alcohol and chloride compounds.2. an alkyl molecule is created. C3H6. and the alkenes may change back to (chemical reaction) alkanes. that is produced by cracking of for example propane.9 Boiling point o C -103.7 -47. Name: Ethylene (ethene) Propylene (propene) 1-Butene cis-2-Butene Formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 Melting point o C -169 -185.3 Alkenes You do not find alkenes in the natural forms. The general molecule formula for alkanes is: CnH2n The simplest alkene is ethylene. The next alkene is propylene. 5. “arms” that are attached to several hydrogen atoms released. The alkenes are so-called unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a double bonding between two of the carbon atoms.

The following molecules have the same molecule formula.trans-2-Butene iso-Butene 1-Pentene C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 -105. Notice the difference between a cis-bonding and a trans-bonding.6 -140.4 0.9 4 4 6 The number of isomeric compounds increase by the number of carbon atoms. Double bonding also gives additional possibilities for combination because the double bonding may be located on several different places inside the molecule. 1-Butene Cis-2-Butene Trans-2-Butene . but different structure and thereby different properties.9 -6.

.9 Boiling point o C -34.4 Number of isomeric compounds 0 Propadiene C3H4 1.3 Butadiene Name: Formula Melting point o C -136. The simplest compound within this group is etyne.2. C2H2.2.5.2 Propadiene 1.3-Butadiene C4H6 5.5 -4. The general molecule formula for alkadienes is: CnH2n .2 Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. The alkynes have the same general formula as for the alkadienes: CnH2n .5 Alkynes Alkynes are hydrocarbons with a triple bonding between two carbon molecules.5 -108. and form a homologous serial.4 Alkadienes Alkadienes are hydrocarbons with two doubles bonding in the molecule.

CnH2n The circular structure of the cyclo propane: Name: Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclopentane Cycloheptane Formula C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 Melting point o C -126 -50 -93 6 Boiling point o C -34 13 50 81 Number of isomeric compounds 5.Name: Etyne (Acetylene) Propyne (Allyene) Formula C2H2 C3H4 Melting point o C -82 -102 Boiling point o C -84 -23 Number of isomeric compounds 0 0 5. is a well-known product within this group. . Benzene. The general molecule formula for the cyclo alkanes is.6 Cyclo alkanes Cyclo alkanes are hydrocarbons with single bonding between the carbon atoms. but the molecules form a circular structure.2. and form a homologous serial. but unsaturated hydrocarbons because of its double bonding. The compounds are aromatic.7 Arenes Arenes are cyclic. which is very stabile and frequently used together with other products in the petrochemical industry. The compounds are saturated.2.

dependent of the form of bonding. The different alcohol’s are divided in subgroups.2. Name: Formula Melting point o C -118 -123.9 Aldehydes Aldehydes have one functional group –CHO.1 Number of isomeric compounds 5. All alcohol ends with “-ol”.Name: Benzene Formula C6H6 Melting point o C 5.2. Name: Acetone Formula CH3COCH3 Melting point o C -94.2 Number of isomeric compound Formaldehyde HCHO Acetaldehyde CH3COH Ketones 5.3 Number of isomeric compound 5. Name: Methanol Ethanol Formula CH3OH C2H5OH Melting point o C -97.2 Number of isomeric compound .10 Ketones are compounds where the functional group is the carbon-group.5 Boiling point o C -19 20.2.5 78.5 Boiling point o C 80.3 Boiling point o C 64.8 -117.8 Alcohol’s Alcohol are organic compounds where the functional group is the hydroxyl-group – OH.3 Boiling point o C 56.

a solvent bromine and water can be used. and a new compound is created. A chemical reaction has appeared between two compounds. If you combine ethylene and bromine. 5. Molecules or mixture of molecules which is capable of polymerise. are called monomers. the molecules react with each other and form large molecules. The properties are different. a catalyst is often used. alone or together with other compounds. A chemical reaction may take place: · · by mixing unsaturated compounds with another product. and the plastic raw materials are used alone or together with others when producing plastic products. Other types of polymers are made of ethylene or together with other hydrocarbon. Linear polyethylene is a plastic raw material. To visualize an unsaturated compound. If you mix bromine (Br) with a saturated oil. because the double bonding is opened and bromine appear in every vacant valence. Most plastic raw materials are produced like this. They can easily saturate the vacant valences in a chemical reaction. .3.1 Unsaturated chemicals Unsaturated chemical compounds contain one or several double or triple bonding between the carbon atoms.3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS New products are continuously made in the petrochemical industry by allowing hydrocarbon compounds participate in chemical processes and reactions. Benzol peroxide is an example of peroxide used as a catalyst for production of polyethylene. A linear polyethylene has a molecular weight of more than 6000. so-called macromolecules. the bromine-coloured water will disappear.5. A catalyst is a material that increases the velocity of reaction in a chemical process without changing its own state. this chemical reaction will take place: When unsaturated chemical compounds are heated under pressure. To start the reactions or to increase the velocity of reaction. The molecular weight is controlled by temperature. The number of monomers taking part of a polymerisation may be many thousand. concentration of catalyst or amount of ethylene. by increasing the temperature and pressure in the chemical compound. This is called polymerisation. which is a polymer of ethylene produced by polymerising ethylene with a peroxide catalyst. others are considerably smaller.

The formation of peroxides in butadiene can entail polymerising with powerful heat generation. An inhibitor is a material that itself. Baekeland managed to control three-step polymerising with phenol and formaldehyde. and how they are produced: Polymer Polyethylene Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) Polyvinylcloride (PVC) Polypropylene Polystyrene Monomer: (CH2)n (C2F4)n (H2CCHF)x (C3H5)n (C6H5CHCH2)n Polymerisation: Ethylene Tetrafluorethylene Vinylcloride Propylene Styrene monomer 5. an inhibitor is added to the individual cargo.3. be handled with the utmost care. in some cases water will accelerate a chemical reaction. Most inhibitors are very dangerous to our health.3 butadiene to prevent a polymerisation with strong heat generation. and must therefore. and can form into unsaturated compounds.2 Peroxides and inhibitors Peroxides are highly explosive. if the voyage lasts longer than the effect of the inhibitor • eventual temperature limitation The above mentioned inhibitors are only present in the liquid phase. the content of oxygen in the tank atmosphere is kept as low as possible. In all probability. 1. . as for example butadiene and VCM if oxygen is present. To assure that all oxygen is removed. Approximately 5 ppm hydroquinon is added to VCM to prevent polymerisation.It is not only the unsaturated hydrocarbon compound that may polymerise. To avoid such a chemical reaction.3 Butadiene and VCM are examples of cargo that are added inhibitors. Humidity and water will reduce the effect of inhibitors. it is recommended to circulate some inhibited liquid through the part of the system where “condensates” remains without the inhibitor. dangerous peroxides will be formed inside the lines of the cooling plant’s “condensate” system. The following list demonstrates some of the most common plastic materials today. The product “Bakelite” was the first synthetic polymer that was produced. Some types of inhibitors have the capability to react with radicals so that the velocity of reaction reduces or to cease up. In 1907. and has great significance even today. reacts with the oxygen. Cargo that is inhibited must have a certificate with: • name and amount • inhibitor date and for how long the inhibitor is efficient • precautions. It is recommended that these parts of the system are checked regularly. in low concentrations. US Coast Guard requires that one add 100 ppm TBC (Tertiary Butyl Catechol) to 1. when the inhibited cargo is cooled. Further. They can appear as powder in pipes and tanks and are very unstable and can easily explode.

the heat will. This makes great demands for cleaning. This is the heat theory’s O. before loading and full segregation against other cargo.15oC. The Kelvin scale. it is sufficient to estimate the zero point of the Kelvin scale at – 273oC. Graduation on a mercury thermometer must necessarily be different from the graduation of an alcohol thermometer. or a collection of materials (a system). One calibrates thermometers by measuring the temperature at one or several fixture points. in all gaskets that can be in contact with propylene oxide be of PTFE or a similar approved material type. William Thompson. . the temperature can be determined from how the liquid changes the volume. The temperature characterises a fixed stated condition of a material. but has the same graduation as the Celsius-scale. we have said that polymerising can occur if the temperature is high enough. with different temperature. it is called adiabatic. and can only be measured indirectly by measuring another directly measurable size.Introductorily. If multiple objects.3. The material must. Because of this. law that forms the basis for measuring the temperature with a thermometer. With a mercury thermometer or an alcoholic thermometer. Measuring the temperature based on other material’s characteristics has its obvious weaknesses. HEAT. no heat exchanging can occur with the surroundings. adopted by the SI-system. In most thermal calculations. move from the warmer material to a colder material. The following restriction of maximum outlet temperatures from the compressor is required: · maximum 60 oC for butadiene · maximum 90 oC for VCM 5. spool pieces must be used. He defined a theoretical temperature scale. which will be used as conversion factor in this compendium. ENERGY AND PRESSURE When you mix cold and warm water. begins at the absolute zero point. which later acquired the name “Kelvin” (or K). for example. If a material. If the barrier is totally heat insulated. at all times. are placed in a room.4 TEMPERATURE. was one of many physicists that worked to find an absolute temperature scale independent of another material’s properties. Whenever cargo segregation is required.3 Reaction with other cargo and materials Some cargo can react strongly with other cargo. One can prevent heat transmission by a heat-insulating barrier. It is important that all materials are compatible with which the cargo can come in contact. is totally surrounded by adiabatic barriers. that changes with the temperature. the temperature will eventually be a specific average temperature. 5. which is defined to –273. Different temperature scales make its impossible to establish a uniform method of many thermal calculations. Empirically. the individual materials change the volume differently at varying temperatures. the temperature of the objects and the temperature in the room will eventually be the same. later ennobled as Lord Kelvin. Boiling water at 760 mm HG is one example of such a fixture point.

the temperature rises. We measure heat with the same unit as all other forms of energy. It is natural to conclude that heat transfer is also a form of energy transfer. are all expressions for energy that can be summarised as: “Energy is the capability to perform work” We will mainly go into two forms of energy in this compendium. If we switch on the hotplate. electrical energy. Mutually. The heat will spread through the material and we say that the heat occurs as stationary thermalconductance. . potential (position) energy and kinetic energy. the velocity of the car delerates.1855 J or 1 kcal = 4185. the kinetic energy is reduced. but consumes electrical power simultaneously. which compresses the gas. Converting from Celsius to Kelvin is: Temperature in Kelvin ⇒ 273 + temperature in Celsius degrees . simultaneously the hotplate consumes electrical energy. is defined as one calorie (cal).50oC 0oC +50oC = (273 + (-50))K = (273 + 0)K = (273 + 50)K = 223 K = 273 K = 323 K When a car decelerates. If 41855 Joule is supplied to 1 kg water at a temperature of 14. Mechanical energy. An electric driven compressor. for all these phenomena is that a temperature increase is in progress simultaneously as we copy energy in one or another form. or heating energy. The temperature on the brakes rises simultaneously. the temperature will rise 1K. A temperature increase can take place by transfer of heat from one material to another at lower temperature. chemical combined energy falls as the temperature rises. The SI-system uses the unit “Joule” for heat. 1 cal = 4. the whole bar will gradually be warm. because of difference in temperature. increases the temperature of the gas.A temperature difference has the same measured value in Kelvin as in the Celsiusscale. Conversion between the units calorie (cal) and Joule (J) is therefore. If an iron bar is heated at one end.5oC. When oil burns. chemical energy.5 J One can transfer heat from one place to another in different methods. The heat (quantity) required to heat up one gram of water one degree Celsius at a temperature of 14. Heat is often defined as the energy that is transferred from one system to another.5oC.

the heat is gone. To eliminate this. work or energy is always with the SI-unit J (Joule). the heat is. Heat can also be transferred by radiation. gases the inferior. heat quantity. When heat conductance takes place by movement in the material. you have to stop it with a material. To produce heat from radiation. who measures it and how it is measured. One measures and describes pressure in different ways independent of what is measured. The engineer reads the pressure in a system on a manometer. and different density provokes flow that takes the heat ahead. A practical example is in a thermos. the expression absolute pressure is used. You can not lead the heat you feel through the air.At thermal conducting. The faster and darker the material is. Emission or emanation is also a form of radiation. . The speed of the thermal conductance is a temporary dependent of the material. In the vicinity of a heated material in cold surroundings. The heat alters the density.T2) where: l = specific thermal conducting ability or thermal conductivity with unit W/mK δ = the thickness of the material in m A = the area of the material in m2 T1 = temperature on the warmest side in Kelvin T2 = temperature of the coldest side in Kelvin General expressions for heat flow. The radiate is slightly enervated in air. in spite of fact that thermal conductance in vacuum is zero. the measuring unit is always in J/s. We say that the material radiates heat or emits heat rays. because as you hold a shield against the heat source. The influence of heat radiation is often underestimated. You can express the relation between absorption and emission as the absorption capability of two materials that has to conduct to each other as emission capabilities. Double walls with vacuum alone does not prevent transfer of products. Stationary thermal conductance or heat flow through one level is defined as: F = l/d x A x (T1 . one can feel the heat at a long range. we say that the heat is transferred by convection. In liquid and gases. In thermal technical charts and diagrams. deducting from a location with higher temperature to a location with lower temperature. the molecules move by heat conductance. The mate reads the atmospheric pressure on a barometer or a mercury column. Understanding this type of heat transfer is important in the work of reducing heat transfer. When above mentioned energy forms are measured or calculated during a stated period. Some heat is transferred by radiation between walls. which is the same as Watt (W). Metals are good heat conductors. This reduces the heat radiation to a few percent. at all times. the sides that face into vacuum are silvered. the easier the radiate absorbs and converts to heat.

both to indicate atmospheric pressure and excess pressure.One can easily describe the different “pressure” by help of a diagram. The gravity of or the pressure that a liquid column of 760 mm Hg amounts to can be calculated in this way: p=r xgxH where: p= pressure in N/m2 (Newton per square meter) r= the density of liquid (The density of mercury 13595. A normal atmospheric pressure is defined as 760 mm Hg. As the atmospheric pressure will vary.1 kg/m3 g= the gravity of shaft ration (9. On can use a mercury column or a water column. like for example in thermal technical charts and diagrams.81 x 0.81 m/s2) H= height of the liquid column in meter (760 mm = 0.1 x 9.76 meter) p = (13595. Therefore one estimate absolute pressure from this starting point. The lowest possible pressure that can exist is vacuum. the logical choice is to show pressure dependent values as a function of absolute pressure.76)N/m2 = 101359 N/m2 1 normal atmospheric pressure define as = 1013 mill bars 1 atmosphere = 105 N/m2 = 100 000 Pa = 100 kPa = 1 bar . The pressure of the manometer is pressure above the atmospheric pressure.

about 2500 years ago. The personnel (crew) operating the ships provide a wide range of knowledge regarding ship operations and its specific cargo. An example: When splitting a piece of wood the molecules separate along the split area. Rockefeller founded the «Standard Oil Company» in 1870. The oil consumption and development increased dramatically from this time on. 5.5 OIL PHYSICS – AGGREGATE CONDITIONS History Back in the antiquity. along with the average size of ships. which today is rich in oil sources. John D. it is necessary to have a basic theoretical knowledge and a lot of practical experience on board the ships. atoms and molecules. The second power in use will be called the force of expansion. The theory about atoms and molecules understands that substances are able to divide into smaller parts. the oil was transported in barrels by ordinary liners.1 The Oil Transportation As a start. oil was mentioned in scripts from Asia. fluid and gas form conditions must be seen in connection with the understanding of molecule forces. The need for oil increased at the same speed as the oil discoveries increased.5. In this part of the compendium. The first well was drilled in USA in 1859 and supplied 1500 litres oil every 24 hours. This development has continued up to this day where these companies operate around the world. The force being used corresponds with the force binding the molecules together. Chemistry is the learning of the substance’s composition and the substantial or permanent changes these substances may under go.5. did not take the oils in common use until the midst of the last century. At first the oils were used in medical treatment then to heal such as rheumatism and pneumonia. The oil tankers today were first used at the end of the last century.2 Aggregate States Solid. knowledge about oil’s nature. centuries went by before the oil was in common use. However. The first power in use will be called the force of cohesion.5. Cohesion and expansion summed. As a matter of fact danger of fire was one reason which prevented utilisation of oil. At the same time. the English founded «AngloIranian Oil Company». In USA. tank tonnage has increased enormously. physics and chemistry improved. In 1909. If you now wish to force the two pieces together again. . To be an educated and qualified “Ship Officer”. the oil’s physical properties are reviewed. is called intermolecular force. The Dutch « Royal Dutch Oil Company» was founded in 1890. 5. The scriptures describe hot springs and that oil lamps were known and in use. Physics is the learning of different substances and property forces and their energy form. a certain power has to be used. These tankers have since then changed dramatically through a radical process up to today’s technically advanced tankers. Due to the world’s oil demand.

Similar to the molecules in solid substances. The molecules in the iron bar will try hard to keep a certain mutual distance to each other. The expansion force gets free scope and the gas expansion is total and unlimited. The liquid molecules on the other hand have no fixed positions according to each other. The iron bar is resistant to rubbing and bending. including the smallest parts in a substance. where the gas is stored.3 Solid Substances A solid substance has a fixed form and fixed volume. An iron bar is resists being lengthened or pressed together. To squeeze water in a cylinder with tight-fitting piston is hard without using large power.5. Liquid will always be shaped based on where the liquid is stored. the force is still strong enough to maintain the distance between each of the fixed molecules. both solid. the gas will be compressed. The expansion force is equal as in solid substances. the molecules in a liquid substance have a certain mutual distance between each other. the tank and so on. We therefore have the same nature as the force of gravity.5. 5.5. and the same applies to the substance’s volume and form. 5. The cohesion force in liquids is not powerful enough to prevent the molecules from moving freely according to each other. However.5 Gases Gases have no fixed volume or fixed form. By exposing gas to forces greater than the expansive force itself. A gas will always try to fill as great a volume as possible. The cohesion force in gas is too small to prevent the molecules from changing both the distance and the position in accordance with each other. fluid and gas forms execute movements or vibrations and therefore fill-up an entire room. 5. The expansion is due to the fact that the molecules in all substances. . and will therefore fill the room. This is because the cohesion and expansive force is very large. execute a mutual back sweep on each other.4 Fluids Fluids have a fixed volume. but do not have any fixed form. In solid substances the molecules have fixed places according to each other. It decreases rapidly when the distance between the smallest parts increases.The cohesion is due to the fact that all substances (elements).

7 Melting When a solid. pure crystal substance is continuously supplied with heat. the temperature in the water will rise. the amount of heat supplied to 1 kg of the . as long as the ice is present. liquids and gases. A thermometer placed in the ice will show a rise in temperature up to 0oC. The heat supplied after the melting point is achieved will have no effect to any temperature rising. the temperature is invariable.5. For example: 1 kg of ice with a temperature of -20oC exposed to heat (the pressure is 1 atm). So. When all the ice is melted.5. Ice. the substance will melt. water and water vapour are the same substance in different forms. 5. and the heat supplied during the melting process is consumed in melting the ice.5. During the melting. which is melting point of the ice.6 Phase changes Any substance can be transformed from one condition to another. The transformation between cohesion and expansion with water molecules goes through these three phases solid substances. by means of temperature changes or varying temperatures and pressure.

Enthalpy is an expression for a substance’s internal energy abbreviated “h”. Evaporation is vapour formed out of the liquid surface and occurs at all temperatures.8 Enthalpy A substance’s total energy consists of the external energy (work) plus the internal energy.5. abbreviated as (r). Water is heated in normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm). The boiling occurs at a certain temperature.9 Evaporation A liquid change to gas is called evaporation. To achieve evaporation. This enthalpy is an expression of how much energy is tied up in one kilo of the substance.10 Boiling Boiling is steam formed internally in the liquid. heat of evaporation is needed. is called the “specific melting heat”. 5. The unit for specific heat of evaporation is J/kg. in order to reach the melting point where the change from solid to liquid form occurs.5. such as in crude oil. in an open container. The heat necessary to evaporate one kilo of a certain liquid substance is called “specific melting heat”. or condenses. The heat from evaporation is set free when the steam forms to liquid again. This may happen by evaporation or boiling. which is strongest at high temperatures. called “the boiling point”. In common.5. The comparison of enthalpy to temperature change of gradients shows how much energy is needed to be supplied to bring ice through the three different stages. dry air and fresh wind. The unit for specific melting heat is Joule/kg. such as gasoline and ether. The specific temperature calls the amount of heat needed for one kilo of liquid with fixed temperature to form into one kilo of steam with the same temperature”. The unit for enthalpy is Joule/kg. The unit for specific evaporation heat is J/k. into a liquid substance with the same temperature. The heat needed to transform a solid substance at a given temperature. abbreviated “r”. is called the “melting heat”. some parts of air are always . The heat necessary to evaporate one kilo of a certain liquid is called “specific heat of evaporation”.solid substance. Some liquids evaporate very quickly. 5. Other liquid substances evaporate very slowly. This is explained by some of the liquid’s surface molecules being sent into the air. 5.

dissolved. The rise in temperature is read from a thermometer placed in the liquid’s surface. When the temperature has reached 100oC, steam bubbles will form inside the liquid substance, especially in the bottom of the container. With continuous heat supply, the bubbling will rise like a stream towards the surface and further up into the air. The water is boiling. The formation of bubbling steam can be explained as follows: During the heating, the water molecule’s kinetic energy increases, consequently the molecules demand more space. During the boiling, as long as there is water in the container, the temperature will be 100oC. The boiling point is dependent upon the pressure. If the steam or the atmospheric pressure increases above liquid substance, the boiling point will also rise. If the surface temperature is just below the boiling temperature, then the water steam will evaporate on the surface. The evaporation point and the boiling point will be the same accordingly. The pressure from the surrounding liquid is the total amount of pressure above the liquid, Pa, plus the static liquid pressure. P = Pa + (ρ x g x h ) P = pressure in Pascal (100 000 Pa + 1 bar) Pa = barometer pressure ρ= the liquid density in kg/m3

g = force of gravity acceleration (9,81m/s2) h = liquid column in meter.

When reducing the pressure above the liquid, the boiling point will also be reduced. A practical use of this characteristic is the production of fresh water on board (fresh water generator).

5.5.11 Condensation Condensation is the opposite of evaporation. If a gas is to be changed to liquid at the same temperature, we must remove the heat of evaporation from the gas. A gas can be condensed at all temperatures below the critical temperature. By cooling a gas, the molecule speed decreases hence the kinetic speed. The internal energy decreases, as well as, the molecule units and liquid forms. 5.5.12 Distillation Distillation is a transferring of liquid to vapour, hence the following condensing of vapour to liquid. Substances, which were dissolved in the liquid, will remain as solid substance. With distillation it is possible to separate what has been dissolved from the substance which was being dissolved. When a mixture of two liquids with different boiling point is heated, will the most volatile liquid evaporate first while the remaining becomes richer on the less volatile? On board, for instance, seawater is distillated by use of an evaporator.

5.5.13 Saturated, Unsaturated or Superheated Steam Let us imagine boiling water, releasing vapour from a container, leading the steam into a cylinder that is equipped with a tightening piston, a manometer and two valves. The steam flows through the cylinder and passes the valves, whereon the valves are closing. There now is a limited and fixed volume of steam in the cylinder. Around this cylinder a heating element is fitted. Vapour from the container is constantly sent through this heating element to ensure that the temperature is maintained constant. The piston is pressed inwards, and now the manometer should show a rise in pressure. But, the manometer shows an unchanged pressure regardless how much the volume is reduced. What’s happening is, the further the piston is pressed inwards, some parts of the steam is condensed more using less volume. The vapour from the heating element removes the condensed heat, which is liberated during the condensation process. We find that the amount of steam, which is possible to contain per volume unit, remains constant when the steam’s temperature is equal to the condensation point at the set pressure. The room cannot absorb more vapour, it is saturated with steam and called “saturated”. If the piston is pressed outwards, the pressure will still show constant. The conclusion is: · With temperature equal to the condensation point by set pressure, steam is saturated. · Steam above boiling water is saturated. · Saturated steam with a set temperature has a set pressure. This is called saturation pressure. · With constant temperature saturated steam cannot be compressed.

This also concerns vapour as saturated steam of other gases. Using the same cylinder arrangement as before. The cylinder contains saturated steam, no water. The piston is drawn outward. When no water exists over the piston no new steam will be supplied underneath. The manometer will now show reduced (falling) pressure as the steam expands. When saturated steam expands without supplying new steam, it is called unsaturated steam. The room has capacity to collect more steam. 5.5.14 Unsaturated steam contains lower pressure than saturated steam at the same temperature. The unsaturated steam in the cylinder can be made saturated again in two ways. Either by pushing the piston inward to the originated position, or let the unsaturated steam be sufficiently cooled down. When the temperature is reduced, the saturation pressure will reduce. Unsaturated steam will, in other words, have a too high temperature to be saturated with the temperature it originally had. Therefore, this often is referred to as superheated steam.



The gas laws are laws that describe the basic facts for ideal gases. Many actual gases under pressure and temperature that we normally get in touch with can not observe as ideal gases. Calculations based one-sided of the gas laws, will therefore necessarily often depart from reality. The gas laws are meanwhile important by that the laws establish simple and clear connections by the condition changes of the gases. 5.6.1 The Boyles law Boyles law, of Mariottes law establish that when the gas quantity is confined and the volume varies under constant pressure, the pressure will vary so that the product of pressure and volume is constant. The law can also express as: p x V = constant One illustrate the law a by thinking a cylinder filled with gas. A well-adjusted piston closes the gas inside the cylinder. The pressure in the gas is p, by a volume V, before changing. If the piston is removed so that the volume alters to V, the pressure p after volume change is: p1 x V1= p2 x V2 p2 = (p1 x V1) / V2

A change of state in the gas where the temperature is constant is called an isotherm alteration. The Boyles law agrees to good approach for air and hydrogen up to about 100 pressures of the atmosphere. For other gases as carbon dioxide, the law is only for lower pressure. If the pressure is 1 bar and the volume 1 litre before alteration, after reducing the volume to half, the pressure will be: p2 = (p1 x V1) / V2= (1 x 1) / 0,5 = 2 bar

5.6.2 Gay-Lussacs laws Gay-Lussacs 1.law establish that the gas volume varies proportionally in condition to the absolute temperature of the gas when the pressure is constant. The law can also express as: V1 / T1 = constant The law can illustrate by thinking a cylinder filled with gas. A good adjusted piston that moves free shuts the gas inside the cylinder. The pressure in the gas is constant and determined by the weight of the piston. If you heat the gas so that the temperature alters from T1 to T2, the volume alters from V1 to V2. The new volume is: V1 /T1 = V2 /T2 V2 = (V1 x T2) / T1

An alteration of state in the gas under constant pressure is called an isobar change. Gay-Lussacs 2.law establish that the pressure of a gas quantity is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas when the volume is constant. The law can also express as: p1 / T1 = constant One can illustrate the law by thinking a cylinder filled with water. The piston is locked so that the volume stays the same. If you heat the gas so that the temperature is altered from T1 to T2, the pressure will alter from p1 to p2. The new pressure after heating will be: p1 /T1 = p2 /T2 p2 = (p1 x T2) / T1 A state of proportion in the gas with unaltered volume is called an isochor alteration. 5.6.3 The absolute zero point. Gay-Lussacs experiment is used to decide the absolute zero point. If you heat a small glass tube in water where a small mercury droplet fences an air column, the state between the air volume and the temperature is plotted in a diagram when the temperature changes. When the temperature rises, the volume increases. The read off values for temperature and volume is close to a straight line. The differences are so small that they are inside the accuracy. The line that emerges shows how the volume varies with the temperature under constant pressure. The pressure will at all times during the experiment be the total amount of the atmospheric pressure and the weight of the mercury droplet.

The Avogadros law The Avogadros law says that equal volumes of two gases with the same pressure and temperature contains the same amount of molecules. A conclusion of this statement is that the state between two gases density (p) at the same pressure and temperature, has to be equal to the state between the masses of the individual molecules in the gases or the state between the relative molecule masses (M). r1/r2 = M1/M2 The Dalton Law The Dalton law say that the total pressure in a gas mixture is equal to the total amount of the partial pressures (part-pressure), that each of the gases will alone in a room with the same temperature as the mixture. The law expresses as: ptotal = p1 + p2 + ………….pn The Dalton law is logical. Every gas fills all the volume, independent of other gas molecules that are present. The molecules itself obtains itself an utmost small part of the volume. Therefore every gas will have a pressure that responds to this. One can also see the restriction of the law from this explanation. It has no longer any existence when the pressure is so large that the molecules occupy a perceptible part of the volume. It has also no accuracy when the gas molecules has influence on one another, and also not if the gases has a chemical reaction against one another. The Joules law The law of Joules say that the inner energy in a precise amount of ideal gas only depend of its temperature and is independent of the volume. If pressure and volume is changed in a process, the inner energy will remain constant if the temperature is constant. According to the kinetic gas theory, the inner energy in an ideal gas is equal the complete kinetic energy that the molecules have because of its disordered movement. This can express, as the inner energy in a precise amount of ideal gas is proportional with the absolute temperature. A conclusion of this statement is if an ideal gas expand (gets a larger room), the temperature and with that the inner energy will remain unchanged after expansion. Indirectly, the law is demonstrated by experiments with actual gases. These experiments indicate that the inner energy of an actual gas is dependent of the gas volume, but this dependence decreases the more the gas approach to become an ideal gas. In an actual gas the force of attraction works between the molecules. The force of attraction between the molecules by usual pressure is small, but is not equal zero. It is therefore necessary to perform work to increase the distance between the molecules and expand the gas volume. If the expansion is adiabatic, that is without heat exchange between the surroundings. This work can only be because in expense of the molecule kinetic energy and the temperature of the gas sink.

Joules-Thompson effect The Joules-Thompson effect describes the divergence from the Joules law of an actual gas. According to Joules law, the temperature will not change if a gas expand freely without working. Practical the temperature will fall freely for most gases of hydrogen and helium that is heated during expansion. When air expand from about 50 bar to the atmospheric pressure, this is cooled with about 13K. It is the result of this effect one can observe or feel when air or another gas is let out from an air bottle and the delivery valve (expansion valve) is noticeable colder. Cooling plants that are used on board expand the vaporisation of the gas. The Joules-Thompson effect in such plants is insignificance and therefor not calculated with. Diffusion Bromic gas that has a brown colour is well suited to demonstrate diffusion between gases. If you fill a glass with bromic gas and a glass filled only with air on top, one can after a while se that the content in both glasses is gradually brown-coloured. Diffusion has taken place. In despite of that bromic gas has five times as large density as air diffuses that gas up in the top glass with air. All gases can mix at diffusion. As the molecules in the gases are accidental and unorganised, a precise gas molecule will over time come any where in the room that is available (according to the kinetic gas theory). From the kinetic gas theory it is natural to draw the conclusion that the diffusion velocity is faster the larger velocity the molecules have. At experimental experiments the Englishman Graham reached following connections: The diffusion velocity for a gas is converted with the square root of the density of the gas and directly proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature. These can mathematical express as: v1/v2 = √r2/√r1 As equal volume of two gases contain, at the same pressure and temperature, that same amount of molecules (Avogadros law), the state between the density of the gases (p) and the masses of the individual molecules and the relative molecule masses (M) be: r1/r2 = M1/M2 From above mentioned two expressions, gases diffusion velocity can express as: v1/v2 = √M2/√M1 This formula can be used to find how fast gases diffuse in proportion to one another. When the molecule mass to nitrogen is 28 and the molecule mass to hydrogen er 2, we find the relative diffusion velocity for nitrogen to: v1/v2 = √M2/√M1 = √32/√2 = 4 that shows that hydrogen diffuse 4 times faster than nitrogen.

and to distinguish between the low-pressure side and the high-pressure side in a condensation plant. The heat is taken from the surroundings that thereby are cooled. The thermodynamics 2nd main sentence say: “Heat can only be transported from a body with low temperature to a body with higher temperature by converting of mechanical work. both the supplied heat quantity under compression and the evaporation heat transfer to the seawater. For a liquid to evaporate one must supply heat to the liquid. How can then heat transfer from the relative cold Freon gas that is sucked back to the compressor and transfer to the relative much warmer seawater? To elevate water from a lower to a higher level.BASIC REFRIGERATION There is seven different principals for cooling. work has to be done (by help of a pump) of the water. but by the overheating temperature inside the evaporator. the job is the same and the valve has no “cooling technical” qualifications in itself. Without this valve it is impossible to maintain the condensation pressure and keep the cooling process up. Regardless of the valve is a regulation valve or a thermostatic expansion valve.” It is this law that is utilised in any cooling plants or condensation plant for cargo on gas ships. The gas condenses and is allowed back by a regulation valve and back into the tank. On ships that transport condensed gases in bulk. In an air condition plant on board. (ref. Since the compressor secures a continuous high pressure and temperature in the heat exchanger. A thermostatic expansion valve is not regulated by the liquid level in a liquid collector before the valve. and the air is cooled. The job of the regulation valve is to secure a liquid lock for thereby to maintain a high pressure in the condenser. Equal that water flows from a higher level to a lower because of that the gravity will heat from a higher temperature to a lower. Heat is transferred from the relative cold cargo gas to the relative much warmer seawater. but we are to concentrate about the process that has been known the longest and that has the largest distribution. As the temperature difference between the cargo and . the cargo in the cargo tanks will at all times be in its boiling point. For this to be possible one must perform a work on the gas by the compressor compressing the gas to a higher pressure and temperature than the seawater. Freon liquid is lead into an evaporator. One must here emphasise that there is always in speak of transport of heat from a warmer media to a relative colder media. Joules-Thompson effect). the heat from the air is transferred to the liquid that evaporate. It is here the cooling medium evaporation heat that is utilised to transfer heat from one place to another. To transport heat from a lower temperature to a higher or likewise. The process of evaporation is the process that is used at the most in modern cooling technique. In many cooling plants thermostatic expansion valves are used at this purpose. and heat can thereby transfer from the gas to the seawater in a heat exchanger.

the surroundings are partly very large. If the cargo is propylene and the surroundings ambient temperature is 27oC. The heat to the cargo will lead to temperature increase with thereby following pressure increase. Cascade plants. Isolation will never prevent heat-transfer. LNG ships use the vapour in the propulsion machinery and that is a part of the chart. the cargo gas is condensing at a cooling media as for example R22 Indirectly cooling plants. How the cooling plant is constructed depends of the size of the ship and what kinds of cargo the ship is built to carry. As mentioned earlier. We can condensate the vapour back to the cargo tank. the pressure in the cargo tank will gradually build up to about 11 bar. only reducing this. This can be done in three different ways. It is here drawn a reflected boundary line at a condensing temperature of 37oC. we can set a cool technical limit for what can be condensed against seawater. . the cargo is cooled or condensed against a cooling media or a without compression of the cargo gas. there is unqualified necessary to cool a compressed gas under its critical temperature to condensing this. With exception of fully pressurised gas carriers. This process will unprevented be in progress until the temperature of the cargo is equal as the surrounding temperature. the cargo condensing directly against seawater. As the condensing temperature normally is no lower than 5oC above the seawater temperature. heat will transfer from the surroundings to the cargo. there is no gas ship with cargo tanks that is constructed to resist such a pressure. To maintain the tank pressure less than the pressure the cargo tanks is designed for (MARVS). The diagram shows a saturation curve and the critical point for the most actual gas cargo. we can use the vapour as fuel or we can blow the vapour out in the atmosphere. Roughly the cargo cooling plant is divided into in three main types: • • • Direct cooling plants. We then suppose that the seawater temperature in the area the ship is trading will be maximum 32oC and that the highest condensing temperature thereby is 37oC. it is necessary to remove the supplied heat.

06- Cargo Handling Equipment .

and are thereby dependent upon good drainage. for example 1370/800 RPM. Normally. because the routines vary some from different manufacturer. Electrically driven pumps normally have a stated number of revolutions. 6. The unloading pumps are located down in the cargo tank’s swamp or as close to the tank bottom as possible.1 DEEPWELL PUMP Deepwell pump is the pump type that is often used on gas tankers. The bearings are lubricated and cooled down by the liquid that is pumped from the tank. Pumps driven with hydraulics have the advantage that the number of revolutions can be adjusted. It is very important to follow the user manual supplied by the pump manufacturer to ensure what to do before we start a pump. . When using the pump. This may result in damage of bearings and then the shaft. The pumps are either the deepwell pump type. but lately they are delivered with a variable number of revolutions. and what routines to follow at overhaul and inspection of the pumps. Booster pumps normally have revolutions from 3500 – 4000 RPM. The shaft goes inside the tank’s discharge pipe from the pump up to the tank dome. This is because the centrifugal pumps do not suck. Deepwell pumps are pumps with a long shaft between the driving motor and the pump. There is a mechanical sealing device between the motor and the discharge pipe in the cargo tank. The discharge pipe is constructed with several lengths with pipes. and there is a shaft bearing on each flange. submerged type or booster pump. It is important to closely read the pump’s user manual about the routines before discharging. the number of revolutions on deepwell and submerged pumps lie on 1300 – 1800 RPM. we must have at least one bar higher pressure on top of the mechanical seal than we have in the tank. The discharge pipe is a solid pipe that goes up through the tank and out to the flange on the tank dome to the liquid line.6 CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT Centrifugal pumps are utilised as main unloading pumps on gas tankers. It is very important not to run the pump without liquid. The motor that drives the pump is either electric or hydraulic.

The liquid that is pumped lubricates and cools the pump’s bearings. It is important that the stainless steel sheathing is kept unbroken. The liquid is pumped up through the tank’s discharge pipe and up to the liquid line.1 Submerged pump Submerged pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that are often used as discharge pumps on large LNG and LPG tankers. The cables to the electric motor are either made of copper or stainless steel. the cables must be sheathed with stainless steel to prevent damage on the cable from corrosive cargoes. Before opening the discharge pipe it must be gas freed. The motor is connected directly to the pump with a short shaft on this type of pump. It is therefore essential that the pump is used only when there is liquid in the tank. Submerged pumps are also installed as portable pumps.1. The motor and pump are submerged down in the tank sump or as close to the tank bottom as possible. the cable and engine must be sheathed with a thin layer of stainless steel. One must at all times check the resistance of the cable insulation before starting the pump. and we must avoid a sharp bend on the cable to protect the stainless steel sheath. When transporting Ammonia. The discharge pipe is then the steering pipe for the pump. If copper is used in the cable. this is done either with inert gas or Nitrogen. This type of pump is equipped with electrical motor. At the bottom of the discharge pipe it is a non-return valve that opens when pump is lowered and shut when the pump is taken up.6. .

It is important that the booster pumps are blended off on LPG/LEG tankers when carrying cargo with lower temperature than –50oC.3 6. It is very important that the motor and the pump are aligned according to the manufacturer manual. It is important that the spool pieces are disconnected. The booster pumps are driven with electric or hydraulic motor. The booster pumps on gas tankers are used either as a main discharge pump.1. The pump is one-staged centrifugal pump and is often installed on deck near the pipe manifold. deck tank supply pump or heater feed pump. Generally. be turned by hand once a week to prevent destruction of the motor and pump bearings.3 Hold spaces and inter barrier spaces In hold space and inter barrier space there is requirement of drainage system separated from the machinery drain system.2 Booster pumps Booster pumps mentioned here are auxiliary pumps for cargo handling. and the flanges are blinded off when the bilge system is not in use.1.6. The drain system could be submerged pumps. 6. and the clearances specified inside are followed. Booster pumps are rarely designed for temperature lower than –50oC. auxiliary discharge pump. there are spool pieces (short pipe pieces) that are produced especially for each hold space and on each side and fit both to the cargo system and the seawater system. These pumps can be used to drain water or cargo spill from the bilge.1. Booster pumps that are regularly utilised should. as a good rule. The engine and the pump are connected together with a short shaft with coupling in between. deepwell pumps or ejectors. .

Example of ejector in hold space .

2. The loading lines on gas carriers are mostly produced of stainless steel. To prevent cold cargo spill on the hull plates.2 LOADING LINES. On all cargo lines where it can be liquid it is required with safety valve. This is done with wood planks or plywood. All loading lines with an outside diameter of 25 mm or more must be flanged or welded. On each flange on lines and pipes where gaskets is used. lines to vent mast. a drip tray must be placed under the manifold flanges. All loading lines on gas carrier: liquid lines. there must be electrical bonding with steel wire or steel band from flange to flange. vapour lines. but low temperature nickel steel is also in use. All welding on pipes exceeding 75 mm in diameter and 10 mm wall thickness or more must be X-rayed and classed by the class company.6.1 Loading lines and pipes The loading lines and pipes mentioned here refer to gas carrier’s cargo handling system. All lines that are thermally insulated from the hull must be electrically bonded to the hull with steel wire or steel bands. If the return goes to vent mast the pipe must be equipped with a liquid collector to prevent liquid to the vent mast. condensate return lines. lines with an outside diameter less than 25 mm can be connected with treads. All loading lines outside the cargo tank must be produced by material with melting point no less than 925oC. less than –10oC must be insulated from the ship hull. This involves liquid lines. gas lines and lines to vent mast have the same requirements as pressure vessels regarding of temperature and pressure they are meant to handle. Otherwise. The safety valve’s set point is dependent upon the pressure for which the line is designed. Vapour from the safety valve outlet must go back to the cargo tank or to the vent mast. PIPES AND VALVES 6. Loading lines designed for cargo with low temperature. The hull has to be protected against cold cargo spill under spool pieces and valves on all liquid lines. pipes inside the cargo tank and seawater pipes to the cargo cooling plant. The safety valves must be tested and sealed by the ship Class Company. . This to prevent the ship hull to be cooled down to below design temperature. The same regulation do we have on flanges and spool pieces also.

With a floating ball the pressure is equal all around the ball.2. . On some types of ball valves the ball is fastened to the spindle.6. Frequently. 6. and the valves must be electrically bonded to the line either with steel wire or steel bands. particles are left between the valve ball and the valve house. If the pressure is equal on both sides of the valve. leakage may occur. butterfly valves and seat valves. This prevents large pressure inside the ball. and these particles can easily cause damage to the valve seat and the ball. liquid expansion and wreckage of the sealing devices around the spherical occurs.2 Valves The most common valves used on the cargo handling equipment on gas carriers are ball valves. There is a drain hole on the ball itself. other types of ball valves have floating ball.2.3 Ball valves On semi and fully refrigerated gas carrier’s ball valves are often used on the cargo lines and cargo cooling plant. The ball valves tolerate high pressure and large thermal variations. the ball and spindle is produced in stainless steel. With the ball fasten to the spindle it is pressed aslant towards the seat and the valve seat can be damaged and the valve will leak. then the liquid inside the ball can be drained or boiled off. the drain hole pointing where it is least natural pressure. The ball valve principle function is the pressure on one side of the ball forces the ball against the seat and the valve is closed. and they are also approved for chemicals. The valves must from time to time be opened and the ball and seat have to be cleaned especially the manifold valves. All valves used on cargo lines have to be installed with flanges. The valve seats and sealing devices are produced in Teflon. and the ball is pressed even toward the seat. It is of importance to ensure that when the valve is closed.

Disadvantages: They are exposed to cavitation damage on the valve seat and flap when too high liquid flow through the valve. oil cooler. Butterfly valves should be moved at regular intervals to prevent the seat from fastening and be damaged and cause leakage valve. They have lower weight than ball valves to corresponding pipe diameters. They are less suitable at low temperatures than ball valves. Disadvantages: The valves are expensive. Advantages: This type of valves has more reasonable price than ball valves. such as water to heat exchanger (cargo heater).4 Butterfly valves Butterfly valves are often used on the seawater line on gas carriers.2. They can be difficult to shut at temperatures down to –90oC and colder (this can be relieved by adding a thin packer between the to parts of the valve house). on condensate return lines back to the . where there is not such a large pressure or thermal difference. as the pressure valve on the discharging pump. Butterfly valves are also often used on lines with large diameter as cargo lines. Easy to maintain and overhaul. Ball valves are unfavourable as regulation valves.Sketch of operation of drainage hull: Advantages: Ball valves tolerate large pressure and thermal variations due to the shape of the ball. They are better than ball valves for regulation of flow. and have costly spare parts. Seat valves Seat valves are frequently used as one-way valves (check valves) on loading lines. seawater condenser. 6. the compressors etc. Tolerates both gases and chemicals. as it is difficult to adjust to low flow through the valve.

When the pressure increases in the line under the valve seat. When the pressure ceases under the valve seat or the pressure increases above the valve seat. and especially the seat and contact faces must be polished/grounded as they are expelled for mark and wear and tear when the valve operates often. Opening or choking the valve regulates the amount of flow through the valve.cargo tank and on the inert gas lines. Seat valves are opening by turn the spindle anti clockwise and the valve seat can wander freely on the spindle. Example on seat valves: Sketch on spring-loaded seal valve: Seat valves that are used as check valves. The seat valves must also be moved regularly when they are not in use for a long period of time. . the seat is lifted up and the valve is open. must be overhauled at regular intervals. the valve seat will drop down and shut the valve.

The needle valve is the valve type that empirically is best suited for regulation of low flow volume. which the products are cooled or heated against. So with operating . All heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling must be pressure tested and certified by the gas carriers Class Company. The heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling must be designed and tested to tolerate the products the gas carrier is certified for. Disadvantages: Require strict inspection. super heaters and oil coolers for compressors. Seawater became ice at about 0oC and starts to free out salt at about 50oC. condensers for cargo cooling plant. Have large range of utilisation. vapour risers. Start leaking if wrongly operated. Reasonable to maintain. Needle valves Needle valves are used for regulation of cargo cooling plants. and IMO requires one safety valve if the pressure vessel is less than 20 m3 and two safety valves if it is above 20 m3. as heat exchangers (cargo heater). HEAT EXCHANGER Heat exchangers are utilised in several different parts of cargo handling on gas carriers. In most of the heat exchangers seawater is used as the medium on gas carriers. Heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling are considered as pressure vessels.Advantages: The seal valves are reliable and simple to operate. Heat exchangers where water is used as the medium and are utilised for heating have little or no effect with water temperature less than 10oC. both air regulation and for regulation of Freon in cascade cooling plants. Have few wearing parts.

Which choice of material one decides to choose. aluminium-brass alloy or titan. important to ensure that the velocity of the liquid that is being pumped through the heat exchanger is not too high.temperatures with a larger variation than from 10oC to 45oC. ensure that the gasket is correctly placed. In tube heat exchangers. copper-nickel alloy. to prevent cavity damage in the tube bundle or the end covers. Ensure that the gasket is produced in a quality that tolerates the products and temperature one operates it with. This prevents remaining seawater from freezing or prevents remnants of salt deposits inside the tubes. There is a cover installed on each end of the chamber to clean the pipes more easily and maintain these. The tube bundle is made of stainless steel. Some terminals do not accept water as medium in heat exchangers. Tube heat exchangers Tube heat exchangers are produced with tube bundles either as straightened pipes or u-formed pipes placed into a chamber. These prevent the water in the heat exchanger from freezing and eventually damage the heat exchanger. carbon steel. Also. It is of importance to ensure that the water out of a heat exchanger is never below 5oC. depends on the product one will operate and the costs associated with the investment and maintenance. The pipes in the tube bundle have an inside diameter on 10 to 20 millimetres. therefore one must either heat the cargo on route at sea or the gas carrier must have heat exchangers that do not use water as medium. one ought to use another cooling medium than seawater. One must closely check for cavity damage when cleaning the heat exchanger. at all times. the product to be heated goes in the tube bundle. where seawater is used as medium. . It is. Tube heat exchangers must at regular intervals be cleaned to prevent particles from settling inside the tubes in the tube bundle or in the end covers.

It is of importance to remember that the cargo heater is full of water and have good flow out with water before letting cold cargo into the heater. and that one uses gaskets that tolerate the medium and temperatures one operates within the heat exchanger Different heat exchangers utilised onboard gas carriers for cargo handling Cargo heater: A cargo heater is used to heat the cargo when discharging to an ambient shore tank. Plate heat exchangers must be cleaned at regular intervals to prevent the channels from clogging with salt deposits or particles from the medium or the product. One must ensure.Plate heat exchangers Plate heat exchangers are more utilised in cold storage plants on shore. after cleaning. and they normally don’t have cargo cooling plant. The cooling medium and product are pumped each way in the channels to achieve the best possible cooling or heating. Plate heat exchangers are also used as condensers on newer cargo cooling plants aboard gas tankers. Fully pressurised gas carriers are carriers that are designed to transport condensed gases at ambient temperature. for example in the fish industry and the meat industry. The plates are installed with the flat side toward each other. . Seawater or oil is used to heat the cargo in the cargo heater. that the gaskets are properly placed. Water or oil is used as the cooling medium and is dependent upon the temperature of the product that is to be cooled or heated. A cargo heater is also used when loading a fully pressurised gas carrier with cargo with temperature less than –10oC. Plate heat exchangers are built with thin plates with double liquid channels.

Intermediate cooler An intermediate cooler is used in a 2-stage direct cargo cooling plant and cascade cooling plant. Cargo condensers in a direct cargo cooling plant can on some gas carriers also be used as cargo heaters and are designed in low temperature steel that tolerates a minimum of –50oC.CARGO CONDENSER: Cargo condensers in a direct cargo cooling plant condensate the vapour against sea water. Sketch of intermediate cooler . The cargo compressor’s 2nd stage sucks simultaneously from the top of the intermediate cooler to keep the pressure down. Floaters or D/P-cells regulate the liquid level in the intermediate cooler. Freon or other medium as propylene after it is compressed in the cargo compressor. Vapour from the first stage on the cargo compressor is pressed down on the bottom of the intermediate cooler and is condensed against the cargo liquid in the bottom. The condensate inside the coil came from the cargo condenser and is under cooled by the liquid in the intermediate cooler before it is pressured further back to the cargo tank.

. The oil coolers must hold the oil temperature on the different compressors within the specifications determined by the manufacturer of the cargo cooling plant. deck storage vessel or from a shore tank and into the vapour riser. The condensate is then pumped in pipe coils.Freon condenser: Water is used to condense Freon in the Freon condenser in a cascade cooling plant. The liquefied Freon is used to condensate the cargo in the cascade cooling plant’s cargo condenser. and cools either directly on the tank steel or as a cooling medium for ethanol or other mediums. Oil coolers: The cargo cooling plants oil coolers use water as a cooling media. Vapour riser: A vapour riser is used to produce vapour from the cargo liquid. Liquefied Freon is also used in indirect cargo cooling plants. Steam or heated oil is used to heat up and vapour rise the liquid. The vapour is used to gas up or maintains the pressure in one or several cargo tanks. The liquid is pumped from one of the cargo tank.

We will now look at the different types of compressors and starting with piston compressors.2 Piston compressor Piston compressors used directly against cargo are of oil free type. Piston compressors are either built with cylinders in line. Compressors with cylinders in line are built with two or three cylinders either single-acting or double-acting. v-form or wform. 6. six. eight or twelve cylinders and are single acting. but there is oil in the crankcase on the compressor. It is of importance that the sealing device between the cylinder liner and crankcase is intact. This to prevent pollution to the next cargo from the previous cargo. Oil free compressors are used to prevent pollution of oil into the cargo. The vapour is compressed on top of the piston when the piston goes up and vapour is sucked into the cylinder below the piston. Consequently. This type of compressor is used as cargo compressor onboard gas carriers. The vapour is compressed below the piston when the piston goes down and is sucked into the cylinder above the piston. There is no oil lubrication of the piston itself. This indicates that each cylinder has two suction valves and two pressure valves. The compressors in the cargo cooling plants are produced either as piston. 6. With an oil free piston compressor. . we mean that the cylinder liners are not lubricated or cooled with oil. The pistons are equipped with compression grooves and are not equipped with piston rings. Piston compressors that are used against Freon normally have oil lubrication of cylinder liners.4. four. the oil pressure in the crank is checked and compared to the suction pressure and the cargo tank pressure.1 Compressors Compressors are used as vapour pumps in all modern cargo cooling plants.CARGO COOLING PLANT 6. Small amounts of leakage between the cylinder and crank will at all times occur. and thereby contamination of the cargo. so the oil in the crank contains some of the product that is cooled. either to compress or pump cargo vapour. Compressors are also used to compress or pump cooling medium as Freon vapour on indirect cargo cooling plant and cascade plant. screw or centrifugal type. It is important to change the oil in the crank when changing cargo. All cargoes we are cooling demand a high rate of purity. In the first stage. V-form compressors are built with two.3 Double-acting compressors Double-acting compressors are normally oil free and compress the vapour above and under the piston. it cannot be mixed with oil or be polluted by other products. Check the user manual for the cargo compressors and the marginal values for the pressure difference with oil and suction.4.4.

which prevents the liquid from being carried with into the compressor. A suction valve and pressure valve is then installed in the top of the cylinder. there is a liquid receiver on the vapour line between the cargo tank and the cargo compressor. . Single-acting compressors are used both as Freon and cargo compressors on gas tankers. four.6. six. Piston compressors are operated by electric motor with direct transmission or strap transmission with a constant number of revolutions.4 Single-acting compressors Single-acting compressors compress and suck the gas on one side of the piston and then normally above the piston.4. Onboard many gas tankers. eight and twelve. then often as v-form or w-form. The liquid receiver is equipped with a level alarm to control the liquid level. The drawback of piston compressors is that they are vulnerable when the cylinder liner is filled with liquid and they also have relatively low capacity for cooling. The cylinder top is spring-loaded as a safety precaution against liquid “knock”. The compressors are built with the cylinders in pairs: two. The number of revolutions is between 750 to 1750 rpm. Unloading of the compressor occurs by hydraulic lifting of the suction valves.

The high speed prevents leakage between the pressure and suction side. . about 3500 rpm. The principle for screw compressors are two rotating screws. Please also refer to “cargo cooling process” for more information. Vapour is screwed through the threads and with rotation on the screws. The type used on the cargo side must be of oil free type for the same reason as the piston compressors.5 Screw compressor Screw compressors are either oil free or oil lubricated. 12000 rpm. the screw that operates has convex threads and the operated screw has concave threads which rotates them in different directions. Oil free screw compressors are operated by electric motors with a constant number of revolutions and have a gear transmission for the compressor. Screw compressors with oil injection in the rotor house have a lower number of revolutions. which has approx.6.4. One can also use electric motors with direct shaft transmission. The advantage with screw compressors is that they wear few parts and have low weight in proportion to cooling capacity. the confined gas volume decreases successively resulting in compression.

compressors with oil injection are used.6 Centrifugal compressors On gas tankers. it is important that electric motors and compressors are aligned according to specifications from the manufacturer of the compressor and motor. To prevent bearing breakdown. Another area of operation for centrifugal compressors is pumping vapour back to shore tank while loading.4. The oil causes a film on the outside of the rotors that prevents leakage between the pressure and suction side. If the excess pressure is too low. and thereby gives better cooling capacity. Cargo compressors with motors that are installed inside a deckhouse have two parts. The compressor has a number of revolutions from about 20000 rpm to over 35000 rpm. the centrifugal compressor is mounted on deck close . which is inside the compressor. the power to the electric motor room will be shut off and the cargo cooling plant stops. The centrifugal compressor is built on the same principle as a centrifugal pump. Centrifugal compressors are operated by electric motor. Either to blows hot vapour or to be used as ventilation fan.Oil free screw compressors are used on the cargo side. 6. When a centrifugal compressor is used to feed the cargo compressor. This high number of revolutions sets large demands on accuracy and tolerances at aligning motor and compressor. and have a gear transmission. On gas tankers. centrifugal compressors are used to deliver vapour to shore or to supply the cargo compressors with vapour from the cargo tanks. The capacity of screw compressors is adjusted by a slide. This compensates for the temperature difference inside the compressor. as we find with piston compressors. Screw compressors are not destroyed if they suck liquid. The use of centrifugal compressors depends on how flexible the piping system to the compressor is. However. hydraulic motor or with steam. The room where the motors are installed is gas safe with a constant excess pressure of air preventing flammable gas from flowing in. On the Freon side. one room for the compressors and one room for the motors. The shaft from the electric motor room to the compressor room is rendered gas-tight. The centrifugal compressor can also be used when changing cargo. it creates a higher suction pressure on the cargo compressor. A mechanical seal device with automatic oil lubrication is normally used. when we reduce the capacity the excess gas flows back to the suction side.

ethanol is then pumped round in the coils and Freon is used to cool down the ethanol. Deepwell pumps with revolution regulation can be used if the ship is not rolling or pitching to mush. Typical cargo that uses indirect cooling is propylene oxide. There are some different methods for indirect cargo cooling. Freon cooling plant and seawater pump to control the cargo temperature. ethylene oxide. as they either polymerise or start chemical reactions. mixed propylene oxide and ethylene oxide and chlorine.to the cargo manifold. This method is energy demanding as we have to use discharging pump. deepwell pumps can also be used but we must try to avoid running those while at sea.7 Indirect cargo cooling plant Indirect cargo cooling plants are used on cargoes that not can be compressed or exposed to high temperatures.4. A third indirect cargo cooling plant also uses a Freon cooling plant where cold Freon liquid is pumped to a coil installed inside the top of the cargo tank or is welded around the outside of the cargo tank. One can also use ethanol in this cooling system. 6. but the discharge pumps are not used. 6. The capacity of the centrifugal compressor is from approximate 2000 m3 and upwards. This indirect cooling requires less energy than if one also uses discharge pumps. One type of indirect cargo cooling plant use the discharge pumps and pumps the cargo liquid through a Freon heat exchanger and back to the cargo tank. . The Freon compressor sucks Freon vapour from the Freon liquid collector then presses the vapour to the condenser where it is condensed against seawater.4. On this type of cooling plant the discharge pump should be of submerged type.8 Indirect cargo cooling plant with utilisation of discharge pump Another indirect cargo cooling plant resembles the first a lot. Instead the cargo vapour is condensed in a Freon heat exchanger and the condensate is pumped back to the cargo tank with a small pump.

Propylene and Butadiene. It is the seawater temperature and the type of cargo that decides which condensation pressure is achieved provided that the cargo is pure.4. The pressure needed in proportion to the temperature is located in the density table for the actual cargo. .9 Indirect cargo cooling plant with utilisation of Ethanol in coil round the cargo tank 6.4. the condensation pressure will be approximate 9 bars. Isobutane. If one for example has loaded Propylene and the seawater temperature is 20oC.6. Common for all direct cargo cooling plants is that the cargo vapour is compressed directly in the compressor. Ammonia and some chemical gases like VCM.9 Direct cargo-cooling plant A direct cooling plant is used to control temperature on cargoes as LPG.

the pressure difference between tank pressure and condensate pressure must be less than 6 bars. vapour is sucked by the cargo compressor from the cargo tanks.SKETCH OF TWO-STAGE DIRECT COOLING PLANT Direct cargo cooling plants are operated as one or multistage. To use one-stage cooling. Some direct cargo cooling plants are delivered with intermediate cooler (inter cooler). The vapour is then pressed to the condenser and assembles in the liquid collector. The liquid level in the collector is regulated either by two floaters or the differential pressure above the liquid level in the liquid collector. The pressure in the liquid collector is equal to the pressure in the cargo condenser. These cargo cooling plants are used on semi-pressurised LPG carriers and atmospheric pressure LPG/ NH3 carriers. this achieves lower temperature and pressure on the 2nd stage suction side. and is at all times higher than the cargo tank pressure. Most gas carriers that are designed for LPG have direct cargo cooling plants that can be operated as a one-stage or multistage operation. dependent upon the type of compressor. The liquid is pressured back to the cargo tank via a regulation valve and the condensate return line from the liquid collector. . The vapour is thereby pressed to the compressors 2nd stage suction side and then to the cargo condenser where the vapour is condensed against seawater and collected in the liquid collector. With one-stage direct cooling. 2nd stage direct cargo cooling plant is delivered with or without an intermediate cooler. the cargo and the temperature on the seawater. With 2nd stage direct cooling without an intermediate cooler the cargo compressor sucks from the cargo tank with the 1st stage cylinder. The condensate is pressured back to the cargo tank from the liquid collector via a regulation valve and in the condensate return line.

one can start the cargo compressor. The vapour is then pressured to the intermediate cooler where it is condensed against the liquid in the bottom of the intermediate cooler. so the condensation and circulation of Freon in the cargo condenser is normal. cargo condenser. The condensate is then pressured against a coil in the intermediate cooler and further through a regulation valve to the condensate line. regulation valve and pump. Some cascade cooling plants are constructed for use as a .6. There must be accuracy in the start-up to prevent oil from leaking with Freon and removing the condensation effect. When the Freon plant operates normally. but can also be used for Propane. On the cargo side in a cascade cooling plant there is mostly 2nd stage direct cargo cooling plant equipped with compressor. oil collector. Freon are condensed against water. Ammonia and Propylene.11 Cascade cooling plant / direct cooling Cascade cooling plant is basically a direct cargo cooling plant where the cargo is condensed against Freon and Freon is condensed against water. Sketch of cascade plant In a cascade cooling plant there is a Freon cooling plant in supplement to a direct cargo cooling plant. A cascade cooling plant must be used for condensation of Ethane and Ethylene.4. and on large atmospheric pressure LPG carriers. and back to the cargo tank. The Freon plant have to be started first. Freon separator. This type of cargo cooling plant is used on semi-pressurised LPG and LEG carriers. intermediate cooler. and the Freon condensate is pumped from the separator to the cargo condenser where the cargo is condensed. liquid collector and regulation valve. The Freon cooling plant contain of a compressor. The cargo compressor sucks vapour with the 2nd stage from the top of the intermediate cooler and press the vapour to the cargo condenser where the gas is condensed against Freon. The vapour is sucked from the cargo tank and into the cargo compressor’s 1st stage. Freon liquid collector.

Butadiene or VCM one can also condensate Propane and Propylene directly if the seawater temperature is low enough.g. Generally when cooling Butane. 6. If the gas carrier does not have an inert gas plant or nitrogen plant. The definition of consumption here is the leakage in the vents and manhole. it must have a storage vessel with inert gas or nitrogen with capacity of 30 days and nights consumption. seawater temperature has less influence on the plant. only dry air or nitrogen. The larger volume of Freon. If the cargo is Ammonia. If the cargo is not flammable we can have dry air. seawater temperature is higher than 35oC.two or one-stage direct cargo cooling plant. . inert gas or nitrogen in the spaces. one must not use inert gas that contains carbon dioxide. because carbon dioxide reacts chemically with Ammonia. It is difficult to cool regardless of the kind of cooling plant’s if the surrounding temperature e.5 INERT GAS PLANT On gas carriers inert gas is used for different purposes. some are requirements other is to maintain the ships hull and spaces: · · · Have neutral atmosphere in hold and inter barrier spaces Elimination of cargo vapour from the cargo tank when gas freeing Eliminating oxygen from the cargo tank before loading · Drying up hold spaces or inter barrier spaces to achieve a neutral atmosphere and to prevent corrosion in the spaces · Placing a neutral vapour above the cargo if required When carrying flammable cargo on fully refrigerated gas carriers there is a requirement to have a neutral atmosphere in the hold space or inter barrier space either with dry inert gas or nitrogen. This type of cargo cooling plant has a lower dependency of the seawater temperature than a direct cooling plant. It is always beneficial to keep spaces around the cargo tanks dry.

6. less carbon and less carbon monoxide. scrubber. To achieve as pure inert gas as possible. mixed with air. There is two types of dryers for inert gas plants either Freon dryer or absorption dryer.5. IMO makes demands for maximum content of 5% O2 by volume. dryer and heater. Inert gas is produced on gas tankers by their own inert gas generator. The most common is the Freon dryer. Strict demands are made regarding inert gas plants on gas carriers. Water is condensed out while the dew point is reduced and we have to avoid temperature to sink below 0oC so we do not clog the inert channel with ice. A rich oil/air mixture gives a lot of carbon. high content with Carbon monoxide and low O2 content. With use of Freon dryer the dew point will be minimum 5oC. The O2 content in the inert gas adjusts by quantity of air added to the oil that is injected into the combustion chamber. very good combustion is required. Inert gas produces by consuming gas oil. A lean mixture (more air) gives higher O2%. The O2 analyser measures the O2 content against the stated limits before the inert gas is blown further into the dryer. The fuel oil is injected into the combustion chamber.The inert gas generator is built up with a combustion chamber. The air/oil mixture is produced manually or automatically on the control board. In an absorption dryer the inert gas is compressed with a compressor and pumped through a material that absorbs water and the dew point sinks to minimum –80oC. The inert gas is blown through the scrubber where carbon particles and sulphur is washed out with the water. O2 analyser. After the scrubber the inert gas is cooled in a dryer to reduce the dew point. diesel oil or light fuel oil. combusts and flue gas or inert gas is formed.1 Sketch of inert gas plant .

5 Absorption dryer With use of absorption drier the inert gas is then pressed through a medium that absorbs water. The temperature on the inert gas after the scrubber is about 5oC above the seawater temperature. .75 gram per m3 inert gas. The inert gas then automatically goes to the vent mast if the O2 content reaches more than 5% by volume or below 0. The limit value is set manually between 5% by volume O2 and the minimum value for the inert gas generator for example 0. 6. The Freon is condensed in its own cooling plant.5. tanker). The inert gas temperature should be higher than the atmosphere that one will inert. Inert gas with temperature of 40oC and dew point at – 60oC has a relative humidity of 0.5. The inert gas is cooled down and thereby condensate the water from the inert gas when it passes the Freon pipes. but the inert gas volume that is delivered for consumption decreases. for example 1% by volume. O2 content is set to the required O2 volume. The temperature of the inert gas is higher when it emerges from the dryer. The inert will then go to the dryer and is consumed when the O2 content is between 1% and 0. 6. The inert gas that comes out of the Freon dryer has a dew point of about 5oC and a water content of 6. The result of temperature increase is that the compressor compresses the inert gas.3%. The inert gas has a temperature a bit above seawater temperature when entering into the dryer blower. Inert gas dryer is a Freon heat exchanger. hold space or inter barrier space to prevent condensing of water into the tanks or spaces.4 Freon dryer Freon dryer are frequently used and require less space in proportion to an absorption dryer. that means 100% humidity. from 30oC to 60oC. 6.3 Drying The inert gas is saturated with water when it comes out of the scrubber. absorption dryer or a combination of both.5.3% by volume. The inert gas contains 0.2 O2 Control O2 analyser is connected to a two-way valve where the inert gas either can be sent to a ventilation mast or to a consumption unit (dryer.0013 gram water pr m3 at a dew point of –60oC.6.5. depending on the required dew point. for example silica gel or Aluminium Oxide. One can have an inert gas dew point down to –80oC with an absorption dryer.3% by volume O2. The temperature of the inert gas after the Freon heat exchanger must not be less than 5oC. The inert gas therefore must be dried before it is sent to the cargo tanks. The principle with the Freon dryer is that Freon flows through small pipes in the inert gas channel.025%.

To maintain the function of the inert gas generator to specification.6. generally once a week and preferably several hours each time.13%. The relative humidity is 28.6 Inert gas heater An inert gas heater is a heat exchanger where steam or an electrical coil is used for heating the inert gas. This is a good opportunity to refill spaces and lines. one must run it regularly.72% at a temperature of 25oC with Freon dryer and an inert gas dew point of 5oC. . and thereby heats the inert gas so it can absorb more humidity.5. Heating reduces the relative humidity on the inert gas. The inert gas dryer and heater can also be used in connection with venting tanks and spaces with air. The dried inert gas can absorb more humidity when it is heated. the relative humidity will sink down to 8. It is of importance that one first removes humidity. If the inert gas is heated to 50oC. which are not used.

6.5.7 Sketch of thermal drier A B C D E F S Drying tower Tower that is dried Heater Cooler Fan Water separator Solenoid valves .

5.8 Sketch of pressure swing drier .6.

Cargo tank’s safety valves are either pilot (pressure loaded) or spring loaded valves.5.6. spaces and cargo lines where cargo liquid residue may remain. Spring-loaded valves are normally used on .9 Composition of inert gas and dew point AFETY VALVES Gas carriers must have safety valves on all cargo tanks.

6. The pressure will now be higher above the main valve seat than below and the valve is open and vapour is ventilated to the vent mast.fully pressurised tankers and semi pressurised tankers with a tank pressure above 0. The pressure required by MARVS is located in the gas carriers IMO Certificate of Fitness. The pressure above the main valve membrane . an exhaust pipe and an equalising pipe. Each safety valve must be connected to vent mast without impediment or valves.6. All safety valves on cargo tanks must be prototype tested and approved by IMO and the gas carriers class company. The vent mast’s outlet must be at least B/3 or 6 meter above weather deck or gangway. The tanker’s class company has to seal the safety valves after authorised personnel have tested and calibrated the safety valves. MARVS is maximum allowed safety valve set point. The pilot is adjusted by a pilot spring in order to get the needed pressure. There must be two safety valves on all kinds of pressure vessels on more than 20 m3. for example 0. for example Norwegian Maritime Directorate. The pilot main valve seat is attached to the main valve membrane. two valve seats.5 bars. 6. but the flag state authorities. pull the pilot seat up and the pressure above the main valve membrane is ventilated to the atmosphere.5 to 3 bars and +-3% for 3 bars and higher pressure. This distance can be shortened for gas carriers of less than 90 meters in length.7 bars and on cargo lines.5 bars. The cargo tank’s safety valves must be tested within the IMO limits +-10% for 0 to 1. the boost membrane will sink and the pilot seat will go to the shut position. The safety valve contains of an adjusting spring.1 6. the boost membrane will lift. +-6% for 1. When the cargo tank pressure sinks again. The distance should at least B or 25 meters from the nearest air inlet or opening in the accommodation. The pilot valve’s seat is attached to two membranes and the pilot spring. The pressure loaded valves are normally used on atmospheric pressure tankers and semi pressurised tankers. three membranes.1 Cargo tank safety valve’s function Safety valves used on cargo tanks have one or more pilots to hold the valve closed. The pilot valve is connected to a pipe on the highest point on the cargo tank. B is the ships breadth. When the pressure in the cargo tank is higher than the pilot valve’s setting. The cargo tank safety valve must be located on the tank’s highest point above deck. The maximum set pressure on a cargo tank’s safety valves depends on the cargo tank MARVS. There is the same pressure below and above the main valve seat and on the below the boost membrane when the pilot valve is shut. There are also demands that there is a safety valve on all kinds of pressure vessels below 20 m3. must approve it.

The valve opens when the tank pressure exceeds the spring tension. . The cargo tank safety valves on atmospheric pressure tankers are normally the membrane type.6.6. the valve shuts again. When the valve is shut there is equal pressure under and over the main membrane and under the boost membrane. the pilot seat is pressed back and shut. the set point will be at 2. 6. When the setter is screwed down on the pilot.2 6.2 Example of a tank safety valve There are extra setters that are installed on the pilot valve to achieve the right set point on fully pressurised tankers and semi-pressurised tankers. When the pressure sinks. When the tank pressure sinks below the spring tension. The setter consists of an adjusting spring with spring tension equal to the pressure. the boost membrane in the pilot will press the pilot seat up and the valve start to open. The principle is the same as with seat valves.8 bars.3 bars.increases to the same pressure as in the cargo tank. The main valve seat will then be closed and the valve shut. for example 2. An adjustment screw is attached on top of the valve that is used for calibrating the spring tension. The extra weights are mounted on top of the pilot and increases the set point with approximates 100 to 150 grams. On fully refrigerated gas carriers there is often options to mount extra weights during loading or change of cargo. When the pressure is higher than the pilot setting.

6. Then sealed and by the ships class company.6.3 6. The set point and the number of the different safety valves can be found in the gas carrier valve list. pressure tested and calibrated by authorised personnel.6.3 Safety valves on cargo lines/ pipes Seat valves are mainly used as safety valves on lines. The safety valves must be overhauled.THE EXTRA SETTER IS NOT ALLOWED TO HAVE ON THE PILOT WHILE THE VESSEL IS AT SEA. Example on safety valves on cargo lines/pipes . These safety valves are springloaded and must be according to the certified line pressure.


07- Monitoring and control .

1 LEVEL GAUGES A level gauge for cargo tanks is normally of float type or radar type. . Control and necessary adjustments are made using these values. This type is used as level alarms in cargo tanks and in small tanks as liquid receivers. The float’s movements are transferred to a counter through a steel band. The liquid separator on the suction side of the compressor is an example of a tank equipped with this type of alarm. normally in connection with the deckhouse. The counter are normally local. The float type can be controlled by a guide-wire or placed inside a perforated pipe. which sets off or on an alarm circuit when the liquid reaches a given level. The instrumentation varies from local instruments to remote instruments. Other types of floats are connected to an arm with a switch. If liquid is carried away with the vapour to the compressor. there are marked values indicating the reading when the float is at the bottom and on the top. but on new ships it is also remote reading.7 MONITORING AND CONTROL All gas carriers must have a minimum instrumentation for control of cargo and cargo equipment. The cargo control room or instrument room is located in a gas safe area. the liquid will assemble in the liquid separator on the vapour line. It is of importance to check that the counter is at the correct level. 7. To avoid damage to the float and band. The float in the liquid separator will at a stated level float up and actuate an alarm and then shutdown the compressor and liquid is prevented to came into the compressor. it is of importance that the float is hoisted and locked when the ship is sailing. On the counter.

A spring or lack of pressure closes most of the actuators used in the ESD system.7 bars it is required that all pipes connected to the cargo tanks.1.1. The emergency shutdown system must be “fail safe”. At least one of the locations must be located outside the cargo area or in a cargo control room. normally at 95% filling. The high-level alarm is activated when the cargo tank is nearly full. The liquid valves should fully close under all service conditions within 30 seconds. the power circuit to the cargo plant is broken and compressors and discharge pumps will stop. one is high-level alarm the other is high-highlevel alarm.1 High-level alarm To prevent over loading of cargo tanks high level alarms are required. Gas carriers with MARVS below 0. A pneumatic or hydraulic actuator placed on the valve operates the valve in the pipe system and can also be remote controlled. the valves are shut.2 Emergency Shut-Down System (ESD) All gas carriers are equipped with an emergency shutdown system that is manually activated from at least two locations onboard. If fire ignites or temperature rise of other reason. The connected actuators for valves in the pipe-system have an adjustable closing time. It closes the liquid valves in the cargo pipe-system. the fuses have to melt at temperature between 98oC and 104oC. For gas carriers with MARVS above 0.7. with exception from pipes to the safety valves and instrument pipes. Most gas carriers therefore have the possibility to place an extra ESD release button on jetty. Valves on the actual tank are closed and discharge pumps are automatically stopped when liquid reaches the actual level. . When the emergency shutdown system is activated. Thermal fuses (fusing plugs) that activate the emergency shutdown system are located on tank-domes and manifolds. To open the valves and start the pump again the 98%/ 99% circuit has to be reset and switched off. There are two separate floats that give the alarms.7 bars only require such valves on the manifold. Some terminals require that the ESD system onboard must be activated also from the jetty when handling cargo. 7. The high-high-level alarm is actuated at 98% or 99% filling. The valve’s closing time can be regulated by adjustment of a needle valve on the actuator. The system is normally a part of the cargo valve’s control system and both pneumatic and hydraulic system is used. On some gas carriers the fuses also activate the water spray system. Adjustable closing time is a requirement from IMO to avoid over loaded cargo tanks or pressure surge on the terminal pipes. are equipped with remote-operated valves. that is by loss of pressure or voltage.

4 Example of pneumatic ESD system . The emergency shutdown system can be complete or partly pneumatic. Regular control and maintenance of the air dryer.1. Pneumatics is also used to control the water spray-system and regulate the cargo cooling plant. For a satisfactory function of the control air systems it is of importance that the air is as dry as possible.7.3 Pneumatic system In cargo control systems pneumatic is used to control cooling plants and valves.1. 7. Poor air-treatment and humidity is the major cause of interruption in such systems. normally by the “heatless dryer” type. is also of importance.

Calibrating and testing the equipment must be done regularly. The instrument should regularly be calibrated for the cargo carried onboard. The detector pump sucks the atmosphere from sample points to the sensor from selected areas around the vessel. If the concentration at a measure-point exceeds 30% LEL. at all times. what point is measured and from where the alarm is released. It is required that the detector must measure all sample points consecutively and not exceeding 30 minutes intervals on the same sample point. a precise time purges the instrument before measuring the next point. and activates an alarm if the concentration exceeds 30% LEL.1. . An indicator panel on the instrument indicates. The next page illustrates a flow sheet for one type of gas detector. The following areas are specified in the IMO’s Gas code and must be monitored by this type of equipment: • • • • • • · Compressor room · Electric motor room · Cargo control room unless designated as gas-safe · Airlocks · Hold spaces for all cargo tanks except for independent tanks type C · Other areas in the cargo area where flammable mixtures may accumulate • · Sample points at ventilation inlets to the accommodation. The gas detector has a fixed connection for sample gas for calibration. Both audio and visual alarms should be activated.5 Fixed gas detector system It is required that all gas carriers are equipped with a fixed gas detector that continuously measures the concentration of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. This is normally a routine that is executed once a week. If restrictions or similar in the suction-line take place. The pump sucks continuously from all points. This is used to adjust the difference between the span gas and the cargo onboard. but only one point is measured at a time. It is of importance that calibrating and testing is logged. When a point is measured. the alarm is released.7. a “flow-failure” is released. in the engine room and in the forecastle. The fixed gas detector is normally located on the bridge or in the cargo control room.

6 Fixed gas detector .7.1.


The ballast journey to the next load port must be planned thoroughly when we use the boil-off as fuel on the boilers and machinery. the vapour line is flushed with nitrogen. The total amount that evaporates at a heat transfer of 700 kW is then: (heat transfer x time ) / specific vaporisation 700 kW x (24 x 3600)s / 506. especially regarding ventilation. The boil-off can be utilised as fuel in boilers. Emergency shutdown and double shut-off valves are essential on the vapour line.5 MT per day and night for propulsion. For an 85 000 m3 tanker this covers about 60% of the fuel need. Example 1: A loaded LNG carrier of 87 000 m3 has a heat transfer to the cargo tanks of 700kW.25% per day and night. The cargo temperature is -160 0C.5 MT/day The ship can during the existing condition consume 119. It is required that at all times we must use about 5% fuel oil on the pilot burner. How much vapour boils off per day at unaltered cargo temperature? The size of the heat transfer to the cargo tanks determines how much methane that is boiled off. Boilers and engines are both made for oil and gas. This secures that all vapour in the pipe to the boiler is continuously set on fire. It is therefore more moderate to utilise the boil-off from the cargo as fuel.33% boil-off per day. The quantity needed of cargo for propulsion and cooling of cargo tanks must be calculated before commence discharging.500 kg/day = 119.2 kJ/kg at -160 0C.2 kJ must be supplied to evaporate one kg methane. We find specific heat of vaporisation for methane in the heat technical table to be 506. For a large LNG carrier the boil off covers a larger share of the fuel needed. . Strict regulations are made for control and security when we use LNG as fuel.7. The amount of boil-off from a LNG ship lies at about 0. With a stop of the plant.2 kJ/kg = 119.2 LNG CARRIERS AND VAPOR BOIL-OFF A re-condensation plant for LNG is both complicated and expensive. This corresponds to 0. The amount of boil-off from the cargo tanks is regulated with the spray pumps. This indicates that 506. dual-fuel engines and gas turbines.


• · Pump room. AS FOLLOWS: • · All cargo tanks and rooms containing cargo tanks or pipes. Normally this is arranged with the suction pipe for the ventilation to the rooms are located outside defined flammable areas and the room has always an overpressure. Rooms containing cargo-handling equipment. Precautions must be made to exclude spark sources from areas where flammable gases may appear.1 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Explosive gases are present continuously or in long periods.3. GAS HAZARDOUS AREAS ARE SPECIFIED IN THE REGULATION ARE.2 Gas hazardous areas Gas hazardous areas are defined onboard as the areas in the cargo tank area that have no approved arrangement ensuring that the atmosphere has. cargo compressor rooms must also be treated as zone 1. On shore one operates with different zones of explosive areas. zone 0 includes cargo tanks with cargo handling equipment. Access to the room is through a airlock. for example. The areas are clearly specified in the regulations.7. The electric motor room or the control room is an example of a gas safe area. Explosive gases are rarely present and occur only in short periods. zone 1 includes the remaining part of a gas hazardous area and zone 2 includes the remaining part of the cargo area. no content of flammable mixtures. compressor room and other rooms where gas appears. These rooms are considered as safe in all circumstances provided that the ventilation system prevents flammable mixtures penetrating into the rooms. and the room is made “dead” in case of a failure in the ventilation system.5 meters around ventilation outlet from the compressor room and pump room. at all times. Areas outside the specified gas hazardous areas are considered as gas safe.3 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN GAS HAZARDIOUS AREAS Electrical equipment should be of a type that eliminates the chance of fire or explosion when carrying flammable cargo. If applying these criteria to ships. Explosive gases are present in periods during normal operating conditions.3. as you found in the following table: 7. . 7. • · A radius of 4.

the maintenance is often more complicated. Access to electric motor room and cargo control room occurs through an airlock. control room in the cargo tank area. and the rules are more restrictive than ashore. the consequences of fire or explosion are very seriously. monitoring and automation equipment must be independently secure in a flameproof enclosure. Class Society and IMO rules apply. Explosion-proof and independently secured equipment are approved to be used in gas hazardous areas on deck. Cargo control. Automation and communication equipment must on the other hand be of independently secure enclosure. Electrical cables are not allowed to be open exposed throughout the room. and all switches and protection equipment must be placed in a gas-safe area. The doors must be equipped with alarms and if both doors are left open too long and the pressure drop. For gas carriers and other ships the Flag State. electric motor room and the area on the forecastle. All vessels are issued with a drawing that indicates these areas. The light arrangement disperses over at least two switchers. Compressor room. The drawing normally named.• · A radius around the ventilation outlet from cargo tanks at 9 meters. and none the less. the rooms automatically render “dead”. “Hazardous Areas”. Special rules exist for pump room. • · A zone on open deck in the cargo tanks area up to 2. These rooms must have a mechanical positive pressure system. is posted around the vessel for the crew to familiarise themselves with these hazardous areas. The conditions onboard and around operation of gas carriers are special. compressor room. pipe tunnels and pump rooms must be equipped with explosionproof lights. Terminals and charterer also have individual rules that have to be followed. • · A radius of 3 meters around pipe lines for cargo. This is normally arranged by a DP-cell (differential pressure cell) that measures the pressure difference inside the room and the surroundings. Ashore there are individual national rules. The equipment onboard is exposed to hard strains.4 meters above deck and 3 meters ahead and aft of the cargo tank area. . pipe tunnels.

This equipment is divided into three groups. the safety of this equipment depends upon whether the equipment can resist an interior explosion or not. The above-mentioned different types of electrical equipment characterise “explosion proof equipment”. The nipple that is used to direct the cable inlet for explosion proof motors consists of many parts that must be installed right to maintain safety. has this design. Manufacturing longer openings with the help of threads and fissures constructively solves this. automations and communication equipment must be Ex ia Cargo tanks Open deck area General demand for Ex ia Ex d.THE FOLLOWING LIST GIVES A SUMMARY OF APPROVED ENCLOSURES WITHIN THE SPECIFIED FLAMMABLE AREAS: Area: Approved enclosure: Pump room and compressor Electric motor and lighting fixture must room be Ex d. Ex ia and Ex ib are all approved. Two different types of methods are used for cable inlet to explosion safe equipment direct or indirect inlet. Equipment for high effect. 7. As we can see. One must not fail to believe that if the equipment is “explosion proof”. Alarm .3 Flameproof proof enclosure English: Flameproof enclosure American: Explosion proof German: Druckfeste kapslung CLC symbol: d Flameproof equipment does not secure against penetration of vapour. like for example electric motors for pumps. The equipment with threads and fissures are especially exposed to corrosion and salt deposit. . the safety is lost and the equipment can not be used. The weakness in this type of equipment is also here. Ex e. each of them approved for its stated area. and that warm gases and flashes maintain a long enough distance to be chilled. The enclosure must be mechanical and strong enough to resist the inner pressure that can arise because of an explosion. it can be used in all flammable areas onboard. Eventual spurt of flame and warm gases will be sufficiently chilled to prevent ignition of the same gas mixture outside the equipment.3. If the small passages are blocked or corroded.

The special conditions onboard limits the user areas some for this equipment. if the nipple need to be changed. 7. There are big problems in locating the right compensation. 7. This is approved for zone 1 ashore.4 Increased safety English: Increased safety German: Erhohte sicherheit CLC symbol: e This design secures against high temperatures and formation of flame/sparks in the equipment during normal operation. as such a modification may weaken the strength of the enclosure. Special cable boxes filled with a special expanding type compound must be used for this purpose. The design is mostly used on illumination and connection boxes and in combination with other types of enclosures. Increased safety can be used in some flammable areas. This type of equipment is delivered finished bored and threaded.3. Explosion proof electrical motors of type d are normally equipped with an indirect cable inlet of increased safety type.This type of cable inlet is mainly used on English or American equipment. because the replacement must be the same type as the exchanged.3. It is not allowed to make adjustments for a new nipple.5 Intrinsically safe English: Intrinsically safe German: Egensicher CLC symbol: i . At the indirect cable inlet to explosion proof equipment a connection box of an intrinsically safe design is used. Bulkhead pipes from a flammable to a gas proof area must be compressive.

Ex s is not a pure intrinsically safe design. Equipment can be filled with oil or sand to prevent penetration of flammable gases. The whole circuit is approved. Test equipment that produces high voltage can not be used on intrinsically safe areas. has the task from IEC to make a standard for electrical equipment in hazardous areas. If the pressure falls below a precise limit the equipment dies. ib Equipment not capable of causing ignition of a flammable mixture regardless of what simple error arises. Ex p. Only the barrier is approved. is an assembly with the task to make standardised recommendations about electrical equipment. appears in combination with another design.During normal operation or by error. The distance to other cables should be at least 50 mm to protect the intrinsically safe circuit. This type of equipment is marked Ex o for oil and Ex q for sand. Intrinsically safe relays and barriers must be placed in a gas proof area. The circuits can be destroyed and at worst form sparks in the hazardous area. International Electro technical Commission. 7. Equipment classified and marked by this standard will be approved in all of EU.3. CENELEC. prevents penetration of the surrounding atmosphere with help of a protective gas with higher pressure than the environment. as for example. Such equipment requires surveillance of the pressure. A complete electrical plant with this design is not relevant. But the principle use.3. their own terminal blocks and preferably of blue colour. Excess pressure design. To secure misconnection or interference of the equipment. Intrinsically safe equipment only uses voltage of 8-12 V and current of about 5 milliampere. the cables must lie in their own canals. Special design. This recommendation is published as IEC Recommendations. 7. The European Committee for Electro technical Standardisation. The standardisation of flameproof equipment will in time ease the work by choosing the . Ex s. Installation of the equipment must be executed with care.7 Classification of Ex equipment IEC.6 Other designs On installations ashore other explosion proof designs are used. All intrinsically safe equipment must be delivered with certificate from an approved test institution. for an electric motor on a gas vessel. Current and voltage limits by transistor relays or zener batteries maintain the safety. an intrinsically safe enclosure will not be able to produce spark or heat by such a character that ignition of a flammable gas mixture is operative. Intrinsically safe enclosure divides into two categories: ia Equipment not capable of causing ignition of flammable mixture in any combination of two imaginable errors with the equipment.

D Petroleum gases II B 2 Gr. D n-Pentane II A 1 Gr. The other equipment is for use in the industry. which comes in contact with the relevant gas mixtures and has a surface temperature lower than the gas mixture spontaneous ignition temperature. D Methane (pit gas) II A 1 Gr. The equipment in use today is marked by a number of different standards. . spontaneous ignition temperature and explosion progress are the primary factors. The gas ignition energy. THE DIFFERENT GAS QUALITIES ARE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING EXPLOSION GROUPS: CLC VDE USA Example of gas: I 1 Gr. B Carbon disulphide II C 3n Gr. The different flammable gas mixtures have different spontaneous ignition temperatures. the equipment is marked with a temperature class. A All gases Equipment marked explosion group “I” is used in mines. C Ethylene II C 3b Gr.right equipment at installation and replacement. We will concentrate on the three most relevant: CLC VDE USA that signifies the European standard that signifies the former West-German standard that signifies the USA’s standard Flameproof equipment is tested and classified considering the different gases. To secure electrical equipment. plus execute necessary control on installed equipment. D Methane (industrial) II A 1 Gr.

8 Protection of electrical equipment Installation of electrical equipment must be of a precise strength and resistant to the environment it is exposed to. for example Eex d IIB T3 where: EEx d IIB T3 The equipment is tested and classified according to the European Standard for utilisation in hazardous areas.3. If the equipment is on open deck and lacks resistance to sun and rain. a gas that falls under the temperature class G1 is allowed a maximum surface temperature of 360oC.Spontaneous ignition Temp: >450 oC >300 oC >200 oC >135 oC >100 oC >85 oC CLC T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 VDE G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 USA T1 T2 T2 D T3 T4 A T5 Example of gas: Acrynolitrile (481 oC) n-Pentane (309 oC) Acrolein (278 oC) Acetaldehyde Carbon disulphide For CLC-classes. The enclosure is flameproof. 7. Demands are made on the equipment from classification companies. a cover must be installed above. Normally electrical equipment is constructed to bear a surrounding temperature of between 40oC and – 25oC. all electrical equipment in hazardous areas must be marked. From the European Standard.7 meters. The surface temperature is stated a bit below the spontaneous ignition temperature. As an example. A normal demand is that the equipment must bear the effect of 1 kg that falls down on the equipment from a height of 0. A table indicating what the different protection extents imply: . Tests are also executed regarding chemicals. The equipment falls under explosion group IIB The equipment is tested and will at maximum have a surface temperature of 200 oC. the maximum surface temperature follows the spontaneous ignition temperature of individual gas. The former West-German VDE-classes operate with both a spontaneous ignition temperature and a maximum surface temperature of the equipment.

External protection against corrosion is of importance.9 Portable electrical equipment Demands on portable electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas are the same as for fixed installations.Grad: Physical contact: Protection against dust and foreign objects: IP 00 No protection No protection IP 20 Against contact Against constant with fingers. One must not be tempted to make new and larger wards. for example. A minimum protection of IP 44 is required. Protection against water penetration: No protection No protection. IP 55 Against contact Against damaging with tools.3.10 Maintenance and installation Ex-material must not. Runny water.3. Rejection of large electric motors often occur in connection with the ordered 5-year control where the flame splits are so corroded that it is no longer proper to repair these. IP 41 Against contact Against constant with tools particles larger than 1 mm in diameter IP 43 Against contact Against constant with tools particles larger than 1 mm in diameter. Water jet. Repair of flame splits must not be executed. protection. exception for equipment used ashore is made. A flameproof enclosure with damaged wards must be scrapped. dust IP 56 Against contact Complete with tools. The flame splits are opened for cleaning and application of special “grease” that protects the surface against corrosion. IP 54 Against contact Against damaging with tools dust. Water jet. Most classification companies require that equipment on open deck must have a protection that corresponds to IP 56. Water jet. This equipment must be covered with. and thereby to extend the length of life for this expensive equipment. as a rule. is regular inspection. There is no control of the mechanical strength of the enclosure after such a repair. As it may be difficult to obtain all electrical equipment with this protection. be repaired onboard. Flameproof electric motors where end covers or bolts are wrecked by rust. Water spray. particles larger than 12 mm in diameter. 7. The best way to look after. 7. . a tarpaulin when the vessel is sailing. are not safe and will entail duty of replacement at inspection.

since all earth connection takes place inside the connection box. Electrical motors that are coiled normally must have new certification. If the equipment is removed from its area. Indirect cable insertion forms no problems. Pay special attention to the accumulation of water in such equipment in regions with large temperature variations. Seawater for the above-mentioned purpose is delivered from pumps in the machine room. • · Heating of cargo in a heat exchanger during discharging/ loading. • · Cooling/ heating of glycol in a heat exchanger. Another good glycol quality is that it’s not as corrosive as water. Glycol is utilised in systems where the danger of seawater freezing is large. By mixing 60% glycol in water. All vessels have dedicated pumps for fire fighting. which increases safety. easier to maintain. and easier to control than a flameproof lighting fixture.A flameproof enclosure does not prevent gas. If these are placed in hold space. the cables must be disconnected at the feed line end’s connection box or the exposed ends should be terminated temporarily at the connection box of the same design as the dismantled equipment. Choose Ex e in cable insertion to Ex d equipment if possible. from penetrating into the equipment. New installation or changes of electrical equipment demands approval from classification companies. 7. • · Condensing of Freon in Freon condensers. A cargo-cooling compressor has both cold and warm areas. Water from the cooling plant is normally put out through hold space amid ship on both sides. All electrical equipment must be grounded. When dismantling equipment. . the consequences of leakage may be expensive.1 Glycol system Enclosed is an example of a glycol system onboard a gas vessel. the freezing point is let down to about –55oC. A “cooling system” for such a compressor has the duty to both warm the cold areas and to cool the warm areas of the compressor.4. A normal PG nipple is then sufficient and installation/control/maintenance is much easier. Parts of the suction side can get down to –60oC while the warm outlet side can be more than 100oC.4 SEAWATER SYSTEM Seawater is utilised for the following purposes in the cargo tank area: • · Cooling and condensing of cargo in heat exchangers and condensers for cooling plant. and thereby water. This equipment is cheaper. • · Fire fighting in a deluge system. Deck light in hazardous areas is flameproof. LPG-pumps deliver water to heat exchangers in the cooling plant and cargo equipment. The valve is operable from deck over board. 7. the same rule is regarded. Dedicated pumps are normally used for the individual groups of utilisation areas. The seawater wires to the users should be on deck.

4.7.2 Example of a glycol system .

3 Example of Water spray .7.4.

08- Safety and environment .

In addition to “SOLAS 1974”.8 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT 8. Both conventions are valid in Norway and are included in the required inspection of ships. We will.st November 1974. where the purpose was to come to a decision. There are detailed rules for fire. 1996.1 FIRE FIGHTING IN GENERAL There are two conventions in particular that deals with safety at sea. There are regulations to consider. with which we have to comply. It is this convention that establishes firefighting arrangements etc. This international convention was signed in London on the 1. . study what involves oil tanker and gas tankers in this part of the compendium. in particular. fire discovery and fire extinguishing and of life saving equipment. The other is the “International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea” as Amended/SOLAS 1974. The Safety convention is a comprehensive convention that intervenes in many areas regarding safety of human life at sea. One is the “International Convention on Load Line. national authority and classification companies will include further requirements of equipment and arrangements. The Safety convention and all rules are in the “SOLAS 1974” with supplement 1 and 2 were translated to Norwegian. It starts with the construction of the ship to maintain a as high level of safety as possible due to divisions. as quickly as possible. stability of the machinery and electrical installations. international as well as national. It was 68 different nation at this conference. that was adopted at an IMO conference in 1996.. protection.

The ship’s . The leader of the fire fighting must. . The leader of the fire fighting should be able to take care of his/her responsibilities in the best possible way. the management will be confronted with a lot of problems that all seem to be equal in importance.Training and practice. · Organization and management are essential factors.2. In many cases. will promote the feeling of fear and insecurity among the crew. the first decisions must be made based on few and uncertain pieces of information about the situation. Fire resistance arrangements onboard the specific vessel should be utilised to the fullest extent. it is the management’s first duty to. which deserves a great deal of attention. This means that those tasks that seem to be most important must be delegated to the most competent unit or team in the emergency squad. If a fire should occur. the management must also be prepared and trained for the problems they are expected to solve.Management’s duty: A fire burst onboard represents a threatening and critical situation. 8.8. Since the crew has been trained in relevant practical skills. To prevent disaster. Essential to this. Any hesitation from the management about which approach to use.2 Fire onboard . The squad will have to do their best to solve the problems in a satisfactory way. fire is an unfamiliar event and it is therefore natural that such a threatening occurrence can lead to unpremeditated actions and panicky contributions to the situation. a quick and determined effort from the whole crew on board is needed.2 8.Sufficient and adequate equipment. in any case. as soon as possible. .Organisation and management. It is important to prioritise when dispersing the tasks. For most of the people.2. When this happens.1 · · · MANAGEMENT TASKS & TACTICS – FIRE EMERGENCY PREPARDNESS Fire Emergency preparedness onboard is comprised of the following: . consider the situation and depending on a number of circumstances execute adequate initiatives. activate the different teams in accordance with the fire instruction plan. training and practice must be fulfilled.

use the resources you have available. to manage the situation. The benefit and effect that this tool will give depends on how the management decides to utilise it. In any case you will be better prepared. as best as possible. at least mentally. and one day there is a fire.fire instructions must be considered as a tool. As this. On the other hand there will most likely be a situation similar to something you had been through before. This type of responsibility requires special training. Typically the standby crew (e. is practically impossible to accomplish as part of a training programme. . consider imagined fire situations and at leisure find out how to handle the situations. Imagine a situation and try to picture the conditions and based on that try to find out how you can. This is one way to manage a situation. first aid teams. By using similar methods onboard. you have to be aware that in a real situation. Even though you have worked through a lot of imagined situations. There is nothing that can really replace the valuable experiences you will get by managing extinguishing operations in real fire situations onboard. so that the management of the ship can prepare their fire fighting duties. However. the approach to the problem cannot be changed to fit your own perception. other methods have to be tried out.g. fire brigade. civil defence) will need to make quick decisions and judgements of the situation. of course. there will never be a situation similar in detail to one of the imagined situations.

The Chief Engineer and The Chief Officer) is fully aware of the existing plans. The intention with tactics is to reach the goal you have set. as a fire. as soon as possible.8. If training is arranged according to appointed plans. what is the result you aim for. Successful fire fighting is a result of good planning. several point of views will improve the plans. Therefore it is of urgent importance that the management group (The Captain. Realistic and well-planned training exercises are good practice. it should be easy to conclude that you want to extinguish the fire. In hectic situations.3 Plans of Action The more people know the main guidelines for fire fighting situations onboard each particular ship. in such a way that maximises the effect achieved.2. the managers will be informed about the plans. if more people know about its contents. with as little mess as possible. the better the chance for a successful response. which will make it easier for them to manage accordingly. Therefore. You have to be aware of what you want. good leadership and a well-trained standby crew. 8. When considering these imagined situations where you find the best solutions. it will be easier to change an existing plan rather than making a new plan from scratch.4 Tactics By tactics we really mean line of action.2. as well as. it is interesting and instructive. In a fire situation. The plan will be easier to execute. . The management group together should work out the plans for the actions for different kinds of fire situations. without any risks to the fire fighters. the crew will get familiar with the plans in addition to variations in training. It is a calculated way to act out a plan of action where we want to use the crew available.

In a critical situation. This also includes practical skills. There are may be some parts that can be temporarily disregarded. Technique is to use the equipment in such a way that a maximum effect is achieved. as there could be parts of the fire that has to be stopped no matter what. how demanding the work to be done is. .8. or many and detailed at any stage. choose tactics. other things have to be held off. The following estimate can be put up to show the connections in an action of extinguishing onboard: Personnel + Officers = Equipment + technical arrangements = Training + Practice = Reconnoitre + Evaluate situation + = disposal Instructions + communications = Crew. Wellprepared tactics considers all known factors whether there are only a few./resources Tactics/action Management/effect A crew organised in fire protection and with sufficient and adequate equipment forms the force. Based on the information known. Extinguishing technique covers the correct use and handling of the particular parts of the extinguisher equipment and the fire technical installations. methods of practice and routines. To be able to perform their duties. and how quickly it has to be effectuated. as long as possible. The extents of the contribution depends on how important the effort is. effect. With the evaluation of the situation as a basis the disposals of resources are being made. The more details you know about the situation. you have to try to determine how the fire will grow. Material/Force Techn.6 Conditions for actions One condition for actions is that you have resources available. Meanwhile.5 Select an Action When planning a line of action. decisions have to be made quickly.2. the easier it is to evaluate the situation.2. The next step in the planning process will be the evaluation of the situation. 8. knowledge of how the particular equipment works. Here it is important to prioritise. the force has to master the necessary skills. capacity and limitations. You should always be prepared to change tactics if unforeseen difficulties occur. try to clarify the situation first (reconnoitre).

8. We will further mention other situations.2. It also makes a sufficient effort at the right place at the critical moment. Offensive tactics is a well-known expression. oil tanks. 8. try to hold the position. 8.12 Communication It is very important to have a good communication because it will make it easier to manage the operation. the fire-technical arrangements intact.11 Mobility A well-trained force. An extinguishing effort with the capacity available might reduce the opportunity to successful back out. which is familiar with the use of the equipment and the facilities.2.13 What is on fire? There may be combustibles in the fire zone that can produce poisonous gases when heated. In the following.2. The force can easily be re-directed and there is a quicker determination of how the situation is developing. has a greater chance for success. element of risk in the fire zone. Fire fighters must be well protected. while waiting for backup.2.2. . you will find some situations listed where you will have to consider the influence these situations have on the actions to be taken. e. 8. as long as possible. chemicals etc. 8. as well as it might be unjustifiable to send people in there.7 Extinguishing Tactics Extinguishing tactics make use of resources available so that maximum effect in an action is achieved. Alternative extinguishing methods might cause large damage to the environment. which can quickly attack the fire.8 The site of the fire It might be difficult to get access to the site of the fire. avoid loss of terrain.8. changing the ship’s course to achieve the best possible conditions. transportable gas holders.2. will be an advantage in a difficult situation. such as where and in which directions the fire can spread. it means that you will use all resources in the fight to win back the terrain and to get the situation under control.9 The extent of the fire The extent of the fire can be so large that the possibilities for extinguishing with available equipment are small. Defence tactics are when you use the whole force to last as long as possible to prevent being forced to back out. The risk of loosing lives should be considered more important than avoiding a large loss of materials.10 Force available A well-trained force.2.g. 8.

if preparations for abandon the ship become a reality. for the engineer on duty. tank accident. for example man-over-board. plus another special distribution. Practical (technical) exercises are meant as a test to see if the crew has the necessary skills. there are a number of duties to execute regardless of the site and situation of the fire’s location. 5. Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions for the navigator on duty. 2. for the officer on duty in port. maintenance of equipment. Remember the preparedness is not stronger than the weakest link. The exercises are also designed to train in the skill of being prepared. there are a number of other instructions that needs attention: 1. instructions. The purpose of the instruction is to allow the first effort’s execution without waiting for special orders. At the outburst of fire. starting the pump. 1. Main features in the emergency plan should include special distribution of the crew. Emphasise the importance of knowing the alarm instructions well.3. training. stop the fans. The technical will cover the quality of the “tool” at disposal.3. In connection with the distribution and the instructions for the individual units in the fire protection organisation. There can also be other situations that can be covered by the preparedness organisation. To manage a fire situation. clarifying the extinguishing equipment etc. 4. exercise. prepare for manoeuvring. Fire preparedness is the result of a number of arrangements and different efforts. All emergency plans organise the crew into practical teams or units. 8. 3. 4.2 Layout of the instructions The layout of instructions for the individual team in the fire preparedness organisation offers the same challenge as splitting up the crew into teams. . For example: starting of auxiliary engine. on board your specific ship. 2. and personal injury and helicopter preparedness.1 Alarm instructions Central part of fire preparedness on board is the safety plan part on the fire fighting organisation. 3. in utilising the main extinguishing plant. set pressure on the fire lines. change course and speed. duties when fire fighting. preparedness promotional efforts are done. close ventilation to the fire area. The practical and technical skills together will contribute to an effective force. switch off the electrical plant in the fire area. while the tactical will cover what capability one has to utilise the strength at his disposal. 8. strategic placing of equipment.3 FIRE PREPARDNESS Fire preparedness is the capability the crew has to fight a fire with the help of the equipment available on board. 5. for example fire protection organisation.8. for the extinguishing leader. The ship’s alarm instructions provide the emergency plan if there is a need for a united and systematic effort of the crew. It is therefore very important that realistic and varying exercises are exercised on board. Tactical exercises will reveal the management’s capability to evaluate situations and delegate the right effort at the right time. plus instruct of the duties that everyone has when the organisation is active.

Instructions for helicopter landing. In addition to instructions for the individual fire protection organisation. security team. . it must be ascertained that no one is in the area that the plant covers. in such an instruction. are: · Immediately shout of alarm in order to call on more people. . life boat team. even before the fire alarm. All instructions must overlap one another so that all conditions are covered. technical team. instruction for engineer on duty. which gives all of the crew practical advice and directions of how to react if you are the person discovering the fire. 7.Instructions for the person who detects fire. first aid team. . We will pay particular attention to the advice upon fire discovery. and get to know the CO2 alarm and follow the instructions. The symbol for teamwork characterises a well drilled fire crew. engine room team. Get to know the fire alarm on board and follow your instructions when this sounds. radio station. one should act as though the fire alarm has sounded. 7. 6. bridge instruction. This is regarded to the captain. If the CO2 alarm sounds. The principal points. extinguishing team. · First try to extinguish the fire. One can compare the fire protection organisation to machinery with many wheels that all must overlap one another in such a way that the machinery is functioning.6. instruction for navigator on duty. provided this is possible and without risk. extinguishing leader. evacuation team. It is important for all those who will operate a CO2 plant that they follow the instructions clearly and categorically. The instructions are the force that will run the machinery. there are also instructions for special situations. because before triggering of the plant can take place. At the same time secure that what is being done is rational and in right time. The purpose with the instructions is to eliminate doubts of who does what. The individual links in the fire protection organisation approach by the instructions on board. instruction for officer on duty in port.

· The amount of equipment is limited. Common for all alarm instructions is the desire to. or in bed. it is similar to being “on the roof of the burning building”. the number of crew members. · The crew/force is naturally experienced with the surroundings. · Mobilise maximum force immediately. Those who don’t show up are basically missing. it is natural that retreat route security and clarification of these routes has high priority. When onboard during fire. · Equipment and facilities are nearby. · Try to inspect rooms nearby the fire area where personnel might be. · Upon alarm the significance of all to show up at their post. have a flexible preparedness plan that gives the possibility for all to contribute his best in the management of a number of different situations. layout and content of the special instructions will vary by the type and size of the ship. fire is detected at an early stage. The escape routes are limited and few. · Realise the element of risk. · If fire bursts out in port. that could be overwhelmed by smoke. as much as possible. · Simple checks if someone goes missing. the manager must treat the retreat as a very important point in his procedural duty. an influx of air to the area.· Close doors and try to prevent. Further the fire control officer must observe the four following main tasks: . as much as possible. Because of the extraordinary conditions on board. limited retreat possibilities and the great chance of blocking off the rescue units in a fire situation. 8. Alarm instruction layout.3. · The retreat possibilities are very restricted. to state if someone is missing. such as toxic gas. This will avoid time loss resulting from unnecessary searches. crew distribution. Be very strict in having all present at their post. as quickly as possible. · The area is restricted. explosions etc.. · Organise in the normal procedure to put fight the fire when there is fire in port. plus other relevant conditions.3 Some important guidelines: · The entire force on board is available and able to be on the spot rapidly. and where escape equipment is possibly placed. immediately try to call the local fire department. As the conditions on board are extremely special compared to ashore. · Alter the course in favour of the fire fighting. · The most flammable areas are covered by fixed fire fighting equipment. · Because of continuous duty. extent of equipment.

4. 3. and that missing personnel are immediately revealed. It effects fire fighting and the security work drastically when a delay is caused by the search for personnel who not are in any danger. smoke and the damaging gases that develop cause most deaths. Restriction of fire. Extinguishing fire. 2. as quickly as possible.4 Rescuing of life In most cases. . 4. As soon as someone is determined missing.3. In a fire. plus it directly delays the extinguishing activity because of impaired capacity and conditions that may have vital importance to the outcome. Executing the retreat. It is therefore an unalterable requirement that all the crew show up at their posts according to instruction. the manager must be informed so a search can be carried out. 1. - Rescuing life. Notice that this search involves risk for the rescue crew. 3.1. 2. it is not direct contact with the fire that causes the loss of life. 8.


door magnet. a manual effort is the only alternative. alarm organs. One must also consider the amount of damage the extinguishing agent will cause to the area. The manual call point plant should at all times be according to the regulations in force. The plant is tested to determine if it fulfils the regulations required. it is important to notice that the plant should have two independent power sources. assembly work. If one “falls out” the other will operate the plant with full power. In choosing an extinguishing method. However. it is natural upon securing the retreat will involve clarifying if is necessary to abandon the vessel. On parts of the ship. Some of the criteria follow: · It should give optical and acoustic alarm at fire. quencher remedy and capacity. However. power supply information. function description. one can choose between permanently installed extinguishing equipment and manual efforts.3. fan failure. Any manual combating involves a large risk for the extinguishing force. This documentation should contain user instructions.1 8.4. In some parts of the vessel. The decision about what to utilise in a specific situation must be well substantiated. procedures for routine testing on board. connection of detector loop. accordingly all requirements in accordance to the documentation claim. please refer to the regulations regarding complete approval.3. put out the fire before causing any larger damage. 8. · Positive indication on the panel by interruption of functions. Approval type for these detection’s plants takes place according to a determined procedure by posting the plant’s documentation. Permanent equipment should be used in an area where the fire risk is large and has a large risk of spreading.8. · It should indicate where fire breaks out. it is very important that the psychological effect will influence all of the crew in the knowledge that the retreat is prepared and protected in case of ending the fire fighting. The fire may block the access to rescue units. · It allows for fault warning. fault location procedures. the goal must be total elimination. In addition.6 Securing the retreat Due to the limited possibilities on board.1 Manual call point plant Fixed fire detection’s plants. the greater the chance of a successful result. 5. · The central unit automatically goes over to reserve power to supply upon voltage failure.5 Extinguishing of fire The faster the extinguishing activity is effectuated. Otherwise according to the approval companies. . discovery and alarm equipment should be installed on vessels that are regulated by SOLAS.4 FIXED FIRE FIGHTING PLANS & FIRE FIGHTING REMEDY 8.

4.hose connections with valves. and all emergency exits. for instance. there is a separate fixed emergency fire pump installed in a distance from the engine room. for at least 12 hours of running power. Fire pumps. If anything occurs during the stay and local help is required. in addition to oil for the fuel tank itself in case it a should be filled at any time. It indicate zones with isolated bulkheads and fire doors. alarm buttons and alarm bells. and from an early stage. The pipeline network is divided into sections with a cross over. on the draft is a list with an explanation of the different symbol. the fixed main extinguishing plant and where on board these can be remote controlled. Properly study the pipeline network on board to understand how the network is divided. ducts and damper is and from where one can stop the plant. rooms. The gangway during the port stay should keep a copy of the safety plan. are at all times equipped with a safety valve. it is possible to bypass the damaged part by help of hoses from hydrant to hydrant. It indicates where the ventilation plant with fans. manual call point plants with detectors. All are advised to thoroughly study the “safety plan” in detail. 8. arranged in a way that if damage occurs on a part of the system. plus how to use them.4. In addition. Symbols for marking equipment are utilised to make the draft well arranged. The draft shows the vessel sidewise and a sketch of each deck top wise. Valves to stop engines. it can be hydraulically driven or electrically driven by power from the emergency power unit.4. are supplied with non-return valves. thorough knowledge of the individual plants is required. 8. protection equipment and utility equipment appear on the draft. Oil.8. If parts of the network are damaged. the damaged part is shut off without shutting off the entire pipeline network.3 Fire pumps A fire pump in the engine room is connected to the fire pipeline network. the local fire department can quickly approach the plan. Colouring is often utilised to keep the symbols apart. All portable extinguishing equipment. have knowledge of the preparedness plan. It also displays all decks. One can either operate the emergency fire pump by its own diesel engine. which are able to produce more pressure than the pipeline network is designed for. the “safety plan” illustrates the safety installations and equipment on board. Also. Hydrants are placed such that two water jets at the same time can reach any part of the vessel. On the main . and from where one can remote operate these are also indicated. To effectively utilise the different fire technical installations. is kept nearby the emergency pump. machinery. This draft is available for all on board.4 Fire pipeline network The fire pipeline network branches all over the vessel and has a number of hydrants . and where on the vessel the equipment is kept. All centrifugal pumps. one jet from a hose length.2 Safety plan The fire control draft or as called on board. the other from two hose lengths. plus where the shut-off valves are placed.

. It is very important that the hose is pulled out to its full length before setting the pressure. The plant can be released from each powder post by opening the valve of the releasing bottle. This is.line of the tank area there should be one shut-off valve for each 40 metres. but not too large for one man to operate. The plant’s powder capacity should be of the size that utilises all posts. The riser’s gas taps are very important. The gas is kept in pressure cylinders. Manual equipment. methane. alcohol. should have a capacity of at least 3. One or several powder containers are placed with a capacity calculated for the specific vessel with accompanying pressure bottles in the powder central unit. A number of minor stationary powder aggregates can be placed on deck or a powder central unit with pipes forward to a number of powder monitors and hose stations on deck. The extension should be at a minimum of 10 metres for both stationary and hand based equipment. acetone. propane etc. . 8. as the powder together with the propellant gas must be able to “float” as a liquid through the pipe system and the powder jet.calcium hydrogen carbonate) for natrium hydrogen carbonate or KHCO3 extinguishing fire in class B or E.4. The length of a hand hose should not exceed 33 m. The gas is lead into tubes to the releasing mechanism of the pressure bottles in the powder central unit.6 Dry chemical system Powder is elected as extinguishing remedy on the tank deck of gas carriers and chemical tankers. Dry powder systems utilise N2 (Nitrogen) or CO2 (carbon dioxide) as propellant gas. and different types of gases like methanol. painting etc. butane. Several posts can be utilised at the same time. It opens the valve of the powder tube that proceeds to the powder post being released.4. oil. That is all types of liquid like: petrol. A gas pressure regulator reduces N2 –gas or CO2 – gas (200kg/cm2) to 20 kg/cm2 before it goes via the riser in to the powder aggregate. but each post must be triggered in the same way. fitted to the size and type of the vessel. “hand hoses”. of course. The stationary powder post (monitor) should have a capacity of at least 10kg/second. The delivery of powder should progress at a minimum of 45 seconds. Stationary dry powder systems are normally delivered with powder (NaHCO3 – .5 Main fire extinguishing plants (For gas and chemical carriers) 8.5kg/second.

a waterrepellent material is added usually silicon. (This is part of the fire drill onboard).5kg.10kg. Dry chemical systems consist of a mechanical part that includes a powder aggregate with valves.7 Technical description The powder type NaHCO3 and KHCO3 has an extinguishing effect based on a reaction inhibitor along with some cooling of the fuel surface and the gas face.3. We refer here to the IGC-code. = 630 = 2430 8./s x min.8 Water . as an object for a cooling. Minimum powder capacity: kg. pipe system and jets./s x min. To avoid humidity in the powder. certain ship types should be equipped with a “water-spray system”. in 45s) kg.spray system (Gas and chemical carriers) In addition. The plant onboard the specific ship is designed according to this. in 45s) Hand based: (4 pcs. x min. x min.4.3. . 8. point 11. chapter 11. what areas the plant should cover. based on the plant on the specific vessel. release mechanism. = 1800 kg.1. Powder is not electrically conductive in dry conditions. fire preventive and crew protective effect. Everyone must memorise maintenance routines and test routines.4.Below is an example of this with the following data: 4 stationary and 4 hand stations: Stationary: (4 pcs.

a frothing material that dissolves in water in anatomised condition. you need: water. such as soapsuds. Normal equipment produces bubbles. sprinklers and foam pipes are used.4. plus the inclusion of this in the fire drill executed onboard.11 Producing foam In order to produce foam that will extinguish fire. Constant foam is when the wall/membrane consists of a constant material.4. which have a diameter of 0. gas concrete and foam rubber are examples of constant foam. The foam liquid is dissolved (or emulsified) in the water. such as pumice stone. how it is operated. There has to be a possibility of remote start of the water delivery pumps. If parts of the line are damaged. and a non-flammable gas mixed with the solvent.12 Mechanical foam Different types of pumps./m2 pr minute on horizontal surfaces. The result is mechanic foam. The delivery pumps should have such a capacity that they can deliver simultaneously with full capacity to the whole plant.1mm to 1. When the wall has a coating. .10 Foam in general A system consisting of gas or air bubbles bound in a water coating (membrane). plus remote control of the plants shut valves from a place outside the cargo area. where the remote control is. On new gas and chemical carriers we also find foam utilised for fire extinguishing.The system should have the capacity to cover the designated area with at least 10 ltr. After this. The plant should contain a material that is resistant to corrosion. shut-off valves must exist on the main line so that the line can still be utilised.4.5mm. The foam is shaped when gas/air is mixed into the foam/frothing liquid and into the water by help of mechanical equipment. Different types of floating foams are used for fire extinguishing.4. 8. is called foam. The alternative is that the system is devisable into several sections that can be operated independent of each other. This is operable by shutting off the line to the damaged area. 8. the air is mixed in by mechanical means. we are talking about floating foam. 8. and 4 ltr.9 Main extinguishing plant (oil tanker) 8. We recommend studying the plant on your vessel./m2 pr minute on vertical surfaces.

evaporation ceases and the fire dies out. the foam capacity must have a volume that can deliver foam for a minimum of 20 minutes. a differentiation effect. When the foam cover has spread outward across the liquid’s surface. automatic valves. distribution manifold. the extinguishing effect is connected with the heat-insulating foam and. but depends on what material is burning and what sort of foam is used. By extinguishing fire when the temperature in the surface is below +100oC. Therefore. Foam plant 8. and a pipe system connected to fixed monitors on the tank deck. is not able to penetrate through the area covered with foam. By extinguishing a burning liquid with a surface temperature higher than +100o C. The main foam line from the foam central unit to the monitors should contain shutoff valves within determined requirements. the heat rays from other. in order to bind the line in case of damage. This is caused by evaporation of the liquid that penetrates into the surface’s layer of the burning material as the foam collapses. foam pump that is also connected to an emergency generator.13 Foam is chosen as the main extinguishing agent for the tank area. A foam plant consists of a foam central unit with a foam tank. The suffocating or the cooling effect can be more or less the dominating effect. above all.4. the cooling effect is the dominating force.Extinguish effect Foam has a suffocating effect and acts as a cooling extinguishing agent. The capacity of the plant should be big enough that the whole tank area could be covered with foam. combustible gases are no longer formed. The demand is at a minimum of 30 minutes if the ship is not equipped with inert gas plant. If the vessel has an inert gas plant. foam jets. The foam line going to each monitor has a delivery valve installed to supply . still burning parts of the liquid surface.

Choosing extinguishing agents 8. the extinguishing agent must be properly suited for the actual situation. releasing mechanism. which does not damage electronic equipment and requires no clearing/cleaning after use.4.72 kg/m3 with gas. scentless. CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a colourless. CO2 plants consist of CO2 cylinders with valves.foam. or as “Object Protection”. where a part of the room is filled with gas. gas and chemical carriers also. This consists of a fire hose with a foam nozzle unit.4. The room on vessels with “Total Flooding System” is filled with a CO2 -content corresponding to 40% by volume. A foam jet pipe is attached to the monitors. The extinguishing agent should: . small foam containers (20 litre). accumulating manifold. pipe system and jet. non toxic. a cylinder rack. CO2 – plant 8. Study the plant installed on your vessel. corrosion free. This equipment (the foam plant) is mandatory for oil tankers.16 If an active extinguishing method is chosen. non-electrical leading gas with qualities that extinguish fire quickly and effectively with a recommended gas concentration.4. a foam ejector. and protection equipment. foam liquid is sucked (ejector function) from the foam container via hose connection between the foam container and ejector. and understand how this plan is operated. CO2 plants are delivered either as a “Total Flooding System”. Mobile foam equipment is also available on many ships. where the entire room is filled with gas.14 The engine room and pump room are protected with a bar plant that utilises CO2 as an extinguishing agent. Water pressure is established. Familiarise yourself with your vessel’s plant.15 CO2 has a suffocating extinguishing effect in that the oxygen content in the air is reduced to the point where combustion becomes impossible. A foam ejector with a tap for supplying foam liquid is installed between the fire hose and foam nozzle unit. This equipment is prepared for use with fire hoses and a foam nozzle unit connected to the fire line. a small hose for the transmission of foam from a foam container to a foam hose pipe. that is 0. Extinguishing effect 8. The valve can also be used to regulate the amount of foam supplied in order to achieve the right mixture condition between foam and water.

1 mm in diameter have a 1. the powder must be lead down to the fire object.4. it also has a little bit of a cooling effect. The gas has little cooling effect. one must reach a position from where the powder can reach the fire itself. or is used as a spot extinguishing agent. To obtain an extinguishing effect. atomised water into the warmest part of the fire zone. The powder works partly by suffocating and partly by poisoning the flame. The effect emerges when water changes to vapour.17 Water Water must be in direct contact with the fire to gain an extinguishing effect. . so that re-ignition is a danger. the most practical proportion between air throw and surface is obtained. the largest effect is obtained.give protection to the user.extinguish the fire. one must check that no one is missing. as early as possible.not harm the environment. Danger of re-ignition is therefore large until the temperature is brought down below the self-ignition temperature. The gas has no damage on the environment. A scattered jet obtains this. it can add to the object’s damage.19 Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is utilised either as a “total flooding” agent where the whole area on fire is filled with CO2 in large concentration. the water must have as large surface as possible when hitting the heat zone. the shorter the air throw is needed.4. One can . With a drop size of 0. In utilising spot extinguishers. 8. the same water amount in drops of 0. Water takes heat from the fire via evaporation. the larger the surface.26 cm2 surface.126 cm2.18 To have any effect. powder has a disturbing effect on the functions.2 – 0. Since water does not evaporate. By throwing. . Powder 8. as much as possible. Foam 8. . Evacuation of the area is necessary. as quickly as possible. and before releasing the plant.3 mm. and thereby the extinguishing agent causes less damage. 8.not demand risky operation. One must utilise total flooding. In sensitivity instruments and in electronic equipment.4. the thermal effect may cause damage to sensitivity instruments. .not cause the fire object any additional damage. . The powder has no direct damaging effect on the object. To obtain maximal evaporation.not cause damage to the user. Light foam contains less water than heavy foam.4. the water comes in shape of drops. the vapour displaces air and consequently the oxygen. Drops with 1 mm diameter have a surface of 0. The smaller the drops are.20 Foam has both a cooling and suffocating effect.· · · · · · . the smaller the drop.

These apparatus are marked by symbols on the vessel’s “safety plan”. at first extinguish the flames with powder. etc. where the fire core has high temperature. · one extinguishes an electrical fire with a dry extinguishing remedy. · one extinguishes a flame fire by suffocating.). relatively low temperature in the liquid itself. danger of re-ignition (need of cooling). Knowledge of placement and use is introduced in the fire exercises onboard. 10 litres is a very limited amount. For example. thereby cooling with water. and has a period of use lasting approximately 60 seconds. When selecting an extinguishing agent. · only flames (fire in liquids) where gas vaporised from the surface is on fire. The placement and type of apparatus is in accordance to the regulations based on the specific vessel. explosives. painting. electrical components (glow/flame fire in isolation materials. special circumstances (alive plants). lubricating oil etc.utilise light foam to cover larger areas and thereby suffocate the fire. . WATER Normally there are 10 litre apparatus placed in different locations onboard. The main rule when choosing an extinguishing agent is: · a. special material (chemicals.4. (fire in solid material). One must also evaluate the practicality of utilising a combination of mutual extinguishing remedies. glow fire and glow/flame fire is extinguished by cooling (damp extinguishing remedy). dangerous goods. while others alternate between united and spread jets. or glow and flames. protection of the fire squad (protect the users). One must also consider the surroundings (as little extinguishing damage as possible). or prevent ignition from oil leakage. · fire in alive. Some types have a united jet. Portable fire extinguishing apparatus 8. and possibly cover with foam to prevent spontaneous ignition. swelling). One can also utilise foam as secondary remedy to prevent re-ignition. one must consider the type of fire: · only a glow.21 There are a number of transportable fire extinguishing apparatus (handextinguishing apparatus) placed in different places onboard.

. To utilise powder extinguishing equipment at full effect. This is clearly found in the “safety plan” onboard. A 12 kg powder apparatus has a period of use lasting approximately 20 seconds. These apparatus have a very limited capacity and no air throw. of function and capacity of the fire extinguishing apparatus on board your vessel. One should have high goals regarding knowledge in utilizing. Add this to the training exercises onboard. Carbon dioxide There are carbonic acid apparatus of 6 kg stationed on board. except for where something else ahs been determined. a well-drilled technique is demanded. The period of use is approximately 20 seconds. The protection for the user is poor. The apparatus has good air throw. and will provide the user good protection. a 50 kg apparatus has a period of use of approximately 60 seconds.Powder There are mostly 12 kg powder apparatus onboard. 50 kg or 6 kg. These apparatus are suited for spot extinguishing of relatively small fires. for example 25 kg.

minute. are 4 sets of fire fighter equipment. chapter 11-2. National. Assume that heavy work is to be carried out with a consumption of 60 litres pr.1 FIRE FIGHTER EQUIPMENT The requirement onboard oil tankers. Frequent training exercises on board will familiarise you with the apparatus and use of a breathing apparatus. one obtains.5 minutes to abandon the area. and leaves us with (40x7) = 280 litres air for retreat. apparatus. The requirement for the air content in bottles is minimum 1200 litre clean air. 1200 litre: 60 litre pr.2 THE BREATHING APPARATUS BA SET The breathing apparatus onboard must be of an accepted type. The period of use for the apparatus is dependent upon the consumption of air pr. A compressor is also required to fill up the breathing bottles after use. Fireman’s axe. 2 hours (120 min.66 minutes. Onboard gas carriers of more than 5000 m3. The apparatus has an audio signal that alerts the user that it’s time to abandon the area.8. time unit.5 PERSONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT 8. Disposal time will then be (7 x 200): 60 = 23. as well as onboard gas tankers less than 5000 m3. This audio signal is released at approximately 40 bars. a minimum of 5 sets of fire fighter equipment is required. minute (equivalent to hard work) is assumed. This is of course considered for each vessel and the equipment is at all times in accordance to existing requirement and rules. as follows: · · · Min. . rule 17.) = 6 bottles Totally (1200 litre x 6 bottles) = 7200 litre air pr.5. The equipment is specified in SOLAS. Each set consists of: · · · · · One breathing apparatus (BA) with an air capacity of minimum 1200 litres. 8.5. and classification companies requirements may come in addition. If a consumption of 60 litre air pr. The time for retreat is (280: 60) = 4. Spare bottles are required for each apparatus. Protection suit including boots and gloves. bottle. for light or heavy work and the bottle size. minute = 20 minutes pr.3 minutes. so that each apparatus has a period of use of 2 hours minimum. We then have 4. : 20 min. Fire resistance safety line with belt. Safety lamp. and must fulfil the requirements in accordance to the regulations. EXAMPLE An air bottle of 7 litres and a pressure of 200 bar give (7 x 200) = 1400 litres clean air.

It is recommended to train in the use of the apparatus in order to learn the special breathing technique for such an apparatus. The definition of breathing technique is a rational way of utilising the air to obtain a maximum safe user time. The user is dependent upon the state of the apparatus when residing in smoke or gas filled rooms. Before entering such rooms, the user himself must control the apparatus. After strapping the bottle on his back, a special routine must be followed regardless of the duration and regardless of others. The procedure varies with each apparatus. It is of great importance to knowledge of the apparatus onboard your vessel. The control will mainly be, as follows: 1. Bottle pressure: Open the bottle valve 2-3 shifts and read the manometer pressure. Then put on the mask, the panorama mask is put on with all straps extended. Set the chin in the mask and lead the straps behind the head. Tighten the lower strap, then the upper straps and finally the top strap. 2. Retreat signal: Shut the bottle valve and breath carefully until the retreat signal appears. The manometer indicates approximately 40 bars when the signal appears. If there is a change over valve on the apparatus, ensure that this is in the right position. The change over valve is activated when the retreat signal appears and has an opening effect for spare air to release. 3. Mask’s seal ability: Suck the mask empty of air. The mask will then be pressed against the face, if not, tighten the head straps. If it is airtight, open for air again. 4. Pneumonic automatic: The bottle valve is set fully open, breath a few times to make sure that the pneumonic automatic unit is working. 5. Flushing button: The button on the pneumonic automatic unit is activated and air will flow into the mask. Sometimes extra air in the mask is needed. 6. Bottle pressure: Control again the pressure manometer to make sure that the bottle is full. Place the manometer back in the clip. All tests must be repeated for each exercise, or change of bottle, to make sure of satisfactory operation at all times. 8.5.3 FIRE STATIONS The fire stations are marked on the safety plan, and also the content of all required equipment at the stations. In addition to mentioned fire fighting equipment, the content must include personal protective equipment, fire hoses, jet nozzles that can switched from jet to fog dispersement, keys to hose coupling and an extra fire axe. Other equipment included is an electrical drill with 5/8” drill steel together with an extension cord. It is smart to obtain a smaller drill steel to drill a pilot hole, if this is a matter of necessity. A portable oxyacetylene torch that renders it possible to make a quick carving of a manhole or other openings to ease access is also included. This equipment is marked on the safety plan, where it is placed onboard and at the right number according to type and size of vessel.

Everyone is encouraged to know the seriousness of exercises onboard, being prepared in a realistic and objective way can be, as a matter of fact, very interesting and informative. Anxiety is relieved because confidence leads to safety. 8.5.4 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION SOLAS chapter II-2, rule 19, deals with the international “land coupling” that is required onboard all vessels in accordance to this rule’s specification. The existence of this is shown in the safety plan. It must be readily available during harbour stay. It is used as connection between the vessel and harbours equipment, in case of fire during the stay. Familiarise yourself with the escape and protection equipment onboard the gas tanker/chemical tanker, masks with filter for all onboard, appropriate protection equipment placed for easy availability. This protection equipment contains large aprons, special gloves with long cuffs, appropriate footwear, coveralls made of chemical resistant material, tightened glasses or face shields. Clothes and equipment must protect all body parts. An escape apparatus with oxygen mask that makes the carrier independent of the oxygen in the air at a minimum of 15 minutes must be available on all vessels. This is only for use of escape. Specifications state how much of this equipment exists onboard. The safety plan informs where it is located. 8.5.5 BOARDING TANKS Before boarding tanks and closed spaces, one must take measurements, make sure that dangerous gas is non-existent and that the oxygen content is satisfactory. After tank ventilation, take great care in the measuring and the certainty of the atmosphere before entering. Ensure that the pump room is well ventilated by running the fans for awhile before entering. There is monitor supervision of the pump room atmosphere onboard many vessels today. This takes place by automatically testing the pump room atmosphere at different sampling points. Then it is analysed and indicated on the control room monitor. This is also equipment you need to be familiar with. 8.5.6 PERSONNEL INSIDE TANKS When entering tanks, it is very important to prepare equipment and make it easily available in case of emergency. Preparation includes a complete set of fire fighting equipment (also an extra fresh air mask in case it is needed for a rescue action), lines, communication, and crew on deck for supervising. The knowledge of the number and names of crew in the tank at all times is very important in order to be as prepared as possible for any rescue action.

What is health? In short, it is when the physical is in balance with the non-physical, and the harmonisation here has a natural function. The result is good health. To maintain this, knowledge about harmonisation is the vital factor in health. Health is different for each one of us based on individual tendencies and external/internal influences that mark (or chooses to mark) our life. All crewmembers that sign on a vessel should have been through a medical check in order to have a regular status of his/her health condition. Life at sea is a special place to work, it is important that the general health condition at all times is good. What can be done to maintain a good general health condition on board? The answer is built into the safety and protection of personnel on board. You can also take care of one another in a good manor by being aware of the risks that may have direct and external effect on health, regarding the special cargoes carried onboard your vessel. Primarily, you can take good care of your own machine, the body, by paying attention to the “fuel”, which contains the nutrients the body needs. It is very important that the “chef” onboard has basic knowledge about anatomy/physiology, in order to assemble the right raw material into the right article of food, in the form of nutrient rich meals. Together with good cleanliness and comfortable surroundings in the galley, the best basis is given. If the meals are “spiced-up” with a nice atmosphere, in addition to existence of an inter-human working environment and well-being, the result is solidarity, well-being at work, increased efficiency, less sickness absence and saved costs. A positive mental attitude toward life is also important and, at the same time, improves or maintains health. This is an important factor of the human’s total health. For example, one can turn a “I will not, cannot” behaviour pattern into a “I can, I will” attitude. This will increase co-operation between the people onboard. With an attitude change based on positive thinking, the result is noticeable onboard, due to well being, solidarity, better performance, and a healthier atmosphere for the whole crew. The human resource is the only resource. 8.6.1 THE BODY The doctrine of how the body is built is called anatomy. The doctrine of the body’s function is called physiology. This will be roughly illustrated to achieve a synopsis of how the “machine” functions. 8.5.2 The cell This is the smallest, independent unit of the body and the basis for all living organisms. All the processes in the body are caused by the chemical reactions that take place in the cells. Cells in different tissue and organisms co-operate in their duties. The cell has a water content of approximately 70% in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fat and inorganic material. All the cells have the same basic structure and a number of mutually basic qualities. Simultaneously each part of the cell has its function. We all utilise nutrients both to achieve energy and as “building stones”. In

new cell components, glucose (grape sugar) is the most important energy source. It is important to have nutrient rich and varying diet. 8.6.3 TISSUE Cells that look alike remain lying to form tissue. All surfaces of the body are covered with epithelial tissue (type of tissue that mainly covers all surfaces, the cavity and channels of the body). Connective tissue and support tissue forms the tissue network in the body and keeps tissue and organs together. There is an innumerable of tissues, for example osseous tissue, muscular tissue and nerve tissue. The cell cooperation is controlled by chemical signals. These signals consist of two types, nerve signals and hormone signals. These two systems co-operate for an appropriate reaction. This is fully necessary for our survival. The hormone system controls the activity of many internal organs, the nerve system controls muscles and glands. Several organ systems co-operate to keep the composition of tissue fluid constant. The blood renews this tissue fluid. The blood must circulate the whole time. The duty of the lymph artery is to drain excess tissue fluid. 8.6.4 THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS These demolish and absorb nutrient material. It is very important that the nutrient content satisfies the body’s need. 8.6.5 THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS These absorb oxygen and partly carbon dioxide. Respiration is an exchange of gases between the blood arteries and the air in the lungs. The blood absorbs oxygen into the body’s cells and partly the excess carbon dioxide that arises. The respiratory organs consist of the bronchia and the lungs. Gas exchange between blood and air takes place in the lungs. 8.6.6 THE URINARY ORGANS These regulate the composition of the tissue fluid. The urinary organs consist of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder and the urethra. The kidneys' most distinct duty is to separate water from waste. The resultant urine is processed in the urinary tract and bladder then empties via the urethra. 8.6.7 THE BLOOD CIRCULATION The blood circulation carries materials between the organs in the body. The tissue fluid is constantly renewed from the blood in the capillaries. The heart is a pump that makes blood circulate. “Heart valves” help the blood run in the right direction. The heart musculature sends blood through the coronary artery (the heart’s arteries). The heart is the most persevering muscle in the body. The blood flows from high pressure to lower pressure. The pulse is thereby a regulator in the blood. The blood pressure is the pressure inside the artery, which is part of the blood circulation. The blood acts, as a sort of, transportation system. Blood sends tissue circulating through

the artery system. This contains blood cells floating in a protein rich fluid – blood plasma – with two main types of cells, red and white. The red cells are important for transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the different body tissues, while the white, in different ways, participates in the body’s defence against disease. It is important to remember that one cannot mix different blood types. Blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. 8.6.8 THE HUMAN ORGANISM AND THE SURROUNDING WORLD Our senses tell us about the surroundings. The main senses are sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste. There are also important senses in the muscles, the joints and the equilibrium organ in the inner ear. Each sensory organ has its best reaction to a certain type of stimulation, but has a different reaction to long lasting stimulation. 8.6.9 THE SKIN The skin forms an essential boundary to the surroundings, and is the body’s largest “breathing organ”. The skin consists of different tissue with different qualities and covers the body surface, like an almost impenetrable protective film. The skin is an important sensory organ with large adaptability. 8.5.10 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

This system protects the body and consists of several parts. There is no possibility of living a normal life without this defence, as its duty is to render harmless infective agents or other strange material. In addition to combating infection from outside, this defence system also fights against any internal cell changes. 8.6.11 THE BODY’S MOTION APPARATUS

This consists of skeleton and muscles. The skeleton is the body’s framework, consisting of almost 200 large and small bones tied together by link and ties. The muscles can move the bones by shortening (contracting) using an impulse from the nervous system. This was a short description of the “human machine”. When experiencing something exciting, frightening, unexpected, stressing, surprising or likewise, energy runs through us like an electrical blow. In such situations, one experiences the effect of endocrine hormones. The part of us that consists of feelings, thoughts, vibrations, intuition, ergo not physical parts of us, are also an important part of us (in many cases a decisive part). It is very important to provide stimulation and nutrients to these parts, as discussed below. 8.6.12 THOUGHT, ACTION, RESULT, FEELING

Positive thoughts and attitudes together with a healthy diet form the basis for good health. We can do a lot ourselves by choosing the right things, as we are free to choose.

We now take a look at your work place, onboard a vessel, and the influence this has on your health. We will also discuss what external influences can be found in the atmosphere and the injuries/incidents that may occur on board. Onboard different types of vessels carrying different types of cargo, danger to health from external influences are considered regarding the vessel’s protective equipment and routines. This protective equipment is placed practically and can be utilised, as necessary. Familiarise yourself with the equipment onboard your vessel and use it! With a sudden injury or illness on board, medical advice and guidance can be gathered from Radio Medico – the radio medical service for vessels at sea. It is important to have all the important information when help is needed for a serious condition onboard, such as: · Age · Sex · Weight · Duration of the illness · Extent of the injury · Symptoms · Patient's comments (complaints) · Clinical findings (sign of a specific illness) · How the injury happened · Character of the pain (grumbling, stabbing, squeezing) · Whereabouts of the pain · Face colour, limpness, drowsiness, temperature, pulse, breathing trouble, nausea, blood, mucus, urination, etc. All of the above is important. There is a “hospital” onboard containing ordered equipment for treatment and medication. The ship medical directions regarding the ship’s hospital deal with the maintenance, supply, inspection, etc. It is important to know how to protect oneself against harmful skin contact, skin absorption and respiratory absorption of dangerous gases in the atmosphere surrounding us, such as entering tanks and closed spaces. Help given in the first minutes of an emergency situation is crucial. All must endeavour to have respectable first aid skills. 8.6.13 FIRST AID

First aid is used with sudden unconsciousness, stopped breathing and lack of air. (Call for help, but do not abandon the patient, immediately start helping.) A Air: Try to free the air flow, lie the patient on a flat surface, bend the head backwards, remove any dentures, vomit, etc. B Breathing: If the patient is not breathing, start resuscitation with 3-5 breaths/insufflations. Use the “Pocket Mask” as an option. Hold the head curved backward, check the pulse on the neck. If pulse is felt, continue with 12 respiration’s per minute C Circulation: With deadly paleness and no pulse, give 2-3 powerful knocks over the heart. If this has no effect, start external heart compression once per second.



Alternate 2-3 respirations and 15 heart compressions. 8.6.15 TWO RESCUERS

One respiration for each heart compression. When compressing; press the breastbone down 4-5cm. 8.6.16 ABC

The method stands for air, breathing, and circulation. The priority of first-aid training and practice is of great importance. The better you are at first aid in an emergency; the chance of a good outcome is greater. 8.6.17 HEART PROBLEMS

Heart problems can be suspected if sudden, strong pain behind the breastbone is experienced. For cardiac arrest, use the ABC. 8.6.18 SHOCK INJURIES

Description of shock is acute circular failure. This may be caused by reduced blood volume from bleeding, shock by drop of blood pressure or reduced pump functions from a cardiac infarction. If a big incident occurs, shock must be calculated. The symptoms are fast pulse, coldness, pail and difficulty in breathing. Supply oxygen, warm blankets and fluids. 8.6.19 HEAD INJURIES

All knocks against the head must be taken seriously. The symptoms are headache, nausea and dizziness. Flat bed rest for 2-3 days. Limited fluid intake and be sure to supervise. 8.6.20 POISONING AND ETCH INJURIES

Refer to the IMCO’s book “Medical First Aid and Guide for use in accidents involving dangerous goods”. This refers to the data sheets on the different cargo onboard. (This is illustrated later on in this part). Poisoning and etch injuries appear in connection with cargo contact, as air absorption, swallowing or skin absorption (skin contact). The symptoms are pink coloured skin, smell of almonds on the breath, headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Remember that in connection with cargo contact, the emergency squad should efficiently use protective equipment, gloves etc. Supply oxygen and follow the instructions on the data sheet for the cargo in question.

If cooling the injury is not sufficient. I – stands for ice. the bleeding is reduced in the underlying tissue. Do not massage or rub.stands for compression bandage or compression. skin absorption (gas and liquid) and swallowing (gas and fluid). raise an injured arm or foot to approximately heart height and rest for 1-2 days. By doing so. Quickly cool for at least 20 minutes. as the proper first aid. and elevation. To decrease the blood pressure and reduce the seepage of blood on and around the injured place. Check the medical box for proper use of medication and bandages. Supply oxygen and fluid. etc.25 INTAKE OF POISON MATERIALS Poisonous materials can be taken in by inhaling (gas. since it is the higher brain centre that is first affected from lack of oxygen. dust). The patient should rest. JOINT & SOFT PART INJURIES A lot of injuries are sprains.6. fracture and soft part injuries.6. The patient mustn’t freeze. compression and bandage. Cover frozen skin parts with a soft woollen garment. Careless handling of pipeline and cranes onboard vessels. Important: Frozen hands and feet must not be warmed up actively with warm water. It helps a lot to warm up frozen skin with warm skin 8.8. Swelling and pain will also be reduced. Blood is most important.21 FIRE INJURIES In fire injuries.24 INFECTIONS Refer to the vessels medical cupboard regarding remedies for infection. Provide warm blankets and abundant fluid. With fire injuries. Refer to the material’s data sheet regarding treatment. This may cause unconsciousness. then ascends to white spots on the skin. 8. If any of this occurs. A poisonous material emerges quickly to the brain cells and deprives them of oxygen. how much. and have their pulse checked. Use the ICE method. By inhaling small concentrations. Confer with the patient regarding the tightness of the bandage.6.22 FROST INJURIES Localised frost injuries on the skin’s top layer begins with a prickling feeling. Estimate the extent of the injury. ICE means ice. different reactions will occur depending on the kind of material. quick help is double the help. be under supervision. can lead to localised frost injuries. if possible. 8. in such injuries. compression around the injured spot is recommended in order to counter the pressure from haemorrhage and reduce swelling and pain.23 BONE. . C .6. which carry strongly cooled gases. skin penetration. ensure a stabile lateral position for the patient. at worst death. Ice the injury in order to lower the injured spot’s temperature. 8. E – stands for elevation and rest.6.

fire.6. and lung) or poisonous gas absorption into the blood. The data sheets tell us about the cargo’s character. It is of utmost importance with a very fast first aid and abundant rinsing with water. which are made readily available and visible onboard.26 THE EYES The eyes are very exposed to any spill or contact to cargo. chemical data. Enclosed is a data sheet for Propane. physical data and the condition of the material in freight. which illustrates the layout and the content of information. the velocity of the penetration and poisonous elements. reaction data. Through skin penetration. explosion. burns and tears from harmful exposure. this is easily absorbed by the mucous membrane in the mouth. There is also information about health hazards. throat. With all injuries and illness it is of the utmost importance to administer first aid and contact competent medical help if any doubt of the outcome exists. . the emergency procedure for a cargo fire or cargo spill. If material is swallowed. There are such sheets for all types of dangerous cargo. gases and fluids are quickly absorbed into the blood and the effects depend on the characteristic of the material. There is normally irritation. Information regarding the quality of material is required with the freight of the material.we are exposed to localised effects (nasal. 8.




8.and lack of knowledge concerning the effect and damages to the environment due to these new substances and so forth led to free flow of the new substances both into the sea and the air. people really have become aware of the environmental effects this pollution causes. which have arisen during different époques throughout history. Around year 1800. A media focus on oil pollution disasters. in areas where the environment is burdened. 8. garbage. When the Industrial Revolution ended large crowds of people gathered in proportionately small areas. and so on. the first attempts were made to make simple constructions of drain arrangements and some kind of garbage removal arrangements. The local environment was extremely loaded because of this. the reasons for these damaging effects on the environment are questioned. The development of new substances and materials increased rapidly . Phenomena. the difficulties in getting rid of garbage and so on. This is nature’s own way to balance and renew itself.1 POLLUTION IN GENERAL AND ITS EFFECT ON ECOLOGY Note that pollution is usually related to human activity. both cause and result of these uncontrolled outlets almost immediately appeared. In later years. . They exist. Even today. however.8.8 EFFECTS ON ECOLOGY 8. such as radiation due to natural radioactivity in the earth. industrial leakage. are not usually considered as pollution. In some cases. However.7 ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION History Pollution is not a problem recently discovered. there is still a long way to go. dead animals and so on. has contributed to the development of very strict regulations and demands to preserve security that protects us from environmental pollution. Civilisations dumped all sorts of waist. During this period of time the rate of illness and disease showed to be higher in the crowded small towns compared to the countryside. volcano eruptions and the like. in open ditches just outside the small towns. as time went by. When people settled down in small towns and gathered in communities they experienced. This can be directly connected to large epidemics and disasters.

sea. water and carbon into plant tissues. but the problems appear because this pollution almost without restrictions has free flow to pollute sea and waters. Heavy metal is supplied to water. An Ecology System can endure huge changes and variations in nature.8.sea .and soil that cause damage and malfunction due to human activity. but also the Ecology System using their ability to function with the other organisms to obtain and keep harmony and balance. through the atmosphere. But eventually the pollution always falls to the ground and into the sea. In numerous cases. directly to water and spreading on the ground.2 DEFINITION OF POLLUTION: Substances and materials spread through air . Every part is equally important in obtaining the ability to function as a whole unit. These heavy metals affect not only single organisms. through human activity. and further on in raw materials used by Industry. these unwanted non-natural substances are spread throughout the nature process creating disharmony and malfunctions both geographically and ecologically. This is called the second tropic level. The demolishing link in this process is the carrion eaters and small organisms. Accurate balance and stability is obtained and smoothly functioning. Herbivores use the plants to produce tissue. This is called the first tropic level. The reason is simply that no natural mechanism exists to keep the process active and in balance. These elements exist in some relation or another in nature. The main receivers are air. Compare the human body with its own immune system to the environmental system (Eco-system). and you will find that all basic “building blocks” are linked together in some way or another with the same influence and with the same purpose. physiological or biological characteristics.8. Therefore pollution of heavy metals can influence and lead to direct malfunctioning . The herbivores (vegetable-only eating animals) cannot exploit solar light directly in their growth or tissue change. such as the chemical. which survive by eating animal meat. Life on earth is dependent on solar energy. cadmium. important parts (areas) in this process can be demolished. Plants turn solar energy. and soil. which demolish dead plants and animal materials into simple organic and inorganic compounds. which is the third tropic level. An Ecology System appears as a result of developing and adapting to each other as a species in nature throughout millions of years. The earth is most resistant to pollution as a receiver. Many factors contribute to pollution. An even greater loss appears at the next level. but faced with artificial factors and synthetic substances spread by human actions. Some of the most polluting heavy metals are lead. quicksilver. which the plants need to grow.Any pollution has a main source and a receiver. The most effective way of spreading pollution is through air. partly by natural flow. nickel and vanadium. This level includes the humans and the animals. 8. 8. The energy loss caused by transmission from the first level to the second level is calculated to be at approximately 90%.3 HEAVY METALS AND ITS INFLUENCE IN NATURE: Heavy metals are basic elements. This system is an everlasting process and is continuous throughout time and space.

9 POLLUTION OF AIR AND SEA AND THE INFLUENCE OF SHIP TRADE 8.5 Carbon monoxide CO 11. Below are some figures. which again transforms into nitric acid and nitrogen oxides. In accordance to the investigations performed by the Governmental Pollution Inspection and representative figures were presented in 1985: Air pollution Chemical names Amount in 1000 tons Nitrogen oxides NOx 85. The following shows the consumption of fuel in domestic waters: Marine Fuel 514 000 tons . well worth fighting for. 8. These are CFC – gases (chlorous fluor carbons).35 8.9. Below is a bird. Further.9. Nitrogen oxides are also formed by combustion of fossil fuel. The consequences of this are recognised in areas where the forest is dead and fishing lakes are empty. Carbon dioxide and CFC .75 Sulphur dioxide SO2 12. Carbon mono oxides formed by uncompleted consumption of organic material can further react to air and transform into carbon dioxide.2 THE FIGURES IN THIS INVESTIGATION REPRESENT ONLY NORWAY AND ITS COASTAL TRADE.gases function as a glass roof in a hothouse. a number of gases are released with the gas freeing of cargo tanks and cooling plant. Natural. This creates disharmony in the Eco-system.59 Various particles 1. and release nitrogen mono oxides. This is the hothouse effect in a nutshell.1 VIEW OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AIR POLLUTION: Burning sulphurous fossil fuel forms sulphur-dioxides and compounds of this gas. The gas responds to air and transforms into sulphur acid.and cause changes in the composition of a species. which represents just one of the many members of nature. Protect and preserve all parts of our Ecology System. Sulphur and nitrogen oxides in outlets (pollution) cause huge destruction of soil and sea. which show the outlet/pollution from internal combustion engines in the Norwegian coasting trade. the heat radiation from the sun is easily received and is harder to let go. clean and nutrient-rich water demonstrates a well-adjusted and balanced Ecology System.57 Hydro carbons HC 7.

0 kg/mt The outlet of NOx from the coastal trade represents 45% of the outlet from the mobile sources and 38% of the total outlets/pollution in Norway.9. this will of course lead to the . when the actual reducing actions are executed. new solutions in future engines and maximisation of already existing engine types is put in priority.3 WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE THE OUTLET FROM MACHINES? Through International Conventions.9% regarding the cargo trade. 4) Other technical methods as better shaped hulls and alternative propulsion systems. unless this development is reversed.1 kg/mt 5. 8. efforts in following areas were made: 1) Engine technical methods.5 WATER POLLUTION: The total pollution from the fleet world wide is enormous and represents one of the greatest threats to the environment today. is and will always be an important food supply and reservoir for human life. 2) Fuel technical methods as a use of alternative fuel and higher graded demands to the compounds of the fuel. The consequences for mankind will be just as tragic. the investigation has shown increase in costs calculated to be which concern construction improvements of engines and the engine equipment. The world’s great oceans are continuously exposed to pollution. 8.4 kg/mt 43. Norway made a commitment to reduce the outlets of nitrogen oxides by 30% within the year 1998. Concerning economical views. This causes tragic consequences to animals.Heavy Fuel Total 163 000 tons 677 000 tons The average sulphur content in different bunker types: Gasoline Marine Fuel Heavy Fuel Heavy Fuel in the fishing trade 0.1 % .7 kg&mt 44. The Ocean has. The Norwegian domestic trade represents approximately 40% of our total outlet. 8. fish and all life at sea.4 POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROPULSION In all these fields with intense investigation. 3) Purifying technical methods as catalyzer and absorbents. If life at sea comes to an end. In order to reduce outlet along the Norwegian coastline.

Companies. Congress realise that the existing International Conventions had to be reviewed and bettered. Use of pilot in sensitive waters.10 MARPOL 73/78 The IMO Convention to prevent pollution from ships of 1973. Entering American waters OPA requires drill (training) according to OPA90 regulations. 8. Various species are threatened of extension as a result of the pollution. the accidents involving “The Exxon Valdez” and “Mega Borg” were in focus and were well covered by the media and press. OPA. 1983.9.9. 4. Higher graded demands meant for the crew regarding narcotics and alcohol testing. which made the U. This presentation made a strong impression.came in force October 2nd. The most “significant” oil disasters caused by oil tankers that caused damages and destruction of coastlines and the oceans are: “Tory Canyon” (Southern England 1967). with The Amendment Protocol of 1978 .S. section 21 (page 757 and in 1996 edition). These disasters influenced the public opinion and led to new laws and regulations. The last mentioned accident was the direct event leading to new strict American regulations.increase in lack of food and then starvation for millions of people.6 OPA90 THE AMERICAN “OIL POLLUTION ACT OF 1990”. In USA. This resulted in the OPA90. . OPA90 regulations are in force for all kind of ships. The media distributed pictures of the rich animal life and the magnificent coastline in Alaska covered with oil and showing the suffering of dying seals and seabirds. The threat of unlimited responsibility. The drill (training) should be logged and reported due to the ship owners/operators policy. 8. 3.7 THE MAIN ITEMS IN OPA90: 1. American lawyers developed the OPA90 and the Congress supported the proposed Act. Demand of double hull. in case of indemnity due to accidents. 5. “Amoco Cadiz” (Normandy 1978) and the “Exxon Valdez” (Alaska 1989). 8. in order to protect and take care of the American interests. Direct access to the means in P & I . The Convention is named MARPOL 73/78 and is introduced in the Norwegian Shipping Control Regulations. which influenced public opinion. 2.

barrels.9. In the MARPOL regulations 73/78. enclosure I: 8. The following information referred to is from MARPOL 73/78.Enclosure I (Oils).8 MARPOL 73/78 CONSISTS OF TWO PARTS -MARPOL-73.12 1975 or delivered later than 31.no rule allows discharging more than 30 litres pr.Sewage Enclosure V . The MARPOL Convention is extremely important to be familiar with. Enclosure IV . the Mediterranean. containers and so on.12 1979). As mentioned before a “new” ship of 200 000 dwt could legally discharge a total of (200 000 : 30 000) = 6.Damaging elements in wrapped form. nautical mile during the voyage. Nevertheless . which should be on board all ships.Garbage MARPOL 73/78 .67 tons of oil during a ballast voyage. which is a 1978 Protocol to MARPOL -73 (Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention 1978). there are some areas regarding Prohibition Law for Oil Pollution. 2 Protocols and 5 Enclosures: The 5 Enclosures are as follows: Enclosure I .This is the most important pollution agreement ever adapted and it has been of great significance contributing to pollution prevention regulations from ships. -TSPP-78. 8. the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea and have the definition as follows: . the Black Sea. which is The International Convention about preventing ship-pollution.Chemicals Enclosure III . you can find a complete definition of what “new” and “old” ships are.9 DISCHARGING CRITERIA The amount of oil pumped from an oil tanker on a ballast voyage in open sea.10 SPECIAL AREAS In respect for the maritime environment.if a maximum limit 30 litres pr nautical mile is in compliance. These areas include among others. the Eastern Sea.9. tanks. Ships older than these can pump as much as 1/15 000 of the loading capacity. Several exceptions exist other than the before mentioned dates. 8.9. The Convention consists of 20 articles.Oils Enclosure II . but it is too extensive to view in this text. is set to be 1/30 000 of the loading capacity for all “new ships” (ships contracted later than 31. (Marine Pollution 73).

2%sulphur. E043o 30.5%.7% sulphur. Keep yourself updated in this field concerning air pollution and the regulations enforce in the nearest future! . IMO probably will adapt regulations concerning pollution from ships in the autumn 1997.2`).6`) and Husn Murad (N12o 40. million) of admixture consisting of water/oil. but not the stringent demands of the rules. Load On Top. has the attitude that the presented environment regulations allow for too large sulphur outlets.5%. This will mainly concern the introduction of upper limits in the sulphur content in bunkers. “The Black Sea” area means the Black Sea proper with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel N41o.“The Baltic Sea” area means the Baltic Sea proper with Gulf of Bothnia. the sulphur limits in air is suggested set to 1. Sulphur contributes to acid rain. During the negotiations the Baltic countries suggested that the Baltic should be a special area and should have even stronger demands and regulations to sulphur pollution than these presented by IMO regulations. This “clean water” can be pumped over board even in the special areas. E059o 48`) and Ras al Fasteh (N25o 04`. The dispute will concentrate on how restricted these regulations will be.4`. “The Gulfs” area means the sea area located north west of the rhombi line between Ras al Hadd (N22o 30`. Oil tankers should be equipped to load a new cargo on top of the saved oil deposits after tank washing and so forth.9. The same proposition will be requested concerning the Northern Sea area.11 AIR POLLUTION IMO agrees tithe commitment of air pollution regulations for ships. for instance.8`. Norwegian dealers believe realistic limits to be around 4%. the Gulf of Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at N57o 44. Average level is 2. E043o 19. Norway. it will still be an open question when these regulations will be set in force. The ship owners will then have the opportunity to select for themselves what type of oil to use that contains low sulphur values or rinse purifiers for the outlet of sulphur. After seven years of negotiations. 8. “The Mediterranean Sea” means the Mediterranean Sea proper including the gulfs and seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the N41o parallel and bounded to the west by the Straits of Gibraltar at the meridian of W5o 36`. The NO pollution will be evaluated in this conference as well. The term for this to happen is one of the disagreements yet to be resolved. The system is known as LOT. Even if IMO in autumn should vote for enforcing pollution regulations. “The Red Sea” area means the Red Sea proper including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba bounded at the south by the rhombi line between Ras si Ane (N12o 08.5`. The definition of clean water means a content of maximum 15 ppm (parts pr. A limit of5% has been proposed and Norway has proposed a limit of 3. Here. An analysis done by DnV proves that bunkers for sale worldwide contain hardly more than 4. E061`).

8. Ships without have CBT (clean ballast tanks) where the cargo tanks are used both for departure and arrival ballast. When it comes to COW. The National Governments have the obligation to put this in force and check that the regulations presented by IMO are in compliance. The water . This procedure is done at the last discharging port. (COW). but should have inert gas equipment for use in cargo tanks during operations. A control unit that calculates the received information and records this on a printer. classification companies are elected to evaluate the documentation and reports after inspection and testing of the equipment on board. this washing operation should be executed according to regulations in force. After departure and in waters allowing water washing of tanks used for arrival ballast.6. described as COW (crude oil washing). year.9. Before arrival at discharging port.9. The amount. A flow meter on the high over board line. Existing ships between20 000 dwt and 40 000 dwt do not need to have this washing equipment. flow rate.14 BALLAST HANDLING Ships constructed for SBT (segregated ballast tanks) have the advantage of already minimised oil pollution. This departure ballast is called dirty ballast. 8.12 TANK WASHING WITH CRUDE OIL All new crude oil tankers (20 000 dwt or more) and already existing ships (ships delivered before 1. day and time. the quantity and where the departure ballast is placed are viewed in part 10 in the compendium. month.13 ODME On board all ships carrying oil there are demands for the installation of Oil Detection Monitoring Equipment that will survey all pumping of ballast and slop water over board.9. IMO’s regulations on the tanks used for departure and arrival ballast state that the tanks must be crude oil washed. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate will perform inspection on the Norwegian trading fleet to control that these regulations are executed. Arrival ballast tanks must be crude oil washed beforehand according to the regulations in force. To operate headmen some information has to be manually programmed. A sampling pipe from the high over board line. which analyses the content of oil in the ballast water before pumping it over board. These demands are noted in the MARPOL protocol of 1978 to MARPOL 73/78 and are useful in reducing oil pollution at sea. This is the ship’s speed. 8. The equipments simply described: An analysis instrument. a discharging plan including crude oil washing should be worked out and it should also contain departure condition that shows the loaded departure ballast. 1982 with 40 000 dwt or more) have to be supplied with crude oil washing equipment. Study this manual for the specific ship and note that the manual must to be available at all times.

To finish water washing of arrival ballast tanks. Supplied water is stripped from the actual tank and into the primary slop tank. At last the secondary slop tank is pumped into the primary slop tank. in order to comply with the regulations in force. which involve pumping. lines and pumps have to be thoroughly washed. In other words. any kind of cargo handling whatsoever. The arrival ballast is the so-called “clean water”. ballast handling. Remember to keep this book updated and in necessary order at all times. This saved slop contains the oil deposits from stripping and water washing and the load on top. 8. and via crude oil washing machines. slop handling. and further the separated water is pumped over board via ODME.the only difference is that the medium now is water. the liquid is transferred over to the secondary slop tank. Now it is time to change ballast. Be environmentally conscious in all aspects on board .9. All items mentioned must be recorded in the oil record book. This way the ship arrives at the loading port with slop in one of the slop tanks. When the ballast changing. while dirty ballast should be pumped out from departure ballast tanks. Note: The line system has to be properly cleaned before arriving at the loading port.washing is performed using the specialised washing system on board meant for crude oil washing . Via the balance line. This is specified in the charter party for the present voyage. All ships should have one oil record book or more in order to record operations. Set pressure on the line system with water from the sea. the clean water is pumped over board via ODME. The oil record book must be available at all times to show authorities when arriving at any ports. transferring. clean ballast should be pumped in arrival ballast tanks. The dirty ballast is pumped over board via ODME. This arrival ballast is pumped over board via ODME. line washing and slop handling is completed. This is available if it is requested from the charter. where the clean ballast is pumped over board.15 THE OIL RECORD BOOK This is an extremely important book and must be recorded with accuracy. which is a mixture of water/oil containing a maximum of 15 ppm. arrival ballast tanks are water washed. The last oil deposits are stripped into the primary slop tank and after a settling time (when oil and water separates completely). Here the same washing procedure from primary to secondary slop tank is performed and pumped over board via ODME. bunkers. the ship contains only the arrival ballast.

09- Gas Measurement .

1. correlation exists between TVP. The oil referred to in this regulation is: . The greater the RVP value.8oC and at a fixed gas/liquid ratio. The true vapour pressure (TVP) or bubble point vapour pressure is the equilibrium of vapour pressure of a mixture when the gas/liquid ratio is effectively zero. For this purpose TVP is much more useful.8kg/cm2 for vapour pressure at 37.2 The Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) Testing is a simple and generally used method for measuring the volatility of petroleum liquids. This pressure gauge gives a close approximation in bars. the Norwegian Maritime Directorate in the Regulation of December 3rd1979 uses 61oC as limit value for flash point and 2.8oC (100oF). When transferring a petroleum product to a gas-free tank it begins to vaporise. The highest vapour pressure is possible at any specified temperature. the more volatile is the oil. RVP is useful for generally comparing the volatility of a wide range of petroleum liquids. it liberates gas into the space above it. With a mixture of compounds. Then the container is sealed and immersed in a water bath. However. Measurement of the RVP is conducted at 37.1 and 0. For safety measures against fire on ships. As mentioned.1 PROPERTIES OF PERTOLEUM 9. If the TVP exceeds atmospheric pressure.1 True vapour pressure (TVP) All petroleum products and crude oil are essentially mixtures of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds. A sample of liquid is put into the test container at atmospheric pressure. As the temperature of a petroleum mixture increases. in some cases. usually referred to simply as the vapour pressure. The boiling points of the compounds range from –162oC (methane) to well in excess of +400oC. The vapour pressure of a pure compound depends only upon its temperature. which is heated to 37.8kg/cm2. its TVP also increases.8oC. The volatility is characterised by the vapour pressure. that is. mainly because the measurement is made at the standard temperature of 37. The pressure exerted by this gas is called the equilibrium pressure of the liquid. RVP and temperature. The container is then shaken in order to mix the liquid properly and the rise in pressure due to vaporisation can be read on the attached pressure gauge.8oC.1. The volume of liquid should be one fifth of the container’s total volume.80C. This gas has also a tendency to re-dissolve in the liquid. the vapour pressure depends on the temperature. small value as a means of estimating the likeliness of gas evolution in specific situations. elements and the volume of the gas space in which vaporisation occurs. it has.9 GAS MEASUREMENTS 9. Because the liquid’s vapour pressure is at 37. Normally crude oil has a RVP of between 0. the liquid begins to boil. and the volatility of any particular mixture of compounds depends primarily on the quantities of the more volatile elements. The TVP of a petroleum mixture gives a good indication of its ability to give rise to gas. but unfortunately it is a property which still is extremely difficult to measure. 9.

such as kerosene. Because of the greater loss of gas to the atmosphere in the open cup test the open cup flash point is always a little higher (about 6oC) than the closed cup flash point. If the temperature is increased further beyond the flash point. the flammable gas concentration above the liquid is close to the lower explosive limit. · Mineral oils with a flash point of 61oC or higher. the closed cup method is generally favoured.· Mineral oils with a flash point below 61oC.8kg/cm2 or higher at 37. fuel oil. However. The liquid chemicals referred to are: · Chemicals with an absolute vapour pressure lower than 2. In this test the space above the liquid is kept closed except for the brief moments when trying ignite the liquid’s surface. · Oils and fats of animal or vegetable origins. which give off flammable gases when heated. still may be found in the registration of various national administrations.8oC. Determination of the flash point is done with a special apparatus and according to specific rules. The restricted loss of gas in the closed cup apparatus also leads to a much more consistent result than can be obtained in open cup testing. The condensed gases referred to are: · Chemicals with an absolute vapour pressure of 2. open cup test figures. The temperature is recorded when a small flame initiates a flash or flame across the liquid surface. This is called “The Burning Point"“.3 Flash Point The flash point for an oil product is the temperature at which it is possible to ignite the vapour above the liquid.8kg/cm2 at 37. gasoline and crude oil or other flammable liquids with a flash point below said limit. in classification society rules and other such documents. In other words.8oC. diesel oil. When we do the test with the liquid surface permanently open to the atmosphere. benzene. . the result of such a test is called “Open cup Flash Point”. the liquid will obtain a temperature so high that the evaporation will take place fast enough to support a flame. such as whale oil. linseed oil etc. A sample of liquid is gradually heated in a special pot and a small flame is repeatedly and momentarily applied to the surface of the liquid. This test is called “Closed cup Flash Point”.. thereby indicating the presence of a flammable gas. For this reason. such as marine gas oils.1. groundnut oil. 9. which give off flammable gases when heated. lubricating oil.

4 Burning Point of some hydrocarbons Product Asphalt Benzene Benzene Butane Crude oil Diesel oil Ethan Fuel oil (no.9. When the gas above a liquid hydrocarbon is ignited. 9. the heat that is produced is usually enough to evaporate sufficient fresh gas to maintain the flame and the liquid is said to burn.5 Flammability The burning process means that hydrocarbon gases react with the oxygen in the air to produce carbon dioxide and water.4&5) Fuel oil (no. This reaction gives enough heat to form a flame which goes through the mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air.1.6) Hexane Methane (LNG) Mineral oil Paraffin wax Pentane Propane Lub. The flash point for liquids is used in rules and regulations for transportation and storage. 9.1.6 Flammable Limits A hydrocarbon gas mixture and air cannot be ignited and burned unless its . for gasoline it is about –50oC and for kerosene over +60oC. the flash point increases from light to the heavy hydrocarbons. it is the gas that is burning and continuously being replenished by the liquid. usually between –10oC and +30oC.1. Crude oil from various sources may have quite different flash points.oil (motor oil) Propylene Ethylene Burning point in degree Celsius +204 -50 -11 -35 -10/+30 +70 -125 +38 +54 +65 -28 -175 +193 +320 -40 -105 -149/+232 -108 -150 Naphtha (mixtures) +38/+60 For refined products. 1&2) Fuel oil (no. In fact.

it is usually assumed that the upper explosion limit lies at about 10% by volume of hydrocarbon gas-in-air and the lower explosion limit at about 1% by volume of hydrocarbon gas.5 1.5 7.1 2.7 3.0 8.0 4.5 1. The mixture is “too rich”.9 5.8 7. volume UEL. the mixture is flammable and results in a fire or explosion. The upper limit of the range known as the “UEL” (upper explosive limit). volume % % 5.7 Explosion limits in % flammable gas in mixture with air. With hydrocarbon gases from crude and sediments.0/11.5 9. known as the “flammable range”.1 1.0 0. This level means that the hydrocarbon concentration has an insufficient amount of air to support and propagate combustion.6 .5 9. This level means that hydrocarbon concentration has an insufficient amount of hydrocarbon gas to support and propagate combustion.4 75.2 1.composition lies within a range of gas-in-air concentrations. The lower limit of this range is known as the “LEL” (lower explosive limit).2 1.4 14.3 3.8 4. PRODUKT Methane (LNG) Ethan Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Hepthane Octane Nonthane Dechane Hydrogen Hydrogen sulphide Carbon monoxide Crude oil Benzene LEL.8 0.5 1. The “LFL” (lower flammable limit) is also used.0 74.0 7.5 1.1.0 45.5/2. Between these two areas. or also known as “UFL” (upper flammable limit). if ignited. The mixture is “too lean”.3 12.5 6.2 2. 9.0 12.

The amount of water vapour. CO2 0.1 volume % 0.3 volume % . TEMPERATURE -200C 00C 200C 400C WATER VAPOUR CONTENT 0. A Other gases AIR 78.8 Air The mixture of gases found in the atmosphere is given the name air. O2 Argon.93% 0. except for the water vapour content.02% 100% Carbon dioxide. independent of time and place. there will be a reduction of oxygen and other gases that is caused by the increased water vapour content.Naphtha Propylene Ethylene VCM 0. At high humidity and high temperature.3 volume % 7. the reading will increase as the atmospheric pressure increases.9/1. depending on the instrument’s measuring principle.1 2 2. The instruments used for measuring hydrocarbon gases will also be influenced by the atmospheric pressure. The air is saturated with water vapour when the air contains a maximum amount of water vapour at a certain temperature. the instrument has to be calibrated with clean air from time to time.1. which the air may contain.09% 20. The ratio of mixture between various gases is the same.7 12 34 31 9. will depend very much on the temperature. ELEMENTS in air Nitrogen.5 4 6. N2 Oxygen.9 volume % 2. The atmospheric pressure will influence the measurement result when using gas measure instruments. when using a portable oxygen analyser that is calibrated to read 21% oxygen by volume in clean air at atmospheric pressure.0/6. To compensate for the changes in atmospheric pressure. which can have great variations.03% There may be a significant amount of water vapour in the air. Different results are measured depending on whether water or moisture is removed or not. For example. Saturated air being cooled will release the excess water in droplets.93% 0.

The crude oil is called “stabilised crude”. Until such gas mixtures have been mixed with air inside inert gas. fire and explosion cannot take place even though both hydrocarbon gas and ignition sources are present. added in gas or liquid form. When reducing the oxygen content to below 10. propane and ethane are also composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms and they are all called hydrocarbon gases. The gas mixtures given off from crude oil. Methane gas is lighter than air.7 volume % 46. Ethane gas has approximately the same density as air. Hydrocarbons with up to 4 carbon atoms are liquefied gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. but even stabilised crude oil will give off hydrocarbons from the surface. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. The gases butane and propane from higher hydrocarbons are heavier than air. The spiked crude may contain rather large amounts of added hydrocarbons and therefore emit heavy gasses under certain conditions (during loading. For example butane. and above 16 carbon atoms. which is the main element of natural gas. gases will bubble out. Most of these materials consist of only the element hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) called by the common name hydrocarbons. oxygen leakage during welding has resulted in several fatal accidents.7 volume % 100 volume % The risk of fire or explosion is drastically increased if air is replaced by pure oxygen.1. From 5 to 16 carbon atoms the hydrocarbons are liquids. “Spiked crude oil” (also called “enriched” or “tailored” crude) is crude oil. However. . the fire and explosion hazard is reduced.9 Hydrocarbon gases Crude oil is formed from plants and animals residues and contains several thousand different chemical compounds. when reducing the oxygen below 21% by volume. sludge and sediments are all heavier than air. the hydrocarbons are solid materials such as wax and asphalt. crude oil washing. As known. which has had hydrocarbons.600C 800C 1000C 19. When reducing the pressure. 9. When the crude oil is taken out of a well. hydrocarbon gases and solid materials are dissolved in the oil.8% by volume. the highest hydrocarbon concentration will appear near the bottom. Butane. discharging). C4H10 means that this gas contains a total of 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms. To separate these liquefied gases the crude must pass through one or more processing units (stabilisers).

List of TLV (PEL) are adjusted from time to time. normally averaged over an eight hour period. or as a “Short Term Exposure Limit” (STEL). The values are expressed as parts per million (ppm) by volume of gas in air. Compared with a value quoted in percent by volume. TLV (Threshold Limit Value) has been in use within the industry for a number of years. The use of the term “PEL” (Permissible Exposure Limit) is becoming more commonplace and refers to the maximum exposure to a toxic substance that is allowed by an appropriate regulatory body. so take into consideration the experience gained.9. 1 ppm corresponds to one-millionth part by volume pollution in air. The PEL is usually expressed as a Time Weighted Average. . we find that 1% by volume = 10000 ppm. normally expressed as a maximum airborne concentration averaged over a 15 minute period. Keep the list up to date at all times.2 TOXICITY HAZARDS The toxic hazards to which personnel are exposed in tanker operations arise almost entirely from exposure to various kinds of gasses. and is often expressed as a “Time Weighted Average” (TWA).

2. Toxicity can greatly be influenced by the presence of some minor compounds. but must not be used for gas mixtures containing benzene or hydrogen sulphide. The effects of a gas mixture from crude oil include headache. 70% Symptoms as of drunkenness within 15 minutes.1 Ingestion There is a very slight risk of swallowing significant quantities of liquids during normal tanker operations.2. (20.9.000ppm) 2. Liquid petroleum may be drawn into the lungs during vomiting resulting in serious consequences.2 Skin contact Petroleum products cause skin irritation and remove essential oils from the skin. Irritation of the eyes.000ppm) % LEL 10% Effects Irritation of the eyes within one hour. Rapid onset of “drunkenness” which may lead to 100% unconsciousness and death if exposure continues. Paralysis and death occur very rapidly .000ppm) 0.0% vol. Oil can also cause serious skin disorders from repeated and prolonged contact.0% vol. always wear appropriate protective clothing and equipment!!!!! 9. A TLV of 300ppm. (7. The oral toxicity from petroleum is low. such as benzene and hydrogen sulphide. dizziness and 20% unsteadiness within half an hour.2. Such a figure may be used as a general guide for petroleum gases. reduced sense of responsibility and dizziness similar to drunkenness. (1. 9. Higher concentrations may lead to paralysis. leading to dermatitis.7% vol. corresponding to about 2% LEL is established for gasoline vapours.1% vol. To avoid direct contact. nose and throat.000ppm) 1. The following are typical effects found at higher concentrations: Concentration 0. but if swallow it causes acute discomfort.2% vol. (10. For a short period of time the human body can tolerate a somewhat higher concentration than the corresponding TLV. (2. numbness and death.000ppm) 0.3 Petroleum gases The toxicity of petroleum gases has a wide variation depending on the major hydrocarbon constituent of the gas. eye irritation.

Benzene primarily presents an inhalation hazard. 9.300 ppm Marked eye and respiratory tract irritation after exposure of one hour. The nose has no trouble detecting the smell from hydrogen sulphide at low concentrations. 200 . but is usually reduced by a stabilisation process before the crude oil is delivered to the vessel. decrease over time. which is like the smell of rotten eggs.700 ppm 700 . it is absolutely essential to check the tank(s) atmosphere for hydrogen sulphide before entering. The effects of the gas at concentrations in air in excess of the TWA (Time Weighted Average) are.9.2. substitutes. Within 15 minutes. use the described operation procedures for this kind of hydrocarbon.2000 ppm . This stabilisation may. nausea etc.5 Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) If the vessel is carrying sour crude.100 ppm irritation after exposure of one hour.900 ppm 1000 . headache. but the sensory cell in the nose is immediately put out of function if higher concentrations are inhaled. such as gasoline’s. death occurs a few minutes later. Instantaneous collapse and cessation of breathing 500 . Dizziness. white spirits and crude oil. A lot of crude oil comes out of the well with high levels of hydrogen sulphide. however. Rapid unconsciousness. special boiling point solvents.4 Benzene Aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene. These substances can be found in varying amounts.2. Benzene can be absorbed through the skin and is toxic if ingested. naphtas. It has poor warning qualities. in many typical petroleum cargoes. For handling cargo that contains benzene. toluene and xylene. turpentine. as follows: Concentration Effects Eye and respiratory tract 50 . loss of consciousness and possible death after 30-60 minutes exposure.

Persons over exposed to H2S vapour should be taken to clean air. 9. When the available oxygen decreases below 21% by volume. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is generally removed in the water scrubber in the inert gas plant.6 Toxic Elements in Inert Gas Inert gas’s low oxygen content is the main hazard.9 Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in flue gas at a level of only a few parts per million.02%) by volume of mixed nitrogen oxides. 9. Inert gas system water scrubbers remove this gas with an efficiency. On oil tankers the most obvious one is that the space is in an inert condition. Until there is a steady 21% by volume oxygen reading.2. It has a distinctive smell at its TLV of 2 ppm. as soon as possible. This gas is an odourless gas with a TLV of 50ppm. It is insidious in its attack. breathing tends to become faster and deeper.2.10 Oxygen Deficiency For several reasons the oxygen content in enclosed spaces may be low.8 Sulphur Dioxide Flue gas produced by the combustion of high sulphur content fuel oils typically contains about 2. causing a chemically induced form of asphyxiation. contains a various amounts of toxic gases. The adverse effects of H2S can be reversed and the probability of saving the persons life improved. This is because when gas that is freed from a tank. These precautions do not include the requirements for direct measurement of the trace flue gas element’s concentration. Sulphur dioxide produces irritation of eyes. the hydrocarbon gas concentration is about 2% by volume to 1% LEL.7 Nitrogen Oxides Flue gas contains approximately 200ppm (0. either in a steam boiler or in an inert gas generator. Follow the precautions to protect personnel against toxic hazards. Inert gas produced by combustion. restricting the blood to absorb oxygen.000 ppm of sulphur dioxide (SO2). Most persons would fail to . if prompt action is taken. but at abnormal combustion conditions and slow running it can give rise to levels in excess of 200ppm. nose and throat and may also cause breathing difficulties in sensitive people. giving inert gas with sulphur dioxide content usually between 2 and 50 ppm. such as rusting or the hardening of coatings. The NOx gas is colourless with a weak smell at its TLV of 25ppm. Nitrogen dioxide is even more toxic with a TLV of 3ppm. Also it can be due to a lack of oxygen based on chemical reactions. For handling cargoes containing hydrogen sulphide follow the operation procedures described for such a cargo. 9. Symptoms indicating that an atmosphere is oxygen deficient may not give adequate notice of danger. it is sufficient to dilute these elements to below their TLV’s. which depends upon the design and operation of the scrubber. which may increase hazard to the personnel exposed to it. 9.

3% vol. Approx. The following table provides an indication of typical inert gas components from flue gas. Inert means inactive and the primary requirement for an inert gas is low oxygen content. 2 . 0. Approx. Approx. is first cooled and cleaned of soot and . carbon dioxide or combustion gases.02% vol.recognise the danger until they were too weak to be able to escape without help. H2O vo Carbon monoxide.01% vol. inert gas is used to control the tank atmosphere in order to prevent the formation of flammable mixtures. before being transferred to the cargo tanks. 80% vol. vol. 0. O2 Before scrubber After scrubber Approx. Oxygen. 9. 7% vol. Approx.044 When hydrocarbon gas burns in air.5% vol. 0. Approx. the oxygen in the air reacts while the nitrogen gas is inert and does not take part in the reaction. Approx. SO2 Ash and soot Density CO Approx. 14% Approx. 0. 2 . This is especially so when escape involves the exertion of climbing.005% vol.02% vol.3 INERT GAS In principle. N2 Carbon dioxide. The flue gas being produced. 30mg/m3 1. expressed as a percentage by volume: Inert gas Nitrogen.01% vol. 40oC: approx. On a crude oil tanker. Nitrous gases. 2% vol. Examples of inert gases are nitrogen. 20oC: approx. Entry into spaces with oxygen less than 21% by volume must never be permitted. 300mg/m3 1. NOX Sulphur dioxide. 14% vol vol. 5% vapour. 80% Approx.5% vol. CO2. the production of inert gas is done with flue gas from the ship’s boilers or by a separate inert gas generator. 0.044 Water Approx. The composition of inert gas can vary. 0.

It will be approximately 0. The carbon monoxide contained in the supplied inert gas is approximately 0. The figure to below shows an example of design of a scrubber for cooling and cleaning of the flue/ inert gas. after the scrubber. depending on the efficiency of this. but if the excess air is reduced too much in hopes of reducing the oxygen content. . The concentration of sulphur dioxide in the inert gas depends on the sulphur content of the oil being burned. the concentration of carbon monoxide could increase significantly. after the scrubber. and the inert gas.3% by volume in the flue gas. the content is reduced to approximately 0. It is strongly recommended to have a separate oxygen-measuring instrument for inert gas. broadly speaking. Approximately the content of carbon dioxide in the inert gas is 14% by volume depending to some extent on quality of the oil being burned and on the air supply. but is reduced to below 30mg/m3 after passing the scrubber. This is done by providing a choice of sampling lines from two different places into the same instrument. The main problems are in the flue gas measuring with greater reading and guarding against instrumentation error. before the scrubber.02% NOX by volume. The maximum permissible oxygen content in the inert gas delivered to the cargo tanks is 5% by volume (all kinds of tankers). A small amount of Nitrous Gases (NO and NO2) is formed. following the reaction between nitrogen and oxygen in the air at higher temperatures.005% by volume.corrosive gases. after the scrubber. After passing the scrubber. It will be approximately 0. The concentration of nitrogen in inert gas will more or less be the same as for the concentration in air. When recalculating inert gas through the scrubber beware of the oxygen content increase due to the evolution of oxygen from the seawater. The oxygen concentration in flue gas will be different.01% by volume. before passing the scrubber. about 80% nitrogen by volume. This prevents fire and explosion. Flue gas contains soot as high as 300mg/m3. than in the inert gas. Some ships use the same fixed instrument for measuring the oxygen content in the flue gas.

It is very important to -m 9.synthetic rubber sampling line. 9. the inside diameter of the hose. See the illustration to your right. which belong to another instrument. Place a finger on the hose opening and check that the hand pump remains squeezed together for about 1 minute.4 Leakage. instruments and pumps before use.4. .4. which corresponds to an inner volume of about 7cm3 per meter length. as well as.4 GAS INDICATORS 9.9. Teflon inner hose. Do not mix hoses with hoses. The inside diameter is 5mm corresponding to an inner volume of about 20cm3 per meter length. The number of strokes depends on the hose length. Follow the user instruction for such a pump.4. “Tanol” (Trade mark of MSA). This hose is marked: “Tanol” . anti-static. Some types of instruments are fitted with built-in pumps. plugging. depending on the inner diameter. Note: In an enclosed container use adequate electrical bonding. If the hose is dipped by accident in oil and oil is drawn into the hose. When ordering a measuring hose make sure you are getting an approved one. Always ask the deliverer for a certificate. plugging or contamination. The numbers mentioned are based on a pump volume of 40cm3. The number of strokes may vary from 6 to 15 for a hose length of 30 metres. Always follow this rule: Each gas measuring instrument has its own hose only for using with the specific instrument. 9.3 Cleaning of hose If the sampling hose gets dirty with oil on the outside.10 Sampling lines and pumps It is very important to realise that the quality of the sampling hose has influence on the measuring result.2 Pumps The hand pumps used are often in a rubber form with a volume of 40cm3 or more. in order to detect any leakage. the flow indicator gives an alarm. which shows the authorisation. it is likely that a poor quality hose will absorb hydrocarbon gases. immediately clean it with a dry cotton rag. discard the hose because it is very hard to clean it. This hose’s inside diameter is 3mm. it is important to know the number of pump strokes from the sampling point that are necessary for the gas to reach the instrument.4. Make sure that the quality of hoses being used on your ship is approved and in good condition. and that correct use and maintenance are important. If the hose is not properly chosen. neoprene outer hose. contamination Always check the hose. If there is a built-in pump. When using long hoses. Examples of hoses which have proved acceptable: 1. low solvent absorption. Follow the procedure check for the instrument being used. 2.

Carry out measurements with and without the sampling hose to check that the hose does not influence the measurement by absorbing or releasing gases. For this purpose use clean air and a calibration gas, depending on the type of gas measuring instrument being checked. Also carry out a leakage test on the instrument, and if applicable, on a drop catcher or other optional equipment that has been fitted. See the illustration to your right.

9.4.5 Maintenance
Make it a rule to always purge the hose by pumping clean air through it after use. And blow the measuring hoses with compressed air from time to time to remove water droplets and dust. As the analysers are of vital importance, they must be carefully maintained and tested strictly in accordance with the manufacturer instructions.

9.4.6 Filters
Normally used in hydrocarbon gas meters are cotton filament type filters, catalytic or non-catalytic. Additional filters are not normally needed. In extremely moist or wet conditions, for example during tank washing, excessive water can be removed from the gas sample using materials that retain water, but do not affect the hydrocarbons. Materials for this purpose are granular calcium chloride or sulphate. If required, soda asbestos will selectively retain hydrogen sulphide without affecting the hydrocarbons. However, it also retains carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide and must not be used in tanks, which are inerted with scrubbed flue gas. The use of water retaining filters is essential when using an oxygen analyser, especially the analysers based on the paramagnetic principle. This is because the presence of water vapours in the sample can damage the measuring cell. Use only manufacture recommended filters.

9.4.7 Calibration gas
Always have the appropriate calibration gas for the instruments on board. This calibration gas has to be the right type and the availability has to be good. Also, knowledge how to use the different types of calibration gas must be properly understood. Always follow the manufacture's recommendation when ordering calibration gas. Also demand a certificate on the ordered calibration gas to be sure that you are receiving a gas of high quality. Explosimeters use a mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air, approximately 50% LEL or lower, as a calibration gas. (It is important to have a certificate on the specified hydrocarbon gas, showing the exact percent of LEL). Various types of hydrocarbon gas measuring instruments may have different requirements of calibration gas. Make sure you have the right one on your vessel. Oxygen analysers used at low concentrations usually use nitrogen as the calibration gas in order to get a zero adjustment and dry air is used for the 21% O2 by volume adjustment.

Those using the measuring instruments on board must have sufficient knowledge about the instrument, and all such instruments must have the operating instructions attached to the instrument. Also keep a log for each instrument, where records are made of the calibration performed, replacement of parts or other repairs, faults and irregularities. Always have additional spare parts in supply, which may have to be replaced from time to time. If the instrument not is in use for a long period of time, remove the batteries; even the leak proof ones. Warning For the sake of safety, all instruments must be operated and serviced by qualified personnel only. Read and make sure you fully understand the instruction book before using or servicing the instrument.

9.4.8 Attention

9.4.9 Volume % hydrocarbon gas measuring instruments

We are going to discuss various principles for the measurement of hydrocarbon gases given off by crude oil. In order to measure hydrocarbon gases in a mixture with other gases, for example inert gas, an instrument is used, which measures the absorption of infrared light. Such infrared absorption instruments are found both as laboratory instruments and as instruments for fixed installations on board ships. In the early 1970’s, when trying to find portable gas measuring instruments for the determination of % by volume HC in a tank atmosphere, there were few commercial instruments, which appeared suitable. An interferometer was modified and the Riken

Interferometer Type 17HC, with the measuring ranges 0-5% by volume and 0-30% by volume HC, was developed in collaboration with Riken Keiki Fine Instrument Co., Japan. At this time, only a few ships had an inert gas system on board. The instrument was used for measuring hydrocarbon concentrations in air, which were higher than the lower explosive limit, to check for freeing gas with air before tank washing in a “too lean” atmosphere. Later on, the instrument also came to be used for the measurement of hydrocarbon gas concentration in an inerted atmosphere.

9.4.10 Riken portable indicator Model 17HC Operating Principles
This instrument measures volume by percent of hydrocarbon gases above crude oil using an optical registration at the speed of light, which passes through the air and gas/air mixture respectively. The gas in question is sucked into two chambers that are placed in sequence and equipped with glass end walls enabling the light to pass through. The volume percentage is registered on a double scale that is graduated 05 and 0-30 and is read through an adjustable lens. With Riken 17HC one can measure concentrations of hydrocarbon gases by utilising the difference between the speed of light through air and the gas. The difference increases with increasing hydrocarbon gas concentration. The refractive index for a gas is an expression of the ratio between the speed of light in vacuum and in the gas. The speed in the gas will depend on pressure and temperature. The refractive index is normally quoted at a pressure of 1 atmosphere and either 0oC or 20oC. Compared with the refractive index for the various hydrocarbon gases, the hydrocarbon mixture index used by Riken is closest to butane. The instrument is tested for working within a temperature range of +113oF (45oC) to –22oF (-30oC). Hotter gases should be cooled down to come within this range. The interferometer was originally chosen to determine hydrocarbon gases in air. The conditions become more complicated if the interferometer is used for measuring hydrocarbon gases in inert gas. There will be a difference between the zero adjusts for air without hydrocarbon gas and inert gas without hydrocarbon gas. Oxygen and nitrogen have rather similar refractive indexes, but there will be a positive deviation in relation to air when the oxygen content decreases from 21% by volume. If the oxygen content is reduced from 21% by volume to 5% by volume, the reading on the interferometer increases from 0% by volume HC to 0,5% by volume HC. Carbon dioxide has a higher refractive index than air, so the reading on the interferometer for 1% by volume CO2 is approximately 0,15. Inert gas, which contains close to 14% by volume CO2 and approximately 5% by volume O2, will therefore give a reading on the interferometer of 2,5. (Approximately 2,0 is due to carbon dioxide and about 0,5 is due to low oxygen content). When the interferometer is used for measuring hydrocarbon gas in inert gas, a correction is therefore necessary for the difference between zero setting in clean air and zero setting in inert gas.

Previously a method was used whereby carbon dioxide was removed from the gas mixture before the introduction to the interferometer. The gas mixture was passed through a tube filled with soda lime, as an absorption material. Experience has shown that the absorbent often is not very efficient, so that measurements with the interferometer have given too high values. It is therefore recommended to correct for the difference between zero setting in clean air and in inert gas by using a method, which does not include the use of the external filter. Inert gas contains 1214% CO2. To remove such a large concentration by means of the external filter has proved difficult. Instead of using the filter the measurement is read directly and the values read are reduced by 2,5%. If there is a risk of sucking in water vapour/condensate, one can use a moisture collector (which usually accompanies the instrument) and install it between the suction hose and the instrument. When measuring hydrocarbon gases in an inerted tank atmosphere with an interferometer without the soda lime, the reading must be corrected by subtracting 2,5 from the values read. For example, the correct value will be 2,5% by volume HC for a reading of 5,0. Optical diagram How to use the instrument
Function of parts: 1. Inlet port to which the sampling tube is connected. 2. Outlet port to which the aspirator tube is connected. 3. Push button switch to illuminate the scale. 4. Screw off cover to protect zero setting from any disturbance in handling the instrument during tests. 5. Zero adjusting knob for setting interference fringe to zero position in fresh air. 6. Cock to change the sampling route either HIGH RANGE or LOW RANGE. 7. Eyepiece lens and protecting push on cover (on chain) to the right. The lens can be focused for personal vision by turning in either direction.

8. Aspirator bulb. 9. Screw on covers, replaceable moisture absorbent cartridge and single cell flashlight battery. 10. Cover for electric bulb for the light source. Preparation:
1. a) Secure auxiliary filter in leather strap. Connect rubber tube to gas inlet port (1) through auxiliary filter. 2. b) Connect rubber aspirator to gas outlet port (2). 3. c) Place cock (6) in position 5 and squeeze aspirator (8) at least five times in fresh air to clean gas chamber. 4. d) Press the switch (3) and observe interference fringe through eyepiece. 5. e) Remove protective cover (4) of zero setting knob (5). Adjust the right one of two black lines, just on the zero position of scale, by rotating the zero setting knob. 6. f) Put the cover back on, in order to protect the knob from any accidental movement. Reading: 1. Suck the gas to be examined into instrument by squeezing aspirator about 5 times or more if extension tube is used. 2. Press the switch and examine amount of shift of marked black line through eyepiece, which gives percentage of gas on 0 - 5% scale. 3. If the marked black line or fringe is beyond scale, gas concentration is higher than 5%. In such case, change cock position to 0 - 30% scale. 4. Suck clean air into instrument by squeezing aspirator 3 to 5 times. 5. Press the switch and examine amount of shift of marked black line through eyepiece, which gives percentage of gas on scale 0 - 30%. After reading: Place cock position to 5 and clean gas chamber with fresh air. Taking readings:
In gaseous atmosphere draw in test sample by squeezing bulb at least 4 times for each meter of sampling hose in use. Press the switch (3) and observe new position on scale of RIGHT HAND EDGE of INDEX STRIPE. The reading indicates the percentages of hydrocarbon gas. Repeat for further gas tests.

9.4.11 Percent LEL measuring instruments & Explosimeters
Most types of instruments giving concentration of flammable gas in air in %LEL use catalytic combustion as the measuring principle. Such instruments are usually called exsplosimeter. A catalyst is a substance, which helps a chemical reaction to take place. Exsplosimeter normally use platinum metal or platinum alloyed with other metals as a catalyst. To make the reaction take place, the catalyst has to be heated to a high temperature. Certain types of Explosimeters use a platinum wire as a catalyst and the reaction between flammable gas and the oxygen in the air takes place on the surface of the metallic wire. The temperature of the wire may then be 1000oC. Other types of Explosimeters have a coating on the outside of a heated metal wire, and it is the coating which catalyses the reaction. The reaction takes place somewhat easier on this coating, and a temperature of 500oC may be sufficient. The part of the instrument where the reaction takes place is normally called a sensor or detector.

and many manufactures of instruments quote the correction factors for various gases other than the calibration gas. It should be marked on the instrument. Theoretical calculations of sensitivity have been performed for nearly 100 different flammable gases. the methane molecules move faster than the propane molecules. The electrical resistance of the metallic wire increases with the temperature. to the diffusion coefficient of the flammable gas and to the gas concentration at the lower explosive limit. butane. which gas is used for calibration gas. Finally. and the lighter molecules move faster than the heavy ones. The instruments are usually designed in such away that they first have to be adjusted to zero with clean air. and the value for hydrocarbon gases are given in the table below: . pentane. The change in resistance is proportional to the increasing temperature and to the concentration of flammable gas in the air. To some extent the explosimeter will also be suitable for measurement of other flammable gases. Then the atmosphere that should be measured is sucked into the instrument where the sensor is located and a reading is made. The diffusion coefficient is an expression for the speed at which the molecules can move to the catalyst surface where the reaction takes place.The flammable gas to be measured is burned on the surface and the heat generated results in a temperature increase. Some types of instruments are intended for monitoring and are designed so that the sensor is located at the spot where the measurement is to be performed. Theoretical calculations of the sensitivity of an explosimeter for various flammable gases show that the reading for 100% LEL of the gas mixture is proportional to the heat of combustion. This applies only to a lean mixture below the lower explosive limit. For ships carrying crude oils. hexane or nonane. for example butane. clean air is sucked in again and the zero setting checked. For example. Explosimeters are calibrated with a certain gas. propane. it is recommended to use butane in air or alternatively propane in air. The most frequently used calibration gases for commercial explosimeters are methane.

methane must be used as the calibration gas. in that methane is a gas. This is because the gas mixture given off by crude oil contains relatively small amounts of methane gas and the gas given off from sediments and oil residues contain quite negligible concentrations of methane. lower values for pentane. some difference between theory and practice. As an example. it still gives a correct reading for the heavier hydrocarbon gases. since the details of how the instruments are designed are of great importance. Explosimeters to be used on ships carrying crude oil. 52 i Pentane. There is a complicating factor. 46 n Hexane 37 Heptane 38 Octane 38 Nonane 31 The above figures are given in arbitrary units. . Be aware that the exsplosimeter will give somewhat misleading low values for the hydrocarbon gases that are heavier than the calibration gas. On the market there are some types of explosimeters with low sensitivity for methane and several types of explosimeters which have been investigated showing that the sensitivity to methane may drop after a short period of time of using the instrument. which is greatly dependent on how good of a control the manufacturer has over own production. explosimeters calibrated with butane should show higher values for methane. 59 n Butane. alternatively propane. butane is recommended to be used as calibration gas. an exsplosimeter calibrated with propane will theoretically give a deflection for 100% LEL of hexane which is (37:55) x 100 = 67% LEL. There is however. For explosimeters being used on board LNG-carriers. In practice there will not be the same conversion factors for different types of Explosimeters. which requires a more efficient catalyst and/or a higher catalyst temperature. However. however. There may also be a large difference from one instrument to another instrument of the same type. hexane and the other heavier hydrocarbon gases.Type of Sensitivity HC gas Methane 100 Ethane 68 Propane 55 Butane. From what we have seen so far.

A probe and extension hose permit sampling from remote locations and the instrument fits in a compact leather case with an over the shoulder-carrying strap. never use the explosimeter at concentrations of flammable gas higher than 100% LEL. It is a valuable aid to safety of operations whenever combustible gases or vapours are handled. This only applies when we have a lean mixture of flammable gas in air. lose its ability to bring about combustion. A built-in meter indicates combustible gas content in units of explosibility. Therefore. Certain gases may poison the catalyst. vessels other spaces to determine presence or absence of combustible gas in pressure cylinders.1 General description The model GP-204 hand held portable gas detector is a compact battery operated portable instrument used for taking an air sample and indicating the presence and concentration of combustible gas. Very high concentrations of flammable gas.12 Riken. ambiguous readings and may also damage the catalyst in that a sooty layer is formed. the reading will instead depend on the concentration and diffusion coefficient of oxygen. the regrettable characteristic that the sensitivity is reduced. and all types of explosimeters have. model GP-204 9. to a greater or lesser extent. For high concentration of flammable gas. Power for operation of the instrument is provided by built-in dry cells.The catalyst will. when used gradually. Samples of the air under test are drawn by means of a rubber aspirator bulb and analysed for combustible gas content on a heated platinum filament in a Wheatstone bridge measuring circuit. A poisoning will lead to the properties of the catalyst being temporarily or permanently damaged so that the sensitivity of the instrument to flammable gases is greatly reduced or vanishes altogether. in relation to oxygen. High concentrations of flammable gas and/or low concentrations of oxygen give misleading. portable combustible detector. We have mentioned that the reading of the explosimeter depends on the concentration and diffusion coefficient of the flammable gas. at the catalyst surface may result in the combustion reaction being completely prevented. which give a solid deposit on the outer surface of the catalyst.12. All explosimeters must therefore from time to time be checked with its calibration gas. and never at lower oxygen concentrations than approximately 10% O2 by volume 9. The model GP-204 is suitable and recommended for testing tanks. so that the explosimeter gives reading of close to zero for such a high concentration.4. . manholes.4. and it is known that hydrogen sulphide from sour crude may act in this manner. pipe lines and other closed systems. The bestknown catalyst poisons are silicones and vapours from leaded gasoline.

The resistance ”D” increases during catalytic combustion. this circuit includes a compensating filament “C” and two fixed resistance’s “R1 & R2”. Samples of air . are sucked through the instrument by means of a suction bellow. Besides the measuring filament “D”. which may contain flammable gases or vapours. The content of flammable Gases effects a heated platinum filament (D = detecting element) which forms part of a Wheatstone bridge measuring circuit as shown in the circuit diagram on the right hand side. .”D” is exposed to the gas. ”C” is isolated from the gas.

hence the lowest concentration which can produce an explosion. To run a gas test. Control clockwise to determine maximum voltage setting. . continue with the next steps of preliminary adjustment. Check zero setting by turning the switch in “ON” position. The sampling hose being used for this instrument should not be used for sampling with other instruments. Confirm operating of pilot light/meter illuminating lamp. put the switch in “VOLT ADJ:” position. Hold probe within space to be tested. Turn the instrument to ON position.3 Interpretation Meter readings are taken on a scale graduated 0 – 100% LEL. If the voltage is satisfactory. Make it a rule that a specific measuring instrument has its own sampling hose. Instrument is adjusted and ready to use. 5. Flush the instrument with fresh air and turn it off. which is located on the left-hand end. With sample inlet in fresh air. 4. Lift and turn VOLT ADJ.2 Operation In a gas hazardous area the instrument should always be in the carrying case and strapped to this. Admit a sample of some combustible gas to the end of probe and confirm that the meter rises upscale. adjust voltage if necessary 2. If not. The abbreviation LEL stands for Lower Explosive Limit and represents the lowest concentration which can be ignited by a source of ignition.The flammable gases or vapours in the air are oxidised and burn at the surface of the measuring filament “D”. squeeze bulb several times to flush out any remaining gas from the instrument.12. Now it may be turned off and carried to the job area. Do not attempt to use instrument at all if reading cannot be set up to the mark or beyond the mark.4. Meter should rise to the “check” position near top of the scale. This quantity is also spoken as the LFL – Lower Flammable Limit. and also connect the probe to the end of the hose. 4. This corresponds to the content of flammable gases in the sample. check the battery voltage. 3. proceed as follow: 1. lift and turn the “ZERO” knob to bring the reading exactly to “0”.12. Before taking the instrument to the hazardous area. Couple the sampling hose to the instrument’s inlet pipe. zero adjust if necessary. If the needle cannot be set beyond the VOLT ADJ mark. Meter should read close to zero. 9. position. bring the instrument to a safe area before changing taking place. Turn the instrument to VOLT ADJ. as follows: 1. After completion of test.4. Squeeze bulb several times (4 times for each metre of sampling hose being used) while watching the meter and observe maximum reading. batteries need recharging or replacing for full capacity. To check the voltages. 9. Do not replace batteries in a hazardous area. 2. and the evolution of heat causes a change in the resistance of the platinum wire which gives rise to an imbalance in the Wheatstone bridge. 3. remove probe from test space.

This curve is delivered together with the instrument.The element assembly. consisting of an active filament and a . Element replacement . The calibration potentiometer is a slotted-shaft control located above right upper corner of meter. This curve is drawn in terms of percent LEL for both co-ordinates. while sampling a known concentration of combustible gas. the following auxiliary controls are available.4 Maintenance Calibration and adjustment .8% by volume. 9.8% by volume will produce a reading of 100% LEL and lower concentrations will be read in proportion.12. but for the maximum accuracy a calibration curve for various gases has to be used.The mode GP – 204 is calibrated before shipment to read directly in percent of LEL of iso-butane in air.This adjustment is used to set meter reading to the desired level.In addition to the normal operating controls found on the top of the panel. See the table below. This 1. Calibration potentiometer . Other combustible gases will read approximately correctly in terms of explosibility. In the GP204 the top plate must be removed by taking out the screws in each corner.4. based on the known LEL for iso-butane of 1. Turn clockwise to increase meter reading.

Pull out both filaments and replace with new ones in same position. When meter cannot be set as high as the “Check” line with switch in “VOLT ADJ:” position and “VOLT ADJ. The flame arrestor may be removed by taking out the four screws that hold the plate in which the elements are installed.12. Keep hose clean and are sure that couplings make airtight contact. 1. 3. If a calibration gas is available reset span. Remove bottom plate.” knob all the way clockwise.12. wet. Meter Lamp The meter lamp is on whenever the instrument is on. Loosen the two panel hold-down screws. Extension hoses in various lengths are available. loosen (do not remove) the three screws holding the terminals for red. 9. and drying thoroughly in air. Before re-installing flame arrestor in instrument.6 Sample system Hose The hose used is Teflon lined synthetic rubber jacketed and immune to absorption or attack by any combustible vapours or solvents. Check occasionally by holding finger over hose inlet. Flame arrestor The active filament is installed within a sintered bronze porous metal cup. If lamp fails. batteries require replacement or recharging. black and white wires.5 size D/R 20 Maxell 100) will give 3 hours (maximum) of operating time.4. it must be cleaned or replaced. Install wires on terminals as before. be sure that the reaction chamber cavity and incoming lines are clean and dry. Check that gaskets are in place on element before installation. These dry cells (UM-1/1.5 Batteries The model GP-204 is furnished with two standard size “D” dry cells.similar but enclosed reference filament. 9.4. remove and invert top panel. and loosen the coin slotted captive screw found in centre of bottom plate. If flame arrestor is dusty. replace it as follows: . Take the instrument out of the leather case. Be sure that the active (black wire) filament is in the cavity with the flame arrestor. 6. Observing polarity as marked on holder. 5. Pull old batteries out and install new ones in the same position. rinsing from the inside out. Preferred cleaning method is by washing in detergent solution. and provides illumination to permit reading meter in dark places. using calibration potentiometer. Remove the two Phillips head screws holding cross-shaped element retainer in place. oily or corroded. 2. To replace batteries. Pull wires from terminal.”. With switch off. remove instrument from hazardous area. or if reading cannot be set high enough on a calibration gas. exposing batteries in their spring contact holders. Bulb should remain flattened after squeezing if there is no leak. should be replaced if zero cannot be set within range of “ZERO ADJ. 4. Turn instrument on and adjust zero. which acts as a flame arrestor to retain explosions that may occur when sampling explosive gas/air mixtures.

which can be much more intense than those in air can. However. samples containing 10% oxygen or more have enough oxygen to give a full reading on any combustible gas sample up to the LEL. 4.4. Very rich mixtures will give a zero or negative reading. and is available as an accessory. This heat may cause damage to the filament or tend to shorten its life. so sustained testing of samples beyond the meter range should be avoided.7 Precautions and notes on operation 1.Certain substances have the property of desensitising the catalytic surface of the platinum filament. The alarm circuit thus insures that a very rich sample will not be overlooked. especially those above the LEL.1.When sampling spaces such as hot tanks that are warmer than the instrument remember that condensation can occur as the sample passes through the cool sample line. they may also condense in the sample line and fail to reach the filament. Remove four screws holding top plate to the top panel. considerable heat is liberated at the filament. Do not attempt to . A water trap can be used to control this.When high concentrations of gas are sampled. These substances are termed “Catalyst Poison” and can result in reduced sensitivity or in failure to give a reading on samples containing combustible gas. 5.Samples having more than the normal proportion of oxygen will give a normal reading. As a general rule.12. Heated samples . may tend to read low if there is not enough oxygen to react with all combustible gas present in the sample.Samples. Water vapour condensed in this way can block the flow system and corrode the flame arrestor. Oxygen enriched mixtures . they should be avoided because the flame arrestor used is not dense enough to arrest flames from combustible gas in oxygen. which lock lamp wires to terminal and pull the lamp out. Loosen set of screws. 3. Element poisoning . · Mixture up to 100% LEL reading on scale. A calibration check on a known iso-butane gas is the most dependable as an indication of normal sensitivity. Take off top plate exposing lamp. the following instrument action may be expected. Install new lamp in the same position. then comes back down on scale or below. which do not have the normal proportion of oxygen. The most commonly encountered catalyst poisons are the silicone vapours. A convenient calibration accessory is available and described under “Accessories”. Thus an erroneous low reading may be obtained. When sampling rich mixtures. Rich mixture . and samples containing such vapours even in small proportions should be avoided. as it could otherwise be with a simple indicating instrument. If heated hydrocarbon vapours of the heavier hydrocarbons (flash point 90oF or above) are present. · Mixtures between LEL and Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) readings at top of meter. depending upon concentration. Occasional calibration checks on known gas samples are necessary. · Mixtures above UEL – When a sample is introduced. 2. especially if the possibility exists of exposure to silicones. 9. the meter is sent to the top of scale. Oxygen deficient mixtures .

Batteries are not supplied with the analyser.use the model GP-204 on samples of combustible gas in oxygen.4.13 Servomex. . This glassbodied trap. Any modification to the standard analyser. The analyser is supplied with a filter. type OA 262 WARNING! To ensure safe operation in hazardous applications.4. In case of doubt contact Servomex or their agents. will invalidate certification. and empty or clean bowl and filter whenever visible water or dust accumulate.Additional lengths of extension hoses may be used for sampling from deep tanks and spaces.13.Lloyds has approved the analyser as suitable for shipboard use. hydrogen. the analyser must be used to comply with the conditions of certification. The oxygen content of the gas is indicated directly on a 70mm scale taut band meter after suitable zero and span adjustments. Failure to do so may invalidate the certification.2 Hazardous area and shipboard use Hazardous area . 9. The 262A is powered by dry cells batteries which are housed in a waterproof compartment at the rear of the analyser.1 General description The Servomex portable oxygen analyser type 262A is a robust lightweight instrument built for industrial. Certificate BAS No. with sintered metal filter. marine and laboratory applications. groups B.For hazardous areas the 262A is certified by BASEEFA as intrinsically safe code Ex ia s IIC T4 to SFA 3012. and gasoline vapours. The front panel controls are symbolic. The polyurethane hoses are satisfactory for most samples including natural gas. division 1. All analysers are supplied with a hand aspirator and silica gel dryer. Battery checks are also selected with this switch. 74149. 9. Inspect trap periodically while in use. Instruments up to serial no. This analyser is used on marine applications throughout the world. Where there is danger of water being drawn into the instrument. 2983 are approved by “Factory Mutual” for use in class 1.4.13. couples to the indicator inlet and will collect water that is drawn into or condensed in sample hose. elements of which are and simply replaced from the front of the instrument. 6. 1975 applies. SFA 3009. 0-100. Regular sample hoses connect to inlet of trap when it is installed on the instrument. and 0-10% are selected by a rotary switch on the front panel. The ranges. such that engineers from many different nations can understand them. or repairs or servicing using parts that are not specified or approved by Servomex. relevant standards and codes of practice. Accessories . 9. oxygen analyser. C and D hazardous locations. 0-25. Seaworthiness . a water trap should be used. Report 25243 dated August 30th.

3% F.D. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate (Sjøfartsdirektoratet) has also approved the analyser for use on board ship. Polypropylene.01% oxygen per degree.D. Specification Specification 0-10%.S. (6. Maximum inlet pressure.S. 0 to 3 I/min.D.Certificate Lon. (14kPa). Pyrex glass. Nickel. Quartz Oxygen ranges Effect of ambient temperature . 2 psi. 0100% O2. Acetal copolymer. The accuracy will be maintained for a temperature change of +/.5Ib).010% O2. depending on sample. Indication on front panel meter. Range: Accuracy 0-100% O2. +/. Effect of tilt Weight (net) Sample pressure Flow rate pressure Materials contact with sample gas .S. 0-25%.3% F. +/. The analyser will operate between the temperature of –10oC to 50oC (14 to 122oF). 3kg.10oC (18oF) of the calibration temperature 0.3% F.0-25% O2.574 applies. Selected by front panel switch.AGR/MI dated 24.10.75 applies). Glass micro fibre. +/. (Reference letter A-44140/75. Platinum. 409515.

Two hexagon wrenches (2. In portable oxygen analysers.13. Polypropylene.glass. forming a . Calibration gases Accessories Case material 9. Span on clean dry air or high purity O2 if desired. Drying tube. Zero on O2 free nitrogen (N2). The case is splash proof and sealed against ingress of water. provided the sealing gaskets around the front panel and battery compartment are in good condition.3 How the Servomex oxygen analyser works The physical property. which distinguishes oxygen from most other gases. the convenience and sensitivity of Faraday’s arrangement are increased by having a sphere at both ends of the bar. Waterproof case with shoulder strap. who demonstrated that a magnet attracted a hollow glass sphere at the end of a horizontal rod supported by silk fibres when filled with oxygen. Faraday discovered this in 1851. Stainless steel 316. Viton. is its paramagnetism. Synthetic rubber.4.5 and 3mm).

The output from the photocell is amplified and fed back to a coil wound on the dumb-bell. The only common gases having comparable paramagnetic susceptibility are NO. The heart of the Servomex analyser is a measuring cell using these principles. and being slightly diamagnetic. due to the oxygen in the sample. When the surrounding gas contains oxygen. A magnetic oxygen analyser cannot therefore be used where these gases occur in the mixture other than in trace amounts. it takes up a position away from the most intense part of the field. The strength of the torque acting on the dumb-bell will be proportional to the paramagnetism of the surrounding gas: it can therefore be used as a measure of the oxygen concentration. The measuring system is thus “null-balanced”. It is important to note. which seals the gas surrounding it. however. that in the direct method of measuring susceptibility no other physical property of the gases has any significant effect. due to the feedback current. the dumb-bell spheres are pushed further out of the field by the relatively strongly paramagnetic oxygen. The dumb-bell is suspended in a symmetrical non-uniform magnetic field.“dumb-bell”. NO2 and CO2. . and has all the inherent advantages of this type of system. is balanced by a restoring torque. so that the torque. The “zero” position of the dumb-bell is sensed by a split photocell receiving light reflected from a mirror on the suspension. but having a rare metal suspension in place of the delicate materials used in earlier designs.

Linearity of scale also makes it possible to calibrate the instrument for all ranges by checking at two points only. For example.4 Operating procedures Installation and changing of the batteries.4. a proportional output voltage can be developed. It is recommended that alkaline batteries be used.Because of the extremely linear relationship between the feedback current and the susceptibility of the sample. . accurate calibration is obtained by using nitrogen for zero and air for setting the span at 21% 9. The following batteries are required: 3 of 1.13. and various ranges can be obtained by means of a switched attenuator.5V Type IEC LR6 (HP7) 1 of 9V Type IEC 6F22 (PP3).

The reading should be greater than 60 on the 0-100 scale. Care must be taken.13. Under no circumstances should these components be removed or tampered with. . as indicated by + and .6 Calibration Frequency of calibration . due to variance in atmospheric pressure.5V batteries if the reading is low. If the analyser is to be stored for a longer period of time. One minute with the standard hand aspirator should be enough. when fitting new batteries. Do not replace batteries in a hazardous area 9. The 9V battery has a terminal clip that can only mate when the battery is correctly positioned.Check the zero adjustment weekly.7 Span Switch the control to the 25% range. remove the batteries. Various resistors are potted into a recess in the battery compartment. Set Zero . Adjust the screw for the span adjustment so that the meter reads 21% oxygen on the 0-25% scale. it is advised that calibration should be rechecked. A battery strap is provided for easy removal of old batteries. Adjust the screw for zero adjustment so that the meter reads 0% oxygen. 9. Introduce oxygen free nitrogen into the instrument at a pressure between 1 to 2 psig. If there is a large difference in ambient temperature between the point of measurement and the last calibration.13. The reading should be greater than 60 on the 0-100 scale. ensure that the filter. Change the 1.5 Battery checks Check that the batteries are fully operational: Select switch position “B1”. cell and sample lines have been purged thoroughly. These batteries will not make contact if fitted the wrong way round.4. Stop the gas flow. Stop the gas flow. When using the instrument for higher concentrations of oxygen it is recommended that pure oxygen is used on the 0-100% range for optimum accuracy. When changing from air or oxygen to nitrogen or vice versa.13.Switch the control to 10% range. Select switch position “B2”.signs moulded into the plastic holder. 9. The batteries must be installed with the correct polarity.4. With long sample lines a pump is recommended.The batteries are housed in a waterproof compartment at the bottom of the analyser. The span adjustment should be checked daily when in use.5V battery is “+” and the base “-”.4. Introduce dry air into the instrument at a pressure between 1 and 2 psig (7 to 14 kPa). The hand aspirator and a drying tube are convenient for this. The stud of a 1. not to damage the gasket sealing the edge of the battery compartment. This compartment is opened using the 3mm-hexagon wrench supplied with the analyser. (7 to 14 kPa). Change the 9V battery if the reading is low.

Set switch to range required. 2.4. Check the battery voltage.4. Remove the chassis by placing one hand over the front.10 Replacement of measuring cell 1.13. The use of inferior replacement components may degrade the performance of the analyser and invalidate any certificates. the crystals can be regenerated by removing from the drying tube and drying in an oven at about 110-1200C. 9. Remove the two hexagon socket screws.13.8 Measuring sample gas Connect the hand aspirator to the sample inlet by means of the drying tube. Never substitute a hard surface for a hand. 9. which is situated between the inside of the lower magnet space and the chassis wall. Pump the hand aspirator until the reading is steady.9 Maintenance WARNINGS Only qualified personnel who are familiar with good workshop practice should do maintenance of the analyser. Unscrew the nuts on the cell supporting the gas connections (use non-magnetic spanners). which is guarding the front. Ensure that sufficient sample gas has been taken to flush out the sample lines. The drying tube must always be used. Connect sample tube to the aspirator and place in space to be checked. CAUTION. it is not recommended that air or pure oxygen be put into the analyser when it is switched to the 0-10% range. This will prevent the chassis falling out accidentally. Replacement parts should be to the quality specified by Servomex in the part lists.4. 9. which retain the cell and slacken the third retaining screw. which may apply. 4. The analyser will be damaged if water or liquids are allowed to get into the instrument. 3. Remove the six hexagon socket stainless steel screws holding the front panel into the case and keep them in a secure place. Apply minimal heat to the pins on the cell. 5.13. and turn the analyser upside down. Should the chassis not come out very readily. bring the analyser sharply down on the flat of the hand. Unsolder the electrical leads.To prevent possible damage. . However. unless the sample is known to be dry.

Allow the photocell assembly and mount to lay away from the magnet. 7. 5. Adjust the zero and span of the analyser. Reconnect the cell gas connections.4.6. When fitting a new cell. Confirm with the analyser’s instruction manual. Black to the pin with a black spot near it and yellow to the pin with a yellow spot. which fix the retaining plate to the photocell mount. 8. 2. Remove the two screws holding the LED mount. Withdraw the LED and mount and unsolder the leads to the LED. 4. Replace the LED and secure the retaining strip. 5. Remove the screws and plate and manoeuvre the photocell mount through the springs of the support. 4. Unsolder the leads. Adjust the span. 9. 9. which hold the photocell mount to the control magnet assembly. For replacing the amplifier board.13. The photocells are located to the side of the magnet assembly. Withdraw the measuring cell and replace it with a new cell type 286. is nearest the front panel.4. Replace with new LED and sleeve and solder the leads.11 Replacement of photocells 1. Tighten the remaining screws in the reverse order described for the removal of the cell.12 Replacement of LED 1. Ensure the zero adjustment is at the centre of its travel and move the photocells until the analyser reads as near to zero as possible. 7. Leave the two retaining screws slack and pass nitrogen into the analyser. ensure that the ball of the dumbbell. 10. 8. Remove the two screws. Any doubts about the analyser or its equipment. 9. meter. For circuit diagram. Adjust the zero and span. just in front of and above the measuring cell. filter block and circuit description do confirm with the instruction manual. 7. . 8. 3. which gives a reading with air between 20 and 22 % oxygen. Replace the photocell assembly and mount. Tighten the screws and make a final zero adjustment. 6.13. 9. 6. Replace the cell. 3. 10. in this case change R23 on the printed circuit board 00262905. Replace the new photocells on their mount in reverse order. contact the manufacturer or any of the manufacturer's agents. see the instruction manual. Solder the electrical connections to the solder pins on the cell. 2. to a value. Release the two screws. 9. Should the analyser not zero or the adjustment is at one end of its travel. It may not be possible to span the analyser. Remove sleeving from old LED and discard lamp. which is nearest to the cell window. Confirm with the analyser’s instruction book. readjust the photocells.

If the case of model OX-226. Preparation . a change in oxygen concentration on this electrode produces a proportional change in the cell’s output voltage. b).4. an increase in oxygen concentration will “speed up” the electro-chemical process.Turn the control switch (1) to “Batt” zone and check the meter needle marks inside of “Batt” zone. It is intended primarily as an indicator of oxygen deficiency. the . Under a test where one electrode is exposed to the atmosphere. lowering the output voltage. it keeps the electrolyte contained in the cavity between the two electrodes. with good readability from 0 – 25%. 2. The centre electrode is exposed to the atmosphere by means of a Teflon membrane placed directly in contact with the polished top surface. manholes. and a decrease in oxygen concentration will “slow down” the process. producing a higher output voltage. 3.226 1. Model OX-226 and OX-227 provide a quick. Voltage checks of battery .Connect the sampling hose (6) to the gas sampling probe (7) and then connect it to the gas inlet of the instrument. Model Ox . Summary Riken portable oxygen indicator. Principle The oxygen cell operates by an electro-chemical process in which a voltage is set up between two electrodes.14 Riken portable oxygen indicator. The instrument is routinely calibrated on normal atmospheric oxygen concentration (21%). Therefore. it has the ability to pass oxygen molecules freely. This Teflon membrane serves two functions simultaneously. vessels and other spaces to determine safety from the standpoints of oxygen deficiency before entering and while work is in progress. First. convenient method for determination of oxygen content of any atmosphere. thus placing the electrode in direct contact with the atmosphere and secondly. These models are most suitable and recommended for testing tanks.9. Measurement procedure a).

alarm light (4) illuminates and it gives us the warning of oxygen deficiency by buzzer sound. try it with 0-25% range. When making span adjustment of Model OX-227. when the oxygen concentration is less than 18% by volume.Maintenance procedure The replacement of batteries and recharging procedure. c).battery drop can be heard as a buzzer sound. 2 and 3. When the meter needle can not be adjusted to 21% by turning the span adjusting knob and the indication of meter needle gets unstable. 2. a). When Ni-Cd batteries are used for the instrument. The replacement of batteries and recharging procedure must be done in nonhazardous areas. the instrument is ready to run. Take off the leather case from the instrument and turn the battery box knob (11) to “open” position. When the replacement of batteries is finished. Introduce the sampling probe to the source and start measurement. put back the battery box in correct position and turn the battery box knobs (11) to “Lock” position with finger press. The cover comes off by sliding it sidewise. take off the bottom screws of the instrument and remove the cover. The recharging takes 15 hours. Replacement of sensor. 4. b). In this case. Turn the sensor to left and adjust . Caution 1. 3. Span adjustment . Pull out the whole battery box and replace the batteries with new ones. and plug the charger into AC 100V.Turn the control switch (1) to “25” and make span adjustment by spanning adjusting knob so as to bring the meter needle to 21%. this is the sign to replace the sensor. 5. Measurement After finishing the above procedure items 1. detach the label (12) of charging inlet and insert the exclusive charger to the charging jack. In the case of Model OX-226. Replacement procedure (Ni-Cd battery). c). Operate the instrument in leather case when in use. Check the flow pump by the flow monitor during operation.

Zero adjustment As the zero adjustment is factory set. Take off the tip of the sampling probe by turning the metal part of roulette and replace the cotton filter with a new one. Now the sensor can be removed.the mark to “open”. there is no need of zero adjustment procedure in normal operation. make zero adjustment. When they appear dirty.. Replace it with a new one. Replacement of filter The filters are filled in the gas-sampling probe and in instrument. Insert the new sensor and turn it in clockwise direction to the mark “lock”. replace them with new ones. . when it is high sensitive type instrument such as Model OX227A with 0-5 and 0-25% etc. Place the cover back. Pull out the filter holder (10) of the instrument’s flank and take out the filter. Induct 100% clean nitrogen and turn the adjusting screw to bring the needle to zero. But.

4. A colour change occurs along the tube and the length of the discoloration. Since the measurement depends on passing a fixed volume of gas through the glass tube. It is not permissible to use a tube from one manufacturer with a hand pump from another manufacturer. For each type of tube the manufacturer must guarantee the standards of accuracy laid down by national standards. In some versions of these instruments. is read off a scale integrated with the tube. which is a measure of the gas concentration. detector tubes and metering pumps made by “Dräger” are the most frequently used. in preparation for tank entry. Tanker operators should consult the regulatory authority appropriate for the ship’s flag. the seals at each end of the glass tube are broken. To use the device. It is important that all the components used for any measurement should be from the same manufacturer.9. a hand operated injection syringe is used instead of a bellow pump. The tubes are designed and intended to measure concentrations of gas in the air. Under some circumstances errors can occur if several gases are present at the same time. Thus measurements made in a ventilated tank. and several manufacturers make metering pumps and accompanying detector tubes for a great number of various gases.4. and a prescribed volume of gas mixture is drawn through the tube at a rate fixed by the bellow’s expansion rate. 9. the tube is inserted in a bellows-type fixed volume displacement handpump.16 Dräger Multi Gas Detector In our experience. A more detailed description is given in the instruction book for “Dräger Multi Gas Detector”. Probably the most convenient and suitable equipment to use for measuring very low concentrations of toxic gases on board tankers are chemical indicator tubes.15 Detector tubes for health hazardous gases Health hazardous gases may be detected through chemical colour reactions. if an extension hose is used it should be placed between the glass tube and the hand pump. . It is also important that the manufacturers’ operating instructions are carefully observed. These tubes consist of a sealed glass tube containing a proprietary filling which is designed to react with a specific gas and to give a visible indication of the concentration of that gas. should be reliable. The manufacturer should be consulted for guidance. as one gas can interference with the measurement of another.

Various chemical substances are used for tube fillings. The detector tube is placed in the suction of the hose. A breaking socket accompanying the apparatus can also be used for this. an extension hose may be used. To avoid corrosion. according to the instructions accompanying the instrument may usually eliminate any leakage that has arisen.16. For some gases there are several types of tubes. so that there are tubes for measuring very low concentrations and for measuring larger concentration ranges.1 Opening of the tubes Both ends of the tube are opened in the hole. .16.2 Installation of the tube in the pump The opened sampling tube is inserted into the pump head so that the arrow on the tube points toward the pump. corresponding to different numbers of pump strokes.4. depending on the gas to be analysed. It is important that the pump is checked to see if it is tight before it is being used. In some cases two scales will be marked on the tube. The tube must be attached firmly and tightly in the pump head so that false air is not sucked in. To perform measurements with difficult accessibility. This prevents glass fragments from falling down. 9. The bellows should then use more than 10 minutes to expand for the pump to be satisfactory.4. sealing the opening with an unused detector tube does this. which is provided for that purpose in the pump. the pump must be purged with air by performing a number of pumping strokes each time after use. Cleaning the valves. 9.

Kwik-Draw Pumps are designed for one-hand operation and consistent delivery of a sample draw volume of 100 millilitres (ml). 4. Description SA’s Kwik-Draw and Kwik-Draw Deluxe Pumps can be used with an assortment of MSA detector tubes to spot-test the atmosphere for a wide variety of toxic substances. The air (to be measured) flows through the sampling tube and into the bellow while this again expands to its original volume.e.4. The operating instructions.4. During the compression the air is squeezed out of the bellow through an exhaust valve. The time will depend on how tightly the powder is packed in the tube. 9. Kwik-Draw Detector Tube Pumps Kwik-Draw Pumps allow detection of gases and vapours with the squeeze of a .9. indicated in the operating instructions. MSA offers detector tubes for measuring more than 150 gases and vapours. Specialised kits are available for use in HAZMAT work and underground storage tank applications. 2. and at this stage 100cm3 has been sucked through the tube. The suction action of the pump takes place when the compression springs inside the bellow expand after the compression. The suction movement comes to an end when the distance chain is tight once again. The specified number of pump strokes. 3. Tubes are printed with easy-to-read scales. should be used for each sampling tube. give i. Quick and inexpensive to use.25 seconds.3 Suction of a gas sample The bellow is pressed together completely and is then released. the approximate time for each pump stroke. for example 15 . which accompany each packet of tubes. Kwik-draw pumps offer accurate one-handed automatic stroke counter and unique end of stroke indicator on deluxe version.16. A reliable method of testing more than 120 hazardous gases and vapours. The pumps are constructed with a shaft-guided compression system for a more consistent and replicable flow rate and volume per stroke than may be available with hand-guided pumps.17 MSA – Detector Tubes and Kwik-draw Pump Features 1. 5.

The length or shade of the colour-change. see the Detector Tube Summary Chart which follows the Detector.The Kwik-Draw Pump is a one-handed. · Dräger's Model 31 Bellow Pump. Detector tubes. 2. the chemical layer in the tube changes colour if the test gas or vapour is present in the air. have break-off tips and are filled with treated chemical granules for sampling a variety of substances. 1. A second model. A scale is printed on each tube for interpretation of data. As long as a pump meets the following criteria. sampling time and flow – must be within the same accuracy range. Pumps meeting these criteria are interchangeable.handle. Description . The characteristics of the pump.This rubber part permits mounting of detector tubes. Sampling Pump Operation and Maintenance. MSA/Auer detectors are made of glass. The pump’s compression system provides the guiding action to drive a spring-loaded bellow pump. the Kwik-Draw Deluxe Pump has a unique end-of-stroke indicator that “winks” after the precise volume of air is drawn. Most MSA/Auer detector tubes are packaged 10 in a box. the following pumps are interchangeable: · MSA's Kwik-Draw Pumps. The Kwik-Draw Pump is designed to measure concentrations of gases and vapours when used with AUER/MSA Detector Tubes. Controlled Interchange ability of MSA/AUER Detector Tubes and Pumps with Other Manufacturers’ Tubes and Pumps. After air is drawn through the tube by the pump. 3. indicates the concentration of the gas or vapour in the air. remote sampling . To obtain a precise (100ml) sample volume. The detector tubes must have an outer diameter of 7 mm and be factorycalibrated with a pump that meets the criteria of (1) above. confirming that enough air has been sampled for a successful reading. it may be used with any detector tube designed for use with that kind of pump. Based on these criteria. An internal easy-to-read stroke counter shows the exact number of strokes performed and provides a positive stop when the stroke is fully compressed. The manufacturer of tubes and pumps must operate under a certified quality assurance program. the user would break off the tubes’ end tips and attach the tube to the sampling pump. For ordering information.volume per stroke. · Dräger's Accuro Pump. After selecting the appropriate tube. manually operated bellow pump of 100cc capacity. the user simply grasps the handgrip and pushes the knob. Tube Holder . · AUER's Gas Tester II H Pump.

This porous plastic disc mounted in the rubber tube holder protects the pump from dirt and dust particles. Maintenance Under conditions of normal use. the eye begins to roll back to black. connecting tube. The stroke is over when the eye returns to the all black state.As the bellow begins to re-inflate. in this order. · To evaluate the stain. remote sampling line and detector tube together. insert the tube into the rubber tube holder. Remote sampling Remote sampling is accomplished by putting the pump. The stroke is over when the eye is all black. · Using a twisting motion. · Release the knob. As the vacuum decreases. Operation · Using the breaker on the pump. End-of-stroke indicator . periodic cleaning and checks for correct . break off both tips of the detector tube. the counter will only advance if a full pump stroke is taken. Filter Disc . the end-of-stroke indicator turns to high-visibility green.Kwik-Draw Pump (part no. follow the instructions provided with the detector tubes. Stroke counter . and after the knob is released. the indicator eyeball turns high visibility green. Depending on the frequency of use. · With all four fingers on the handle. Note! . this valve closes as the bellow reinflates. Note! If your pump does not have the end-of-stroke indicator. depress the knob with your palm. this pump should require little maintenance. Note! Watch the stroke counter to ensure proper sample volume. 488543) does not have an end-of-stroke indicator. Exhaust Valve . The detector tube must be held in the sampling area during this period. and readily opens on the exhaust stroke so that blow-back through the tube holder is negligible. · Re-zero stroke counter.Located under the valve cover. a stroke counter is incorporated into the pump handle. wait 30 seconds after full bellow inflation to ensure that all 100cc of the sample has been drawn through the tube.lines or other detectors. which may alter the flow or damage the pump. · As the pump re-inflates.For convenience. The arrow on the tube should point toward the pump.

Pump performance test After extended idleness and periodically during use. should only be regarded as a guide to the principles involved.Replace tube holder when it shows signs of wear or loss of elasticity. and an explosimeter. and wait 10 minutes. injury or death. Warning! Use of a pump that leaks may result in the under-estimation of a hazard and could result in property damage. Valves 1. For measuring hydrocarbon gases in percent of volume the instrument. Finally. The pump is leak-free if the distance from the bellow to the frame is ½ inch or greater after 10 minutes. Read the instruction book following the Detector! 9. If the pump leaks check the tube holder and. we use the “Riken 17HC”. and . check the pump for proper performance with the following test: 1. Remove dirt with a gentle puff of air or by using a soft brush. 2. Remove filter disc from tube holder by rolling flange part of tube holder down and away from the disc. we saw that when measuring oxygen content we use the instrument “Servomex OA-262”.Periodically remove the filter disc for cleaning or replacement. remove shaft by unscrewing. Plug pump inlet by inserting an unbroken detector tube into tube holder. check the valves for dirt or debris. Tube holder . is added to a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture. 3.5 FLAMMABILITY COMPOSITION DIAGRAM In 9. Filter disc . If filter is not clogged or cracked. Gently tap or blow on the surface to remove any foreign matter. With the valve cover removed. Replace valve(s) if necessary. The effects illustrated on the following two diagrams. Deflate pump fully. After repair. Replace disc so previously exposed surface is once again facing away from pump. “Riken GP-204” is used for measuring combustible gas below LEL in air. Shaft If shaft becomes dirty or if bellow inflation is jerky. if necessary. the “Drager Multi Gas Detector” is used for measuring low concentrations of toxic gas. When an inert gas.4. save the filter discs for re-use in new tube holder. the result increases the lower flammability limit hydrocarbon concentration in order to decrease the upper flammability limit concentration. re-test for leakage. release.performance as recommended. the valves (see Maintenance). typically flue gas. then clean with auto wax. one for crude oil and one for propane gas. 2.

the atmosphere contains 100% clean air. so the ratio will be close to one to five. specified in terms of its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents. The missing 2. During the ballast voyage.should not be used for deciding acceptable gas compositions.5%.5%. When multiplying 0. During discharging the cargo tanks where refilled with inert gas. The following example is based on a cargo of crude oil.5% volume oxygen is still missing in the atmosphere in order to call it clean air. The bottom line of the diagram (horizontal) represents the oxygen content from 0% to 21%. The quality of the supplied inert gas was in accordance to the regulations in force. in order to avoid entering the flammable zone. the result will be 2. The first flammability diagram is for hydrocarbon gas above crude oil where the UEL is 11% and the LEL is 1.5)= 97.8% by volume of oxygen is the minimum oxygen content present in a mixture's ignition. So. and the amount of clean air in the atmosphere will be (100-2.5% with 5.5% volume.5% from the clean air contain unknown gas concentrations. 0.5%. Every point on the diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture. they have to be re-inerted. . The left side of the diagram (vertical) gives the hydrocarbon gas value. proper tank venting is extremely important. Water washing takes place in an inerted atmosphere and before any tanks are vented with air. 10. Also when measuring 21% oxygen. the arrival ballast tanks are cleaned. Note that 21% oxygen represents 100% clean air and. as mentioned before. For example when measuring the oxygen content at 20. After discharging is completed the tank atmosphere contains a mixture of inert gas and “cargo gas”.

All measurements taken from now on will follow a straight line from point “D” toward point “B”.6% and O2= 4. through the flammable zone involving a great deal of danger. From point “B” a line is drawn against the left side of the diagram by keeping sufficient clearance from the flammable zone.5% by volume. which measures hydrocarbon gas by volume until the HC-gas content is below 1. These values are plotted on the diagram and give the point “A”. O2=3%. Also. all the measurements taken would have followed a straight line from point “A” toward point “B”. In point “D” we stop the inerting and start venting with air. Point “B” represents 21% oxygen and 0% HC. The inert gas that is supplied contains an O2 of 4. which the re-inerting is heading toward.2%. point “D”. because the content of hydrocarbon gas is above LEL. All measurements will follow a straight line from point “A” to point “C”. This is the LEL value in this example. Avoid all contact with the flammable zone! At point “D” there it is still too early to use the explosimeter. Continue to use the instrument.5%. Point “C” on the diagram is the point. If we had started to vent with air at point “A”.Follow example “1” on the this page: After water washing is completed the measurements in point “A” give the following values: HC=15%. the hydrocarbon concentration of . Where the line from point “A” crosses the line from point “B” the following measurements are found: HC= 2. to repeat.

75% and O2= 0%. After inspection/repairing.5 = 66. Continue to purge with nitrogen until reaching point “C” where the measurements are HC= 3. the tank(s) must be re-inerted before arrival at loading port in order to achieve the required tank atmosphere according to the regulations in force.3%. Example “2” .67% of LEL. The above example is based on propane cargo. In our example. It is also possible to calculate the explosimeter reading ahead of the measuring by using the formula where measured HC gas is multiplied by 100 and divided by LEL. The tank is ready to enter. the measurements are HC= 1% and O2= 15. After some time purging with nitrogen. the explosimeter in point “E” will show (1 x 100): 1.1. a line is drawn from point “B” toward point “C” on the left side of the diagram by keeping sufficient clearance from the flammable zone. a measurement is taken at point “A”: HC= 12% and O2= 0%. After sufficient venting the measuring in point “B” will be HC= 0% and O2= 21%.5% by volume corresponds to 100% LEL. Just like in example “1”. In the example. In point “E”. The hydrocarbon gas concentrations are now below LEL and the explosimeter can be used. . nitrogen and air are used for tank purging and air venting. Follow the diagram for propane.

the tank must be treated according to routines and regulations. it is too early to use the explosimeter. Take a measurement at point “D” which is HC= 2.. .1% by volume.25%. After inspection/repairing etc.1 = 48% of LEL. After sufficient dilution.Stop purging with nitrogen at point “C”.4% and 02= 8%. Start dilution with air. At point “E”. All measurements will now follow the straight line toward point “B”. The explosimeter will in point “E” show (1x100) : 2. When the LEL for propane is 2. point “B” end up with measurements of HC= 0% and 02= 21%. the measurements are HC= 1% and 02= 15.

10- Cargo Pumps .

The discharge pressure is determined by various conditions where the pump’s delivery pipeline design. Definition of capacity range is important. Future maintenance expenses. availability of parts and service now and over the next years. are also important and must be included in the evaluation of alternative pump supplies. Demand for capacity or capacity range and expected discharge pressure must be specified. The capacity requirement is determined by the intended use of the pump. is the essential. The liquid’s properties and which other arrangements you have to consider. installation and maintenance · Availability of parts and service · Suction terms · Characteristics for the liquid to be pumped Selection of the right pump for a determined purpose qualifies a close co-operation between the customer and the producer of the pump. Purchase and installation cost is important. so the producer can choose the best pump from his product range with the best match. The following factors are important when you evaluate these conditions: · Estimated back pressure · Capacity requirement · Capacity range · Requirement for installation and arrangement · Expenses for purchase. When you choose a pump you must find out how much the pump needs to deliver under a specific condition.10 Cargo pumps 10.1 Classification and selection of pumps There are a number of different pump types. Each type has its own special quality and therefore certain advantages and disadvantages. The selection of pumps is determined by a thorough study of the capacity needs and under which operational conditions the pump will operate. the capacity of the pump and the liquid’s characteristics. often . Alternative installation locations of the pump are limited due to special demands from Class and Shipping Authorities and also from lack of space. The customer has a special responsibility to clarify all conditions concerning the pump installation.

mechanically displaces the liquid in the pump. which is controlled by the pump design. have the largest diameter possible and few as possible restrictions in form of bends. Density. either by help of a piston or screws. Resistance on delivery side gives a liquid pressure rise (pump delivery pressure). A kinetic pump like the centrifugal pump increases the liquid’s velocity in the pump by means of a rotating impeller. The pump’s suction condition is determined from where the pump is located in relation to the liquid to be pumped. One should be aware of this difference for these two pump types. In . design of pump inlet/outlet and flow directions. Kinetic pumps (kinetic energy is equal to “movement” energy) increase the liquid’s velocity through the pump. All kinetic pumps therefor have a designed or built-in limitation for maximum discharge pressure. valves and so on. A given suction pipe creates a certain resistance that will have influence on the pump capacity. viscosity and boiling point are important properties to consider. The displacement pumps limitation depends only on available power and the constructional strength. The diagram would be more comprehensive if the pumps were divided in all details according to number of rotors. displacement and kinetic pumps. The different types of pumps are divided into two main groups. The displacement pumps displace the liquid by reducing the volume inside the pump. like the piston pump. A displacement pump.limits the options. The diagram below gives a brief view of the different available groups and types of pumps. An example is a piston pump where the piston is moving up and down inside a cylinder or when the screws revolve inside a screw pump. The main principle is to minimise resistance on the suction side by decreasing the suction pipe length. The pressure rise on a kinetic pump is restricted by the increase in velocity over the pump. The liquid temperature and corrosive properties are important factors when pump material is selected.

A centrifugal pump’s efficiency is high only within a small range. This is the reason it is especially important to have a clear understanding of what capacity range the pump will operate under. A closed-delivery valve on a displacement pump is damaging. These qualities result in relative low purchase and servicing costs. this relationship is important to know . increase the pump’s capacity to deliver against higher backpressure. Location of a pump. High viscosity liquids are therefore particularly difficult to pump due to this condition. Piston pumps and screw pumps have good suction capacity and are used where these characteristics are required. This weakness is improved by constructional efforts and positioning. give complete back flow at the time the pump stops. The same closed delivery valve for a kinetic pump will not bring any immediate danger. A centrifugal pump will.contrast to a kinetic pump. The differential pressure over each impeller is relatively low. for instance below the liquid level. can reduce the flow resistance. Using so-called multistage pumps where several impellers are mounted in serial. in connection with the selection of a centrifugal pump. which consolidate the free flow of liquid. Centrifugal pumps are simply constructed with few parts and no valves. The most negative side of using a centrifugal pump is the lack of self-priming capacity. Operation at high speed makes the pump small in proportion compared to the capacity and flexibility in relation to the pump’s location. without a non-return valve on delivery side. For all operators of centrifugal pumps. There are no immediate problems if the outlet of the pump is closed. such a pump will operate against resistance with all its available power. The weakness of these pumps is the complex construction and the relatively low capacity.

Examples of various pump types Double-suction split-casing centrifugal pump .

such as a centrifugal pump. Here some of the kinetic energy supplied to the liquid in the mixer tube is transformed into potential energy. suction head. Another . The mixer tube is connected to an expanding tube. the surrounding liquid will be sucked into the ejector’s mixer tube. Even if the propellant’s efficiency is up to approximately 70%. The propellant (driving water).2 THE EJECTOR The ejector design is simple and is used for stripping and as bilge pumps in hold and interbarrier spaces. delivery head and the propellant’s velocity. The velocity of the propellant will naturally increase as it passes through the nozzle. The ejector has the advantage that it does not lose the suction capacity even if it sucks air or vapour. The ejector has no revolving or reciprocating parts and is thereby especially easy to maintain. The capacity depends on the friction force between the two mediums. is forced through a nozzle into a mixer tube. Due to the propellant’s velocity and direction. The ejector’s efficiency is between 30% and 40%. the diffusor. the total efficiency for the whole ejector system is far less than compared to a pump system.10. plus the friction force between the propellant and the liquid.

· Start the ejector by opening all valves on delivery side first. This implies that if the ejector is to be used in cargo transfer operation. Tips · Be aware that the ejector has a limitation on the propellant’s pressure. Higher pressure than recommended by the supplier may result in reduced suction capacity. and then adjust the correct propellant pressure. the liquefied cargo itself must be used as a propellant. · Stop the ejector by using the opposite procedure. The ejector is frequently used as a bilge pump in hold spaces. A common arrangement for a hold space is as follows: The ejector is usually submerged in a bilge sump and the propellant is normally supplied from a seawater pump. The ejector’s suction valves should be opened last. the cargo itself must be used as propellant liquid. In that case. Onboard gas carriers where the hull is the secondary barrier. . which will prevent the propellant’s flow back into the tank that is to be stripped. the ejector may also be used to pump cargo from hold space.drawback with ejectors is that the propellant is mixed with the pumping liquid.

You can find the capacity of the ejector by drawing a vertical line from 8 bars on the scale for a delivery head of 15 meters and up to the performance curve with a suction lift of 3 meters. Observe that this curve has curves for different suction lifts. The different performance curves are marked with different suction lifts. draw a horizontal line to the left and over to the ejector’s capacity side. this specific curve shall be used.As the drawing shows the ejector is positioned 3 meters above the liquid level. From this point of intersection. The ejector’s capacity can be found by use of the performance curve for the specific ejector. The liquid level in the slop tank is 15 meters above the ejector and the propellant's pressure is 8 bars. The found capacity in this case is 600 m3/h. . In the performance curve the ejector capacity is set as a function of the propellant pressure. The ejector’s suction lift in this example is 3 meters.

The ejector’s Performance Curves .

F. The size of the vector is given by the angular velocity of the rotor-blade wheel. w. When the blade influences a liquid particle. at point A. This force gives the liquid particle certain acceleration..3 The centrifugal pump 10. we observe the liquid as an amount of small particles and see what occurs with one of these on its way through the rotor-blade wheel. can be expressed as: ua = w x r when w = 2 x p x T The liquid particle will. be affected by power. a.3. the particle achieves a certain velocity. the relation between proportions may be expressed as: . The inlet at the end of the blade will have a precise velocity and direction. The connection between the sizes. It means that the particle performs power F that is equal. which has a direction leading straight out from the centre. The velocity is causing the particle’s centrifugal force. The energy works in the same direction as the velocity vector ua. from the blade marked Fua. marked ua. which is toward the blade housing. For plainness.1 The theory of the centrifugal pump The sketch below indicates a radial section of a rotor-blade wheel for a centrifugal pump. The direction is the key to the circle of the point. but in the opposite direction as Fua.10. We presume further that the rotor-blade wheel is filled with liquid when this is rotating.

When it is the blade that set the liquid in motion. but the liquid’s inner friction (viscosity) resists and reduces the centrifugal force influence. This vector (C) determines the particle’s track through the rotor-blade wheel. you see that the liquid’s absolute velocity can never exceed the rotor-blade wheel’s peripheral speed.e. The system is in balance and a certain relative liquid velocity is achieved. the energy forces Fsa and F1 to produce energy. The rotor-blade wheel sets the liquid in motion. This energy is transformed to potential energy. an absolute velocity (Cd) has been achieved with direction and proportion. The relative velocity factor will try to accelerate the particle. When the rotor-blade wheel is rotating. Wt. The liquid particles are influenced by the relative velocity vector (V) and the blade’s velocity vector (U). The resulting velocity vector gives the particle’s absolute velocity (C). i. the relative velocity will achieve a certain proportion when the inner friction compensates for the centrifugal acceleration. Since the blade governs the liquid. the liquid particles will move lengthways along the blade because of the centrifugal force. and/or pressure energy. As a result of the relative velocity vector (Vd) and the rotor-blade wheel’s velocity vector (Ud). If the only consideration is the liquid’s viscosity. Ws. the relative velocity will have the same direction as the blade. The blade’s deflection will determine the relative direction of the liquid that comes out of the rotor-blade wheel. The connection between these energy forms may be expressed as: Kinetic = Potential energy = Pressure energy or: Wk = Ws = Wt . The relative velocity is a direct expression of the flow through the rotor-blade wheel (the pump). marked F.Fsa = m x a or a = Fsa/m As we see from the sketch. the liquid is supplied with kinetic energy. Wk. In the point “D” the liquid particles leave the rotor-blade wheel.

The theoretical maximum lifting height. is then: ½ mv2 = mgH H = v2/2g The pump’s lifting height is dependent on the liquid’s mass and consequently.If the pump is connected to a high riser. All kinetic energy is transformed to potential energy. If we are placing a number of rotor-blade wheels in serial in order to prevent energy loss. all the kinetic energy will be transformed to pressure energy. we will obtain: Ht1 = Ud2/2g . the liquid will stabilise at a certain level. The liquid’s absolute velocity out of the pump will be to equal to the peripheral speed. Ht1. The pressure after the pump is then: ½ mv2 = mp/r p = ½ v2r Also. If a centrifugal pump is running against a closed valve. the liquid’s density. H. The centrifugal pump’s lifting height. the pressure after the pump is proportional with the liquid’s density. for the pump will be: Ht1 = Cd2/2g when Cd = Ud.

But in our example. is shown on the diagram to you right (marked QHt2). the rotor-blade wheel and deflection loss can be empirically set to: h1 = k1 x Q2 k1 = an invariable determined by the specific rotor-blade wheel.The volume flow is determined by the liquid’s density.Qs)2 Out of the above formula: h2 = 0 when Q = Qs . The liquid’s absolute velocity will be less than the peripheral speed. A new pump characterisation. The theoretical pump characterisation. it is entrance loss and shock loss. which are theoretically set at: h2 = k2 x (Q . which emerged. we only have one rotor-blade wheel. In addition. which has adapted real velocity. In all pumps a certain loss will always occur. the volume flow will be at a maximum. The friction between the liquid. QHt1. will be linear. When the lifting height is at a minimum.

h3. marked QH. a theoretical calculated pump curve emerged. 10. The loss curves h1 and h2 give a resultant loss curve.This will occur when the liquid’s relative velocity into the blade has the same direction as the inlet blade. New liquid is constantly lead into the impeller and put into rotation. Energy in forms of kinetic energy (velocity energy) is added to the liquid. Here. If the delivery pipeline from the pump is open to the atmosphere and has sufficient height. which was added to the liquid through the impeller.2 The centrifugal pump’s mode of operation A centrifugal pump consists of a rotating impeller inside a pump casing. h3. The liquid inside the impeller is affected by the “blades”. and will be lead through the “blades” due to the centrifugal force. From the theoretical pump characterisation QH1. all kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy.3. . the liquid will adjust itself to a precise level given by the energy. A flow through the pump is established. 2 and the resultant loss curve.

H3) will be equal for the same pump provided that flow disturbance does not occur on the pump’s suction side. If you bend the discharge pipe from the previous example.81 m/s2 x 100 m) pm = 981000 Pa = 981 kPa pm = 9. Only a part of the added energy in the pump will “lift” the liquid. . the liquid will flow out of the pipe. The capacity curve (Q-H curve) will. If you ignore the pipe resistance. The rest of the energy is still in the form of kinetic energy. follow this assumption. If the level in the tank is lowered. and that the delivery head is independent from the pump’s position or location. the manometer pressure (pm) after the pump will be read at: pm = r x g x H = (1000 kg/m3 x 9. the liquid is water with a density (r) of 1000 kg/m3 and the head (H) is 100 meters. the capacity Q in this situation is determined by the delivery head (H). From the previous taught experiment. The delivery head here is the static height or the static backpressure. It is therefore natural that the centrifugal pump’s capacity always is given as a function of the pump’s delivery head. In this case. H2. However. in practice. Net delivery heads (H1. but the curve is not linear due to loss of energy in the pump. the liquid level in the delivery pipeline will be correspondingly lower. one can predict that the capacity of a centrifugal pump will be highest at minimal delivery head. which the liquid has to lift.The difference in liquid level is called net delivery head. like the illustration below. A pump’s delivery head is dependent on the individual pump’s construction. the pump’s delivery pressure is dependent on the liquid’s density and delivery head.81 bars One can see from the previous example that the delivery head of the pump is obtained from the pump itself.

bends and valves will create a resistance due to friction against free liquid flow. The liquid’s viscosity may ensure a continual flow into the pump. due to too high pipe resistance and/or too high viscosity. these factors will have considerable influence on the pump’s capacity. and is called the dynamic backpressure. The conditions on the inlet side are very important for the centrifugal pump’s operation. composed by the static and the dynamic backpressure. improve the pump's self-priming qualities. Additional vacuum equipment connected to the pump will. . When the inlet pipe and impeller is filled with liquid. The total pipe resistance. however. This resistance varies with the velocity and viscosity of the liquid. meaning that the pump is not able to suck liquid from a lower level. It was previously mentioned that disturbances on the pump’s suction side would have influence on the capacity. If the flow into the pump is less than the outlet flow. The intersection point between the system characteristic curve and the capacity curve is called the actual operation point. is called a system characteristic curve. A centrifugal pump has normally no self-priming qualities. Too high resistance in the inlet pipe will cause the same operational disturbance.In a real pipe system. the pumping process will be able to continue without this equipment.

submerged in water like the sketch indicates. the liquid starts boiling and a large quantity of vapour is created in the pump. The liquid that accelerates from the centre of the impeller and out to the periphery increases this negative pressure. and will stop at huge vapour volumes.If you start a pump. The consequences of cavitation are: · Vibrations and noise · Reduced efficiency · Pitting or cavity erosion inside the pump house As we have observed. A centrifugal pump operates satisfactorily with approximately 2% gas in the liquid. If you gradually lift the pump. the height of the pump above liquid level is called Net Positive Suction Head or NPSH. have a perceptible reduction in the capacity. When this occurs. This can be . We say that the pump cavitates. When the negative pressure reaches the liquid’s saturation pressure. The explanation of this phenomena is that when the pump is lifted up out off the water. The gas bubbles created in the liquid on the pump’s suction side will collapse when the pressure rises inside the impeller. The increased resistance creates constant negative pressure on the inlet side of the pump. But cavitation will always cause damage to the pump. The resistance at the pump inlet side should be made as low as possible. The output from the pump become irregular. the pump will. the pipe length and the resistance at the inlet side increases. the cavitation is destructive and must be avoided or controlled. To ensure limited or non-generation of vapour one must make sure that the liquid at the pump inlet has sufficient overpressure to avoid evaporation. the pump will have a specific capacity at a specific delivery head. at a specific height.

the negative pressure generated inside the pump increases. limiting the number of bends and selecting a maximum diameter on the pipeline. and preferably below liquid level at the suction side. Reducing the pump’s capacity may therefore control and reduce the cavitation. 10. Note that these relations are valid only if the flow conditions are unchanged. The curves in the diagram are results from practical tests in the manufacturers workshop and specifies: . A pump’s NPSH is variable and dependent on the flow. The capacity may also be adjusted by changing the revolution on the pump. an increase in revolution.done by constructing the pipeline as short as possible. A centrifugal pump’s capacity is adjusted by throttling the delivery valve. Adjustments of the pump’s revolution move the capacity curve up or down. When the flow increases. A reduction of the flow will reduce the negative pressure. Throttling increases the pumps discharge pressure (backpressure) which causes reduced capacity. upwards.3.3 The Pump performance diagram All manufacturers supply a pump performance diagram with the pump delivery. Reduction of the revolution moves the curve parallel downwards. The pump should be positioned at the lowest possible level.

The power consumption curve will of course depend on the fluid’s density. provided the free flow to the pump inlet is not restricted due to for example too high viscosity. Visual inspection of the pump and regular maintenance is important to prevent break down. A pump’s condition is of course vital for the curve accuracy. capacity. . Monitoring the pump’s delivery head. Establishment of routines ensures continuous control of vibrations. simultaneously within the pump’s predicted capacity range. There are a lot of methods to check the centrifugal pump’s condition. It is important to be aware that the pump’s diagram is made for a special liquid with specific properties. The capacity curve will be real for all liquids.· Type of liquid used in the test (generally water) · Number of revolutions · Type and size of impeller · The optimal operation point The operation point is normally set at the best possible efficiency. Detection of many minor operational disturbances may be difficult and not necessarily observed. power consumption and development of these is obvious.

4 Example on pump diagram .10.3.

The coupling connects the shaft and motor together. The pump is located at the lowest level inside the cargo tank pump sump. The top unit consists of an axial bearing. Shaft bearings are located between each stage in the pump unit and with even intervals along the shaft. The axial bearing is a roller bearing that holds the entire weight of the shaft and impellers. and . The pump is therefore built with multiple stages. and leakage of air into the cargo. and mechanical seal. coupling and motor. This leads to a reduced delivery head for a single stage pump. shaft.4 The deepwell pump Cargo discharge pumps onboard gas carriers are generally deepwell pumps. revision ring and an upper ball bearing. Due to the length of the shaft. The oil in the seal lubricates the seal surfaces. On top of the cargo dome the top unit with an electric or hydraulic motor are located. the pump has a limited rotation speed. The purpose of the double mechanical shaft seal is to prevent leakage of cargo into the environment. The deepwell pump’s main parts are the pump.10. The bearing house is usually provided with cooling ribs to maintain an acceptable oil temperature. These bearings can be made of PTFE preservative carbon that have self-lubricating qualities. The shaft is located in the discharge pipe from the pump to the mechanical seal and connected to the coupling. a double mechanical shaft seal.

must like the other shaft bearings. . The seal oil should not pollute the cargo or generate hazardous reactions when mixed with the cargo. If we got a leak in the seal the oil must not came in contact with the cargo. be lubricated by the cargo itself.“quarantee” an operation without leak or other problems. the shaft will drop down and the revision ring will land on a seat below. Control of compatibility between the seal oil and actual cargo is therefore important. If the axial bearing nut is loose. The top carbon shaft bearing. A second function for the revision ring is to prevent leakage of cargo vapour along the shaft when renewal of the mechanical seal. One can thereby not avoid contact between the cargo and the seal oil in the top unit. The revision ring in the mechanical seal functions normally as a deflector that will lead a leakage of seal oil into a special chamber. This chamber can be drained.

pressurise before the pump is started. Wrong direction may result in shaft damage. .2 General tips for operation of a deepwell pump: · Check pump unit guides clearances inside the cargo tank when possible. · Always turn the pump before start. Stop the pump immediately if this occurs. do not force operation of the pump and do not run the pump against a closed delivery valve for too long a time. · Check and adjust the pump’s safety device.4. if fitted. Stop the pump when the tank is liquid free. · Always carefully check the cargo tank and sump for rags and other lose objects before the hatch is closed. · Regularly check seal oil and lubrication oil levels when the pump is running. · Running of deepwell pump without liquid is the most common reason for breakdown. · Always check the motor’s running direction before the coupling is fitted. · Check for lose bolts and nuts inside the cargo tank when possible. · Always check lubrication oil level and seal oil level.10. · These pumps are operating without vibration and related noise. · Always regularly check the “anti rotation device”.

10.4.3 Design of the double mechanical seal Example of pump parts .

Before opening the discharge pipe it must be gas freed. If copper is used in the cable.10. The discharge pipe is then the steering pipe for the pump. It is therefore essential that the pump is used only when there is liquid in the tank. The liquid is pumped up through the tank’s discharge pipe and up to the liquid line. The cables to the electric motor are either made of copper or stainless steel. At the bottom of the discharge pipe it is a non-return valve that opens when pump is lowered and shut when the pump is taken up. When transporting Ammonia. The liquid that is pumped lubricates and cools the pump’s bearings. this is done either with inert gas or Nitrogen. The motor and pump are submerged down in the tank sump or as close to the tank bottom as possible. and we must avoid a sharp bend on the cable to protect the stainless steel sheath. It is important that the stainless steel sheathing is kept unbroken. the cable and engine must be sheathed with a thin layer of stainless steel. Submerged pumps are also installed as portable pumps. One must at all times check the resistance of the cable insulation before starting the pump.5 Submerged pumps Submerged pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that are often used as discharge pumps on large LNG and LPG tankers. The motor is connected directly to the pump with a short shaft on this type of pump. the cables must be sheathed with stainless steel to prevent damage on the cable from corrosive cargoes.This type of pump is equipped with electrical motor. .

6 The boster pump If the backpressure during discharging is too high for the deepwell pump(s). The booster pump is normally a centrifugal pump.10. Horizontally installed pumps have an axial inlet and radial outlet in the same centre line. There are normally two booster pumps installed on deck on gas carriers. installed horizontally or in vertical position. . Vertically installed booster pumps have radial in and outlet “in-line”. a booster pump is connected in serial with the deepwell pump(s) to increase the system’s ability to pump against high backpressure.

is similar to the arrangement of the deepwell pump. · Never run the pump against the closed delivery valve for more than approximately 30 seconds. · Turn the shaft before starting the pump.The booster pumps onboard gas carriers have mainly an individual and compact design. . The following general regulations are existing for working a booster pump: · Turn the pump shaft regularly when the pump is not used for long periods. with double mechanical seal with sealing liquid. The bearing is lubricated by oil. The shaft seal. · Regularly check the seal oil level. · Do never start the pump if the pump is not filled with liquid. simple maintenance and long lifetime. the liquid lubricates the inner shaft bearings. They are constructed with focus on reliability.

If.7 Parallel operation of centrigal pump The capacity requirement is many times higher than the performance of one centrifugal pump. for example the operation point is altered by increasing the back pressure. the pump may be damaged. 10. may form the same condition. If the pumps are of different types or equal pumps are run at different speed. variation in rotational speed. The resulting performance curve of . asymmetric piping. When equal pumps are run in parallel the delivery head for the system will be equal the delivery head for one pump. their individual performance curves will be different.2 Two equal pumps are run in parallel operation. The capacity will meanwhile increase in proportion to the number of pumps.7. The pump’s capacity curve (1) indicates the relation between the delivery head and the flow rate for one pump. the pumps’ individual capacity curves are represented by the curve marked “1”. cavitation and variance of the pumps condition. All available pumps are then lined up and run in parallel operation. the inlet valves should always be fully open. 10. We assume a symmetry pipeline for both pumps. Even though the type of the pump is the same in a parallel operation. This is no problem provided the operation point is outside the pumps’ individual operation point. you will have a back flow trough the pump into the cargo tank. this may lead to that one of the pumps are run without output flow. The only indication on such condition is that the power consumption no longer is in agreement with the operation. variance in opening if valves. Two equal pumps are run in parallel operation.A deepwell pump is special vulnerable in this situation because these pumps are dependent of a liquid flow through the pump. If there are no check valves after the pump and the backpressure increases further. If. If this situation occurs and is maintain. two pumps in parallel will supply 200 m3/hrs and three pumps 300 m3 /hrs at the same head.· Adjust the flow by throttling the delivery valve. The diagram below indicates two equal pumps in parallel operation. As both pumps are equal. for example one pump has a capacity of 100 m3/hrs at a head of 100 meters.

The system’s capacity will increase if other pumps are started up in parallel operation. When you start pump number 2. also-called booster pump. Starting pump number 2 will not double the capacity because a higher volume flow creates higher dynamic resistance. The increase in capacity will however be relatively less for each pump added. 10. a booster pump in series with cargo pumps will improve the capacity.8 Serial operation of centrifugal pumps If the backpressure while discharging is too high and the capacity hence too low. We then see on this actual pump situation. Some ship has a dedicated pump for this purpose. the capacity for the system increases to 140 m3/hrs against a head of 150 meters. The following illustration shows two cargo pumps run in parallel (1 and 2) in series with a third booster pump (B). a pump alone will deliver 120 m3/hrs against a head of 120 meters.the pumps (1+2) is constructed like previous described. .

The capacity is 100 m3/hrs with a head of 160 meters.1 and no. plus maximum head for the booster pump (B). there is a risk that the supply of liquid to the booster pump became too low and will result in cavitation. One must emphasise that there are made no special demands for a dedicated booster pump’s NPSH-performance.2 Two equal pumps run in parallel operation.81 m/s2 x 340 = 167. 10. If the cargo is propane at a temperature of 20oC. times maximum capacity for one pump. The maximum head is the maximum head for one pump (1 or 2).8.437 Pa » 16. Two equal pumps run in parallel operation. If so occur. The master and chief officer evaluate the operation and decide to line up for a booster pump in serial with the cargo pumps. The new operation point will appear in the intersection between the resulting performance curve. If one of the pumps in parallel stops. and with a density of 502 kg/m3.2 must ensure sufficient flow of liquid to the booster pump (B). as previous described. the corresponding delivery pressure will be: r x g x H = 502 kg/m3 x 9.Notice that cargo pumps no.7 bars . The new capacity is calculated by constructing a new resulting performance curve for all three pumps. and the system characteristic curve.The system’s maximum capacity is the number of pumps in parallel operation. cavitation can be reduced or stopped by throttling the delivery valve on the booster pump. The capacity will increase to 140 m3/hrs at a head of 340 meters.

The consequence may be breakdown of the pipeline system and thereby high risk of pollution.10. This surge pressure can be recognised by a “knock” in the pipeline. This type of pressure peak is generated very quickly in pipelines. (ESD/Emergency Shut Down) Fast closing/opening of manual or remote operated valves. Fast variation of the volume flow resulting that a non-return valve starts hammering. faster than a common safety valve is capable to relieve. fire and personal injury. . Quick changes to the liquid flow in a pipeline may lead to a pressure surge resulting in a rupture in the pipeline system. Pressure surge may appear if: The emergency shutdown valves are activated and closed too quickly.9 Pressure surge and liquid pressure When a valve on a liquid line is closed too quickly. the pressure inside the line very quickly increases to a hazardous high level.

The maximum pressure is at the pump outlet. It shows a normal cargo operation and pressure in the pipeline. The liquid’s kinetic energy will convert into potential energy immediately when the liquid hits the valve seat. too fast valve closure. vapour may be present. A new pressure peak is generated with additional increased pressure. i. the cargo tank pressure and the pressure generated by the pump. The above mentioned cases illustrate why it is especially important that the valves and pumps are cautiously operated so neither dangerous pressure peaks nor pressure drops are generated. a volatile liquid will start boiling. A pressure peak is generated and will be transmitted at the speed of sound (the only way possible) back towards the pump. the hydrostatic pressure. A “knock” will occur each time a pressure top is generated against a “wall”. If the flow suddenly is varying due to. The total mass of the moving liquid inside the pipe is 4400 kg and moves with a velocity of 6. The pressure is rebuilt and reflected back towards the ESD valve again. The enclosed diagram on the next page is from ITC Tanker Safety Guide. If a valve is closed very fast. If the liquid is a condensed gas or crude oil. the liquid flow will stop quite quickly. When the wave of pressure reaches the pump. The progress and the length of the pressure surge depends on the system. In an opposite case where the pressure is decreasing rapidly. This pressure is the sum of the hydrostatic pressure and the pressure generated by the pump. a maximum pressure surge will be generated. These vapour bubbles will collapse when the pressure increases. All personnel that operate valves or pumps must be observant of these phenomena and of the liquid pressure. but the resistance here will also operate as a “wall”. the pressure will gradually decrease toward the cargo manifold. Due to friction in the pipeline.3 seconds.3 meters/second. If the ESD valve is activated and the valve is closed too quickly. The kinetic energy of the moving liquid will immediately convert into potential energy by compression of the liquid against the valve seat. The collapsed bubbles will generate pressure waves that will also be transmitted through the pipeline system. The pressure in a cargo transfer system has three components. the moving liquid that have a specific velocity and mass will hit a “wall” inside the valve (the valve seat or the valve flap). How fast the pressure peak is generated depends on the velocity and the density of the liquid. The hydrostatic pressure and the cargo tank pressure will mainly be constant and we will refer to these as “static pressure”.e. A pipeline of 250 meters and 150 mm in diameter is used for water transfer at a capacity of 400 m3/hrs. which may occur consequently. If the wave of pressure is allowed to move between two valves without pressure relief. the kinetic energy will convert almost immediately to potential energy. . The pressure surge may reach approximately 40 bars within 0.When a pump is started or stopped. some of the pressure will unload through the pump.

Maintenance and testing of the ESD-valves’ closing time is the most important of the above mentioned causes. (Please note that control of cargo hoses is dealt with in this chapter). which is too short. Closing time of the ESD-valves. may lead to generation of a dangerous pressure surge. Always consult the terminal representatives about the required pipe line period and ESD time. The operative personnel normally work nearby the manifold area. . A rupture in this area may easily lead to personnel injury.The most vulnerable parts in the system are the shore connections and loading/discharging arms.

Necessary time for a safe closure of valves can be calculated based on the expected maximum pressure . But not so fast that a risky pressure surge occurs.9.10.1 Development of pressure surge The closing time of ESD valves should be as short as possible to prevent overflow and spillage.

10.10 capacity calculation All centrifugal pumps are delivered with pump performance diagrams. blinded off and filled with water. It is important to be aware of this fact. The normal procedure for yearly testing is: The hose is laid out on deck. Electric bonding is checked. Poor cleaning and storage is generally the cause of damage and consequently replacement. The cargo hoses should be tested yearly at a pressure that is 1. The storage area should be dry and out of the sun. Linear expansion for the hose is measured (measure for strength) The test result is logged.5 times the maximum working pressure.2 Cargo hoses The cargo hoses are normally the weakest part in a pipeline system transferring cargo. The hose is pressurised with 1. The operation point is in the intersection between the pump curve and the system curve. bonding is okay and the linear expansion is less than the limitation set by the manufacturer. The dynamic backpressure is calculated from a stated differential pressure in the pipeline of 10 mlc at a flow rate of 500 m3/h.and a dynamic curve. the calculated time for maximum pressure surge at closure of the ESD valve is: T = (2 x L) / Speed of sound = (2 x 2000 m) / 1320 m/s = 3 s The maximum pressure surge will occur 3 seconds from closure of the ESD valve. if you want to take care of the hoses as long as possible. pressure and temperature for which the hose type is approved. Enclosed is a pump curve with a drawn system curve for an actual unloading situation. It is assumed that the safe closing time is five times a pipeline period. so the closing time should at minimum be: 5 x 3s = 15 seconds 10. in case a cargo hose is lent out to a third party or is used in transferring cargo between ships. The responsibility for the cargo hose condition on board lays with the ship. The diagram is an important tool for insight in the factors that have influence on operation of pumps. This time is called a “pipeline period”. the hose is approved. . Hoses for cargo should be cleaned and dried before storing. If there is no leakage. The system curve is composed of a static. The hose is checked for leakage. The speed of the sound is set to 1320 m/s. If the pipeline is 2 km.surge when the pressure wave has passed forward and backward through the pipeline. The static backpressure (H). is corresponding to a level distinction of 20 m between the liquid in the shore tank and the cargo tank onboard. A cargo hose prototype is tested with the products.9.5 times the working pressure.

The dynamic curve is a result of calculation of the dynamic backpressure at different flow rates with the same c-value. that the pump delivers 80 m3/h at a head of 120 mlc.81 m/s2 x 120 m = 715.The pipeline resistance is dependent of the flow rate in the pipe.031 Pa = 7. The pump’s delivery pressure is dependent of the density of the liquid pumped. is calculated from above mentioned expression. the pump’s delivery pressure (p) will be: p=rxgxH = 607. Observed delivery pressure (manometer pressure) is thereby approximately 7 bars. If the liquid is propylene at a temperature of –44oC. We then see from the diagram. the dynamic backpressure . The system curve is constructed by adding the static.2 bars at a temperature of –40oC.and the dynamic backpressure at the same flow rate. and the dynamic backpressure (pipe resistance) can be expressed as: H = c x Q2 (see “The Affinity Laws”)The constant c.If the backpressure increases. by for example throttling of the manifold valve.15 bars The cargo tank pressure is 0.4 kg/m3 x 9.15 Mpa = 7.

If the backpressure increases to 8 bar. must necessarily be more complex. and hence the capacity. but gives sufficient means for most practical calculation.81 m/s2 = 134 m A delivery head of 134 m corresponds to a capacity of approximately 50 m3/h.When describing the centrifugal pump’s physical relations. The pump’s delivery head increases and the capacity is reduced.10.will increase. can be calculated without construction of a new system curve. it is natural to focus on the whole system’s energies. . The operational point will move up along the pump curve. which is lifting the liquid into the tank and gives is velocity. An extended calculation of capacity where one considerate all factor influencing a pump’s working conditions.1 An extended capacity calculation The method of calculation above is a simplified procedure. The pump is supplying liquid a stated energy. The “new” delivery head. 10. which creates a flow rate through the pump. This is expressed as: (m x g x X) + (m x po/r) The energy supplied into the pump is expressed as: mxgxH where “H” is the lifting height of the pump. and the liquid pressure. The system’s energy balance is then: Energy on the suction side + Energy added the pump = Energy after the pump.4 kg/m3 x 9. In the following example we have a partly filled tank where a submission is working. The energy level on the suction is decided by the height of the liquid. An increased dynamic backpressure is visualised by a more steep system characteristic curve. the new delivery head will be: p=rxgxH H = p / r x g = 800 000 Pa / 607.

this will influence on the rest.2 Affinity equation The affinity equation is an expression that demonstrates the proportionally relation between flow rate. . If one of these element changes. 10. the lifting height increases with hence following reduction in the capacity. kinetic energy (given backpressure p2) and velocity energy (velocity of the liquid c2). When the liquid level in the tank is lowered toward the end of the unloading.x) One can see how the tank pressure and levels affect the simplified calculation of the lifting height of the pump.p0)/(r x g) + (y . The balance of the energy is then: (m x g x X) + (m x po/r) + m x g x H = (m x g x Y) + (m x p2/r) + 1/2 x m x c22 where the real pump head H is: H = (p2 . and with that larger capacity. lifting height. The energy level after the pump is compound of static energy (liquid are lifted a given value Y).10.The liquid is lifted out of the cargo tank. The equation can be used to calculate theoretic consequences of the changes on the existing centrifugal pump. effect and number of revolutions for a centrifugal pump. A higher tank pressure gives lower lifting height.

the number of revolutions.3 Equation 1 The velocity of the liquid from a pump.10.10.10. and can be defined as: c = Q/A where: c = velocity of the liquid in m/s Q = volume flow through the pump in m3/hrs A = cross section of the pipe in m2 10.5 Equation 3 Lifting head of a pump are given by the following expression: H = c2/2g where: H = pump lifting head in mlc c = velocity of the liquid in m/s g = gravitation in m/s2 We then se that the pump lifting head is proportional with c2 and equation 2 can be changed to: H1/H2 = c12/c22 = n12/n22 10. which again gives larger capacity. Higher number of revolutions of an impeller gives larger velocity of the liquid.10.10. is an expression for flow rate through the pump.6 Equation 4 The theoretical need of power (P) for a pump is: P = r x g x Q x H where: = density of the liquid in kg/m3 Change of the operation of the pump gives the following connections: P1/P2 = (c1/c2)3 = (n1/n2)3 Peripheral speed (v) for a pumps impeller is: v = (p x d x n)/60 where: d = impeller diameter . This is defined as: Q1/Q2 = c1/c2 = n1/n2 where: Q1 = Capacity before changes Q2 = Capacity after changes c1 = velocity of the liquid before changes c2 = velocity of the liquid after changes n1 = revolution of impeller before changes n2 = revolution of impeller after changes 10.4 Equation 2 The velocity of the liquid from a pump is dependent from the impellers velocity.

When the impeller diameter and the peripheral speed is variable the following equation can be used: v1/v2 = d1/d2 = n1/n2 When the velocity of the liquid is proportional with impeller speed can we use the following equation: c1/c2 = v1/v2 = d1/d2 = n1/n2 = Q1/Q2 or: Q1/Q2 = (n1 x d1) / (n2 x d2) 10. This is due to that the loss of the pump is not directly proportional with the flow rate. kinetic pumps constantly have liquid streaming through the pump with pressure increasing simultaneously. Then a pressure increase occurs. which contains higher pressure than the surroundings.8 Equation 6 A combination of equation 4 and 5 can the relation between lifting head and volume flow give the hydraulic operation of the pump as follows: H1/H2 = (Q1/Q2)2 = constant or H = k x Q2 10. Its purpose can also be to pump a liquid into a tank. usually are to pump from a low level to a higher level. which is lost due to streaming in the system. The pump increases the liquid’s energy.In addition to the mentioned increase of energy.10. lifting height an effect. In displacement pumps. Large changing of the diameter will give bigger effect of the flow rate. lifting height an effect. The increased energy is potential energy. Screw pumps and piston pumps will be viewed further in this . 10. only effect small changes of the rotor-blade wheels diameter. As mentioned. This is the kinetic energy.10. a certain volume of liquid is branched off and moved from the pump’s delivery side. if the liquid is pumped into a tank with a higher pressure than its surroundings. As an example. the pump also has to maintain the energy. the liquid is transported from a low level to a higher level. A pump’s purpose in transport of liquids. the liquid’s flow has increased or as pressure energy. The first types of pumps (screw pump and piston pump) are more than two thousand years old.11 Displacement pumps Pumps are very old machines.7 Equation 5 Above mentioned expression can be summarised as: H1/H2 = (c1/c2)2 = (n1 x d1)2 / (n2 x d2)2 where the condition in the alteration of the pump effect is: P1/P2 = (d1/d2)5 x (n1/n2)3 One shall notice that the three last expression for flow rate. the feed water pump to a boiler is working using these principles.

the piston pump is double acting. The screws tighten to each other and to the housing. These oil deposits from cargo tanks. They are sensitive to liquid pollution and they also increase the resistance against streaming. 10. The piston pump may sustain almost unlimited pressure. propeller pump.2 Screw pump The screw pump consists of two screws or more. etc. but have no metallic contact.1 Piston pump The piston pump is used for relatively small amounts of liquid with large delivery heads. However.chapter. The piston pump does not have to be filled with liquid before starting.11.11. A common and well-known screw pump is the Swedish manufactured so-called IMO pump. In this pump. lines and cargo pumps are pumped ashore through a small diameter line. These screws are working like an endless piston which constantly moves forward. the threads are filled with liquid. When the piston is pulled upwards. Because of the pump’s movements. the side screw rotates in the opposite direction of the middle screw. The screw pumps are used a lot as a lubricating pump. The piston pump is a well-known pump on board an oil tanker. running almost soundless and with little exposure for wear and tear when pumping clean liquids. The liquid does not stream in a smooth flow as in a centrifugal pump. This is the pump. the pump must have a relatively slow piston speed. the suction valve will close. Make sure that all the valves on the delivery side are open before starting. ring pump. but are also used as a stripping pump on oil tankers. a vacuum occurs inside the pump housing. the limitation is the automotive power and the material strength. The liquid is displaced by axial through the pump. The suction valve will then open and liquid streams into the pump. 10. When the piston is pressed downward the pressure will increase. This is of inconvenience with long pipelines. . This pump consists of one active screw placed in the middle and two symmetrical side screws. which is used to pump cargo deposits ashore at the end of the discharging operation. Usually. but accelerates and slows alternately. centrifugal pumps. The pump is self-priming. such as the lamella pump. The efficiency of piston pumps is higher than. the delivery valve is set open and the liquid sent out of the pump. for instance. The liquid is not exposed to rotation. where one of them is activated. When the screw rotates. The valve is a weak point. The screws are placed inside a pump house. A wide range of displacement pumps is available.

11- Cargo Handling Routines .

11. The international legislation is set up by IMO. SOLAS «Safety of Life at Sea» contain rules and legislation’s on safety certificates such as: Safety Construction Certificate. The reason for this is the experience we have got with the cargo. All new laws and legislations are renewed and updated when the old rules are no longer appropriate for it’s original intent. and STCW 78/95.1. but in the 1990s the TLV had been changed to 2 ppm. In order to ratify IMO rules and legislation’s. and it is very seldom that new products came into the market with 100% guaranty that they are safe in all manners. the laws and rules will be revised to fit what has been learned. Some cargoes have changed TLV from 400 ppm to 1 ppm. One example is VCM “Vinyl Chloride” that had a TLV of 50 ppm in the early 1980s. The various cargoes that is allowed for transport on gas carriers and the types of gas carriers that may carry the them is updated as we gain better knowledge about the products. the rules and regulations will be updated to avoid similar accidents from happening again in the future. ship and safety equipment. As we gain more experience and knowledge about accidents. The toxicity ratings of the various cargoes will always change over time as we gain more information about their potential health hazards. Over time when as we gain more knowledge. These three certificates cover the safety of crew. Safety Radio Certificate. All flag and port states may have there own set of rules and legislation that differ from the IMO rules. a given number of the IMO member states must to abide by them. What kinds of cargoes we can carry and which types of gas carriers that may carry the various cargoes depend on the toxicity of the cargo. depends on what precautions have been taken in the vessel’s design and construction.1 LEGISLATION AND RULES All transportation of liquefied gas is controlled by international and national legislation. MARPOL 73/78. which is the UN’s maritime division. to prevent cargoes from pollute the environment.Routines when cargo handling 11. Over time we can observe the various types of cargoes to see if there are any changes regarding health hazards or environmental pollution. . and Safety Equipment Certificate.1 International rules There is three international conventions to protect the environment and those are SOLAS (1974) with protocol of 1978 and appendixes to 1991. The IMO has set up a minimum of standards that all gas carriers must be constructed and classed according to. What types of cargoes a gas carrier may transport.

SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as amended by GMDSS amdts. Minimum safe Manning document SOLAS 1974/89 Regulation V/13b Document of compliance with the SOLAS 1974 regulation II-2/54.3 Certificates and documents related to MARPOL 73/78 required to be onboard according to SOLAS 92 appendix 3: International Oil Pollution MARPOL 73/78 annex 1 Prevention Certificate regulation 5 Oil Record Book MARPOL 73/78 annex 1 regulation 20 Dangerous goods manifest or MARPOL 73/78 annex III stowage plan regulation 4 . MARPOL specifies what we are allowed to pump or throw overboard.1.3 special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan SOLAS 1974 regulation VII/5(3) MARPOL «International Conference on Marine Pollution» contains rules and regulations that are designed to protect the environment from pollution on a short and long term basis.1.2 Certificates and documents we are required to have onboard according to SOLAS 74/92 appendix 3: Intact Stability Booklet Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate SOLAS 1974 Regulation II-1/22 SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as amended by GMDSS amdts.11. SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as amended by GMDSS amdts. and also what equipment we must have onboard to prevent pollution of the environment. 11. MARPOL defines clean water as water with less than 15 ppm of contamination.

The gas codes contain requirements for the construction of gas carriers. Certification and Watch keeping» contains rules and regulations on qualification certificates of officers and rating onboard vessels. The vessels Certificate of Fitness states which cargoes the vessel is permitted to carry. . leakage after collision/ grounding and cargo compartments. Part B contains the minimum requirements of what all personal need to know in order to receive a certificate for their various ranks on all types of ships. In the gas code we also find a list of products that are classified as liquefied gases.4 Certificates and documents related to STCW 78/95. This includes requirements on stability. Code for construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk. There are three gas codes issued by IMO. Part A contains the minimum standard requirements for qualification of all personal on various types of ships. We are required to always have onboard the personal safety protection equipment for the type cargo we are carrying. as well as the requirements covering how those cargoes are to be transported. Especially important are instruments for atmospheric measurements and personal safety equipment. · IGC code International code for construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk. STCW 78/95 was implemented 1st February 1997 and is based on two parts.STCW 78/95 «Seafarers’ Training. officers or STCW 78/95 article VI ratings IMO «IMO Gas Code» contains rules and regulations that are meant to make the transport of liquefied gases as safe as possible for persons onboard as well as the environment. we are required to have onboard according to SOLAS 92 appendix 3 Certificate for masters. · · Code for existing ships carrying Liquefied gases in bulk. as specified for in the vessels Certificate of Fitness. 11. The gas code also covers toxic cargo and what types of safety devices are required to carry those cargoes.1.

That means that most of the gas carriers have one safety relief valve setting according to IMO and a lower one according to USCG.5 Local rules Some port states have local rules that are stricter than the IMO rules and are designed to protect local waters. Italy and Japan. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate uses the Class Companies to issue certificates and to conduct surveys on those vessels. Then we have some local rules around the world that does not allow gas carriers to navigate after dark. Japan has their own rules and certificates on gas carriers.11. all gas carriers that visit US waters are to be inspected by the US Coast Guard in accordance to the vessels Certificate of Compliance. There are three countries that have especially strict rules and have a large amounts of import and export of liquefied gases and those are: USA. shore line pressure. Japanese authorities will survey all gas carriers that handle cargo in Japan. Local rules may be stricter on clean water. GA plan. According to US rules and regulations. navigation after sunset etc. One main difference between IMO and USCG is that in US they have a higher standard of security regarding strength on pressure vessels. The vessels Class Company can issue the RINA certificate if it is approved by RINA. they can require that the vessel must go in dock for new measurements. In Norway it is the Norwegian Maritime Directorate that makes all the local rules.1. Some ports have regulations concerning the wind speeds. Those rules cover for the most part measurements of vessels. Italy issues all vessels that carry gas in Italian waters an Italian safety certificate called “RINA”. The ship/ shore checklist must state if there are any restrictions on wind speed or the . if possible when the vessel is new. The owner of the vessel must send the USCG diagrams of the mid ship section. those rules are applicable for all vessels in NOR or NIS. All countries try to protect own territorial waters against pollution. If the documentation on the vessel is found unsatisfactory by the authorities. Gas carriers that fail the US Coast Guard inspection will not be permitted to birth before the vessel has fulfilled the standards set by the Certificate of Compliance. Those drawings and plans must be sent to the USCG in long before the vessels first arrival US waters. That means there are other net and gross weights on the vessel in Japan than on the IMO load line certificate. Gas carriers that are built according to IMO gas code have no problem in attaining a Certificate of Compliance. The RINA certificate is renewed and surveyed together with the vessels IMO Certificate of Fitness. In the USA the US Coast Guard issue a Certificate of Compliance on all gas carriers that are to load or discharge in US waters. fire and safety plan.

height of waves. ICS. 11. The quantity to be loaded is given in metric tons. Ambient means the temperature is equal to the air temperature if . MOLCO means that it is the charter that states the quantity. cargo handling. STCW 78/95 latest edition. MARPOL 73/78 latest edition. ship to ship transfer etc. In addition we must have the guidelines and publications from SIGTTO. the latest IMO gas code for the type of gas carrier we are on. Information about the terminals is found in the “Guide to port entry” or from the agents. either: 4000 mt +. represented by the captain that states the quantity to be loaded. terminals or your own company. It may also state what size there is on the terminal lines and flanges.6 Publications We required to always have onboard the latest edition of publications related to cargo. SPM. 11. at which temperature we will receive the cargo.1. Vessels that are registered in either NOR or NIS must have the latest edition of the Norwegian Maritime Directorate rules. In the Exxon vessel inspection guide we can find references to all publications they require us to have onboard.5% MOLOO 4000 mt +. and what temperature we are to discharge the cargo.2 LOADING ROUTINES Before we can commence loading we need a confirmed loading order from the owner.5% MOLCO 4000 mt Then we can load from 3800 mt to 4200 mt on owners option Then we can load from 3800 mt to 4200 mt on charterer option Then we have to load 4000 mt MOLOO means that it is the owner. There are three different ways to state the quantity. The cargo loading temperature is given either fully refrigerated. and ICS Ship to ship transfer guide for liquefied gases. OCIMF and USCG. ambient or on a given temperature. ICS Tanker safety guide liquefied gas. In the loading order we will find the quantity to be loaded. Further we find information about the load port and discharge port. The most important publications we must have onboard are: SOLAS 74/92 latest edition.

When using the density table. We need thermometers on the outside of the tank shell in order to achieve the proper temperature. then we must separate the cargoes from each other. the amount of cargo remaining on board. so try to keep your spool pieces orderly. cargo cooling plants and lines. It depends on the temperatures and the flexibility of the plant. . If we are going to load fully refrigerated propane. Before we arrive port the cargo tank shell must be chilled down. We then calculate the filling limit in each cargo tank and then plan the loading rate. When we are loading a partial cargo we must try to use the manifold that is linked directly to the tank that we are loading. The spool pieces are taken out of the lines and the main line is blanked of flange covers.g. and whether we do or do not have vapour return. It also states what temperature the cargo is to be discharged at. When we have the basic information on the cargo. we must start planning the loading. When we are loading and we need to run the cargo plant. Before we can commence loading we have to cool down the tank shell as mush as possible. All spool pieces are marked according to the diagram. The loading rate is determined by three factors: cargo temperature. and the arrangement of the lines to the cargo tanks. If we are going to load on tanks 2. ethylene and propane.g. If we are set up to load two different cargoes e. Only then will we be able to reduce the time used in port. then we use the manifold for tanks 3+4. there are various ways to run the plant. Taking out small pipes on the cargo lines does segregation. We call that segregation of cargo tanks. To find the filling limit we can either use the operation manual for the vessel or the cargo density table.the shore tank is located on the surface. If we have 4 cargo tanks there could be a possible segregation with cargo tank 1+2 and 3+4. we must try to get the temperature on the outside on the cargo tank shell below –35oC before we start loading. We also have to segregate the cargo cooling plant e. in this case 4 bar. the optimal is less than 10oC above cargo loading temperature. so there should not be any problem keeping them organised. The maximum allowed filling limit when loading is 98% and it is the safety relief valve setting and the cargo temperature that give the filling limit. Normally the spool pieces are mounted on the cargo lines. the ambient temperature. When the cargo tank shell is chilled down before arrival. the time used for loading will be reduced. Many of the spool pieces have the same diameter but have a different length. those pipe parts are called “spool pieces”. It is stated in the Certificate of Fitness how the lines and compressors can be segregated. two plants are used for ethylene and one is used for the propane. we can calculate the temperature of the cargo from the absolute pressure. The resulting temperature of the tank shell depends on how much time is used.3 and 4. and cargo lines and spool pieces must be readied.

Uncontrolled venting happen when the cargo tanks pressures rise to the set point of the safety relief valves and they open. so that we all know what to do if there is a cargo leak or uncontrolled venting. . The cargo tank vapour will then be led to the vessels vent mast. but it is only for emergency use. To control the pressure we use the cargo cooling plant.When loading. Before we commence loading cargo it must be issued a checklist. we must follow our company quality manual and the ICS Ship to Ship Transfer Guide. and goes directly to flare. When we are loading by pumps we must follow the cargo tanks pressure to hold it below the safety valve set point. To avoid uncontrolled venting we have to reduce the loading rate or stop loading if we can not increase the cooling capacity.1 Loading without vapour return When loading without vapour return. 11. When using this method we must keep a close watch so we do not get so much nitrogen into the cargo tanks. If we are loading by pressure. we need to free the loading hose/ arm of liquid by use of hot gas. After completion of the loading. This way of loading is mostly used on fully pressurised vessels. the vessel’s cargo tank pressure must be lower than the shore tanks pressure. On some terminals we also have to connected a vapour line. When we transfer cargo from other vessels. the liquid is either pumped or pressured onboard from the shore tank. load planning. Read carefully the checklists and pay special attention to any notes about maximum pressure or minimum temperatures on the loading hose/ arm. It is very important that we are familiar with both the vessels and the terminals emergency routines. loading log. only the liquid line is connected to the terminal. ship/ shore checklist and a time sheet. All deviations from the planning have to be noted in the deck logbook and discussed with the loading master/ safety officer. During the entire loading process we must check the tank pressure.2. The vessel’s plans for loading have to be discussed and agreed to by the terminal loading master and safety officer. The cargo liquid is pumped or pressured to vessel’s cargo tanks through the liquid lines. To avoid high pressure in the vessel’s cargo tanks we need to pressure control the cargo in the tanks. On some terminals they use nitrogen to free the hose/ arm of liquid. The hot gas is produced by the vessel’s cargo compressor or from the shore tank or terminal’s compressor. and we must do our utmost to avoid uncontrolled venting.

we always start with a slow rate to check that there is not any leakage on the terminal lines/ arms/ hoses or the vessel lines/ valves. When we reduce the loading rate the cargo temperature from shore will increase. we can then increase the loading rate slowly to the agreed maximum rate. and that can be done on all types of gas carriers. In order to avoid having too much pressure in the cargo tanks when loading. 11.2 Loading without vapour return but use of cargo cooling plant When commencing loading.2. On all types of gas carriers. it is important to check the cargo tank pressure all the time while loading. we have to do it before reducing the loading rate. we can either reduce the loading rate or stop loading. If we can increase the cooling plant capacity. . The cargo tanks excess pressure is evacuated through the vessel’s vapour lines to shore. When we are sure that there is no leakage’s and the cargo tank shell is close to the same temperature as the cargo. We have to do our outmost to avoid uncontrolled venting. While we are increasing the loading rate we must watch the cargo tank pressure carefully.11. If we have to reduce the loading rate due to foul gas.2. if the cargo cooling plant is on maximum capacity. The cargo liquid is pumped or pressured onboard through the vessel’s liquid lines and to the cargo tanks that are to be loaded.3 Loading with vapour return The safest and fastest way to load is when we have vapour return. When we are loading with vapour return the liquid hose/ arm is connected to the vessel’s liquid manifold and the vapour hose/ arm connected to the vessel’s vapour manifold. we will then have to clarify it with the loading master and it must be noted in the deck logbook. It is important for the vessel to load at the rate that is stated in the charter party or is agreed to by the loading master.

It is the terminal’s capacity to receive vapour that determines the rate of vapour the vessel can send to shore while loading. the vessel will be charged for the amount of vapour that is burned. Before we open the vapour manifold valve to send vapour to shore we must be sure that the vapour goes back to the shore tank and not to flare. On fully pressurised gas carriers we must not send to shore so much vapour that the cargo is chilled down to less than –10oC. if we load propane and the cargo tank pressure is taken down to near 0 bar. How mush vapour we can send to shore must be agreed upon with the loading master before commencement of loading. While we are loading we must try to keep the cargo tank pressure as low as possible. the terminal can develop problems with the shore tank pressure. We must be aware that if we evacuate more vapour than is agreed to.4 Loading with cargo cooling plant and vapour return In addition to the vapour return. . 11. If the vapour is sent to flare.Before we commence evacuating any vapour from the vessel we must be sure that the vapour is returned to the shore tank and not to flare. in doing so the vapour return will help us great deal. the cargo temperature will be about -42oC.2. we cool down the cargo tank shell or the vapour phase in the cargo tank. As an example. the vessel will be charged for the amount that is burned in the flare. we use the vessel’s cargo cooling plant. we can increase or reduce the amount of vapour to shore by throttling the vapour manifold valve. If we have a direct cargo cooling plant we condense the vapour in the cargo condenser and the condensate is pressured to the cargo tank. If we have an indirect cargo cooling plant. If the vapour is evacuated to flare. When vapour return exists.

After the loading is completed the terminal loading hose/ arm has to be freed of liquid. When the liquid level and the cargo temperature is reduced. the ambient temperature and the length of the sea voyage. To avoid a vacuum in the cargo tank there may be a pressure switch on the suction side of the cargo compressor or on the cargo tank connected to the cargo compressor. the vessels cargo handling equipment performance is important. To evacuate the liquid from the loading hose/ arm we either use the vessel cargo compressors and blow hot vapour. 11. Some cargoes are to be discharged fully refrigerated. In addition to the charter party. If we get to much nitrogen in the cargo tanks. and maintenance cost will be reduced. . 11.3. and in the worst case we may have an uncontrolled venting. The maximum loading rate depends on the cargo temperature. cargo tank insulation. When loading with a high rate. especially the capacity of the cargo cooling plant.1 Cooling of the cargo while at sea On fully refrigerated gas carriers we do not have any choice. size of the loading lines and the ambient temperature. this is to avoid air leaks into the cargo tank. Some cargoes like ethylene and butadiene. cargo cooling plant capacity. we must minimise the amount of nitrogen to the cargo tanks.01 bar or higher. 0. the lower fuel consumption do we have. the terminal can take more vapour from the vessel. we have to watch that we don’t get vacuum in the cargo tanks. insulation on the cargo tanks and the length of the sea voyage. that stops the compressor when there is to low suction pressure. When loading fully refrigerated or semi-refrigerated gas carriers we must try to evacuate as much vapour to shore as possible in order to get the lowest possible cargo tank pressure. capacity of the cargo heater.3 ROUTINES WHEN COOLING OR HEATING CARGO AT SEA Cargo procedures while the vessel is at sea depend on what has been stated in the charter party. we must maintain a low pressure and temperature of the cargo. temperature of the cargo tank shell before commence loading. type of cargo. while others at a given temperature. As long as the cargo plants are running.g. How to run the cargo cooling plants at sea depends on the plant itself. The fewer cargo plants and hours we are running the plants. Try to blow the line into one cargo tank only. We must try to maintain a positive cargo tank pressure e. we will develop too high condenser pressure and our cargo compressors may stop. the shore tank liquid level and the cargo temperature will be reduced and the vapour phase increased. If the terminal is using nitrogen. will be contaminated if the content of oxygen is to high. or the terminal uses nitrogen and blows onboard.

We must always keep in mind that cooling down the cargo demands a lot of energy.On semi-refrigerated gas carriers we have a few more options how we may handle cargo at sea. length of the sea voyage and the insulation of the cargo tanks. That means we normally control the cargo temperature and pressure and do not lower it. If the vessel is equipped with cargo heater we may heat the cargo when discharging. depending on the charter party. so we must be prepared to discharge the cargo earlier than planned. We may either maintain the cargo temperature or cool down the cargo. than with a fully refrigerated gas carrier. We must also record when we have changed condensate and to which tank we have pumped the condensate. On fully pressurised gas carriers we can only control the cargo tank pressure if there is cargo compressor onboard.2 Heating of cargo on the voyage The charter party or loading order must state if we have to heat the cargo on the sea voyage before discharging. capacity of the cooling plants.3. This to avoid overfilling of cargo tanks and interrupt the cargo cooling process. temperatures and ampere for each of the cargo cooling plants. The seawater temperature has a major influence on your cooling capacity. The cargo tank steel of fully pressurised gas carriers are normally designed for minimum temperature of –10C°. Try to cool down the cargo as mush as possible before you enter into bad weather. When the cargo cooling plants is running we must fill out the cargo-cooling log. the ambient temperature. . Higher seawater temperature results in reduced cooling capacity. we have to vent the vapour to the atmosphere. and when a vessel is pitching or rolling the molecules will move faster and the result is higher cargo tank pressure. 11. there are normally three different ways to heat the cargo. We can also use indirect cargo plant and pump e. In the cargo-cooling log we must record the various pressures. Pressure is defined as the movement of molecules. Always check the weather forecast and air temperatures for your voyage. Depending of the vessel’s cargo equipment. We can pump the cargo through the cargo heater to another cargo tank. We may use the cargo compressor to blow hot vapour down into the liquid in the cargo tank. On fully refrigerated gas carriers there are no options for heating the cargo at sea.g. The number of cargo cooling plants we have to use depends on the cargo. We must try to cool down the cargo to the discharge temperature as soon as possible and then maintain the temperature the rest of the voyage. if not. Read the charter party/ loading order carefully and run the cargo cooling plants as economically as possible. As long as the cargo is onboard it may be sold to another customer. We will then be able to discharge the cargo earlier if we are sent to another port of call. ethanol in coils either outside of the cargo tank shell or in the vapour phase inside the tank.

When all the information is received we must make a discharging plan. The cargo pumps we plan to use have to be checked according to the manufacturer’s specification ref. The discharge plan and all checklists must be signed and followed by the vessel and the terminal. Check the sounding in the other cargo tanks also. All deviations from the discharge plan or checklist must be noted in the deck logbook and cleared with the terminal. and record the cargo heating log temperatures and soundings on all tanks. . If we use deep well pumps. We must also prepare the correct reducer to fit the terminal flanges. As we pump liquid from one cargo tank to another we must check the sounding on the cargo tank we are pumping to. and the sequence and rate of the discharging. When the discharge plan is agreed to. If we have submerged pumps this is normally not a problem. There are two main methods used in discharging a gas carrier. When we use cargo pumps to discharge the cargo we must first check that the pump is free by turning the pump shaft by hand. operation manual. The vessels discharge plan must be discussed with the terminal before commence discharging. If shore backpressure is very high we must use a booster pump in addition to the ordinary cargo pumps or cargo tank pressure. The most effective way to heat the cargo is to use the cargo pumps and the cargo heater. The discharging plan must contain which cargo tanks are to be discharged.4 ROUTINES WHEN DISCHARGING Before we may commence discharging any cargo. Then we pump the cargo from one tank through the cargo heater and then to another cargo tank. When we can turn the shaft by hand we may then start the pump. and agreement must be made with the terminal as to the minimum/ maximum cargo temperature and maximum backpressure. The captain can receive this information either from the agents or directly from the terminal. 11. backpressure on the terminal. If the cargo has to be heated and we need to use a booster pump. Certain information is needed before arriving at discharge port. we must keep in mind of the shaft bearings and the shaft itself when the vessel is pitching or rolling. either by pumps or by pressure. fill out the ship/ shore safety checklist. There are different methods for discharging a gas carrier. such as the discharge temperature given in charter party. Check closely the oil and mechanical seals.On semi-pressurised gas carriers we may heat the cargo during the sea voyage if we have the cargo equipment for it. When we check all the tanks while we are heating the cargo we can avoid overfilling any of the cargo tanks. and size of the terminal lines and flanges. the captain must get a written permission from the owner to discharge the cargo. and they depend on the cargo equipment onboard and the facilities at the terminal.

If the vessel refuses to reduce the rate the terminal can stop the discharging and then hold the vessel responsible for the delay or damage caused by the high discharge rate. When both the vessel and terminal lines are chilled down we can increase the discharge rate according to the discharge plan and on the terminal advice. Always while discharging we must record in the deck logbook if there have been any deviations from the discharge plan. 11.4. If we throttle the pressure valve. Reasons for the high shore tank pressure may be either a discharge rate that is high. or they can arrange a vapour return to the vessel. If the vessel must use the cargo cooling plant while discharging. permission to do so must be stated in the charter party or agreed to by the receiver so that the vessel will be compensated for the extra fuel consumption. in the worst case the terminal will stop discharging and the vessel is charged for the delay. This way of discharging can be done by semi and fully pressurised gas carriers. the tank that receives our cargo must have a lower pressure than our own. Check that there is no leakage on the vessel’s lines and valves and as well as the terminal lines. we then generate pressure in that cargo tank. the cargo tank pressure also decrease. or by nitrogen from shore.When the terminal and the vessel are ready to commence discharging. While discharging. If the shore tank pressure is to high the terminal must flare the excess pressure. This way of discharging is the simplest. Onboard we must do the utmost to avoid any claims from the terminal. The delivery valve on the pump is only slightly open as well as the one back to the cargo tank. If the terminal asks the vessel to reduce the rate then we must comply. or the cargo compressors on shore may have to small capacity. we start the process by using only one pump. That means we have to compensate for the lost pressure. and that is done either by hot gas from the vessel or shore. to high temperature of the cargo. .1 Discharging by cargo tank over pressure When we must discharge the cargo tank by pressure. Do not increase the discharge rate more than what the terminal has asked for. To reduce the rate we either throttle the pressure valve on a pump or stop a pump. it is always the terminal that sets the rate and required the cargo temperature. To avoid increased cargo tank pressure it is best to stop the pump. but when the liquid level decreases. When the line is chilled down we then close the valve down to the cargo tank and open the pressure valve a little bit more.

Normally we can by-pass the heater with some cargo. the cargo heater may be damaged and start leaking. We must never increase the pump pressure higher than the pressure limit on the terminal discharging hose/ arm. Record in the discharge log pump pressure and ampere and discharge volume every hour. When discharging fully refrigerated and semi-pressurised gas carriers we normally only use the pumps in the cargo tanks. Most of the pumps also have a non-return valve on the pressure side to avoid leaks if the pump has or are stopped. If we have to discharge against high backpressure then we also need to use the booster pump either onboard or at the terminal. When we have checked that the heating medium is circulating we may then pump cargo through the heater. The booster pumps must be used if the backpressure is higher than maximum pressure for the pumps in the cargo tank. Seawater or oil is used as a heating medium. On new cargo pumps there is an anti rotating device to protect the pump from running the wrong way. When transferring cargo from one vessel to another we must follow the company quality manual and the ICS Ship to Ship Transfer Guide.11. In those cases we use our cargo heater while discharging. however some terminals do not accept water as heating medium. 11. either of deep well or submerged type. Booster pumps can be set up either in a series or parallel. All changes from the discharge plan or checklists must be reported in the deck logbook. If the water is freezing.4. Most gas carriers have one pump in each cargo tank and they are also normally equipped with one or more booster pumps on deck. Check the oil level and the mechanical seal when the pump is running. Never pump cargo to shore with lower temperature than the minimum temperature given in the checklist. When using the cargo heater we must first check that the heating medium is circulating.4. depending on backpressure and the rate agreed upon. If we are using water as heating medium we must keep the seawater temperature from dropping below 5oC as it goes out of the heater. but watch the temperature of the liquid manifold. While we are running the cargo pumps we have to check that the pump is running the correct direction and the liquid level is reduced in the cargo tank.3 Discharging through the cargo heater Sometimes we may have to discharge the cargo with a higher temperature than we have in our cargo tanks. While transferring cargo either ship to ship or ship to shore there must be a good communication between the two parties.2 Discharging with centrifugal pumps The most common pumps on gas carriers are centrifugal pumps. In the worst case the shoreline may be damaged. .

we then must try to heat the cargo at sea. As an example if we start with –99oC in the cargo tank and the ambient temperature is 19oC. we must set up a plan for the cargo change. It is always the heating process that takes the longest time when gas freeing. inert gas generator and the cargo fan. If the water temperature is 5oC or less we must not use the cargo heater unless we have facilities to heat the water before we pump it to the cargo heater. we only need to be liquid free. 11. Those are the temperature of the cargo tanks when start the gas freeing process. When we have to gas free cargo tanks. When we have received a confirmation from the charterer or owner that we are to change cargo. and the expected air temperature when we commence blowing air. There is two temperatures we have to keep in mind when gas freeing. To gas free cargo tanks we use the vessel’s cargo compressors. Some terminals do not allow the use of cargo heaters that utilise water as heating medium. we must heat the cargo tank shell 118oC.The cargo temperature on the vessel’s liquid manifold depends on the amount of cargo that is pumped through the cargo heater. The time we need to gas free the vessel depends on the cargo ROB and what type the next cargo is. we must discharge as much liquid as possible so that we can reduce the time used to liquid free the tank. Other reasons for gas freeing cargo tanks are for example times when we have to repair anything in the tank or when we have to go in dry-dock. Normally we have to gas free all the cargo tanks when we are changing cargo and there must be visual inspection made of the cargo tanks. Less cargo through the heater will result in lower temperatures and higher flow “discharge rate”. The tanks are gas free when they are free of flammable.5 ROUTINES DURING CHANGE OF CARGO All gas freeing operations requires a statement in the charter party or direct orders from the company operation. they require oil as medium. Some products we may carry. Gas freeing is very expensive whether we gas free a single tank or the whole vessel. The manifold temperature is adjusted by bypassing the cargo heater. such as propane and butane can be loaded on each vapour phase. and we must try to avoid those unnecessary costs. . toxic or neutral gases and the tank atmosphere is pure air. If we must discharge at a terminal that does not accept our heater type. The reason that those two temperatures are important is that we have to heat the tank shell the same amount of degrees as the difference between the two temperatures. Other products such as ethylene and butadiene require that we are gas free before gassing up with the cargo to be loaded.

On fully refrigerated gas carriers we must watch the cargo tank pressure at all times to avoid an uncontrolled venting. the oxygen content will not be higher than the oxygen content we have set on the inert gas generator e. that is an IMO requirement. When we have reached atmospheric pressure in the cargo tank we can commence to inert or purge the cargo tanks with nitrogen. Keep in mind that the cargo tank shell can have a thickness of 20 mm or more. During the whole inert operation we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for HC vapour content until we reach the planned content less or equal to LEL or the limit stated in the company QA manual. To liquid free the tanks we can either blow hot gas down in the pump sump or pressurise the tank and empty the tank through the empty blow line. If the vessel is equipped with a heater on the inert gas line we must use it to make use of the density difference between the inert gas and the cargo vapour. When we blow hot gas. While we are inerting. Just after we have commenced the inerting we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for HC vapour in the part of the cargo tank we have blown inn the inert gas.5. We must try to hold as low cargo tank pressure as possible while we are inerting to avoid turbulence in the cargo tank. If we are using inert gas the oxygen content by volume has to be less than 5%. Start the inerting with as low rate as possible. We must try to have as high pressure in the tank as possible when we liquid free the tank. When there is no more liquid left in the cargo tank. When we have difference’s in the density it is easier to achieve a good displacement purging.g. The purge tank is a small tank “pressure vessel” located either on deck or in a hold space. If the vessel is equipped with purge tanks or we have a gas recovery plant we can use the cargo compressors and condensate the overpressure to the purge tank. The inert gases have to be as dry and warm as possible before we send it to the cargo tank. We then stop the cargo compressors when we have reached the planned cargo tank temperature. When the hot gas is blown down in the pump sump the liquid will be boiled off. The HC content will be . Then we have to vent off the cargo tanks pressure. It depends on the type of gas carrier we are on and the pipes in the cargo tanks. Read the temperature on both sides of the cargo tank shell. either through the vapour manifold into the water or to the vessels vent mast. we blow it either through the condensate line.11. that way we will get the most effective purging. pressure will be stabilised and only the tank shell temperature will increase. If we blow through the pump we must check that the pump does not start to rotate. Displacements purging means the cargo atmosphere is pressed out by the inert gas. The differences in density tell us if we must blow the inert gas through the cargo tank vapour or liquid line. Continue to blow hot gas down in the cargo tank until we have about 5oC above the seawater temperature. empty blow line or the pump. As long as we have liquid the cargo tank pressure will increase as we blow hot gas.1 Gas freeing The first we have to do when gas freeing is to liquid free the cargo tanks. 2% by volume.

11. to have a neutral atmosphere in them.5. .5% by volume. the line for critical mixture with 2% oxygen by volume gives 4% HC content by volume. That means that when we draw flammability diagram. When we have less HC content than LEL on the actual cargo we can commence ventilating the cargo tank with air.reduced as long as we are inerting and we do not stop the inerting before we have reached the LEL for the actual cargo. As an example the LEL on propane is 2% by volume. inert gas blower. If the vessel is equipped with a vent heater we must use it to get as warm and dry air as possible. We then have to inert until we read 2% HC by volume before we commence ventilating with air. condensers and cargo compressors before we stop the inerting. booster compressor or portable cargo fans. so we have to inert until we reach 1. Equipment we can use when venting cargo tanks with air are cargo compressors. It is important that we also inert all liquid lines. While we are venting with air we have to measure the oxygen content and also check that the HC content is reduced to 0% by volume. cargo fan. CO Carbon monoxide CO is a very toxic gas and extreme caution should be taken prior to entering a tank that has been previously inerted and ventilated.2 Example on displacement purging In the IMO regulations we must use a safety factor of 2 as the margin for error on measurement and instruments.CO2 (Carbon monoxide .Carbon dioxide) and the oxygen content must be 21% by volume. Before we stop the air ventilation we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for 0% by volume of CO . The kinds of equipment we use depend on the vessel’s cargo equipment.

75 g/m3 7.80 g/m3 At 25oC the maximum content of water is 23.5 g/m3 and 75% humidity gives us then 17.625 g/m3.30 g/m3 6.50 g/m3 24.30 g/m3 6.20 g/m3 23. unless we have forgotten to purge any lines or other cargo equipment’s. If we are venting with 10000 m3/h.75 g/m3 that give 17. the air will condense on the steel and we will get water in the tank.75 g/m3 of water condensation.75 g/m3 7. 108. Temp Water 4°C 5°C 6°C 24°C 25°C 26°C 6.7 kg . If the cargo tank shell has a temperature that is much lower than the air.80 g/m3 For example at an ambient temperature on 25oC and 75% relative humidity and an average cargo tank shell temperature of 5oC. 4oC 5oC 6oC 24oC 25oC 26oC Water 6.75 g/m3 = 10. will produce 10.The HC content in the cargo tanks can not be higher then when we started venting with air.50 g/m3 24.22 g/m3 22. At 5oC the maximum water content can be 6. Temp.20 g/m3 23.22 g/m3 22.625 g/m3 – 6. The humidity and temperature of the air we use for venting gives us the necessary temperature of the cargo tank shell.87 g/m3 water.

If we had heated the cargo tank shell to 30oC before venting with air at 25oC the relative humidity in the tank atmosphere will be approximately 57%. Just after we have commenced purging we must measure the oxygen content in the part of the tank we blow in the nitrogen to see the reduced content of oxygen. Normal method is displacement purging and uses the different density to push out the old atmosphere from the cargo tank. While we are purging with nitrogen we must have as low tank pressure as possible. Also check the oxygen content in the middle of the tank just after commence purging to be sure that it isn’t turbulence in the atmosphere. Also check that the pump is in the correct position. If the vessel is set up to load a cargo that requires low dew-point and a low content of oxygen. it can also be done at anchorage with a barge. When we start purging we must start with a low rate to avoid turbulence in the tank.5. We then understand how important it is to heat the cargo tank shell to same temperature as the ambient temperature and that we have to use dry and heated inert gas and air. 11. Some new gas carriers have their own nitrogen plant onboard and can purge while they are at sea. While we have a visual inspection of cargo tanks we must use that time to sweep and clean up dust and check that there is not any foreign substances on the tank top.of water will be released an hour. up to 60oC or more. Normally we purge with nitrogen alongside a terminal or jetty. if a pump is damaged it is very costly to repair and gas free the tank. .02 bar. Check that all bolts and nuts on the pump and cargo tank lines are tight. the lower the consumption and time used is. toxic or cargo atmosphere. There are different methods and ways to gas up cargo tanks and they are dependent on the specifications from the charterer and what type of cargo to be loaded. less than 0. we must then use nitrogen to purge out the humidity and oxygen from the cargo tank. If there isn’t any required limit to the humidity and oxygen content can be more than 1% by volume. we can then use inert gas to purge out the humidity and oxygen from the cargo tank.625 g/m3 divided by 31 g/m3 = 56. Before loading ammonia we can gas up the cargo tanks directly with ammonia vapour if the terminal and charterer agree on that.3 Gassing up cargo tanks To gas up a cargo tank means that we change the cargo tank atmosphere from air to either a neutral. To heat nitrogen onboard we can use either the superheater feed by steam or an electrical heater. Nitrogen vapour expands when it is heated and the warmer we have the nitrogen. Before the nitrogen is blown down into the cargo tank we must try to heat it as much as possible. otherwise we have to use nitrogen. If we get water into the tank while venting we have to use either an ejector or rags to dry up the water.625 g/m3 that gives us 17.8% and we do not develop any problems with water. At 30oC the maximum content of water is 31 g/m3 and we had 17.

4 Examples on parallel purging Purging with cargo vapour is mainly done at a terminal or at anchorage. There is a big differences in harbour fees and nitrogen prices around the world. The method that is most friendly to the environment is to conduct the operation in a place where it is possible to condensate the cargo and nitrogen vapour. we can then commence purging with cargo vapour. Some gases as ethylene and butadiene require less than 0. 11. When the surveyor has. either the lay time or the use of nitrogen. so what was the cheapest in one port could be the most expensive in other ports. . For liquefied gases as methane. The most common method is to load some cargo from shore and then do the operation out on the road. it depends on where we are in the world and what type of cargo we are purging with. At some terminals we are allowed to do the operation alongside and send the cargo vapour to the terminal flare.1% oxygen by volume. ethylene and ethane most shippers require a dew point of less than –45oC. Before we have completed purging we have to purge through all lines and all cargo equipment to be sure that we do not have any air left in the cargo systems.5. We have to calculate for each purging what is the most economical. Always start with a low rate and increase to maximum when we are sure that there is no turbulence in the atmosphere. The charter party always specifies the maximum content of oxygen and the maximum dew point.The purging rate must be discussed and cleared with the loading master before we commence purging. according to the specifications given from the shipper or charterer approved the cargo tanks and cargo equipment.

another vessel get the best results from using serial purging. the easier it is to purge and gas up the vessel. 11.5 Example on nitrogen serial purging Which method we should use. On one vessel it can be easiest to purge parallel. Then we take the vapour to be purged out through the bottom liquid line in the cargo tank.We must always use the difference in density while we are purging.5. The more flexible the vessel is built. either serial or parallel depends on the experience and the lines onboard. the lightest vapour to be purged must go into the top of the cargo tank. That means on most vessels we must gas up using the parallel method. When we are gassing up we have to avoid opening any lines after the cargo tanks are completed gassed up. .


56) 4.18%) ln ( 115.2%.6.8% / 0.1 Using nitrogen When we use nitrogen.3 Using inert When using inert we also use the formula with ln “natural logarithm” but we must calculate the O2 content in the inert gas also. according to the charter party. 0. The nitrogen consumption will then be 1000m3 * 4. This is the minimum required nitrogen.g. .75 which equals 4750m3 nitrogen. if we use inert versus nitrogen. we start with air in the tank.11. The calculation will be as follows: Number of volume changed = Number of volume changed = ln ( 20. 11. That means we should purge 21% oxygen from the air to a given maximum content of oxygen in the tank e. 11.2%. When ordering nitrogen add 10% to the minimum needed (5225m3) nitrogen.6 Formulas to be used when changing atmosphere in an tank There are some formulas that we can use to calculate the consumption of nitrogen or inert for changing atmosphere in tanks and the time to be used for the same purpose. to be less than 0.6.18%.2%.75 The desired O2 content has been set to 0. should be less than 0.6. The formula is a bit different.2 Numbers of volume changed is ln (original O2 content/ desired O2 content) ln Original O2 content Desired O2 content Numbers of volume changed Natural logarithm The original content of O2 in the tank that we should purge The specified O2 content given in the charter party The number of times the specified tank capacity needs to be completely purged of nitrogen If we have one tank at 1000 m3 capacity and the O2 content. the oxygen content is 0%. 11.

0.5% / 2% .53) 2. . To pressurise the tanks to 1 bar absolute we need 30% of the total capacity of our tanks. never above 5% The number of times the specified tank capacity needs to be completely purged of nitrogen Take an example with the same tank at 1000m3.0. The charter party states maximum 2% O2 and the O2 content on the inert is set to 0.4 Numbers of volume changed is ln (original O2 content/ desired O2 content) ln Original O2 content Desired O2 content O2 content in the inert Numbers of volume changed Natural logarithm The original content of O2 in the tank that we should purge The specified O2 content given in the charter party The O2 content that we set the inert gas generator to give.61 = 2610m3.5%) ln ( 13. it means a 0. 11. When you have 30% vacuum you have already quit 30% of the oxygen.8% . The total consumption of inert will be 1000m3 * 2.6. We start with air in the tank. Then we can continue the purge normally. When we come alongside we pressurise the tanks with nitrogen to 1 bar absolute.8/100*70 = 14. If we should purge one tank on 1000m3. If your vessel can have 30% vacuum in the tanks.56% oxygen left.5%. which means you have 20.7 bar absolute pressure.61 We have to subtract the inert gas O2 content from the original and desired O2 content.6.5 Use with allowed vacuum On vessels that have facility to have some vacuum on their tanks they can use their compressors to create the minimum allowed pressure in their tanks. we need 300m3 of nitrogen. Number of volume changed = Number of volume changed = ln ( 20.11.


we will take a look at the different methods in calculating cargo onboard. Filling limit depends on the set point of relief valve and the density of the actual cargo. What we always have to avoid is an uncontrolled venting.1 CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM ALLOWED LIQUID VOLUME In this part. The time used for loading will also increase if we have a lower set point on the cargo tank’s relief valves.5 4.12 CARGO CALCULATION 12.1 Maximum filling limit Maximum filling limit is the maximum volume liquid we are allowed to load in the cargo tank.5 bar + 1 bar = 1.2 573. If we look at some examples e.g. Uncontrolled venting is when we get such a high pressure in the cargo tank that the relief valve opens. we find that the maximum filling can be 98% of full tank volume. Relief valve setting 4. When we load and transport liquefied gases there are some variables that we have to have in mind.5 bar + 1 bar = 5. In chapter 15 of the IMO gas code.3 570.5 bar and the other example relief valve setting is 0. Cargo temperature is – 35oC. 12.7 . Formula for maximum volume liquid is as follows: Filling limit = ρR / ρL * 98% ρR ρL Density of reference temperature on the relief valve setting Density for actual cargo temperature This means that if the relief valve setting is low. the setting of the safety valve’s “relief valve”. The quantities of cargo we will load are specified in the charter party and this information is given directly from the charter or from the operation in the owner’s office. We then have to calculate the difference between the pilot settings. we can increase the liquid volume loaded.5 bar ≅ 5oC bar Relief valve setting 0. we can load more than if the setting is high.5 bar ≅ bar 32oC Cargo temperature – 35oC = kg/m3 = kg/m3 = kg/m3 523.5 bar. the cargo temperature when loading and at which temperature we should discharge the cargo.5 0. If there is a possibility to take off one or more of the pilot valves. propane and the first example relief valve setting is 4. The type of gas carrier and the equipment we have onboard is also important in the flexibility of our transport.4.

3 bar.5 bar.2 bar.45 bar.5 bar and atmospheric pressure 1.61 bar ⇒ 6oC We have to interpolate between 5. the time used for loading and discharging will increase.5 bar setting we can load 558.9 kg/m3 Then we get 98% * ρR/ρL ⇒ 98% * 522. normally the lowest relief valve setting is 0. we can see that the difference is about 45mt. On fully refrigerated gas carriers the relief valve setting is about 0. If we are on a gas carrier on 10 000 m3 the loss of income will then be USD 36 510.0/567.013 bar ⇒ 101.513 bar.61 bar to find the correct reference temperature and the correct density. In all calculations we have to use pressure in kilo Pascal (kPA) that gives 1. We can then use density for propane at –30oC and for 6oC.45 bar ⇒ 5oC 5.07% To calculate the accurate filling limit. Relief valve setting is 4.45 bar and 5. The extra setter is allowed to be used only while loading or gas freeing.25 bar and there are often facilities for putting one extra weight on the pilot. we have to know the actual cargo temperature and we must use density table. To find out how mush we can load. When the vessel is at sea and we get a telex that we are to set up to load propane at –30oC in Fawly. With 4.79 kg/m3.9 = 90. we can calculate more accurately.013 bar if nothing else is stated. The reference temperature is 5. When we know the exact temperature of the cargo.5 bar. That means we have a relief valve setting of 0. In the thermodynamic table we find: 5.In our example with 1000 m3 tank. .39oC and reference density is 522. On semi-refrigerated gas carriers. Our cargo tank relief valve set point is 4. There are two or more pilot valves e. When we reduce the set point on cargo tank relief valves. What we have to avoid is letting the cargo tank fill 100% with liquid. we use T0 = 273oC and atmospheric pressure to 1. we use densities from thermodynamic properties edited by Ocean Gas Transport. If we change the relief valve setting. this only to get an overview of how mush we can load.259mt and with 0. normally 0. as long as we do not know the exact cargo temperature.g.6 bar and 5. we have to mark that on the cargo tank and also note it in the decklog book. If the freight rate is 80 USD/mt we then miss USD 3651. For the cargo calculations. In all cargo calculations in this compendium.2 to 0.013 bar gives absolute pressure 5.5 bar setting we can load 513.0 kg/m3 and at –30oC ρ is 567.3 kPa. However. we use the nearest values in the table. At 6oC ρ is 522. we then have to take a rough calculation.900mt. 3.

If the loading temperature is colder than -30oC the filling limit will be less than 90.39 Tank #1.22% In this example the filling limit will be 90. reference rel.4.17% we are then sure that if the pressure in the cargo tank increases to 4.39oC the liquid volume will be 98%.013 C density o C density m3 bar bar bar 567.00 % 90. Filling limit = ρR / ρL * 98% = 522.22 % When we have loaded propane on –30oC to the limit 90. 100% Volume Relieve valve set point Atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure valve Filling limit = Filling limit 1182.9 kg/m3 x 98% = 90.793 / rL x 98 % / 567.513 rR 522.900 x 98.18 4.79 kg/m3 kg/m3 relieve 5.17% when we load propane at a temperature on -30oC. .17% and higher if the temperature is above -30oC.5 bar and the temperature in the liquid increases to 5.9 522.Then we use -30oC and we find density to 567.9 kg/m3.2 Example 1 Cargo Propane Temp in oC -30 o Temp. valve R 5.5 1. 12. When we have calculated the filling limit we can find the maximum volume of liquid that we can load.79 kg/m3 / 567.

98 x 1182.98 x V x rR / rL.216 % Filling volume = Filling limit * Cargo tank 100% vol.900 x 1182.18 Filling limit in % 90.793 / 567.517 m3 0.943 When we do this calculation we use the formula: VL = 0.18 98 % 90. We have to find the cargo tank at 100% volume and multiply with the actual filling limit.98 * V * ρR/ ρL VL V ρR ρL Volume liquid 100% Volume of the cargo tank Density of reference temperature on the relief valve setting Density for actual cargo temperature When we have found the correct filling limit. Cargo tank 100% volume in m3 1182. .972 m3 1066.VL = 0. If we have a cargo tank on 1182.17 Volume to be loaded in m3 1065.22 % Or Filling Volume VL= m3 = 1065.4.18 m3 volume at 100%. we can find the maximum volume to be loaded. we find the ullage or sounding in the vessels ullage/sounding table. 12. we find the maximum volume to be loaded by multiplying with 90.18 x 522.9 = After we have found the filling volume.793 / 567. Filling volume 90.17% filling limit.3 Filling limit Example 2 522.

In this example. the filling volume is 1065.36 m3 1065.16 8.25 m3 1066.16 meters and 8. We have to do this calculation on each cargo tank before we start loading.17 8.Ullage Sounding Sounding is the level from tank bottom to the liquid surface.1662 meters.180 m3 = 1065.4 Example 3 Filling volume = Filling limit * Cargo tank 100% vol. Filling limit 90. Ullage is the level from liquid surface to deck level.943 m3 and that is in between 8.17 % 1182.1662 volume in m3 1065. The corrections can be found in the sounding/ullage table for each vessel.943 m3 sounding in m 8. In this example. 12.94 m3 When we have found the correct sounding/ullage we have to find which corrections we must use to get the actual sounding/ullage. we use sounding. so we have to interpolate to find the correct sounding.17 meters. we find the correct sounding to be 8. .4. In the following examples.

correction on the sounding tape. The float correction depends on the liquid density. List and trim correction depend on how the vessel is in the water.12.4. Example of a spherical float The table for float correction is calculated against different densities and when we have a cargo with density in between the table values. with a higher density the float becomes lighter in the liquid. we found an example of a spherical float. we find in the sounding/ullage table for each cargo tank. The Float correction table Specific gravity (kg/dm3) Corrections in meter . We have to study the corrections carefully so we use the correct sign character. All corrections we do. we have to interpolate to find the correct correction. The tape correction depends on the temperature in the vapour phase. Spherical floats have the highest corrections on float. list and trim correction. On the next page.5 Corrections There are normally four corrections to be used: the correction on the float. Out of the table above we can see that lighter liquid will give a higher correction.

A tank equipped with spherical float will have higher corrections than tanks equipped with a flat float.160 meter.9 kg/m3 = 0. Correction on trim is either a correction to be added or multiplied to the measured sounding/ullage or the volume table is calculated with the trim directly.4. we have to follow the tank pressure carefully to avoid uncontrolled venting.5 meter zero list and –15oC in the vapour phase. low temperature and big vapour volume gives a higher correction. Correction on list is either correction to be added or multiplied to the measured sounding/ullage or the volume table is calculated with the list directly.0318 Corrected sounding Trim correction from table List correction from table Sounding w.6 Example 4 8. in this case. propane at –30oC and density 567.1662 meter. Small floats will give the lowest corrections.1564 8. How we should use the corrections are explained in each sounding/ullage table.If we have cargo density 0. This means that small transverse tanks have a trim correction near to zero and long tank has higher corrections. Normally the corrections are used directly on the sounding measurement. The trim correction is higher on long tanks than on short tanks.5 bar we do not have any possibilities to heat the cargo at sea.5679kg/dm3.1872 -0. The list corrections are highest on wide transverse tanks and small on narrow longitudinal tanks.0318 meter.60 and the correction will then be 0.001 0. 12. but when we calculate the other way we have to use the correction’s signs the opposite way. 20oC Correction for vapour temperature Float correction from table Read sounding To find the correct corrections we have to know the density of the cargo. The 98% maximum filling is to prevent liquid getting in the relief valve. When we are completely loaded on this tank.021 0 8. When we are heating the cargo. we found the corrected sounding to be 8.50 and 0.1662 -0. we will have a sounding of 8. Earlier in this chapter. we have to interpolate between 0. A correction on the sounding tape depends on the temperature in the vapour phase in the tank. aft trim on 0. On vessels with relief valve setting of 0. We will now continue using this example to find the sounding that we will read on the sounding tape. On semi-refrigerated or fully pressurised vessels. . if the tank pressure reaches the relief valve setting.55 kg/dm3. High temperature and a small vapour volume give a small correction. we have opportunity to heat the cargo while the vessel is at sea.

In table ASTM-IP no 56. Density is mass divided by volume. 12. we will calculate the weight in air at 15oC. 54. In table ASTM-IP no. The mass has either kilo (kg) or metric ton (mt) as unit.4. then we need tables or calculations to convert to weight in air at 15oC. .1 12. If we take an example with propane.Vessels with a low relief valve setting can have a higher filling limit than vessels with a high relieve valve setting. 21. Volume has either cubic meter (m3) or litre (lt) as unit. we find density at 15oC when the gravity 60/60oF is given. For LPG cargoes and some chemical cargoes it is normally accepted to calculate the weight in air at 15oC. The sketch below shows how the filling limit changes with the cargo temperature. Unit for density is either kg/m3 ⇒ tonn/m3 or kg/dm3 ⇒ kg/lt. we find the factor to be used to find weight in vacuum from weight in air.5075. We then start to look at how we calculate weight in air at 15oC by using the correct tables. 12. We then get either specific gravity 60/60oF or density at 15oC from shore and we have to use the ASTM-IP-API tables. Density and specific gravity is often given in vacuum. as long as the relief valve’s set point is the same.1 CALCULATION OF CARGO WITH USE OF ASTM-IP TABLES In this chapter we will look at the tables and corrections we use when calculating weight of cargo onboard gas carriers.7 Liquid calculation We start calculation of the liquid in air and then we look at the vapour calculation. we find the reduction factor to the actual cargo temperature compared with density at 15oC. as we do in the crude oil trade. In table ASTM-IP no. The tables we are using are the ASTM-IP-API tables for light hydrocarbons. liquid temperature is -25oC and specific gravity 0.

5078 kg/lt We have now find the density at 15oC to 0.5075.001 x 0.0010 kg/lt Our Specific gravity is 0.5073 kg/lt 0. We look in the column for Specific gravity 60/60oF 0.5073 0. In table ASTM IP no. The table is divided in three columns and we have to interpolate between the 0. we then have to 0.54 to find the reduction factor to –25oC.506 0.8 Specific Gravity 60/60oF 0.507 0.5078 kg/lt interpolate as follows 0. .8 kg/m3. 21 to find density at 15oC from specific gravity 60/60oF 0.5075.508 Example on table ASTM IP-API 21 API Gravity 60oF Density 15oC 0.5063 0.4.We then start with table ASTM-IP-API no.54. which we use in table ASTM IP no.5073 + (0.507 and find density at 15oC to We then look in the column for specific gravity 0.0005) that give 12. we look in the column for actual liquid temperature –25oC.508 an find density at 15oC to The density has now increased with 0.5075 that gives 0.5083 Specific gravity 60/60oF 0.5083 kg/lt 60/60oF 0.510 columns.5078 kg/lt which is equal to 507.0010 / 0.505 and 0.

Below.10432. o Example from table 54 Density 15 oC 0. When we have different temperatures on the different cargo tanks. we have an example on table ASTM IP no. we find the reduction factor to 1.510 C Factor to reduce volume to 15 oC When we do the interpolation. we have to do this calculation on each tank.500 0.4.12. 54 .9 Table 54C Observed temperature.505 0.

99997 0.fact.107 1.99756 0. The shrinkage factor is the correction for the thermal expansion on the cargo tank steel.103 1. we have different shrinkage factors.111 1.99759 0.101 -26 -25.108 1. It is the correction between 20oC and the actual steel temperature.105 1. With different steel.5 -25 -24.105 1. 20 19 18 1 0. 0. When we calculate cargo. Sh. -62 -63 -64 0.4.5078 1.108 1.10 Table 54C Observed Example on table ASTM IP-API 54 Density 15 oC 0.99753 . There is a shrinkage table on each vessel. -21 -22 -23 0. Only vessels with equal quality of steel and tank thickness have equal shrinkage factors.106 1. Sh. 12.99879 0.505 0. we use shrinkage factor both on the liquid and the vapour. which is a thermal factor on the tank steel.107 1.11 Example on shrinkage factor at different temperatures Temp.5 -24 -25 0.500 o C Factor to reduce volume to 15 oC 1.99873 Temp.102 1.109 1. Sh.99876 0.4.12. Aluminium and invar steel have a shrinkage factor near 0 and mild steel has higher factor.106 3 2 2 2 3 1.fact.510 temperature.fact. Shrinkage factor is normally 1 at 20oC and is less than one when the steel is colder than 20oC.104 1.103 3 3 3 3 2 1. but on one vessel the shrinkage factor is similar on all cargo tanks if they are made of equal steel.10432 The next correction is the shrinkage factor.99994 Temp. Shrink factor for a vessel depends on the material of the cargo tank.

5421 0.5422 to 0.10432. we find reduction factor from 15oC to –25oC to 1.5950 Factor for mass in vacuum to mass in air 0.99991 0.99775.99785 0.99988 -24 -25 0.99747 The last table ASTM-IP no 56 is used to find mass of liquid and vapour in air from mass in vacuum or vice versa. From table ASTM IP no.5674 to Factor is 0. which in this example is 0.99805 0.99750 0.5673 0. We have to note on all cargo documents that the mass is in air and also note the specific gravity 60/60F.5192 to 0. .5000 to 0.4. From table ASTM-IP-API no. 54.8 kg/m3 From table ASTM IP no.5191 0.5078 kg/ltr. and find the factor for propane to 0. 12. From the cargo tank shrinkage table.99775 0. we find shrinkage factor to 0. 56.99775.99775 We can look at one example where we have loaded 1089. ⇒ 507. The calculation gives us 610 994 kg in vacuum at 15oC that gives us 609 619 kg in air.12 Example on table ASTM IP-API 56 Table 56 Density at 15oC kg/ltr 0. We have to multiply this factor with the mass in vacuum to get mass in air. 21 we find the cargo density at 15oC to 0.556m3 propane with specific gravity 60/60F 0.99868 -65 -66 0.5075 and liquid temperature is –25oC.99795 0.5078 kg/ltr. If we have the mass in air we must divide with the factor. We have to use the liquid density at 15oC. We must always use liquid density at 15oC on the actual cargo to find the correct factor.99870 0.17 16 0. When the cargo calculations are completed. on the bill of lading and the other cargo papers we have to note if the loaded mass is in vacuum or air.99868 at –25oC. we find factor from mass in vacuum to mass in air to 0.

• • • • • • · Ts is standard temperature 288 K · Tv is average temperature on vapour in K · Pv is absolute pressure of vapour in kPa · Ps is standard pressure 101.6382 m3/kmol. We also need molar weight of the actual cargo and for propane it is 44. • · Ts = 288 K • · Tv = 273 + (-18) = 255 K • · Pv = (Ps + PT ) x 100 = (1. Molar volume of ideal gas at 288 K is 23.013 bar · Mm is molecular mass of the product in kg/kmol · I is molar gas volume at 288 K and standard pressure 1. 101.118 m3 Reduction factor to 15oC Volume at 15oC Density at 15oC Mass in vacuum at 15oC Factor from table 56 Mass in air at 15oC 1.5 bar.4.99775 608815 kg kg/m3 kg 12.5) x 100 = 251.14 Calculation of vapour We will now calculate mass of the vapour in air at 15oC.13 Calculation of the liquid’s mass Volume loaded 1089.556 m3 Shrinkage factor for -25oC 0.3 kPa • · Ps = 101.013 + 1.99868 Corrected volume at -25oC 1088.1 kg/kmol for propane • · I = 23.630 m3 507.013 bar.10432 1201.1 kg/kmol. Then we use the actual cargo temperature and pressure.325 kPa which is equal to 1. 288 K which is equal to 15oC.3 kPa • · Mm = 44.6382 m3/kmol ρv = (Ts x Pv x Mm) / (Tv x Ps x I) kg/m3 When we insert the values in the formula we find the following vapour density.8 610188 0.013bar ⇒ 23. We can take an example with Propane with vapour temperature at –18oC and cargo tank pressure at 1.4.325 kPa ⇒ 1. We always have to calculate the density of the vapour as the density change with the pressure. When we are calculating the mass in air on the vapour we need the following values.12.6382 m3/kmol .

which gives us a shrinkage factor (cargo tank expansion factor) on 0. we also calculate the mass of vapour in kilos.013 44.18m3 – 1089.3 x 44. We continue with the calculation of propane loading. the mass of vapour is 484 kilos.99888 taken from the vessel’s shrinkage table. In this example.15 Density calculation of vapour Ts 288 288 K Ps Pv Mm I 1.1 kPa kPa kg/kmol 23.227 m3 kg/m3 kg m3 Mass of gas in vacuum at 15oC 484 .520 5.18oC Corrected Gas volume Density of gas at 15oC 1182.16 Calculation of vapour mass at 15oC in kilo Cargo tank 100% volume Liquid volume Gas volume Shrinkage for .1 23.624m3.556m3 = 92. The vapour density is in kg/m3 and the mass will then be in kilos.6382 m3/kmol 288 rv = 255 x 251. we have to calculate the mass of the vapour.99888 92. which is equal to 0.013 1. We have a vapour temperature on –18oC. we have to calculate the vapour in metric ton also.624 0.3 1. In this example.556m3 liquid. If we use mass of liquid in metric ton. When we calculate the mass of liquid in kilos. The vapour volume is then 100% cargo tank volume minus liquid volume. That gives us 1182.12.180 m3 1089.5 251.6382 101.3 101.005227 mt/m3. the vapour density is 5.6382 = 5.227 kg/m3 When we have calculated the vapour density.227 kg/m3. 12.1 23.4.556 m3 92.4.18m3 and we have loaded 1089.3 44. The cargo tank 100% volume is 1182.

5 1.6 522.8 kg/m3 with a factor of 0. Then we use ASTM-IP table 56 and find the conversion factor to mass in air.1 -24 -20 1.017 4.99775 610 102 kg We will take an example on a full calculation and find the total mass in air. 12.550 0.Grav.60/60F Liquid density at -24oC Density at Relief valve setting Trim by stern Sounding 100 % Volume of cargo tank ROB before loading 44.99775. Cargo density at 15oC is 507.To find the total mass of liquid and vapour in the cargo tank.4. Then we multiply total mass in vacuum 611 478 kg with 0.5072 560.99775 which gives us 610 102 kg in air.180 m3 3114 kg .152 kg/m3 kg/m3 meter meter kg/kmol o o C C bar bar bar 1468. we have to add mass of liquid 610 994 kg + 484 kg = 611 478 kg.756 1 8.17 Calculation of total mass in air at 15oC Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC Mass of gas in vacuum at 15oC Total mass in vacuum at 15oC Factor from ASTM-IP 56 table Total mass in air at 15oC 610 994 kg 484 kg 611 478 kg 0. the cargo is propane and we have the following information: Molecular mass Liquid temperature Vapour temperature Atmospheric pressure Relief valve setting Cargo tank pressure Spes.

99871 1339.69 m3 We always have to start with the calculation of maximum filling volume.001 m 0.059 m 8. colder cargo gives a lower filling volume. When the loading is completed.158 m -0. while we are loading. Maximum filling volume is. we do the final calculation.102 1476.18 Example on a full calculation on mass at 15oC PROPAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tank # 2 1468.0 oC 8.152 m 0. Warmer cargo gives a higher filling volume.643 m3 1.373 m3 0. If the temperature and pressure changes. This calculation is based on figures we got before we start loading.7 / 560.With a set point on the relief valve at 4.287 m3 507.18 x 522.98 x VT x ρR / ρL Maximum filling volume = 0.180 m3 -24. as follows: Maximum filling volume = 0.000 m -0.5 kg/m3 100 %Volume cargo tank Liquid temperature Sounding Float correction Correction for vapour temperature List correction Trim correction Sounding at 20oC Liquid volume at 20oC Shrinkage factor tank steel at –24oC Corrected liquid volume Reductions factor from table 54C Liquid volume at 15oC Liquid density at 15oC table 21 .4. We have to find the maximum filling limit on all tanks. we have to recalculate the maximum filling volume.5 bar we can load maximum 91.6 = 1341.250 m 1341.38% with liquid temperature –24oC. 12.98 x 1468.

It must be specified on the Bill of Lading that the mass is in air at 15oC. we have a ships figure which is the one the chief officer must calculate and one shore figures.382 kg/m3 682 kg 749 897 kg 748 210 kg 3 114 kg 745 096 kg After we complete the cargo calculation. That means when we have calculated the total mass of cargo in a tank we have to subtract the ROB.15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC Uncorrected vapour volume Shrinkage factor vapour phase –20oC Corrected vapour volume Tank pressure Atmospheric pressure Molecular mass Propane Vapour temperature Vapour density at 15oC Mass of vapour in vacuum at 15oC Total mass of cargo in the tank in vacuum Mass in air 749 897 kg x 0. which is the one that the surveyor has calculated.4 kg vapour left in the tank. we call that ROB (Remaining on Board) or heel. .550 bar 1.807 m3 0. When we load on an atmosphere from a previous cargo. At a minimum. we have loaded 745 096 kg in air at 15oC in the actual cargo tank.5% of Bill of Lading. When the discharging is completed. in this example 741 370 kg.657 m3 1. Those two figures will be nearly equal or equal. It is important for the vessel to calculate which temperature and cargo tank pressures will remain when we finish discharging. that means we are finished pumping liquid. we will have 311. When we discharge the cargo.0 oC 5. In this example.99775 ROB in air Total loaded in air at 15oC 749 215 kg 126. we must have maximum 0. we are allowed to discharge is 99. and vapour temperature is equal to what we estimated before loading.017 bar 44.99882 126. The one we use in the Bill of Lading is the surveyor’s figure.1 kg/mol -20. We have blown hot vapour to shore and tank pressure. In our example.16 bar pressure and vapour temperature –27oC.

The atmospheric pressure is 1.791 kg/m3 Volume 12000 x 2.3 x 42.4.3 bar on a 12 000 m3 vessel.458 kg/m3 5. The first example tank pressure is 0.249 kg/m3 Volume 12000 x 5.08 kg/kmol. Tank pressure is removed with the vessel’s compressors and the condensate is sent directly to the discharge line.It is important to remember that the tank pressure has a big influence on the vapour density. We can look at two examples on density calculation of a cargo with equal temperature but different tank pressures. 12.020 bar vessels total volume is 12000m3.249 kg/m3 29 492 kg Difference in mass With a difference of tank pressure at 1.3 bar and the other example tank pressure 1.3bar = Example of calculations on vapour density with different tank 288 243 x 134 101. we do not have any problem with high tank pressure when we have completed discharging. we have to remove the tank pressure before we commence the calculation of the ROB.5bar = 288 243 x 252 101. we get 29 492 kg in mass difference. It is a good routine to always calculate the maximum mass of vapour. If we transport an ambient cargo.6382 33 490 = kg 2. We use propylene as example and vapour temperature is –25oC molecular mass 42.3 x 42.08 23. which we can have as ROB to reach 99.6382 62 982 Difference in r = kg 2.08 23. . If we are onboard a fully refrigerated gas carrier.5 bar.5% of Bill of Lading before we start discharging.19 pressures r v 0.791 kg/m3 r v 1.

452 m We should calculate the weight of liquid propane. cargo tank pressure is 1.5 bar ⇒ 5.3 CALCULATION OF CARGO WEIGHT USING DENSITY TABLES When transport of chemical gases and also sometimes LPG cargoes. First we take a look at how we are calculating the weight of liquid.18 523. Liquid density at 5. safety valve set point is 4. the shipper of the cargo or thermodynamic properties of gases. Maximum filling volume is as follows: Maximum filling volume = 0.6 kg/m3.99870. The weight of cargo is calculated by use of the actual cargo temperature and the density tables are either in vacuum or in air.556m3 liquid propane. We have to be sure that the density tables we are using are either in vacuum or in air and it has to be noted on the Bill of Lading.12. We should use the actual vapour temperature and actual tank pressure in the calculation of vapour density. The only ASTM table we are using is ASTM-IP table no. First of all we have to find out the maximum filling volume on the actual cargo tanks that we have to load. We always have to calculate the vapour density because the vapour temperature does not match the cargo tank pressure. such as. butadiene and VCM. We get the density tables from the surveyor. Cargo tank expansion factor at -24oC is 0. When the calculation is completed. On clean cargoes. we can use the density tables composed by SGS or thermodynamic properties of gases.1 bar. weight in air 604 115 kg. 98% Vt m3 r SV kg/m3 r c kg/m3 Maximum filling volume = 0.98 1182. we have to note that the weight is in vacuum or in air. We have loaded 1089.6 3 Maximum filling volume = 1081. The density table we are using in the load port has to be used also in the discharge port. propylene. . Weight in vacuum will then be 605 477 kg. we use density tables for the actual cargo.5 bar ata. density from density table and –24oC is 560.3 560.18 m3.98 x VT x ρR / ρL The cargo tank 100% volume is 1182.56 for converting weight in air to weight in vacuum or vice versa.5 bar is 523.3 kg/m3 and density at –24oC is 560. liquid temperature is –24oC. ethylene.6 kg/m3.

052 m3 560.99870 1080. x D T . Vapour density at actual temperature formula: (Tank pressure in kPa + Atmospheric pressure in kPa) x Molecular mass molar gas constant x (T0 K + Gas temperature in oC) Tank pressure 1.1 Example on calculation of weight in air 1081.012 bar ⇒ 101.16075 kg/m3 We can take another example with ethylene and calculate the vapour density.15K as 0oC.35 bar ⇒ 35 kPa. we use 273K as 0oC. that means 1 bar is equal to 100 kPa. we first have to calculate density of the vapour on the actual temperature.30) x 44.4 bar and the atmospheric pressure is 1.99775 604 115 kg kg/m3 kg Loaded volume Correction factor for -24oC Corrected volume Density at -24oC from table Weight in vacuum at -24oC Factor from table 56 Weight in air at -24oC 12.1 kg/kmol.05 kg/kmol. D P x Molecular mass Molar gas const. D P x Molecular mass Molar gas const. molecular mass is 28.6 605 477 0.4 bar is equal to 140 kPa and the atmospheric pressure 1.25 = 248K Tank pressure plus atmospheric pressure ∆P is equal to 241. To find the pressure in kPa “kilo Pascal” we multiply the pressure in bar with 100. In all calculations in this manual. Vapour temperature ∆T in K = 273 + . When we do the calculations onboard we use 273.013 bar is equal to 101.1 8.3 kPa. Molecular mass on propane is 44.3.013 bar. vapour temperature is –99oC ⇒ 174K and tank pressure is 0.0 + 101.3 kPa.3. Atmospheric pressure is 1.31441 J/(mol x K). Another factor we should use is molar gas constant which is 8.452 m3 0.31441 x ( 273.12.00) 5.2 kPa. We should now look at one example to find vapour density on propane with vapour temperature on –25oC. x D T ( 140. The actual vapour temperature has to be in K (Kelvin) and pressures in kPa (kilo Pascal).00 + -25. tank pressure is 1.2 Calculation of vapour density and weight To calculate the weight of vapour.

15 bar and the atmospheric pressure is 1.020 bar.5oC Cargo tank 100% volume Vapour volume Shrinkage factor at -95oC Corrected vapour volume 0.832 0.5 bar and atmospheric pressure is 1.99648 x 2.99645 1308.15 1088.0 + 101. 12.99 kg = 103. which is equal to 1313. Total weight of cargo in the tank is 738 009 kg in vacuum.5oC (1182.55 m3 = at We have now seen how to calculate weight of liquid and weight of vapour and we should now calculate both liquid and vapour. Liquid temperature is –100oC and vapour temperature is –99.99648.69 563.15 m3 and liquid volume is 1088.583 o Weight of vapour in vacuum at -95 C 399 TOTAL LOADED IN VACUUM 738009 .5oC shrinkage factor at –99.6 m3. liquid volume 1313. density 563.20) x 28.5oC 737610 Vapour density at -95oC 2.638 kg/m3 Now when we have found the vapour density at the actual vapour temperature.263367 kg/m3 = (D P x 28. We have loaded one tank with ethylene.35 m3 Shrinkage factor at -100. tank 100% volume is 1182.55 x 0.014 bar.31441 x ( 273.3.3 Calculation of Ethylene set point 4.348 m3 with relief valve setting on 4.00) + 2.99661 154.60) m3 2. After loading the vessel we have 1 meter by stern trim with the following values: Vapour Liquid -95oC and tank pressure 0.31441 x D T) – 210.05) / (8.5oC Corrected liquid volume Liquid density at -100.5oC.345 bar.18 154. we can calculate the weight of vapour at the actual temperature.05 8.625 1468. Tank pressure is 0. Vapour volume Vapour density Vapour weight 99. We should calculate one tank loaded with ethylene.26337 93. relief valve set point is 4.15 -99.348 m3 Maximum filling limit is 89.5 bar Liquid volume 1313. -100.45%.5 bar.5oC are 0.63 kg/m3.308 m3 kg/m3 kg m3 m3 m3 kg/m3 kg kg Weight of liquid in vacuum at -100.( 35.

581 113.5oC Cargo tank 100% volume Vapour volume Shrinkage factor at -95oC Corrected vapour volume Vapour density at -95oC Weight of vapour in vacuum at -95oC TOTAL LOADED IN VACUUM 0.08 563. we have to calculate maximum allowed filling limit.5 bar Liquid volume 1 424. temp.00 % 1. the ROB will then be 2758 kg in vacuum.904 2.3.625 799 827 1 468.5oC Weight of liquid in vacuum at -100.99661 43.5 bar.5 bar Absolute pres.053 0. which is 61 931 kg more than with set point on 4. If we. in this example.326 799 940 m3 kg/m3 kg m3 m3 m3 kg/m3 kg kg When we are loading on ROB from previous cargo.5oC Corrected liquid volume Liquid density from table at -100. .87 kg/m3 Filling limit rR/rL x 98% 12.019 bar.18 44.When we change the relief valve set point to 0. Total loaded will then be 799 940 kg – 2 758 kg = 797 182 kg in vacuum.5 bar the maximum allowable filling limit then increase to 97.127m3.520 bar -96.02 bar. Ref. had ROB before loading and we surveyed the tank atmosphere at –87oC and tank pressure 0.13 m3 Shrinkage factor at -100. Ref. the total loaded cargo is total weight of liquid and vapour in the tank minus ROB. atmospheric pressure 1.99645 1 419. 97. Set point is 0.0% that is equal to 1424.53 oC 557.4 Calculation of Ethylene set point 0. First. We then get a total weight of cargo in the tank on 799 940 kg. dens.

. 2P. Then we do calculations after we have completed loading.(1.997985 Then we have to multiply mass in vacuum with the factor: 797 182 kg x 0. Always note on the Bill of Lading that the quantity is either in vacuum or air.12. On the calculation forms. we get the density on the actual liquid temperature in vacuum.(Mass in vacuum loaded x r air / r liquid) When we use the values from our last example it will be. With most chemical gases. as follows Weight in air = Mass in vacuum .18 m3 Weight of vapour 2 758 kg Shrinkage factor 0. 2S. We start to calculate ROB before loading. we can use the following formula: Mass in vacuum loaded .625) = 795 kg 485 Before we commence with cargo calculations. as follows: (1 . 3P and 3S. we have to be sure that the density given is in air or in vacuum.99685 To find the weight in air we can either density at 15oC or we have to calculate a D T = 186 D P = 104 K kPa use table ASTM-IP-API 56 if we know the factor. 1S.4 Weight of ROB before loading at temperature -87oC and tank pressure 0.2 kg/m3 / 8100kg/m3)) In our example we will get a factor.2/ 563.02 bar Vapour density 1.997985 = 795 575 kg in air On a full-loaded tank.885 kg/m3 Tank volume 100% 1468.2 kg/m3 / 8100kg/m3)) = 0.2 kg/m3 /563. We should now do a full cargo calculation.2/ r liquid) Weight in air = 797 182 .(797 182 * 1.2 kg/m3 /ρ cargo liquid)) / ( 1 – (1. as follows: (1 – (ρ air/ ρ cargo liquid)) / (1 – ( ρ air/ ρ Brass) (1 – (1. Cargo tanks 2 and 3 are equal and tank 1 is a bit smaller. The factor is.(Mass in vacuum x 1. we calculate both in vacuum and in air.625 kg/m3)) / ( 1 – (1. The vessel has three twin tanks numbered as follows 1P.3.

18 Vapour volume in m3 1182.3. in m3 1182.5 Calculation of ROB before loading Loading report Cargo Propylene Molecular 42.18 1468.18 1182.08 mass Atm.18 1468.99862 3 122 2.99862 2 514 2.02 0 2P 0.02 0 2S 0.02 0 3S 0.18 1468.18 1468.129 0. 1. in kg/m kg m3 1P 0. in oC 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S -27 -27 -27 -27 -25 -25 r Shrinkage Mass of vapour factor vapour in in kg 3 kg/m 2.18 1468.18 1468.129 0.18 Temp.99862 3 122 2.99868 3 097 2.99862 2 514 2.02 0 1S 0.18 1468.05.press.02 0 Total mass of 0 Liquid Vapour Tank # !00% vol.112 0.18 1468. Pressure r liquid Shrinkage Mass of in meter from in in oC in bar factor liquid in 3 tab.02 0 3P 0.18 1182.12. 1994 Vessel LPG Seagull Liquid Tank # Sounding Volume Temp.112 0.129 0.015 Port Date Al Jubail 17.99868 3 097 Total mass of vapour 17 465 Total mass in vacuum 17 465 ROB Total loaded in vacuum Total loaded in air .129 0.

in m3 1P 8. Press r liquid Shrinkage in meter from in oC in bar in kg/m3 factor tab.55 -39 0.99841 218 3.6 601.75 1403.41 -38 0.99838 195 3.0 0.6 Calculation of mass after loading Loading report Cargo Propylene Molecular 42.74 1123.020 Port Date Skip Al Jubail 18.07 -36 1468.18 56.35 -38 0.445 0.6 601.76 1404.12.99829 3S 8.459 0.445 0.99838 201 3.18 58.99826 2P 8.05.6 600.18 64.0 0.459 0.08 mass Atm.35 -35 1182.press 1.20 -39 0.6 600.11 -39 0.99835 235 3.99826 3P 8.99826 1S 8.83 -39 0.72 1400.83 -34 Total Total r vapour Shrinkage Masse of in kg/m3 factor vapour in kg 3.2 0. in volume m3 in m3 1182.99829 Total mass of Liquid Mass of liquid in kg 674 675 840 840 841 840 4 471 503 281 936 205 570 712 967 Vapour Tank # 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S 100% Vapour Temp.73 1401.18 68. in oC vol.18 66.99835 231 3.2 0.63 -35 1468.6 601.2 0.99841 222 mass of vapour 1 302 mass in vacuum 4 714 269 ROB 17 465 Total Loaded in vacuum 4 696 803 Total loaded in air 4 687 973 .431 0.2 0.99826 2S 8.76 1125.3.77 -34 1468.431 0.98 -36 1468. 1994 LPG Seagull Liquid Tank # Sounding Volume Temp.6 601.18 63.

We then have to order the following amount cargo. we find the vapour ρ to 1. we have to order liquid to gas up the rest of the volume to be gassed up. For cargoes with a heavy vapour. 1182.4. To minimise the consumption of cargo for gassing up. To change cargo and gas up costs lot money.812 kg/m3 r vapour at atmospheric pressure from 20 table o r liquid from table -40 C 602. The formula is mass = ρ vapour x total volume. tank steel temperature and liquid temperature on the coolant.26 kg Volume liquid to be loaded = Mass volume / r liquid . Calculation of volume liquid we have to order 12. If we have some ROB in one tank.4 kg/m3 Number of changes 2 Total volume to be changed 2364. The first is the temperature of the liquid we will take onboard then the temperature of the cargo tank steel and what volume we should gas up.812 kg/m3 on 20oC and P=1 bar. we need to heat the cargo. 12. as mush as possible.4. The loss of cargo and number of changes is individual for each vessel and it is our duty to reduce the loss of cargo down to a minimum. propane butane and propylene.36 m3. Liquid temperature on shore tank is –40oC and our cargo tank steel 20oC. measure and check when commence heating the coolant for gassing up. We have to be sure that the amount of liquid we order for gassing up is enough to gas up and to commence cooling down the cargo tanks.7 CALCULATION OF LIQUID TO BE USED FOR GASSING UP There are some parameters we have to have in mind to find out how much liquid we need to take onboard for gassing up our cargo tanks. The only way to reduce the loss of cargo is to control tank pressure when loading coolant. From the table thermodynamic properties for propylene superheated vapour. which is the minimum we need for gassing up and commence cooling the tank.36 m3 Mass volume = Volume x r for vapour Mass total volume = 4283.18 m3 x 2 = 2364.812 kg/m3 = 4 283 kg. cargo equipment and the time we use for gassing up.36 m3 and multiply with vapour ρ 1.3.18 m3 that we have to gas up. Our experience is that we need two times the tank volume for gassing up and commence cooling the tank.18 m3 o C 1. If we don’t have any ROB or not enough. We will take onboard propylene liquid for gassing up and it is two vital temperatures we must recognise. we can begin gassing up at sea if the tanks are surveyed and approved by a surveyor. such as VCM.2 Cargo Propylene 100% Tank volume 1182.1 Volume of liquid to be used for gassing up We have a cargo tank with volume 1182. to minimise the cost we have to use all the available cargo equipment onboard in the most efficient way. the loss of cargo is near to 0 when gassing up correctly. Then we take the total volume 2364.12. The amount of cargo lost when gassing up depends on the people onboard.

Volume to be loaded =



We have to load 7,11 m3 propylene at –40oC from shore tank to change the vapour atmosphere at 20oC two times. This was a calculation for one tank, if we gas up all tanks, the calculation has to be on the total volume of the vessel’s cargo tanks. After completion of the loading two Bill of Lading will be made, one for what we have used for gassing up and one for the quantity we have loaded. Number of changes with a given amount of liquid 12.4.3 To find the number of vapour changes with a given amount of liquid in either a deck tank or a cargo tank, we then have to know the liquid temperature and the temperature of the cargo tanks we have to gas up. Then we have to calculate the mass of the liquid we have. When we know the mass of liquid and the volume to be gassed up, we know if we then need to order more liquid or if we can complete to gas up and commence cooling tanks with the amount of liquid we have onboard. A cargo tank is completely gassed up when we have more than 97% hydrocarbons in the vapour atmosphere. We must remember that the tank we use for gassing up will have a given amount of mass vapour left ROB, which we are unable to get out. First, we have to calculate the mass of vapour we will have ROB in our deck tank/cargo tank after we have gassed up the other tanks. When we have calculated the mass of vapour we have left, we must subtract it from the amount of liquid we have. How many changes we need depends on the cargo, the cargo handling equipment we have onboard, temperature of the liquid and temperature of the atmosphere that we should gas up. If we are able to heat the vapour, we should have it as hot as possible to use as less liquid as possible. We can use an example on the calculation of vapour after gassing up. Average temperature on the vapour is –10oC, total tank volume is 2564,36 m3 and tank pressure is 0 bar. We then find the density of the vapour, either calculate the density or use the thermal property table to find it. When we have found the vapour density, we have to multiply it with the tank shrinkage factor and the tank volume. Mass of vapour after gassing up 12.4.4 Cargo Propylene Tank volume #1 P/S 2364,36 m3 o C 1,953 kg/m3 r for vapour at atmospheric -10 pressure Mass of vapour in the tank 4 618 kg We have now calculated that we should have 4 618 kg vapour left in tank #1 P and S when we are not able to get out any more from the tanks. Before we order any liquid, we have to subtract 4 618 kg from the amount of liquid we need to gas up the whole vessel. We can continue with the example and have 15 m3 liquid propylene at –10oC, vapour temperature 0oC and the pressure 3,3 bar in tank #1 P/S. Total volume of the vessel is 8237 m3 and atmospheric pressure is 1,015 bar. That means we have to gas up vessel’s total volume – volume of tank #1 P/S, which is equal to 8237 m3 – 2364,36

m3 = 5872,64 m3 with an average temperature of 25oC. Our experience is that we need 2,5 volume changes to reach 97% hydrocarbons in the vapour atmosphere, 2,5 changes is 5872,64 m3 x 2,5 = 14681,6 m3. It is always stated in the charter party how clean the atmosphere has to be before loading and it depends on which cargo we have to load. Mass we can use for gassing up 12.4.5 Cargo Propylene Tank volume #1 P/S 2364,36 Volume liquid in tank #1 P/S 15,00 Mass of liquid in tank #1 P/S 8 420 Volume of vapour in tank #1 P/S 2349,36 Mass of vapour in tank #1 P/S 18 783 Total mass in tank #1 P/S 27 202 Mass of vapour in tank #1 P/S after gassing 4 618 up Usable mass in tank #1 P/S 22 584

m3 m3 kg m3 kg kg kg kg

We have 27202 kg available in tank #1 P/S, but when we are completed gassing up, we have 4618 kg vapour left, that means we have 22584 kg available for gassing up. Total volume to be gassed up is vessel’s total volume minus volume of tank #1 P/S multiplied with 2,5. That gives ⇒ 8237 m3 - 2349,36 m3 ⇒ 5872,64 m3 x 2,5 = 14682 m3. We have to find the vapour density equal to tank steel temperature 25oC, which is 1,724 kg/m3. Calculation of volume needed 12.4.6 Volume vapour at 25oC of available 13 101 m3 mass o C r for vapour with atmospheric pressure 25 at Total volume vapour 2,5 times tank 14 682 m3 volume Volume to be ordered 1 581 m3

1,724 kg/m3

In this example, we do not have enough liquid to reach 2,5 times for gassing up. There was 1581 m3 vapour short, so we have to order that 1581 m3 x 1,724 kg/m3 = 2726 kg. Calculation of mass vapour at a given temperature 12.4.7 Cargo Propylene Vessel’s total volume 8237 m3 Tank #1 P/S volume Volume to be gassed up Amount changes 2364,36 5872,64 2,5 m3 m3

Tank steel temperature Atmospheric pressure Vapour r at 25oC

25 1,015 1,724


C bar kg/m3

Total volume to gas up 5872,64 x 2,5 14 682 Mass of total volume to gas up 25 309 Available mass 22 584 Mass in kg to load to complete gassing 2 725 up

m3 kg kg kg

To hold the temperature of the vapour we use for gassing up, we have to use either the compressors or heaters. If we are able to increase the temperature on the vapour from 25oC to 60oC, we do not need to supply any extra from shore. Calculation of vapour at 60oC 12.4.8 Vapour r at 60oC Total volume to gas up 5872,64 x 2,5 Mass total volume to gas up Available mass Mass in kg difference 1,543 14 682 22 649 22 584 65 kg/m3 m3 kg kg kg

It is important that we continue to heat the tank we are taking the vapour from to hold a positive pressure.

12.5 12.4 ENCLOSES 12.5.1 12.4.1 Enclose 1

Table 21 0,500 - 0,510 Specific Gravity 60/60oF 0,500 0,501 0,502 0,503 0,504 0,505 0,506 0,507 0,508 0,509 0,510

API Gravity 60oF -

Density 15oC 0,5004 0,5014 0,5023 0,5033 0,5043 0,5053 0,5063 0,5073 0,5083 0,5093 0,5103

12.4.2 Enclose 2 Table 54C Observed Density 15 oC

temperature, 0,500 0,505 0,510 o C Factor for reduction of volume to 15 oC -43 -42,5 -42 -41,5 -41 -40,5 -40 -39,5 -39 -38,5 -38 -37,5 -37 1,153 1,152 1,15 1,149 1,148 1,147 1,146 1,145 1,143 1,142 1,141 1,14 1,139 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1,149 1,148 1,147 1,146 1,145 1,144 1,143 1,142 1,14 1,139 1,138 1,137 1,136 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 1,146 1,145 1,143 1,142 1,141 1,14 1,139 1,138 1,137 1,136 1,134 1,133 1,132

-36,5 -36 -35,5 -35 -34,5 -34 -33,5 -33 -32,5 -32 -31,5 -31 -30,5 -30 -29,5 -29 -28,5 -28 -27,5 -27 -26,5 -26 -25,5 -25 -24,5 -24 -23,5 -23 -22,5 -22 -21,5 -21 -20,5 -20 -19,5 -19 -18,5 -18 -17,5 -17 -16,5 -16 -15,5 -15

1,138 1,136 1,135 1,134 1,133 1,131 1,13 1,129 1,128 1,126 1,125 1,124 1,123 1,121 1,12 1,119 1,117 1,116 1,115 1,113 1,112 1,111 1,109 1,108 1,107 1,106 1,104 1,103 1,102 1,101 1,100 1,098 1,097 1,096 1,095 1,093 1,092 1,091 1,090 1,089 1,087 1,086 1,085 1,084

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3

1,135 1,133 1,132 1,131 1,13 1,128 1,127 1,126 1,125 1,123 1,122 1,121 1,12 1,118 1,117 1,116 1,115 1,113 1,112 1,111 1,11 1,108 1,107 1,106 1,105 1,103 1,102 1,101 1,1 1,098 1,097 1,096 1,094 1,093 1,092 1,091 1,09 1,088 1,087 1,086 1,085 1,084 1,082 1,081

4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1

1,131 1,13 1,129 1,128 1,127 1,125 1,124 1,123 1,122 1,12 1,119 1,118 1,117 1,115 1,114 1,113 1,112 1,11 1,109 1,108 1,107 1,105 1,104 1,103 1,102 1,101 1,099 1,098 1,097 1,096 1,095 1,094 1,093 1,092 1,09 1,089 1,088 1,087 1,086 1,084 1,083 1,082 1,081 1,08

-14,5 -14 -13,5 -13 -12,5 -12 -11,5 -11 -10,5 -10 -9,5 -9 -8,5 -8 -7,5 -7 -6,5 -6 -5,5 -5 -4,5 -4

1,082 1,081 1,080 1,079 1,077 1,076 1,075 1,074 1,072 1,071 1,070 1,068 1,067 1,066 1,065 1,063 1,062 1,061 1,059 1,058 1,057 1,055

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1,08 1,079 1,078 1,077 1,075 1,074 1,073 1,072 1,071 1,07 1,068 1,067 1,066 1,065 1,063 1,062 1,061 1,06 1,058 1,057 1,056 1,054

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1,078 1,077 1,076 1,075 1,074 1,072 1,071 1,07 1,069 1,068 1,066 1,065 1,064 1,063 1,061 1,06 1,059 1,058 1,056 1,055 1,054 1,052

12.4.3 Enclose 3 Shrinkage factor for exercise Seagull Temp. Sh.fakt. Temp. Sh.fakt. 20 1 -21 0,99879 19 0,99997 -22 0,99876 18 0,99994 -23 0,99873 17 0,99991 -24 0,99870 16 0,99988 -25 0,99868 15 0,99985 -26 0,99865 14 0,99982 -27 0,99862 13 0,99979 -28 0,99859 12 0,99976 -29 0,99856 11 0,99974 -30 0,99853 10 0,99971 -31 0,99850 9 0,99968 -32 0,99847 8 0,99965 -33 0,99844 7 0,99962 -34 0,99841 6 0,99959 -35 0,99838 5 0,99956 -36 0,99835 4 0,99953 -37 0,99832 3 0,99950 -38 0,99829 2 0,99947 -39 0,99826 1 0,99944 -40 0,99823 0 0,99941 -41 0,99820 -1 0,99938 -42 0,99817 -2 0,99935 -43 0,99815 -3 0,99932 -44 0,99812 -4 0,99929 -45 0,99809 -5 0,99926 -46 0,99806 -6 0,99923 -47 0,99803 -7 0,99921 -48 0,99800 -8 0,99918 -49 0,99797 -9 0,99915 -50 0,99794 -10 0,99912 -51 0,99791 -11 0,99909 -52 0,99788 -12 0,99906 -53 0,99785 -13 0,99903 -54 0,99782 -14 0,99900 -55 0,99779 -15 0,99897 -56 0,99776 -16 0,99894 -57 0,99773 -17 0,99891 -58 0,99770 -18 0,99888 -59 0,99767 -19 0,99885 -60 0,99765 -20 0,99882 -61 0,99762 -21 0,99879 -62 0,99759 04 Temp. -62 -63 -64 -65 -66 -67 -68 -69 -70 -71 -72 -73 -74 -75 -76 -77 -78 -79 -80 -81 -82 -83 -84 -85 -86 -87 -88 -89 -90 -91 -92 -93 -94 -95 -96 -97 -98 -99 -100 -101 -102 -103

Sh.fakt. 0,99759 0,99756 0,99753 0,99750 0,99747 0,99744 0,99741 0,99738 0,99735 0,99732 0,99729 0,99726 0,99723 0,99720 0,99717 0,99714 0,99712 0,99709 0,99706 0,99703 0,99700 0,99697 0,99694 0,99691 0,99688 0,99685 0,99682 0,99679 0,99676 0,99673 0,99670 0,99667 0,99664 0,99661 0,99659 0,99656 0,99653 0,99650 0,99647 0,99644 0,99641 0,99638

000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.12.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.003 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.004 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.003 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.000 .001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.4 Enclose 4 Correction for expansion of sounding tape tank #1 Temp.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.000 0.000 11 -0.004 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.000 0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.003 -0.004 -0.001 -0.000 0.4.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0. Read Sounding in meter o C 6 7 8 9 10 -104 -103 -102 -101 -100 -99 -98 -97 -96 ± -48 -47 -46 -45 -44 -43 -42 -41 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -0.001 -0.003 -0.004 -0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.

78 8.043 8.046 -0.043 8.022 -0.70 -0.021 -0.022 -0.021 -0.043 8.60 -0.045 -0.043 8.08 9.043 8.59 -0. tank 100% volume 1182.022 -0.042 8.023 -0.36 -0.043 8.043 8.021 -0.88 8.043 8.021 -0.044 8.023 -0.61 -0.15 -0.58 -0.11 -0.28 -0.022 -0.022 -0.043 8.99 9.043 8.045 -0.20 -0.06 -0.043 8.08 -0.043 8.022 -0.022 -0.046 -0.021 -0.85 8.046 -0.045 -0.14 Stern trim 0.93 8.021 -0.96 8.042 8.17 -0.043 8.021 -0.71 -0.68 -0.023 -0.021 -0.022 -0.39 -0.021 -0.10 9.97 8.09 9.021 -0.045 -0.044 8.87 8.045 -0.32 -0.022 -0.53 -0.046 -0.021 -0.91 8.022 -0.021 -0.021 -0.95 8.043 8.86 8.046 -0.022 -0.022 -0.40 -0.12.92 8.022 -0.045 -0.13 -0.5 1 0.043 8.022 -0.043 8.49 -0.90 8.043 8.046 -0.047 .12 -0.043 8.045 -0.043 8.044 8.046 -0.022 -0.50 -0.044 8.021 -0.021 -0.73 -0.5 1 8.46 -0.021 -0.043 8.023 -0.021 -0.41 -0.043 8.043 8.38 -0.021 -0.023 -0.043 8.042 8.022 -0.01 9.5 1 -0.021 -0.021 -0.023 -0.047 -0.045 -0.023 -0.044 8.044 8.045 -0.021 -0.043 8.25 -0.48 -0.022 -0.021 -0.27 -0.022 -0.02 9.89 8.043 8.22 -0.022 -0.045 -0.021 -0.022 -0.023 -0.83 8.021 -0.98 8.62 -0.021 -0.042 8.69 -0.30 -0.046 -0.022 -0.043 8.043 8.022 -0.022 -0.07 9.042 8.021 -0.045 -0.022 -0.26 -0.044 8.12 9.044 8.023 -0.043 8.03 9.021 -0.021 -0.16 -0.044 8.021 -0.23 -0.042 8.74 -0.64 -0.10 -0.042 8.023 -0.046 -0.045 Sounding 8.66 -0.022 -0.022 -0.84 8.022 -0.022 -0.022 -0.022 -0.042 8.43 -0.34 -0.021 -0.043 8.045 -0.022 -0.023 -0.37 -0.021 -0.13 9.021 -0.022 -0.045 -0.021 -0.00 9.043 8.022 -0.045 -0.67 -0.042 8.022 -0.05 9.045 -0.18 -0.021 -0.022 -0.042 8.5 Enclose 5 Trim table tank #1.021 -0.022 -0.044 8.79 8.022 -0.65 -0.022 -0.29 -0.021 -0.022 -0.022 -0.043 8.63 -0.57 -0.043 8.043 8.045 -0.043 8.044 8.19 -0.51 -0.44 -0.77 -0.24 -0.55 -0.4.045 -0.044 8.045 -0.05 -0.52 -0.022 -0.023 -0.021 -0.45 -0.043 8.72 -0.044 8.42 -0.021 -0.042 8.06 9.023 -0.022 -0.043 8.04 9.045 8.021 -0.33 -0.044 8.021 -0.47 -0.022 -0.022 -0.042 8.81 8.35 -0.04 -0.022 -0.045 -0.043 8.80 8.75 -0.021 -0.94 8.043 8.021 -0.023 -0.56 -0.14 -0.82 8.022 -0.044 8.022 -0.21 -0.045 -0.043 8.31 -0.11 9.045 -0.021 -0.046 -0.022 -0.09 -0.045 -0.043 8.023 -0.76 -0.045 -0.022 -0.07 -0.043 8.021 -0.043 8.022 -0.042 8.042 8.042 8.045 -0.021 -0.18 m3 Sounding and trim meter in Sounding Stern trim Sounding Stern trim 0.045 -0.54 -0.022 -0.

10 1095.26 8.13 9.84 8.75 1085.24 8.08 8.90 1130.55 8.09 8.83 8.08 .31 8.32 8.56 1150.98 1091.82 8.66 8.86 1072.91 1054.76 1071.12 1076.43 1080.23 1134.46 1154.32 1120.20 8.89 1151.86 8.65 1136.46 8.33 1128.27 1144.17 8.42 8.79 8.39 8.94 1123.6 Enclose 6 Sounding table tank #1.10 1107.71 1125.02 9.25 1066.05 8.04 1122.12 9.68 8.12 1096.12 8.17 1056.00 1144.18 m3 Sounding Volume Sounding Volume m m3 m m3 8.29 8.08 9.81 8.77 1092.87 1112.41 1133.87 8.63 1083.16 8.54 8.70 8.76 8.07 1108.91 8.51 8.35 8.54 1140.53 1148.85 1087.44 1137.04 1055.30 1057.78 8.23 8.48 1118.98 8.83 1147.70 1115.07 9.17 1102.80 8.58 8.58 1132.33 8.04 9.54 1143.56 8.71 1145.19 8.43 8.36 1079.34 8.36 8.90 1088.56 1069.55 1059.46 1068.54 1152.63 8.13 1146.74 1131.93 8.43 1146.74 8.23 1121.13 8.19 1152.62 8.80 1086.64 8.16 1103.18 8.95 8.40 1119.03 9.06 1141.04 8.01 1138.94 1089.28 1078.94 8.14 1097.80 1142.06 9.59 1126.61 8.50 8.67 1060.92 1111.65 8.60 8.05 1093.4.14 1105.14 1065.10 9.73 8.14 1127.15 8.82 1113.03 1075.27 8.11 9.09 9.83 1124.38 8.47 Sounding Volume m m3 8.63 1116.57 1082.30 8.89 1149.78 1139.36 1067.14 8.85 8.33 1058.69 8.90 8.67 8.15 1098.00 9.20 1077.71 8.07 8.75 8.01 8. tank 100% volume 1182.17 1100.00 1109.23 1138.49 8.79 1061.12.56 1117.99 9.17 1101.76 1114.08 1094.77 1052.85 1135.11 8.96 1110.04 1109.95 1074.10 8.48 8.92 8.50 1081.44 8.89 8.01 9.14 1122.03 1064.40 1051.66 1070.21 8.59 8.69 1084.41 8.52 8.05 1129.91 1063.37 8.88 8.15 1104.06 8.23 1150.21 1148.22 8.57 8.53 8.25 8.97 8.05 1134.72 8.20 1129.45 8.05 9.16 1099.30 1141.28 8.12 1106.47 8.96 8.82 1153.

001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0. Read sounding in meter o C 6 7 8 9 10 -104 -103 -102 -101 -100 -99 -98 -97 -96 ± -48 -47 -46 -45 -44 -43 -42 -41 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -0.003 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.004 -0.000 / #3 11 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.003 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.000 0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 .002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.000 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.12.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.7 Enclose 7 Correction for expansion of sounding tape tank #2 Temp.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.004 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.4.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.

56 8.029 -0.058 -0.057 -0.84 8.18 m3 Sounding and trim in meter Sounding Stern trim 0.029 -0.028 -0.029 -0.05 -0.029 -0.028 -0.05 9.16 -0.80 8.48 8.08 9.57 8.059 -0.07 -0.059 8.029 -0.30 -0.059 8.79 8.059 8.99 9.5 1 -0.029 -0.029 -0.059 -0.029 -0.17 -0.057 -0.029 -0.029 -0.057 -0.5 1 -0.057 -0.12 9.058 -0.058 -0.029 -0.029 -0.62 8.029 -0.059 -0.029 -0.54 8.028 -0.029 -0.059 -0.058 -0.057 -0.028 -0.059 8.029 -0.028 -0.058 -0.12 -0.029 -0.39 -0.059 -0.059 8.44 8.13 -0.029 -0.25 -0.057 -0.4.058 -0.89 8.059 -0.059 8.43 8.029 -0.059 8.058 -0.059 -0.029 -0.029 -0.028 -0.12.24 -0.059 8.78 8.028 -0.11 9.059 8.029 -0.51 8.71 8.029 -0.058 -0.059 8.92 8.00 9.46 8.029 -0.059 -0.029 -0.029 -0.02 9.058 -0.059 8.29 -0.03 9.52 8.058 -0.27 -0.029 -0.029 -0.69 8.028 -0.49 8.029 -0.058 -0.059 8.47 8.029 -0.058 -0.028 -0.058 -0.058 -0.057 -0.029 -0.59 8.87 8.059 -0.057 -0.028 -0.21 -0.60 8.10 -0.15 -0.029 -0.64 8.97 8.058 -0.059 8.059 -0.53 8.057 -0.058 -0.059 8.059 8.10 9.50 8.04 -0.059 8.19 -0.029 -0.98 8.057 -0.029 -0.057 -0.26 -0.90 8.059 8.058 -0.63 8.058 -0.058 -0.88 8.059 8.029 -0.75 8.059 -0.028 -0.029 -0.028 -0.058 -0.65 8.029 -0.028 -0.059 -0.058 -0.72 8.96 8.73 8.22 -0.029 -0.059 8.059 8.029 -0.059 -0.059 8.028 -0.029 -0.059 -0.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.20 -0.029 -0.029 -0.058 -0.029 -0.82 8. tank 100% volume 1468.66 8.058 -0.36 -0.04 9.029 -0.059 8.059 -0.029 -0.058 -0.77 Stern trim 0.057 -0.059 8.13 9.059 8.057 -0.028 -0.059 -0.029 -0.09 -0.029 -0.059 -0.029 -0.028 -0.058 -0.68 8.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.31 -0.057 -0.028 -0.058 -0.029 -0.91 8.058 -0.8 Enclose 8 Trim table tank #2 and #3.029 -0.059 8.029 -0.059 8.028 -0.028 -0.029 -0.81 8.058 -0.029 -0.34 -0.67 8.029 -0.028 -0.85 8.059 8.029 -0.059 -0.029 -0.029 -0.58 8.11 -0.029 -0.45 8.93 8.61 8.029 -0.029 -0.83 8.35 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.059 Sounding 8.029 -0.23 -0.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.06 9.057 Sounding 8.029 -0.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.058 .32 -0.5 1 8.38 -0.029 -0.33 -0.06 -0.029 -0.058 -0.059 8.14 Stern trim 0.029 -0.057 -0.057 -0.029 -0.058 -0.28 -0.028 -0.40 -0.18 -0.08 -0.058 -0.42 8.01 9.029 -0.14 -0.029 -0.41 8.059 -0.029 -0.029 -0.86 8.059 -0.07 9.94 8.057 -0.37 -0.029 -0.028 -0.029 -0.059 -0.058 -0.028 -0.029 -0.058 -0.76 8.059 8.55 8.059 8.09 9.95 8.058 -0.70 8.059 8.029 -0.74 8.029 -0.059 8.

74 1426.71 8.97 8.91 8.12 9.54 8.66 8.21 1365.64 1414.42 1420.39 1375.54 1387.35 1370.50 8.44 8.42 8.62 8.47 8.18 1423.94 8.88 8.27 1328.70 1330.55 1381.35 8.36 1386.17 1385.84 1327.74 8.92 8.16 8. tank 100% volume 1468.61 1410.35 1312.57 1417.66 1358.96 8.34 8.49 8.18 8.15 1345.64 1413.78 8.96 1324.20 1338.33 1357.63 8.24 8.27 1315.30 8.41 1405.55 8.90 8.71 1388.85 8.14 1406.82 1397.12.07 1369.60 1340.47 1419.76 1382.97 1334.35 1421.97 1384.33 1380.52 1418.22 1436.32 1353.04 1391.32 8.95 8.64 1376.59 1409.77 1344.98 8.61 8.95 1437.60 8.52 1322.67 1438.64 8.82 8.64 1412.79 8.29 1342.84 8.63 1320.80 1337.14 1374.22 8.60 1427.4.07 9.87 1378.53 1346.26 8.70 1396.11 1401.01 9.33 1393.05 9.92 1399.62 1350.75 8.87 8.73 8.31 1429.26 1349.89 8.08 8.47 1436.72 1317.27 1422.19 1392.50 1366.02 1400.46 8.89 1348.18 1318.14 1429.36 8.00 9.38 .80 8.55 1332.77 1362.86 8.03 9.46 1428.63 1411.40 1311.31 8.51 1407.29 8.04 8.86 1425.39 8.59 8.65 8.25 8.11 8.46 1394.17 8.15 8.56 1408.81 8.67 8.57 8.60 8.52 8.23 8.56 8.39 1433.20 1402.88 1390.98 1360.28 1403.88 1373.20 8.91 1364.08 9.33 8.08 1321.59 1395.66 1355.11 1379.18 m3 Sounding m Volume m3 Sounding m Volume m3 Sounding m Volume m3 8.11 9.06 9.38 1335.97 1430.38 8.59 1432.53 8.62 1371.76 8.35 1404.19 8.62 1415.12 8.99 9.21 8.72 8.79 1368.14 8.10 9.45 8.40 1325.98 1424.68 8.05 8.13 1331.51 8.37 8.10 8.60 1416.69 8.41 8.48 8.02 9.29 1361.13 9.43 8.93 8.97 1352.81 1314.13 8.9 Enclose 9 Sounding table tank #2 and #3.28 8.47 8.09 9.00 1341.95 1434.06 8.72 1435.18 1433.70 8.00 1356.83 8.58 8.79 1431.07 8.09 1423.27 8.04 9.09 8.

18 1468.50 0.187 + 0.150 + 0. C 3 Sounding read m 4 Float correction m 5 Correction for vapour m temperature 6 List correction m 7 Trim correction m o 8 Sounding at 20 C m o 9 Volume at 20 C m3 10 Shrink.220 + 0.170 + 0.18 1468.10Enclose 10 Correction on the float Specific gravity (kg/dm3) 0.60 0.110 Cargo calculation table LPG Seagull Port: Last: Tank no.4.00 1.18 1468.114 + 0.12. factor tank steel 11 Corrected liquid volume m3 12 Reduction factor from table 54C 13 Volume 15 oC m3 14 Density on liquid at 15oC Mt/m3 .45 0.18 1468. # ASTM Date: Skip: 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S 1182.136 + 0.90 1.18 1 Volume of tank 100 % m3 o 2 Liquid temp.10 Correction in meter + 0.80 0.40 0.18 1182.70 0.127 + 0.121 + 0.

tab. 21 15 Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC 16 Uncorrected vapour volume 17 Shrinkage factor vapour phase 18 Corrected Vapour volume 19 Tank pressure 20 Atmosphere pressure 21 Molecular weight 22 Temperature on vapour 23 Density on vapour 24 Mass of vapour in vacuum 25 Total mass in vacuum Total weight in air ROB in air Mt Mt Mt Mt m3 m3 bar bar C kg/m3 Mt Mt o Total loaded in air .


13- Cooling Processes and Calculation .

Diagrams for simply cooling media where the cooling media’s enthalpy under the actual aggregate states. and how the different lines lie in the diagram. one will often think of the two different units for the different qualities. Before making use of the Mollier diagram one has to learn how the diagram is built.13 COOLING PROCESSES AND CALCULATIONS 13. In the cooling process. In a cooling plant. and gives.1 MOLLIER DIAGRAM – INTRODUCTION The Mollier diagram is an invaluable in helping to understand refrigeration calculations. in addition. Such a diagram contains infinitely much more information than a table can have. Log p-h diagram or called the Mollier diagram. In the Mollier diagram. has a vertical logarithmic scale for pressure (p) and a horizontal scale for enthalpy (h). vapour condenses and liquid vaporises. pressure and temperature change continuously. To perform calculations of the cooling process. This will make it easier to find information in the diagram. are therefore developed. . possibility to make a “heat-technical picture” of the cooling process. We will consistently make use of the SI-units and refer to these scales only. the cooling media will constantly change its state. one must know the enthalpy changes taking place. If one is to make enthalpy-tables for a cooling media in all possible states. you will find a large and unpractical table. Vapour is compressed and gets a higher pressure and temperature. the aggregate state.

Halfway between the liquid line and the saturation line there will be equal parts of gas as liquid. The line bends from KP and is almost vertically down the middle of the diagram. In cooling technical calculations one is only interested in enthalpy changes and not the absolute enthalpy values. In the Mollier diagram. The values for enthalpy are therefore chosen from a random reference state. If this line is lengthways. The bent line that goes from the lower left corner and upwards the KP (the kinetic point) is called the liquid line.1”. To the left of the liquid line the liquid is super-cooled. liquid can not appear. This line is called the saturation curve. the higher the pressure is. At the right of the saturation curve. The area between the liquid and the saturation line specifies a mixture of boiling liquid and saturated gas. the state will be saturated gas. temperature and heat content change in an adiabatic state of proportion. The dashed line indicates the proportion of mixture between liquid and gas. given as absolute pressure. If nothing else is given. the “sack” is the most bearing curve. An adiabatic state of proportion is an alteration without heat exchanging with the surroundings. On this line.1 MPa. the gas is super-heated. One must take note of this. In the sketch above. The Mollier diagram also has lines that indicate density (or specific volume). .The pressure of the Mollier diagram is. The lines for entropy indicate how pressure. Along this line there is 90% liquid and 10% saturated gas. In the critical point. The distance between the liquid and the saturation line indicates how large the vaporisation is. Notice that the vaporisation varies with the pressure and is lessened. as in all heat technical tables. temperature and entropy. which corresponds to 0. one line is marked “0. the liquid is always in its boiling point. if one wants to compare enthalpy values from the different tables or diagrams. The real compression progress in a compressor will of course deviate some from these lines because of loss in the compressor and heat exchange with the environment. we have chosen to set the atmospheric pressure to equal 1 bar.

3 MPa. thereby to bend vertically towards the enthalpy from the saturation line.3 MPa. When you plot and draw in the diagram it is recommended to always utilise a soft pencil. tables for conversion between the most common units are enclosed. It is also known that the pressure in the tank and above the liquid is read off at 2 bar on the manometer.1 Example 1 The ship is loaded with propane and the tank manometer pressure is 2 bar. Find the physical state for the liquid in the loading tank. To maintain necessary training in using the Mollier diagram. 13. Any state of proportion can settle in the diagram if we can identify two actual crossing lines. we will see in some examples how to obtain useful information from the diagram. the state of proportion must lie somewhere among the liquid line. This course provides a Mollier diagram for propane utilises the diagram in the following advice.The lines for density (kg/m3) or specific volume (m3/kg) indicate density with varying pressure and temperature. The diagram can be used several times. As the cargo in the loading tank always lies in its boiling point. The line for constant temperature is vertical from the top of the diagram down to the liquid line. Note which units to utilise for temperature. The temperature goes from the liquid line horizontal to the saturation line. . Take note that there are often two scales for pressure and enthalpy.1. We will only utilise SI-units in our calculations. density and entropy. In the course enclosure. The state of proportion here is the point of intersection between the liquid line and the pressure line of 0. This pressure is equivalent 3 bar absolute (if we assume the atmospheric pressure to 1 bar) or 0.

3 MPa. .1. This pressure is equivalent to 3 bar absolute (if we assume the atmospheric pressure to 1 bar) or 0.13. at all times. Plot the state of proportion for the gas above the liquid in the cargo tank.2 Example 2 The ship is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read off on the manometer at 2 bar. The state of proportion here will be the state of intersection between the saturation line and the pressure line of 0. saturated. The pressure in the tank and above the liquid is read off to 2 bar on the manometer. As the gas above the liquid in the loading tank is.3 MPa. the state of proportion must lie somewhere on the saturation line.

) Enthalpy for saturated gas.3 Example 3 The ship is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read off on the manometer to 2 bar. h2 .Enthalpy for saturated liquid. Utilise the Mollier diagram to find how much heat one must supply the tank to evaporate (boil off) 1 kg propane. The difference between the liquid enthalpy h1 and the saturated gas enthalpy h2 is the heat quantity that is needed to evaporate 1kg propane at 2 bar pressure. the state of proportions for the liquid and the gas in the loading tank is stated at a tank pressure of 2 bar. In example 1 and 2.1. Find this table in the course enclosure. . h1 Latent heat of evaporation : = = = = Propane 3 880 490 390 bar kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg The latent heat of evaporation for propane can also be found in a heat thermal property table for propane.13. and check that the latent heat of evaporation is the same. Calculation of evaporation heat Gas Pressure (abs.

More mass involves larger cold capacity for the plant.4 Example 4 The gas carrier is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read of on the manometer of 2 bar. As the pressure in the gas in to the compressor is 1.13.1. the density of the gas into the compressor can be defined from the density lines that run sideways out to the right in the diagram. Larger density gives more mass per hour that will flow through the plant. A cooling plant’s net cold capacity is expressed as: Qnett = m x Dh where m =the mass of gas that streams through the cooling plant per hour (kg/s) Dh = the difference between enthalpy on the gas that abandons the tank and enthalpy on the condensate that returns back to the tank (kJ/kg) Notice that the density of the gas increases at higher gas pressure and lower temperature. When the point is plotted. On a cargo compressor in operation the suction pressure is read off to 1.5 bar.25 MPA (1. and the suction temperature to –10 oC (14oF). Plot the state of proportion for the gas on the compressor. .14 MPa.2 bar + 1 bar) in the diagram. the state of proportion must lie on a pressure line equal 0. The exact state of proportion is plotted where the temperature line of –10oC crosses the pressure line of 0.5 bar.

as a vertical line from the cross-point through the liquid line to the pressure line. the pressure of the liquid to the atmospheric pressure (1 bar) lowers.13.73 Mpa (7. Plot the state of proportion for the liquid in the bottle.3 bar). The point (1) is defined either from the temperature line of 15oC (59oF) or equivalent pressure line 0. The fast reduction of the pressure involves a powerful boiling of the liquid because of an “unbalance” between the liquid’s temperature and gas pressure of the liquid.5 Example 5 A gas cylinder is filled with floating propane. We say that the gas over the liquid is saturated. An enthalpy change during the process will not take place. Notice that the new state of proportion (2) is inside the “sack” and that a precise share of the liquid has evaporated because of pressure reduction. The heat of the boiling is taken from the liquid itself and the surroundings and the liquid gets colder. and for the liquid in the opened container later. before the valve was opened. The valve opens and floating propane flows over in an open container. .1. When the liquid is let out of the bottle. Temperature of the air and propane liquid and gas is 15 oC. We can draw the process line (from point 1 to point 2) for any change to the liquid. The liquid lies on the liquid line in the diagram.

be applicable for the different media qualities. which are in contact with the gas. The consequence is that one can not have too large demands for defilement of cargo on ships with such cargo compressors. This reduces the settler’s capacity. One supplies the crankcase with a coil for heating and cooling. The piston runs dry in the cylinder. The working valves have work-over intervals from 2000 to 5000 hours. As the piston is in touch with the cylinder walls. A part of this oil will be lead out of the compressor. there is minimal wear on compressors with this construction. But some of the oil is lead further out in the system in form of oil vapour. On the Freon side.2. The capacity regulation by the suction valve plates is gradually lifted from the seats and only the gas is pumped in and out of the cylinder.2 THE COOLING PLANTS COMPONENT A good processor should have a construction that secures from gas leakage. Piston rings of teflon material are often used in these compressors. have large regulation opportunity. mud will extend from the oil settler. It is therefore necessary to lubricate the cylinder walls. oil lubricated screw compressors and oil free screw compressors. These construction problems are solved. The working valves are usually a plate type valve and are placed inside the compressor. A labyrinth gland performs the sealing device between piston and cylinder walls. shaft and the cylinder walls. The casings are loose and cast-iron.1 An oil-lubricated piston has piston rings made of cast-iron. but also less friendly working-wise. An oil separator in the pressure pipeline separates most of the oil. The lubricated piston compressors are normally built as V or W machines. The principal for oil free piston compressors is that no parts. The oil lubricates the bearing. Piston/cylinder is made by a small groove. which is due to friction in a normal . The clearance is as small as possible. The lifting arrangement is normally performed hydraulically by oil taken from the pressure side of the oil pump. as follows: The sealing device between piston and cylinder liner is performed by piston rings with self-lubricated qualities. Pistons 13. obtain least space and give as little noise and vibrations as possible. The lubricate oil pump is normally the gear type and normally placed in the extension of the crankshaft. Loss of energy. We separate between four types of compressors in the cooling plant: oil lubricated pistons. In time. are lubricated. This construction is less space demanding. oil lubricated piston and screw compressors are used. Both types of pistons and oil free screw compressors are used on the cargo side in the cooling plant.13. The state of the piston rings and the cylinder liner is conclusive for how much oil leads out of the compressor. Cleaning of this is therefore one of the assumptions to maintain the oil consumption and the pollution at a fair level. The compressor case is sterling in cast-iron and the valves normally of aluminium. oil free pistons.

LPG gas is soluble in oil and should therefore first boil out in an exhaust tank. Oil that departs from the oil remover is lead back to the crank room or to an exhaust tank. High pressure in the crankcase is an indication of inferior sealing. One can lead ammonia back to the crank room because this is not soluble in the oil. If sealing and oil is in bad shape. When changing oil types. while synthetic oil is used for the rest of the cargo. The lubricant free piston compressors have. The compressor is also built as two and three stage compressors. the next to 2nd stage and the third as 3rd stage. One recommends using a mineral oil for the butadiene.compressor. one . Oil free piston compressors are at all times built as double acting. by oil lubricated piston compressors.2. at all times. Many of the synthetic oils are hygroscopic and will therefore accumulate dampness if they are exposed to damp air. The individual stages here will have different cylinder diameters where the first is the largest and the others gradually smaller. Pollution of cargo and reduced compressor capacity are the consequences of this. This indicates that the viscosity of the oil is less. Piston compressors and lubricate oil 13. and the working valves are placed outside the cylinders. no draft of oil. Where is decided by what cargo we have. oil will also go up in to the cylinder liner and go with the vapour out of the compressor. The first stage is also referring to as a low-pressure (LT) cylinder and the highest as high-pressure (HT) cylinder. Some gas will however leak down in the crankcase on the piston compressors and there mix with the oil. That involves that they are supplied with a cross-head. under normal situations. is about the same as the leakage loss for a compressor with labyrinth gland. from the compressor in plants. This means that one cylinder is used as 1st stage.2 The oil will. be led out with the gas.

washing the crank room with the “new” oil before refilling is recommended. The working valves are made of the ring flapper type. They are generally performed with a hydraulic lifting of the suction valves. These are built as V or W machines with a number of revolutions of about 1200 rpm.2.must be sure not to mix the oil types. To be sure that all remnants of the “old” oil are removed. The pistons are kept central in the cylinder by the help of a piston steering and oil lubricated drawback.2. Cylinder. Gas that flows through the labyrinth sealing is lead back to the suction side. 13. Linde compressor 13. Labyrinth sealing and an arrangement of oil scraper rings fence the compound between cylinder and crank room. A packing seal and oil blocks the connection between cylinder and crank room. The working valves are plate type and are capacity regulated at 50% and 100%. Too high operating temperature will lead to higher wear and thereby higher leakage loss in the compressor.4 Sulzer Compressor Sulzer produces oil free piston compressors with labyrinth sealing for use as cargo compressors in the cooling plant. The cylinders are arranged in series and can be used as one to three stage compressors with the number of revolutions from 600 to 1000 rpm.3 Linde is a type of oil free piston compressor with Teflon sealing rings that is used as a cargo compressor in the cooling plant. The piston is kept central in the cylinder by the help of steering on the topside of the piston. The capacity can be regulated to 50% and 100% and is performed with a hydraulic lifting of the suction valve . cylinder cover and crank house are cooled and heated by glycol. It is important to consider that the length of lifetime of the Teflon material depends upon at which working temperature the compressor is operating.

The placing of the working valves externally and oil free compressor makes the “damaging room” larger and is the cause for a different delivery rate. 13.flapper. The volume difference is lowest at low working pressure. the power consumption rises at a higher delivery pressure percentage. Cylinder. Comparison between oil free piston compressors with labyrinth sealing and Teflon sealing indicates that the delivery volume is a bit larger for a compressor with Teflon sealing. . more than occurs with delivery volume. crank room and piston rod steering is cooled and heated by glycol. The pressure ratio over the compressor or a cylinder in the compressor is the ratio between delivery pressure and suction pressure. the delivery rate to an oillubricated compressor will be clearly better than an oil free compressor.60.2. If the compressor has a gross capacity of 400 m 3/h.5 bar and a delivery pressure of 5 bar. the pressure ratio is: 6 / 1. A high delivery rate is thereby an important factor for the cooling plant capacity.60 = 240 m3/h 240 m3/h gas flow through the compressor in this working situation. net capacity is: 400 m3/h x 0.5 Delivery rate A compressor delivery rate is the difference between the suction volume and the stroke volume. If we compare the piston compressors.5 = 4 A pressure ratio of 4 gives a delivery rate of about 0. labyrinth sealing. However. If the diagram above is actually for an oil free compressor with a read off suction pressure of 0.

are shaped with male and female profiles that mesh into on another. The difference is the same as for the piston compressors.6 Screw compressors The screw compressor is divided into two groups: oil lubricated and oil free. the parts that are in contact with the gas are not lubricated with oil. parallel placed in a compressor case. This type of compressor works by the displacement principal. or the rotors. In the oil free screw compressors.2. The working parts of the compressor are two rotating screws. . The screws.13.

The most common combination is four and six lobes for the male and the female rotor. the chamber gets longer and gas sucks into the compressor. as follows: 1. The lobe on the female rotor reveals the die orifice. The chamber passes the inlet opening. 3. The gas is now closed between the end casing. 2. 3. V2 is the volume of reticent gas after compression. the female rotor number of revolutions is: 4 / 6 x 3600 rpm = 2400 rpm The compressors working progress is. 1. 2. 4. but dependent from ploy for the employed gas and rate of cooling. When the rotors turn. The connection between the volume proportion and the pressure proportion can therefore be expressed. An additional twist of the rotor uncovers the outlet wall and the gas is pressed out of the compressor. If the male rotor has a number of revolutions of 3600 rpm.The impetus is transferred to the male rotor. the volume is less and the gas compress against the outlet wall. the confined gas will compress to a precise volume before blowing down to the pressure side. 4. Gradually as the rotor twists additionally. The embedded volume proportion is determined from the proportion: V1 / V2 where V1 is the maximum induction volume per rotor per rotation. The pressure proportion is not constant. One says that the compressor has a constant embedded volume proportion. as: . In the most common screw compressors on board. but before blow down to pressure side. Four lobes on the male rotor mesh into 6 lobes on the female rotor.

The number of revolutions is kept relatively high. Oil lubricated screw compressors are used on board on the Freon side in cascade plants. 5000 to 15000 rpm. the gear must be used.(V1 / V2)k = Designed compression proportion = Delivery pressure/suction pressure Practically. the screw compressors with a built-in volume proportion will compress the gas needlessly too much or too little. The oil free screw compressors are used on board as cargo compressors. axial sealing is installed between the bearings and the gas area inside the compressor. to keep the leakage loss as low as possible. Ample oil must therefore be supplied to the rotors. To prevent oil from forcing into the compressor room. A synchronising gear is used to keep the rotors from wearing one another. The compressor case is cooled and heated by glycol. The oil has the following purpose: • • • • • • · · · · · · Lubricate the bearings Lubricate. Too low compression increases back flow of gas and hence reduced efficiency. Installation of a “superfeed” arrangement compensates some in this condition. cool and seal between the rotors Cool and lubricate the axial sealing Give hydraulic energy to the capacity regulation Cool the gas The screw compressors power consumption is unfavourable compared with the twostage piston compressor. this means that when the drift parameters change. The axial strength recovers when placed on the outlet side. This means that if electric motors are used as. The female rotor is driven directly by the male rotor in this type of compressor. cool and seal between rotors and cases Lubricate. Bearings and gear lubricate by a self-pressure oil system. .

but less than the increased cooling capacity. . The power consumption will also rise. The boil off in the inter-cooler is led back to the compressor (S). The plants cooling capacity will rise (∆Q).The condensate is super-cooled in a coil placed in a combined evaporator and intercooler.

The advantages with screw compressors are: • • • • • • • • • · · · · · · · · · no suction or pressure valves few mobile parts lower cost at purchase. installation and maintenance little vibrations and simple foundation even gas flow.The capacity regulation on oil lubricated screw compressors takes place by help of a hydraulic operated drawback that opens a gate to the inlet side. The capacity if often infinitely variable between 10 % and 100 %. no pulsating no sensitiveness for liquid in the gas flow high volumetric efficiency of the actual working area possibilities for infinitely variable capacity regulation low pressure pipe temperature for oil lubricated screw compressors .

It is not possible to drain off pure oil on the liquid side and a system is therefore installed as an oil-restoring device in these plants. The oil-rich freon liquid evaporates inside the pipes. The oil-restoring device system is often used in these systems. Some of the cold and the oil-rich freon liquid is taken from the pressure side and delivered to the lower inlet of the heat exchanger.2. . A relatively warm freon liquid from the liquid collector meets it here.7 Lubricating oil system The sketch below indicates a normal oil system for cooling plants with soil lubricated screw compressors. a larger share of oil is constantly in the freon consequently this leads to poor plant cooling capacity. Despite the fact that the oil separator is installed after the compressor. as well.13. the oil particles are carried with it. Because of the large velocity of the gas out of the heat exchanger.

In choosing a valve. For the valve to function satisfactorily the valve must be installed as recommended by the supplier and the valve is dimensioned to the plant.An independent regulation valve provides that a suitable amount of freon is let into the heat exchanger when the liquid is taken from the pressure side. A constant overflow pipe provides that the level in the heat exchanger is constant. The evaporation pressure and the overheating in the heat exchanger control the valve. one must consider the operation terms and the capacity need for the plant. 13.8 Thermostatic expansion valve Thermostatic expansion valves are used in the cooling plant to regulate the liquid injection in the heat exchangers. .2.

an actual operation situation for this plat is registered. condenser. In this chapter we have chosen to use one-sage direct cooling for our examples. Notice that the compressor has two or more cylinders with different diameters. liquid collector and regulation valves are utilised. With 1 stage direct operation cargo tank(s). This is normal when the plant is also designed for 2 stage operation. Propylene is chosen as cargo and cooling media.13. The simplified sketch of the plant indicates the main components in a cooling plant with possibility for motoring both with 1 stage and 2 stage direct operation. compressor. there is also an intermediate cooler with coil.3 ONE-STAGE DIRECT OPERATION Cooling plants with 1-stage direct operation are the simplest cooling plants with the least number of components. which is used on board many semi-pressurised gas carrier. On the following log sheet. The description “1-stage” refers to the compression that occurs in only one step. The cooling process itself is drawn in a sketch of a Mollier diagram for propylene. This is not in use in 1 stage operation and supply lines are therefore drawn as a broken dashed line. Following. “Direct operation” means that the cargo vapour is sucked from the cargo tank and compressed directly either against seawater or Freon in an cascade plant. . liquid separator.

. The compressing process is traced into the diagram as the line from B to C.0 2. the gas over the liquid is regarded as saturated.suct. therefore. The condition of the liquid in the tank is in the boiling point line at a pressure of 3 bars.deliv. the condition of the gas (when it sucks into the compressor) can be plotted into the diagram. the pressure in the gas will reduce some because of friction in the pipeline. % load 21/3 12:00 28 180 100 Sea water Pressure Temp.8 10. The point is marked as A. The compressor performs a job on the gas and the gas is supplied with energy. Temp Tank 1.8 bars. If the compressor’s suction temperature is –5oC and read-off suction pressure is 2.8 bars + 1 bars) crosses. In addition. temperature and enthalpy increases.Air Power o Date: Time: C Amp. When liquid boils. When gas sucks into the compressor. The condition of the gas at this point is. Pressure. 1. Because of heat leakage. this gives a tank pressure of 3 bars. The temperature of the liquid in the tank is – 12oC. The condition is in an overheated area where the temperature line of –5oC and the pressure line of 3. The point is marked as B. in the Mollier diagram on the saturation line at an absolute pressure of 4 bar. The gas is compressed parallel over both cylinders and delivered to the seawatercooled condenser. the gas is heated between the tank and compressor.deliv.8 bars (2. 1.suct 1. In Out o o o bar bar bar C C C oC 3. Heat will be transferred to the tank and the cargo because of the difference in temperature between cargo and the surroundings.5 -5 80 23 27 Cargo The loading tank is filled with propylene. The piston compressor sucks the gas from the tank via a liquid separator. both temperature and pressure will be changed.

When the pressure over the condensate is reduced from condensation pressure of 10. The heat exchanger is normally designed so that the temperature difference between seawater and condensate is between 3oC and 8oC. the seawater side becomes dirty. A regulation valve between the liquid collector and the cargo tank regulates the level in the liquid collector. The liquid cools and some of the gas evaporates. The temperature of the seawater into the condenser is read-off as 23oC. uncondensed gas will blow through the . One can see the process line between point D and E in the Mollier diagram. A mixture of liquid and gas with the same temperature as the liquid and the gas in the tank is what returns into the cargo tank. A change in the temperature of seawater and gas over the condenser indicates something is wrong. If for example. A heat quantity is transferred to the seawater that is corresponding to the difference in enthalpy of the gas that sucks from the tank and the condensate enthalpy after the condenser. because the pressure is the same. which continuously compresses new vapour. through the compression. The suction of the gas is now condensed and the condensate collected in a liquid collector. the state is on the boiling point line. one can see that this corresponds to a condensation temperature of 25o C. which is within the normal area. The valve should simultaneously keep the liquid locked to secure the compressor’s maintenance of the compression pressure. The regulation valve’s job is to let the condensate back to the cargo tank in a constant and controlled process. It is of great importance that the regulation valve has satisfactory activity. Notice that there is no enthalpy change. The gas into the condenser now has a temperature of 80oC. The temperature must be the same for the mixture. the liquid will boil energetically. Then the evaporation heat is removed and the gas condenses.The heat is transferred from the gas to the seawater in the condenser. Boiling requires heat. One should notice that such changes of the cooling plant mainly occur over time. Notice that the gas’s overheating at first is removed. If the liquid level and thereby the liquid lock disappears.5 bars. and then the gas is saturated. increased the temperature to a relative warmer state than the seawater. something that makes it difficult to intercept the signals. The process line in the Mollier diagram is traced from point C to D. When all gas is condensed in the condenser. This renders a possibility of heat transmission from an originally colder to a warmer medium. The gas cools and condenses against the relative cold seawater under constant pressure. This heat is mainly taken from the liquid itself. One can see that the gas’s enthalpy reduces in the process. In the heat technical table for propylene. In our example.5 bars to tank pressure of 3 bars. The pressure is maintained by the compressor. The relative cold gas of about –12oC that was sucked out from the tank has. Temperature and pressure is what changes over the valve. This routine is of great importance. It is the temperature of the seawater that circulates through the condenser that determines the condensation pressure. The only useful method to reveal such a development is to log the drift parameter regularly. One can locate the shares of liquid and saturated gas in the Mollier diagram as point E. the temperature increase of the seawater over the condenser is smaller and the condensation pressure higher. the read-off condensation pressure is 10.

the cooling capacity of the plant. is determined by the condensation pressure.h1) The capacity of the compressor (V) and the density (p) of the gas into the compressor determines the mass (m). the net cooling capacity of the plant. Its construction and condition determine the capacity of the compressor. This corresponds to a density of (l/0. Inferior isolation of suction pipe or tank gives a larger heat leakage. If the capability of the cooling plant is larger than the total heat leakage. gives a needless low pressure and thereby.-60 kJ/kg) = 243 kW Notice the factor. Pressure drops determine the density of the gas into the compressor and temperature increases between tank and compressor. higher temperature and thereby lower density.12 m3/kg. If the compressor has a capability of 350 m3/h.h2) = {(350 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 8. a lower density. so the condenser refills this result in an inferior heat exchange of the condenser and a higher condensation pressure. . Notice that a higher condensation pressure removes this point to the right and will give less enthalpy difference than with a low condensation pressure. The gas’s specific volume (v) is point B in the Mollier diagram to 0.condenser and reduce the capability of the plant. the tank pressure sinks. the process lines EAB are displaced parallel downward with the tank pressure against the process lines E1A1B1. When the temperature sinks. These factors are therefore less influential than the others are. By studying the process of the Mollier diagram. thereby. A lowest possible condensation pressure gives therefore the best capacity in addition to the best operating condition for the compressor. The other enthalpy point. The enthalpy difference of the plant is determined by the cooling media and other outer conditions like the seawater temperature. Qnet is: Qnet = m x (h2 . one can see that the condition for the temperature of the liquid in the tank and h2 determines the gas at the top of the tank. Needless throttling of valves on the suction side or tightened filters. Qnet = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 . which flows through the plant. If the liquid level rises. the temperature of the cargo will be lower over time.33 kg/m3. h1.33 kg/m3 x (240 kJ7kg . which expresses the cooling plant’s capability to influence and to control. Good control and maintenance influence the capability of the cooling plant. If the seawater temperature and other operating conditions are unaltered.12 m3 /kg) or 8. Lower density gives less mass through the compressor hence with reduced capability.

The pressure condition in our example is.4 This increased pressure condition gives an essential reduction in delivery extent and thereby cooling capacity. In addition to above-mentioned condition.8 = 3 According to the fall of the tank pressure.5 / 3.8 = 6. we have seen how the piston compressor delivery extent depends on the pressure condition of the compressor. Previously. The condition for the gas after compression is removed from C to C1. the heat leakage will. the process will be longer for the compression and the outlet temperature from the compressor will be higher. In addition. One must notice that the saturation line of the different material has different inclines. of course. Therefore the influence of this change varies. the point h2 is displacing gently against the left. this results in some lower enthalpy difference. The explanation of why the cooling capacity is at the lowest by low tank pressure is some complex. The mass through the compressor sinks because the density of the vapour is lower with a lower pressure. . as follows: Pressure condition = Delivery pressure/suction pressure = 11. be largest at a low tank pressure. If the condensation pressure is kept unaltered.5 / 1. as long as the condenser can transfer the necessary heat amount from the gas to the seawater. A reduction of the suction pressure with 2 bars and the same condensation pressure gives a pressure condition of: 11.One can see that a lower tank pressure results in a lower cooling capacity. This has in itself no direct influence on the capacity. The influence of reduced delivery extent of the cooling capacity is often larger than the summary of the other factors. the pressure condition will rise and result in a constant decreasing delivery extent.

3 kJ from one kilo propylene to lower the heat temperature from -12 oC to -30 oC. . As the pressure of the gas into the compressor is 1. The calculated cooling time here at unaltered heat leakage and cooling capacity is about 55 hours.3 kJ/kg Here one must eliminate 39. Example 2 13. the cooling time will be a bit longer because the cooling capacity and the heat leakage is not constant in the period.Enthalpy for propylene at -30 oC = 52.5 bars + 1 bars) in the diagram.25 MPa (1.5 bars and the suction temperature is –10oC (14oF).3 x 106 kJ where T = cooling time in seconds T = (39. We want to find the time to cool down the cargo of 1000 MT propylene.8 kJ/kg =Enthalpy difference = 39.13. The suction pressure of a cargo compressor is read to 1.2 The vessel is loaded with propane and the cargo tank pressure is read to 2 bars. = 55 hrs.5 bars.3. the state-point must lie in a pressure line equal 0. The necessary heat amount removed from the cargo to cool the cargo is located in the Mollier diagram or in a heat technical table: Enthalpy for propylene at-12 oC = 61.3. The exact statepoint is plotted where the temperature line of –10oC crosses the pressure line of 0. Plot the state-point for the gas into the compressor. At first we set an expression for the heat balance: Net heat abducted in the cooling plant = heat-leakage + heat abducted from the cargo In the vessel’s operation manual.1. In practice.1. from –12o to –30o. we find that the heat leakage to the cargo tanks at presence air and seawater temperature is 36 kW.3 kJ/kg = 39.1 kJ/kg . As we have 1000 MT propylene.3 x 106 / 198)s = 198484 s T = (198484 / 3600) hrs.3 x 106 kJ We insert above-mentioned values of the heat balance and get: (234 kW x T) = (36 kW x T) + 39.25 MPa.1 kcal/kg = 217. the heat amount that must be abducted is: (1000 x 103) kg x 39.5 kcal/kg = 257.1 Example 1 The cooling capacity of the vessel is at the moment 234 kW.

3 Example 3 A gas bottle is filled with liquid propane.3 bars). stated pressure conditions will improve the capacity of the plant. The difference is that the plant now is altered to 2 stage operation with intermediate cooling. Qnet = m x h Where m = the mass of gas flowing through the cooling plant per time (kg/s) h = the difference between enthalpy of the gas that leaves the tank and enthalpy on the condensate that is returned back to the tank (kJ/kg) Notice that the density of the gas increases at higher gas pressure and lower temperature.When the point is plotted. When the liquid is discharged from the bottle. as a vertical line from the point of the liquid line to the atmosphere pressure line. The heat from boiling is taken from the liquid itself and the surroundings and the liquid gets colder. No enthalpy change will take place during the process. Notice how the volume flow now compares to 1stage operation and which valves that regulates this.3.4 2-STAGE DIRECT OPERATION One can see how the cooling plant’s capacity was reduced at larger pressure conditions in the chapter concerning 1 stage direct operation. The gas above the liquid is regarded as saturated. Larger density gives more mass per hour that flows through the plant. The valve opens and liquid propane runs into an open container. the density of the gas into the compressor is determined from the density lines aslant towards right in the diagram. 13. At 2 stage operation. Notice that the new state-point (2) lies inside the “sack” and that a precise share of the liquid has vaporised because of the pressure reduction. The temperature of the air and propane liquid and gas is 15oC. The liquid lies on the liquid line and the point (1) is determined either from the temperature line of 15o C (59oF) or corresponding pressure line of 0. More mass involves larger cold capacity for the plant. This plant is the same as used in the one-stage lesson. 13. The quick reduction of the pressure involves powerful boiling in the liquid because of an “unbalance” between the liquid temperature and the gas pressure above the liquid. Plot the statepoints for the liquid in the bottle before the valve was opened and for the liquid in the open container afterwards.73 MPa (7. the pressure lowers above the liquid to the atmosphere pressure (1 bars). . One can trace the process line (from point 1 to point 2) for the alteration that occurs with the liquid.

Most of the piston compressors that are used on the cargo-side have this construction. The compressor is traced with different diameters of the cylinders. The following table indicates a summary from the cooling plant’s log sheet in an actual stage situation.5 10. The smallest cylinder is used in 2nd stage compression and is called the high-pressure cylinder.The compressor is the same. The vapour leaves the tank with state A and are sucked into the compressor’s 1st stage with state B. Air Tank 1.deliv 1. The intermediate cooler is .deliv 2.deliv o o o o o C bar bar bar bar C C C C 27 0. There is also installed an intermediate pressure container with a coil for sub-cooling of the condensate in this plant. The largest cylinder is used as 1st stage in the compression and is called the low-pressure cylinder.5 3. In Out o C oC 23 27 The compressor’s low pressure cylinder or 1st stage suck vapour from the cargo tank.suct 2.7 0. Cargo Pressure Temp. The vapour compresses in the compressor’s 1st stage and is delivered to the intermediate cooler (MT) with state C.5 -25 50 -7 74 Sea water Temp.suct 1. but only one of the cylinders is used to suck from the tank.deliv 2.suct 1.

A pressure of 3. The process line is marked EF. The vapour is led from 1st stage and down in the liquid of the MT cooler in our 2stage plant. An independent regulation valve regulates the liquid level in the MT cooler. Notice that the state-point is below the sub-cooled area. The heat supplied to the liquid in the MT cooler from the warm vapour from the 1st stage and the relatively warm condensate leads to a lot of liquid evaporation. The state-point G is therefore determined from the temperature line corresponding to a pressure of 0. The vapour that is sucked inn to the 2nd stage has a temperature of –7oC in the log. The compressor’s 2nd stage suck in saturated vapour from the top of the MT cooler and compresses this vapour and delivers it to the cargo condenser. A to low liquid level in the MT cooler results in a sub-cooling of the condensate and thereby reduces cooling capacity. The process line is marked DE. The condensate is led via a coil in the MT cooler through the regulation valve and back to the cargo tank. The superheated gas is normally led down in the liquid where it is cooled by the relatively cold liquid. Notice that there is a larger share of liquid now than at 1-stage operation. The state-point for the condensate that returns back to the tank is further to the left in the diagram.5 bars for propylene corresponds to a temperature of –8oC. The process line is marked FG. The heat is transferred from the vapour to the seawater in the cargo condenser. The pressure in the intermediate cooler determines the temperature of the liquid in it. Many plants that also have the possibility for “flash cooling” where the vapour is lead into the top of the MT cooler and give operational advantages.partly filled with cargo liquid. . The small difference of temperature may be caused by heat leakage in the suction line or reading error. the vapour condensate and is collected in the liquid collector. After the coil in the MT cooler the condensate is released back to the cargo tank through the regulation valve.5 bars + 1 bars).45 MPa (3.

5/1.9) are calculated to 275 m3/h. With 2stage operation.0 0.5 -20 -22 54 80 -7 74 23 23 27 27 Cargo The compressors capacity at 1-stage operation and a pressure condition of 6 (11. this is calculated to 240 m3/h. A lower pressure condition gives a better delivery extent and thereby larger mass.deliv.7 10.deliv.9 bar: 4.suct 1.The cooling plants net cold capacity is calculated. The plant is started with 1-stage operation because of a very high tank pressure.7/2). When the temperature of the cargo is at –30oC. which is something that increases the result. But the mass of gas flowing through the plant is also altered when the plant is reorganised from 1-stage to 2-stage operation. This has a negative guided influence so that the total increase of the cooling capacity is thereby reduced.1 Example 1 To better visualise the difference between 1-stage operation and 2-stage operation. 13.5 10. 2. one decides to reorganise the operation to a 2-stage operation with intermediate cooling.3. The result is increased differential pressure between 1st and 2nd stage and reduced delivery extent. by the expression: Qnet = m x (h2 . as previously. In Out o o o o o bar bar bar bar C C C C C oC 1.4 (4. 2. Subsequent to the cargo cooling.17 kg/m3 x (230 kJ7kg . The following working parameters are registered before and after the re-adjustment: Sea water Pressure Temp. Temp Tank 1. 1.deliv. At 2-stage operation and a pressure condition of 2.17 kg/m3 Enthalpy of gas in a cargo tank: 230 kJ/kg Enthalpy of the condensate after condenser: -60 kJ/kg Qnett = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 .deliv.1 1. The cooling capacity at 1-stage operation is calculated from the following values located in the Mollies diagram and technical table: Density on gas at -22oC and 0. we can look at an example where the vessel has loaded warm propylene and delivered the cargo fully cooled. the cargo tank pressure is reduced. vapour from the cargo tank is sucked with one cylinder only compared with 1-stage where all cylinders is used to suck in the vapour.-60 kJ/kg) . 2.suct 1.1 1.suct.9 3.h2) = {(275 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 4.h1) The enthalpy difference is larger at 2-stage operation and sub-cooling.

8) bar = 2.17 kg/m3 x (230 kJ7kg . . which corresponds to a cargo temperature of –15oC. in the operating manuals. The decision of reorganising the plant to 2-stage operation at this moment looks correct. The same gas tanker. the cargo that is loaded must be cooled down. as in the example above is to load 4000 MT hot propylene of +15oC.5 bar.= 92 kW The cooling capacity at 2-stage operation and intermediate cooling are calculated from the following values located in the Mollier diagram and technical table: Density of gas at -20oC and 1 bar: Enthalpy of gas in a cargo tank: 4. With normal measure divergence. If the condensation pressure is a constant 10. as follows: At unchanged seawater temperature. if one only evaluates the cooling capacities.-140 kJ/kg) = 103 kW The two calculated cooling capacities in the example must be evaluated from the accuracy in our measures. If it is specified. alteration from 1-stage to 2stage operation is determined. One must however notice that normally it refers. To maintain the tank pressure during the opening pressure for the valves.4 When we are loading cargo that is warmer than compared with the safety valve’s set point. the condensation pressure is 10. in the operating manual. 1-stage will have a differential pressure of 8 bars when the suction pressure p0 is: po = (10.3. These parameters are simple practical expressions for the compressor’s constructional limitations. only to maximum delivery-pressure/maximum differential-pressure over the compressor and not pressure condition. The differential pressure at 1-stage will rise at falling tank pressure. Limitation of maximum delivery pressure is thereby kept regardless of operations form.5 bars. which influence the operation.6 bars. From constructional limitations one can see that the cooling plant should be altered to 2-stage operation at –15oC and not at –30oC. Bad plant condition and poor plant operation reduces the cooling capacity and results in longer loading time. It is determined to maintain the tank pressure of 4 bars during the loading. the plant must alter to 2-stage operation at a tank pressure of 2. that maximum delivery pressure at 1-stage is 12 bars and maximum differential pressure is 8 bars. one can conclude that the cooling capacities are about equal for this plant at –30oC for propylene and a condensation pressure of 10.5 bars.h2) = {(240 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 4. The loading tank’s safety valves have an opening pressure of 4.17 kg/m3 230 kJ/kg Enthalpy of the condensate after condenser: -140 kJ/kg Qnett = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 . Example 2 13. the loading time is determined by the capacity of the cooling plant.5 bar If the pressure drop of the suction line is constant at 0.5 bars.1 bars.5 .

In the first alternative.546) x 100 / 7.5 bars. This also means that loading time will increase with 36%. the compressor’s suction valves are throttled to a suction pressure of 1. 1.suct.5 2. The percentage difference in the cooling capacity thereby is expressed. as follows: {(7.143 .5 bars for this re-condensation plant during the above-mentioned conditions.143 kg/m3 As the cooling capacity expresses: Qnet = m x (h2 . The following operational parameters is registered before and after the alteration: Cargo Tank bar 4.5 8. the suction valve is less throttled and the suction pressure is 2.4.deliv. 1. .0 Pressure 1. Notice that the enthalpy difference is the same regardless of suction pressure.5 bar and 5 oC: 0.suct 1.0 Temp. 1 2 The two cooling processes are plotted into a Mollier’s diagram for propylene.0 4.5 bar and 0oC: Specific volume for propylene v/1.5 bars.h1) One can see that the difference in the cooling capacity will be proportional with the change in the mass flowing through the plant.0 8.deliv. In the second alternative. bar bar 1.5 bars to 1.143}% = 36 % The cooling capacity is reduced by about 36% if the suction pressure is reduced from 2.22 m3/kg = 4.546 kg/m3 0.14 m3/kg = 7. we find specific volume and density for the gas into the compressors at the two suction pressures: Specific volume for propylene: v/2.In the following log two different operational parameters are registered from the cargo cooling plant. o o C C 5 0 81 77 Alt. In the Mollier diagram.

5 kJ/kg = 275.143 kg/m3 x (240 –80)kJ/kg = 762 kW .5 kJ/kg = 186 x 106 kJ We find the enthalpy values of the gas out of the tank (h2) and the enthalpy of the mixture that is returned to the tank (h1).Enthalpy for propylene v/-5oC: = Necessary abducted heat. The heat leakage to the cargo tanks (QTr) is stated in the vessel’s operational manuals to 144 kW and three identical cargo cooling units drive in the re-condensation plant. We assume that the cargo tanks with ROB.0 kJ/kg = 46.5 kJ/kg Necessary heat that must be removed from the cargo (QL) is: = m x Dh QL = (4000 x 103)kg x 46.7 kcal/kg = 321.To visualise this influence better. where the compressor’s capacity in each cooling unit is set to 400 m3/h.h2) = {3 x 400 m3/h / 3600} x 7. We locate how much heat has to be removed from each kilo propylene liquid to cool this down to +15oC to –5oC in the heat technical table: Enthalpy for propylene v/15oC: . ∆h 76.h1) = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 .5 bars and 0oC is: Qnetto = m x (h2 . steal and isolation are cooled down to -5oC before commence loading. we calculate the loading time for the vessel.8 kcal/kg 65. in the Mollier diagram: h2 = 240 kJ/kg h1 = -80 kJ/kg The cooling capacity for the entire re-condensation plant at a suction pressure of 2.

The seawater-cooled condenser is now replaced with a freon-cooled condenser. at this operation situation is then: = QL / (Qnetto .The loading time T1. Both 1-stage and 2-stage operations are used depending on the cargo that should be cooled and choice of components in the cooling systems. The cargo side of the cascade plant is the same as in the 2-stage plant example.5 bar and 5oC is: Qnetto = m x (h2 . less heat will be abducted from the loaded cargo and loading time will be shorter. If a high tank pressure is kept close up to the safety valve’s opening pressure.h2) = {3 x 400 m3/h / 3600} x 4.144) kW We can see that the influence of unnecessary throttling on the suction side of the compressor gives large deflection of the cooling capacity and thereby loading time.6 hours The cooling capacity for the entire re-condensation plant at a suction pressure of 1. 13. Both circuits are complete cooling plants that are built in many different configurations. One of the cooling circuits consist in a closed cooling process where the cargo directly condenses contra freon or other cooling media. On most cascade plants we have both a freon condenser and seawater cooled condensers in the cargo cooling plant. The tank pressure during the loading period also has influence on the total loading time. at this operation situation is then: T2 = = = = QL / (Qnetto .144) kW 186 x 106 kJ 545455 s 152 hours / (762 . T2. with exception for the condenser. This gives .QTr) T1 = 186 x 106 kJ = 300971 s = 83.h1) = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 .546 kg/m3 x (240 –80)kJ/kg = 485 kW The loading time.5 CASCADE PLANT A cascade plant onboard a gas tanker is a cooling plant composed by two coolant circuits working in serial with each other. The other cooling circuit consists in a closed cooling process where the freon or another cooling medium condenses contra seawater.QTr) / (485 .

the share of oil in the freon circuit will be too high. 1.suct.suct 1.suct. 1.3 -42 70 -60 50 Freon cycle Pressure Temp. 2.5 5.suct 1. 2.flexibility and good operation economy. 1.6 0.deliv.2 12. If this is not separated and returned to the oil receiver. Freon compressors are of oil-lubricated type. The cargo that is cooled is ethylene.3 17. 2.suct.deliv.5 -36 60 Sea water Temp In Out o o C C 28 30 . o o o o bar bar bar bar C C C C 0. o o bar bar C C 0.deliv.deliv. The freon side of this plant is a simple 1stage plant with screw compressor. Ethylene cycle Pressure Temp. 1.deliv. The oil separator has two functions where it separates oil from the gas and at the same time is a system tank for the oil system. The following summary from a cooling plant’s log indicates an actual operation situation for this plant. The oil will reduce heat transfer in the heat exchangers and create operation interruptions. 1. Tank 1.deliv. Large amounts of oil will follow the compression gas out of the compressor.

The plant exists both on atmosphere gas carrier LPG and for semi pressured gas carriers LPG/ ethylene. (We assume that the freon side has the right filling).3 bars. which corresponds to a temperature of –27oC. This gives a temperature difference of 10oC in the cargo condenser. usually too high for this type of heat exchanger. The condensation pressure of the loading side depends on the temperature of the freon liquid circulating through the loading condenser.The cooling process of the cargo side is plotted into a Mollier diagram for ethylene and is. The pressure in the liquid separator again depends on the suction pressure of the freon compressor and determines the freon temperature. This . If the freon pump don’t deliver sufficient liquid to the cargo condenser. Notice that the condensation pressure for ethylene lies at 17. as follows: The cooling process on the freon side of the cascade plants is plotted equal. which corresponds to a temperature of –37oC.2 bars. The pressure in the liquid separator is 0. the cause is probably one or a combination of the following: • · • · • · reduced heat transmission caused by incrustation in the loading condenser reduced heat transmission caused by too large share of oil in the Freon liquid too high condenser pressure caused by unknown gas on the loading side Cascade plants are used both for LPG and ethylene.

exist on the loading side. . Some plants have freon pumps. Freon compressors can be piston compressors or screw compressors. where others use thermal expansion valves. Screw compressors can be built with one or two stages.plant is an example of a usual cascade plant that can also be used to re-condense ethylene. The freon side is frequently equipped with super-feed or intermediate pressure container with subcooling. which pump freon through the cargo condenser. Plants with and without MT-containers. There are many different configurations of cascade plants. with and without flash cooling. Normally screw compressors are used both on the loading side and on the freon side in the cooling plant onboard big atmosphere pressure gas carrier LPG. 2-stage compression with and without sub-cooling. The compressors on the cargo side have to be oil free piston or screw compressors. The configuration possibilities are many and the variation in plants from vessel to vessel is what one faces onboard. The understanding of the cooling process and knowledge to your vessel’s “special” plant is a basic assumption for safe and economic operation of the plant. with and without de-super-heaters.

14- Insulation and Heat Transfer .

1 INSULATION AND INSULATION MATERIAL There are three different methods in transporting heat: thermal conductance. because the total thermal transmission is higher if convection also arises.012 W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K One can see that the best heat conductor or worst insulation materials are pure metals.3 1 0. convection and radiation.35 From 0. or by keeping the gas inside a net of thin fibres. bad thermal conductance capability and thereby good insulation capability. The thermal conductance capability is expressed by a material’s thermal conductance number (thermal conductivity) and states the heat quantity measured by Watt. Most insulation material’s insulating qualities emerge from stationary gases. The thermal conductance figure will mainly increase at higher temperature because of larger convection. Lower thermal conductance figures render possible thinner insulation and thereby place saved. it is the thermal conductance figure that is of interest when looking at the important qualities for an insulation material.024 0.1 to 0. This is in practice solved by trying to catch the gas inside the smallest possible cavity. The best insulation material regarding thermal transmission is a composition of a firm material and a gas with the separately lowest thermal conductance figures. Thermal conductivity Natural pure metals Iron Ice at -20 oC Natural liquids Wood Glass Polypropylene Sand Natural gases Stationary air Freon 22 From 8 to 400 80 2.4 From 0.60 From 0. The worst heat conductors or best insulation materials are stationary gases. The insulation material’s’ main task is to reduce heat transmission from thermal conductance.008 to 0. which is transported through to surface of 1 meter thickness when the temperature difference is 1K. It is of most importance that the gases are kept as stationary as possible.10 to 0. . First of all.14.12 0.048 0.

When the insulation material of glass or mineral wool got a high humidity. fireextinguishing vapour are released. for example.5 and for polyurethane it will be about 60. . for example. As the thermal expansion co-efficiency for the insulation material can be 4 to 5 times larger than the steel. it will have a strong corroding effect on metals. The insulation material will only burn as long as a foreign fire source is present. black and poisonous smoke that is formed by such a fire has prevented escape from hold space and serious poisoned injures.The upper temperature limit for the material’s relevance normally has no importance for an insulation material that should be used for cool insulation. in planning maintenance. Even stainless steel pipes corrode in such an environment and if this is allowed to proceed. cracks may easily arise if the insulation material don’t have good elasticity. moist air will be forced through and will condense against the cold side. The strain points will. The damage extent will accelerate if such a process is continuously unchanged. An insulating problem area is around the loose tank cradle of cylinder cargo tanks. The insulation material’s lower temperature is of major importance. Thermal expansion and elasticity are two qualities of great importance for plastic insulation materials. be large in the support points for an insulated pipeline. The large amount of thick. the cold side will be tight (tank shell) and the warm side will be surrounded by air with high humidity. The thermal conductance figure will. a cargo tank. increase and the water will freeze and destroy the insulation. Where the material is exposed to strains the material’s compressive-strength is important. the proportional diffusion resistance for mineral wool will be about 1. A plastic insulation material like polyurethane has good adhesion firmness to the steel priming and good elasticity and is thereby resistant to cracks. In the plastic insulation condensation can occur at a lower temperature and thereby increase the thermal inductance figure for the material. All insulation materials that are used onboard must be fire resistant. When insulating between a warm and cold side. If the diffusion resistance for stationary air is set to 1. The capability to resist humidity or diffusion resistance is an important quality that must be evaluated in choosing insulation material. special compressive-strengthen materials are used in these areas. it is the corrosive qualities that often are underestimated. for example cargo tanks on gas tankers. One must not underestimate the risk of fire in the plastic insulation and the consequences by such a fire. Changing temperature for tank shells and insulation can lead to periodical expansions and compressions. It is difficult over time to avoid this onboard. Of the chemical qualities for insulation materials. and they are self-quenching. Because of a higher saturation pressure on the warm side in proportion to the cold side. as well as. Large demands are made both to material and for the insulation to be good and long performance. Fire can easily arise in such materials in connection with weld work. To evade lasting compression or crumbling of the insulation material. but one prefers that the material tolerate highest possible temperature considering fire. because of the humidity. Insulation materials made of plastic are added or built up in such a way that in case of fire. Ignition of the insulation on the cargo tanks has occurred with fatal consequences. A special developed insulation with especially good elasticity is suitable for such areas. an expensive replacement is soon the result. All of the expansion and compression movement of longitudinal direction of the tank takes place here.

This indicates that insulation of polyurethane is about 40 times more resistant against moist air to leak through than an insulation of mineral wool. The most used is polyurethane. normally in the proportion 1:1 makes polyurethane. which because of the reaction-heat evaporates and “blows” up the material. but week against mechanical war and tear and requires more maintenance on exposed places. Moderate method. A chemical reaction that is exothermic is actuated when mixing the liquids. Regardless of which insulation material that is used. Galvanised and stainless steel sheet that is fastened by pop cones and the joint seals with jointing compound. which is built up of a net with thin fibres. Expanded volcanic perlite. Mixing isocynate and polyole.1. some loading tank constructions. • • • • 14. imperative on a chill insulation. If one adds some water. but strong against mechanical wear and tear and necessary for “foaming”. which are built up of raw plastic materials. The most commonly used materials and methods are: • • • • • Thin aluminium foil glued on the insulation. for example. . A diffusion-tight damp-latch on the warm side is. This method is expensive. at all times. built up in a cellular structure. Sprayed mastic with or without armouring. Foam with about 90% closed cells and a very low thermal conductance number appear. Moderate method and easy to maintain. moist air will penetrate into the material and destroy it. which is expanded plastic raw material. but weak for mechanical wear and tear. but gets easily fragile. Isocyanate has a resemblance to thick oil and polyole has a resemblance to clear liquid. Most suitable for repair and sprinkling on insulation not exposed to rough weather. which is built up on a cellular structure. This method is suitable for insulation non-exposed for mechanical wear and tear. carbon dioxide is formed. Wallboard. The insulation material on gas ships may be divided into the following three different groups based on structure and material: Cellular plastic. Polyurethane-foam based on CO2 has a relatively long time of expansion. Glass-fibre armed polyester. This method is more moderate.1 Polyurethane There are a number of insulation materials. Most suitable for repair One or more layers with asphalt emulsion armoured with multiple layers of glass fibre fabric.

One can mix polyurethane foam for smaller repairs in a bucket before pouring into a mould. bend and valves. the expansion is quicker. If applying polyurethane foam with a sprayer.3 Isolation of LNG ships with spherical tanks Cellular plastic is used as insulation material for Moss Rosenberg's spherical cargo tanks. Polyurethane is also available as half-cups for insulation of pipes. from equator against the bottom and on top of the tank. Poles of “Styrofoam” of about 3 meters long are welded together and set continuously around the spherical tank. R11 was used earlier as a blowing agent. An external aluminium foil of 0. also disposable spray equipment with smaller containers for iciyanat and polyol. it is recommended to check with the supplier about the composition and if water has to be used when mixing. or frothing. At the first stage polystyrene is pre-expanded with vapour where blisters from 1 to 6 mm are formed. It is recommended to lay two layers with half cups on larger pipes. After 2 to 4 day in the silo. The thermal conductance capability for R11 is only half of CO2. is suitable for smaller repairs to the insulation. because the insulation materials contraction is 2. The purpose is partly to protect the tanks from corrosion and to reduce the “pressure” of humidity against the insulation. The polyurethane cups can easily be cut for matching the pipe bend. The pre-expanded material is sent up into large silos for de-aeration.5 times more than aluminium and 5 times more than steel at -163oC. the pre-expanded material is filled in forms for further expansion and compression of the grains. 14. freon is used as the blowing agent. so that the connections are displaced in proportion to each other.1. Dow Chemicals in USA and Technical Isolation in Norway developed a new method of mounting insulation. As there are different suppliers on the market.25 mm is laid on also. 14. The half cups and the connections are glued. Disposal-spray equipment of this type or a simple modifying of the paint sprayer onboard.2 Polystyrene Polystyrene is produced in two stages. and secure the density and strength and a water barrier is laid either with thin metal plates or mastic. Because of the freon material’s lower boiling point. Freon evaporates with speed in normal surrounding temperature and one obtains pre-expansion. The room around the loading tank is filled with nitrogen with a dew point down to –40oC. There are also a number of machines for spraying on the market. to shape blocks. It is important that the dimension of the cup fit to the outer diameter of the pipe so that air leak is avoided.1. when the mixture leave the spray. .The qualities of the polyurethane-foam can be improved by using different freon materials as a blowing agent. The finished blocks are cut up into plates and pipe cups. Heat from steam or electrical elements are used in this last expansion.

The stones are melted in a temperature up to 1600oC and are dispatched over a wheel with very high rotation. If the insulation on cargo tanks and pipelines reduces. Rock wool and glass wool are two types of insulation material that are used.0025 mm diameter. Preserving the insulation is good economy. 14. The raw material has some water content. Insulation is exposed for ageing. there is nothing more destroying for the insulation then the humidity. The best and cheapest way to preserve this is to be sure that the atmosphere around the loading tanks is dry. Simultaneously the individual corns loosen form each other. One must also notice that pipe insulation faced with stainless steel plates radiates less . Glass wool is produced like rock wool by hurling and chilled melted glass to very fine fibres. this means that white pipe insulation absorbs less heat than one with red or orange colour on the pipe insulation. The production method and user area is equal. Load time and time used to cool the cargo increase. which by heating to about 1200oC evaporates and “blows” up the material. A light water barrier absorbs less heat than dark. wear and tear and will in time be reduce if maintenance of the insulation is not kept.4 Mineral wool Mineral wool is a collective term of different fibre rich insulation materials. With exception of mechanical wear and tear. The melted mixture of stones is hurled out and chilled in long thin fibres. Re-insulation of the insulation on cargo tanks is especially expensive.1. The amount of cementing agent varies and is determined by the material’s purpose of use. Maintenance of insulation The cooling plant on a gas carrier is constructed and calculated for thermal leakage from cargo tanks and system when the ship is new. It is important to consider the different material’s capability to absorb the heat of radiation when working with external insulation materials. Rock wool plates are elastic and a normal density of about 45 kg/m3. only about 0. increased thermal leakage will occur. Protection of water and humidity is of high importance and that’s why we purge hold spaces with dry inert/ nitrogen. The only way to protect the insulation from humidity is to assure that the water barrier is intact. The main component is about 71% SiO2 and about 16% Al2O3. A mixture of several types of stones is used to produce rock wool. The density is about 60 kg/m3. Increased thermal leakage involves removal of more heat from the cargo.1. Cementing agent based on plastic is added and hardened with hot air. The plates are also delivered with larger density and firmness.5 Expanded Perlite Perlite is made of a volcanic rock species with perlite structure. One obtains a 10 to 20 times expansion with numerous closed airtight cells. It is first of all used on atmosphere pressure gas carriers. the material “explodes” and forms sharp-edged corns with sizes from 0 to 3 mm with very large mechanical strength. One can easily fill the whole room around a loading tank with perlite. In practice.14. Regular control and systematic maintenance of this from day one will save large future expenses.

Control external insulation regularly and repair wrecked water barrier plates immediately. Areas with ice or humidity indicate thermal loss. The steel must be protected from corrosion before new insulation is put to place. Held the atmosphere in hold spaces dry by drying the atmosphere regularly. Control the cargo tank insulation regularly. Before adding new insulation in place. 5. corrosion and pitting must be controlled. use dry inert gas or nitrogen. if possible. . minimum materials to repair damage on water barrier. The thermal conductance is thereby larger. At all times.heat and thereby is warmer than a galvanised plate. Note these areas with spray paint to easier locate the areas when these need repairing. 3. As some of the insulation materials have limited operating time. Note the areas with spray painting in order to easily locate these when need of repairing. have necessary materials to repair wrecked insulation onboard. 2. Areas with ice or humidity indicate thermal loss. Five good advice for maintaining the cargo tank insulation: 1. 4. the stock onboard must be adjusted to the expected consumption the next month.

0 10.0 840 Freon 22 0.012 4.024 1.0 50.4 1.035 0.035 0.10 2.4 1.2 Expanded perlite Iron Steel (12 Cr) Stainless steel (19 Cr/10Ni) Water of/ 20 o C Ice of/ -20 oC 80 25 17.023 0.015 2.4 7 860 7 612 8 020 998 920 452 460 510 4 180 1 950 ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ .0 1. R11 Polystyrene foam (Isophor) Carbamide foam Phenol foam (Bakelite) Glass wool plates Rock plates wool 0.033 0.7 1 090 Polyurethane foam.56 2.30 1 260 1 340 1 260 1 340 840 840 840 Flammable above 700oC flammable above 700oC Non flammable Selfquenching Selfquenching 50 70 2 2 1.035 0.0 32.14.3 0.00 0.041 0.035 40.1.6 The qualities of the insulation material compared with other materials Thermal Density Pressure Heat Fire Diffusion conductance firmness capacity qualities resistance W/m K kg/m3 kg/cm2 J/kg K Stationary air 1 000 1 0.3 on/20oC CO2 0.0 20.0 45.0 25.

Its construction and choice of components give the cooling plant’s capacity. The heat of compression.tank + QTr.pipe is the total transferred heat to cargo in the pipes.2 CALCULATION OF THERMAL TRANSFER The cooling plant on a gas carrier is dimensioned by calculated heat transfer to cargo tanks and systems when the ship is new The insulation is exposed for wear and tear and is on many gas carriers partly strong reduced. surrounding temperature.tank = Qfrom cargo tank. When the insulation on cargo tanks gets inferior.tank is the total transferred heat to the cargo tanks with cargo. When the cooling plant is driven to keep the temperature of the cargo constant.Compr is the heat supplied to the gas in the compressor and the heat of condensation QCond is the heat transferred to the seawater in the loading condenser. Qtr. Systematic maintenance will hold this capacity. pipe and insulation around the pipes.Compr = Qcond or as: Qtr. the heat balance is expressed as: QTr. The transmission heat to the cargo tanks. steel and insulation.14. Before taking a closer look at the condition around heat transfer on gas carrier.Qreturn to cargo tank The actual amount of heat transferred from the surroundings to a cargo tank or a system can be quantified in several methods. At first we will look on how this can be . it is useful to form a picture of the heat balance. it will have influence on the capacity of the vessel. QTr. It is indicated easily by following illustration: Heat is transferred from the surroundings to the cargo and systems for cargo because of the temperature difference. Transmission heat to cargo pipelines QTr. heat radiation and movements.pipe + QTr. The amount of heat transferred to cargo tanks and cargo pipes dependent on the insulation’s state.

Repair of the insulation is necessary. Before looking on a concrete example. Further it is important that if comparing repeated actual measurements. the transferred heat from the surroundings can be measured. The cooling rate is now at the lower edge of 0. the measures has to be made at the best possible equal condition. As the measuring instruments onboard has normally no more accuracy than + 10%. how to evaluate the result and what results the eventual effectuated effort will have. Clarification of this is of importance when planning and priority of the insulation repair. It is obvious that the insulation on tank no. the period of measure should be as long as possible. Several “ice spots” than before are also observed on suction lines and condensate lines on deck. The heat transfer is thereby quantified and is comparable with what it was or should be. but the cooling rate is more than halved at the same pressure in proportion to when the ship sailed in European waters. 2 and 4 plus the insulation on the lines on deck are mostly reduced. To find out how much heat that is transferred to the “bad” loading tanks in proportion to one of one of the “good”. the tanks are shut for 24 hours. The heat transfer has probably increased gradually through the years. 14. one must evaluate the results from the accuracy of the instruments. This is a theoretical calculated description that does not necessarily give the right image of the heat transfer. We will now take a look at different examples and what we can do. Control of the reel heat transfer can be executed onboard.2 and 4 has many “ice spots”. As the cooling plants condition is verified good and the plant is verified optimum driven. The captain rapport that the ship capability to cool down ethylene is perceptible inferior.2. The older the ship is the larger probability that the calculated heat transfer DOES NOT coincide with reality. the bad cooling rate must be the result of the insulation has been worse during the years. it is of importance to emphasise that when accomplish such measuring. If a loaded cargo tank is closed and isolated from the cooling plant over a period of time. The cooling plant is checked and driven at optimum. The amount of heat transfer to the cargo tanks and pipelines must be concretised and compare with the repair costs before making the right decision.3oC per day when the temperature of the cargo gets lower than minus 102oC. 2. Most gas carriers are equipped with a graphic description of the calculated heat transfer to the cargo tanks. but the question is which areas have most influence on the cooling capacity.done onboard. . Cargo tank no.1 Example 1 A 12 year old smaller intermediate pressure gas carrier with 6 cargo tanks is loaded with ethylene and has just moved the sailing area from Europe to SEA. 3 and 4 are the same type and size. Inspection of the loading tanks indicate ice more than usual round all of the tank foundation and tank no. but the influence has not been operational visual before the ship altered sailing area.

94 / 10:30 97.94 / 10:30 Cargo tank filling ratio Mass cargo in MT Ambient temperature in oC Sea water temperature in C Average Hold space temperature in C Ship's movement Weather condition Average liquid temperature in oC Cargo tank pressure in mBar Enthalpy liquid in kJ/kg o 34 29 27 Calm sea Cloudy 23 Calm sea Cloudy -103.8 kW Percentage change: 20 % . In the technical description of the ship the calculated heat transfer when the ship was built to 13.1 80 27.2 Date/time 30. 2 is calculated to: [(mass cargo x enthalpy-change) / (time in seconds)] [(592.3 .07.1 kW for each tank at the same surrounding temperature and seawater temperature is located. the heat transfer is measured and calculated to the cargo in tank no.1 kW 2 Calculated transfer now: 15. 3 and 4 to respectively 13.9 kW and 22.837 24 28 o 31.3 As the weight of gas is relative much less than the liquid weight.The measuring instruments that are utilised during the experiment is calibrated and the following sketch for heat transfer is utilised and filled in: Heat transfer for Cargo tank no.0 % 592.837 x 103 x (29.0 -102.27.2 165 29. A comparable table can be made and indicates as follows: Calculated transfer before: Cargo tank 13.2 kW.0)) / (24 x 60 x 60)] kW = 15.07. The enthalpy values exist in heat technical table and the heat transfer to the cargo in tank no. only the enthalpy change of the liquid is measured.8 kW Corresponding.

the temperature increase on the vapour from the cargo tank to compressor has increased essential. the influence of bad insulation on the condensate lines will have maximum consequence. If this is the case. Present observed temperature increase is from –100oC to –40oC.1 kW 3 Cargo tank 13. the vapour temperature rise from –100oC to –60oC from the cargo tank to compressor. The liquid lines are only utilised in a short period (during loading and discharging). A compressor’s cold capacity is expressed as: Qnetto = m x Dh Higher temperature on the vapour into the compressor involves lower density and thereby reduced amount of vapour through the compressor per time. 4 is essential much more deteriorated than the remaining two tanks. It is rather no doubt that the insulation on tank no. while the condensate lines are utilised during all of the cooling period. The increase of the relative heat loss through the insulation on loading tank no. Judgement must at all times be adjusted and from the rapport from this ship. one must assume that the insulation here has the same condition as the suction lines.Cargo tank 13. But it is difficult to compare these two directly. 2 and 4 is now indicated.1 kW 4 13.9 kW 22. for thereby to establish which one of them that has the . Six years ago.7699 kg/m3 1. There is no doubt that both conditions have influence on the operational situation on the ship. The influence of inferior insulation on the suction lines to the cooling plant will have direct influence on the cooling capacity. Likewise is the reduction of cooling capacity because of increased heat transfer to the suction gas established. The vapour is essential now more over heated than earlier. By comparing present operational parameters for the cooling plant with earlier registered operational data.6181 kg/m3 9% The reduction of the suction line's insulation involves a direct reduction of the cooling rate of about 10% in this temperature area.2 kW 6% 70% The calculations confirm the observations and presumptions made before in connection with the inspection of the tank insulation. A comparable table indicates as follows: Density on gas v/1 bars and -60 oC Density on gas v/1 bar and -40 oC Percentage reduction in density 1. during almost the same condition. The size of the heat loss through condensate lines and liquid lines cannot be measured directly because there will at all times be and unknown and varying mixture of liquid and gas in the pipes. The priority at en eventual re-insulation of cargo-tanks can thereby well substantiate.

6181 Number of compressors 3 Capacity per compressor.4 Density. Heat transfer to the suction vapour in the suction pipe has a direct influence on the cooling plant's capacity. In addition. h1 572. V 680 o C o kJ/kg C kJ/kg kg/m3 m3/h Difference in heat transfer. . The ship’s three loading compressors have stated a capacity of 680 m3/h at the same operational condition. T1 Enthalpy. r2 1. T2 Enthalpy. (One must here emphasise that the total heat transfer to the cargo tanks will be larger because the steel in the cargo tanks with insulation is supplied heat). too high suction temperature will have a bad influence on the plant’s operational conditions by for example that the pressure pipe temperature may be too high.7 Temperature at inlet compressor -40 now.8 kW DF = ((3 x V) / 3600) x r2 x (h2 . To make the data’s comparable the alteration in the heat transfer to the suction line is quantified. h2 607.h1) One can see that about 30 kW more heat to the suction cables is supplied now compared to earlier year.strongest effect on the ship’s possibility to execute the transport commission. Simultaneously the measures indicate that the heat transfer to the cargo is about 15 kW more than earlier. DF 31. The alteration of the heat transfer to the suction line in proportion to earlier years is calculated to: Vapour Ethylene Temperature at inlet compressor -60 before.

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