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As a simple illustration of the concepts introduced What is the initial vector velocity with which the

in the previous subsections, let us examine the

following problem. Suppose that a projectile is

projectile is launched into the air at (say) ?

As illustrated in Fig. 16, given that the magnitude of

this velocity is , its horizontal component is

making an angle with the horizontal. Neglecting

the effect of air resistance, what is the subsequent directed along the -axis, and its direction

trajectory of the projectile?

Our first task is to set up a suitable Cartesian subtends an angle with this axis, the components

coordinate system. A convenient system is

illustrated in Fig. 16. The -axis points vertically of take the form

upwards (this is a standard convention), whereas

(71

the -axis points along the projectile's initial )

direction of horizontal motion. Furthermore, the

origin of our coordinate system corresponds to the

level.

Note that has zero component along the -axis,

Neglecting air resistance, the projectile is subject to which points into the paper in Fig. 16.

Since the projectile moves with constant

acceleration, its vector displacement

a constant acceleration , due to

gravity, which is directed vertically downwards.

Thus, the projectile's vector acceleration is written

from its launch point satisfies [see

(70 Eq. (64)]

)

(72

)

Here, the minus sign indicates that the acceleration

Making use of Eqs. (70) and (71), the -, -, and

(73

)

(74

)

(75

)

projectile problem

respectively. Note that the projectile moves with

(78

)

constant velocity, , in the

surprising, since there is zero component of the

when . In other words, neglecting air

projectile's acceleration along the -axis. Note, resistance, a projectile travels furthest when it is

further, that since there is zero component of the

launched into the air at to the horizontal.

projectile's acceleration along the -axis, and the The maximum altitude of the projectile is

projectile's initial velocity also has zero component

along this axis, the projectile never moves in the -

projectile has just stopped rising and is about to

direction. In other words, the projectile's trajectory

start falling). It follows from Eq. (75) that the

is 2-dimensional, lying entirely within the -

plane. Note, finally, that the projectile's vertical

motion is entirely decoupled from its horizontal maximum altitude occurs at time

motion. In other words, the projectile's vertical . Hence,

motion is identical to that of a second projectile

(79

launched vertically upwards, at , with the )

velocity component of the first projectile)--both

projectiles will reach the same maximum altitude at Obviously, the largest value of ,

the same time, and will subsequently strike the

ground simultaneously.

(80

Equations (73) and (75) can be rearranged to give )

(76

)

is obtained when the projectile is launched

As was first pointed out by Galileo, and is illustrated

in Fig. 17, this is the equation of a parabola. The

(77

)

Note that the range attains its maximum value,

What is a Projectile? acceleration (not a motion). Recall from the Unit 2

that Newton's laws stood in direct opposition to the

In Unit 1 of the Physics Classroom Tutorial, we

common misconception that a force is required to

learned a variety of means to describe the 1-

keep an object in motion. This idea is simply not

dimensional motion of objects. In Unit 2 of the

true! A force is not required to keep an object in

Physics Classroom Tutorial, we learned how

motion. A force is only required to maintain an

Newton's laws help to explain the motion (and

acceleration. And in the case of a projectile that is

specifically, the changes in the state of motion) of

moving upward, there is a downward force and a

objects which are either at rest or moving in 1-

downward acceleration. That is, the object is

dimension. Now in this unit we will apply both

moving upward and slowing down.

kinematic principles and Newton's laws of motion to

understand and explain the motion of objects To further ponder this concept of the downward

moving in two dimensions. The most common force and a downward acceleration for a projectile,

example of an object which is moving in two consider a cannonball shot horizontally from a very

dimensions is a projectile. Thus, Lesson 2 of this high cliff at a high speed. And suppose for a

unit is devoted to understanding the motion of moment that the gravity switch could be turned off

projectiles.A projectile is an object upon which the such that the cannonball would travel in the

only force acting is gravity. There are a variety of absence of gravity? What would the motion of such

examples of projectiles. An object dropped from a cannonball be like? How could its motion be

rest is a projectile (provided that the influence of air described? According to Newton's first law of

resistance is negligible). An object which is thrown motion, such a cannonball would continue in motion

vertically upward is also a projectile (provided that in a straight line at constant speed. If not acted

the influence of air resistance is negligible). And an upon by an unbalanced force, "an object in motion

object is which thrown upward at an angle to the will ...". This is Newton's law of inertia.

horizontal is also a projectile (provided that the Now suppose that the gravity switch is turned on

influence of air resistance is negligible). A projectile and that the cannonball is projected horizontally

is any object which once projected or dropped from the top of the same cliff. What effect will

continues in motion by its own inertia and is gravity have upon the motion of the cannonball?

influenced only by the downward force of gravity. Will gravity affect the cannonball's horizontal

By definition, a projectile has only one force acting motion? Will the cannonball travel a greater (or

upon it - the force of gravity. If there was any other shorter) horizontal distance due to the influence of

force acting upon an object, then that object would gravity? The answer to both of these questions is

not be a projectile. Thus, the free-body diagram of a "No!" Gravity will act downwards upon the

projectile would show a single force acting cannonball to affect its vertical motion. Gravity

downwards and labeled force of gravity (or simply causes a vertical acceleration. The ball will drop

Fgrav). Regardless of whether a projectile is moving vertically below its otherwise straight-line, inertial

downwards, upwards, upwards and rightwards, or path. Gravity is the downward force upon a

downwards and leftwards, the free-body diagram of projectile which influences its vertical motion and

the projectile is still as depicted in the diagram at causes the parabolic trajectory which is

the right. By definition, a projectile is any object characteristic of projectiles.

upon which the only force is gravity.

A projectile is an object upon which the only force is

gravity. Gravity acts to influence the vertical motion

of the projectile, thus causing a vertical

acceleration. The horizontal motion of the projectile

Projectile Motion and Inertia is the result of the tendency of any object in motion

to remain in motion at constant velocity. Due to the

Many students have difficulty with the concept that absence of horizontal forces, a projectile remains in

the only force acting upon an upward moving motion with a constant horizontal velocity.

projectile is gravity. Their conception of motion Horizontal forces are not required to keep a

prompts them to think that if an object is moving projectile moving horizontally. The only force acting

upward, then there must be an upward force. And if upon a projectile is gravity!

an object is moving upward and rightward, there

must be both an upward and rightward force. Their

belief is that forces cause motion; and if there is an Next Section: Characteristics of a Projectile's

upward motion then there must be an upward Trajectory

force. They reason, "How in the world can an object Jump To Lesson 3: Forces in Two Dimensions

be moving upward if the only force acting upon it is

gravity?" Such students do not believe in Projectile

Newtonian physics (or at least do not believe A projectile is any object propelled through space

strongly in Newtonian physics). Newton's laws by the exertion of a force which ceases after

suggest that forces are only required to cause an launch. Although a thrown baseball could be

considered a projectile, the word more often refers explosives are those launched from railguns,

to a weapon. For details of the mathematics coilguns, and mass drivers, as well as kinetic

surrounding projectile trajectory, see equations of energy penetrators. All of these weapons work by

motion. attaining a high muzzle velocity (hypervelocity),

and collide with their objective, converting their

Contents kinetic energy into destructive shock waves and

[hide] heat.

Some kinetic weapons for targeting objects in

• 1 Motive force spaceflight are anti-satellite weapons and anti-

• 2 Non-kinetic effects ballistic missiles. Since they need to attain a high

velocity anyway, they can destroy their target with

• 3 Kinetic projectiles their released kinetic energy alone; explosives are

• 4 Wired projectiles not necessary. Compare the energy of TNT, 4.6

MJ/kg, to the energy of a kinetic kill vehicle with a

• 5 Typical projectile

closing speed of 10 km/s, which is 50 MJ/kg. This

speeds

saves costly weight and there is no detonation to

• 6 Miscellaneous be precisely timed. This method, however, requires

• 7 See also direct contact with the target, which requires a

more accurate trajectory.

• 8 External links

With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow

[edit] Motive force missile and MIM-104 Patriot have explosives, but

the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI), Lightweight

Arrows, darts, spears, and similar weapons are fired Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP, see RIM-161

using pure mechanical force applied by another Standard Missile 3), and THAAD being developed do

solid object; apart from throwing without tools, not (see Missile Defense Agency).

mechanisms include the catapult, slingshot, and

bow. See also Hypervelocity terminal ballistics,

Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV).

Other weapons use the compression or expansion

of gases as their motive force. A kinetic projectile can also be dropped from

aircraft. This is applied by replacing the explosives

Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed of a regular bomb e.g. by concrete, for a precision

gases, while most other guns and firearms utilize hit with less collateral damage. A typical bomb has

expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical a mass of 900 kg and a speed of impact of

reactions. Light gas guns use a combination of 800 km/h (220 m/s). It is also applied for training

these mechanisms. the act of dropping a bomb with explosives. [1] This

Railguns utilize electromagnetic fields to provide a method has been used in Operation Iraqi Freedom

constant acceleration along the entire length of the and the subsequent military operations in Iraq by

device, greatly increasing the muzzle velocity. mating concrete-filled training bombs with JDAM

GPS guidance kits, to attack vehicles and other

Some projectiles provide propulsion during (part of) relatively "soft" targets located too close to civilian

the flight by means of a rocket engine or jet engine.

structures for the use of conventional high

In military terminology, a rocket is unguided, while explosive bombs.

a missile is guided. Note the two meanings of

"rocket": an ICBM is a missile with rocket engines. A kinetic bombardment may involve a projectile

dropped from Earth orbit.

[edit] Non-kinetic effects

A hypothetical kinetic weapon that travels at a

Many projectiles, e.g. shells, contain an explosive significant fraction of the speed of light, usually

charge. With or without explosive charge a

found in science fiction, is termed a relativistic kill

projectile can be designed to cause special vehicle (RKV).

damage, e.g. fire (see also early thermal weapons),

or poisoning (see also arrow poison). [edit] Wired projectiles

[edit] Kinetic projectiles Some projectiles stay connected by a cable to the

launch equipment after launching it:

See also: KE-Munitions

• for guidance: wire-guided missile (range up

Projectiles which do not contain an explosive

to 4000 meters)

charge are termed kinetic projectile, kinetic energy

weapon, kinetic warhead or kinetic penetrator. • to administer an electric shock, as in the

Classic kinetic energy weapons are blunt projectiles case of a Taser (range up to 10.6 meters);

such as rocks and round shot, pointed ones such as two projectiles are shot simultaneously,

arrows, and somewhat pointed ones such as each with a cable.

bullets. Among projectiles which do not contain

• to make a connection with the target, either pistol) 1224 km/h kJ/kg

to tow it towards the launcher, as with a

whaling harpoon, or to draw the launcher to 12.7x99 mm

the target, as a grappling hook does. (bullet of a

800 m/s, 320

[edit] Typical projectile speeds heavy 2625 ft/s 1790 mph

2880 km/h kJ/kg

machine

See also: Orders of magnitude (speed) and Muzzle gun)

velocity

5.56x45 mm

Kinetic (standard

energy bullet used 920 m/s, 470

Speed 3018 ft/s 2058 mph

density in many 3312 km/h kJ/kg

Projectile (m/s), (ft/s) (mph)

= assault

(km/h)

Speed rifles)

^2 / 2

125x1400 m

4.43 m/s, 1700 m/s, 1.4

object falling m (shell of a 5577 ft/s 3803 mph

15.948 14.5 ft/s 9.9 mph 9.8 J/kg 6120 km/h MJ/kg

1m tank)

km/h

2kg

object falling 14 m/s, Tungsten 3000 m/s,

46 ft/s 31 mph 98 J/kg 4.5

10 m 50.4 km/h Slug (from 10800 9843 ft/s 6711 mph

MJ/kg

Experimental km/h

thrown club Railgun)

(weapon) 40 m/s, 800

130 ft/s 90 mph

(expert 144 km/h J/kg up to

thrower) ICBM reentry up to up to up to 8

13000 ft/

vehicle 4 km/s 9000 mph MJ/kg

s

object falling 45 m/s, 980

150 ft/s 100 mph

100 m 162 km/h J/kg projectile of up to up to up to

up to

a light gas 23000 ft/ 16000 mp 24

refined (= 7 km/s

gun s h MJ/kg

flexible)

45 m/s, 1000

atlatl dart 150 ft/s 100 mph satellite in

162 km/h J/kg 26000 ft/ 19000 mp 32

(expert low earth 8 km/s

thrower) s h MJ/kg

orbit

80-lb-draw closing

58 m/s, Exoatmosph

pistol 1.7 speed ~33000 f ~22000 ~ 50

208.8 190 ft/s 130 mph eric Kill

crossbow kJ/kg roughly t/s mph MJ/kg

km/h Vehicle

bolt 10 km/s

4.1

fired from 327.6 300 ft/s 204 mph (e.g. space

kJ/kg closing

marker km/h debris) and ~53000 f ~36000 ~ 130

speed 0 -

target both t/s mph MJ/kg

175-lb-draw 97 m/s, 16 km/s

4.7 in low earth

crossbow 349.2 320 ft/s 217 mph orbit

kJ/kg

bolt km/h

328 ft/s 224 mph 5 kJ/kg

6 mm BB 360 km/h Ballistics analyze the projectile trajectory, the

forces acting upon the projectile, and the impact

rifle bullet 150 m/s, 11 that a projectile has on a target. A guided missile is

492 ft/s 336 mph

4.5 mm 540 km/h kJ/kg not called a projectile.

An explosion, whether or not by a weapon, causes

air gun pellet 244 m/s,

29.8 the debris to act as multiple high velocity

(conventiona 878.4 800 ft/s 545 mph

kJ/kg projectiles. An explosive weapon, or device may

l maximum) km/h

also be designed to produce many high velocity

projectiles by the break-up of its casing, these are

9x19 mm 340 m/s, 1116 ft/s 761 mph 58

correctly termed fragments.

(bullet of a

Projectile is also the name of an annual anarchist

• 4 External links

film festival based in Newcastle UK * [2]

Trajectory [edit] Physics of trajectories

A trajectory is the path a moving object follows A familiar example of a trajectory is the path of a

through space. The object might be a projectile or a projectile such as a thrown ball or rock. In a greatly

satellite, for example. It thus includes the meaning simplified model the object moves only under the

of orbit - the path of a planet, an asteroid or a influence of a uniform homogenous gravitational

comet as it travels around a central mass. A force field. This can be a good approximation for a

trajectory can be described mathematically either rock that is thrown for short distances for example,

by the geometry of the path, or as the position of at the surface of the moon. In this simple

the object over time. approximation the trajectory takes the shape of a

parabola. Generally, when determining trajectories

In control theory a trajectory is a time-ordered set

it may be necessary to account for nonuniform

of states of a dynamical system (see e.g. Poincaré

gravitational forces, air resistance (drag and

map). In discrete mathematics, a trajectory is a

aerodynamics). This is the focus of the discipline of

ballistics.

sequence of values calculated by the One of the remarkable achievements of Newtonian

iterated application of a mapping f to an element x mechanics was the derivation of the laws of Kepler,

of its source. in the case of the gravitational field of a single point

mass (representing the Sun). The trajectory is a

conic section, like an ellipse or a parabola. This

agrees with the observed orbits of planets and

comets, to a reasonably good approximation.

Although if a comet passes close to the Sun, then it

is also influenced by other forces, such as the solar

wind and radiation pressure, which modify the orbit,

and cause the comet to eject material into space.

Newton's theory later developed into the branch of

theoretical physics known as classical mechanics. It

employs the mathematics of differential calculus

(which was, in fact, also initiated by Newton, in his

youth). Over the centuries, countless scientists

contributed to the development of these two

disciplines. Classical mechanics became a most

prominent demonstration of the power of rational

Illustration showing the trajectory of a bullet fired at thought, i.e. reason, in science as well as

an uphill target. technology. It helps to understand and predict an

enormous range of phenomena. Trajectories are but

one example.

Contents

Consider a particle of mass m, moving in a potential

[hide] field V. Physically speaking, mass represents

inertia, and the field V represents external forces,

• 1 Physics of trajectories

of a particular kind known as "conservative". That

• 2 Examples is, given V at every relevant position, there is a way

○ 2.1 Uniform gravity, no drag or wind to infer the associated force that would act at that

position, say from gravity. Not all forces can be

2.1.1 Derivation of the expressed in this way, however.

equation of motion

The motion of the particle is described by the

2.1.2 Range and height second-order differential equation

2.1.3 Angle of elevation

○ 2.2 Uphill/downhill in uniform gravity

in a vacuum

with

2.2.1 Derivation based on

equations of a parabola

○ 2.3 Orbiting objects

• 3 See also

On the right-hand side, the force is given in terms Now translating back to the inertial frame the co-

ordinates of the projectile becomes y = xtan(θ) −

of , the gradient of the potential, taken at g(x / vh)2 / 2 That is:

positions along the trajectory. This is the

mathematical form of Newton's second law of

motion: mass times acceleration equals force, for

such situations.

,

[edit] Examples

(where v0 is the initial speed, h is the height the

[edit] Uniform gravity, no drag or wind projectile is fired from, and g is the acceleration due

to gravity).

Trajectories of three objects thrown at the same [edit] Range and height

angle (70°). The black object doesn't experience The range, R, is the greatest distance the object

any form of drag and moves along a parabola. The travels along the x-axis in the I sector. The initial

blue object experiences Stokes' drag, and the green velocity, vi, is the speed at which said object is

object Newton drag. launched from the point of origin. The initial

angle, θi, is the angle at which said object is

The ideal case of motion of a projectile in a uniform released. The g is the respective gravitational pull

gravitational field, in the absence of other on the object within a null-medium.

forces(such as air drag), was first investigated by

Galileo Galilei. To neglect the action of the

atmosphere, in shaping a trajectory, would have

been considered a futile hypothesis by practical

minded investigators, all through the Middle Ages in

Europe. Nevertheless, by anticipating the existence

The height, h, is the greatest parabolic height said

of the vacuum, later to be demonstrated on Earth

object reaches within its trajectory

by his collaborator Evangelista Torricelli[citation needed],

Galileo was able to initiate the future science of

mechanics.[citation needed] And in a near vacuum, as it

turns out for instance on the Moon, his simplified

parabolic trajectory proves essentially correct.

In the analysis that follows we derive the equation [edit] Angle of elevation

of motion of a projectile as measured from an

inertial frame, at rest with respect to the ground, to In terms of angle of elevation θ and initial speed v:

which frame is associated a right-hand co-ordinate

system - the origin of which coincides with the point

of launch of the projectile. The x-axis is parallel to

the ground and the y axis perpendicular to it giving the range as

( parallel to the gravitational field lines ). Let g be

the acceleration of gravity. Relative to the flat

terrain, let the initial horizontal speed be vh =

vcos(θ) and the initial vertical speed be vv =

vsin(θ). It will also be shown that, the range is 2vhvv This equation can be rearranged to find the angle

for a required range

/ g, and the maximum altitude is ; The

maximum range, for a given initial speed v, is

obtained when vh = vv, i.e. the initial angle is 45

degrees. This range is v2 / g, and the maximum (Equation II: angle of

altitude at the maximum range is a quarter of that. projectile launch)

[edit] Derivation of the equation of motion Note that the sine function is such that there are

two solutions for θ for a given range dh. Physically,

Assume the motion of the projective is being this corresponds to a direct shot versus a mortar

measured from a Free fall frame which happens to shot up and over obstacles to the target. The angle

be at (x,y)=(0,0) at t=0. The equation of motion of θ giving the maximum range can be found by

the projectile in this frame ( by the principle of considering the derivative or R with respect to θ

equivalence) would be y = xtan(θ). The co- and setting it to zero.

ordinates of this free-fall frame, with respect to our

inertial frame would be y = − gt2 / 2. That is, y = −

g(x / vh)2 / 2.

which has a non trivial solutions at

Equation 11 may also be used to develop the

. The maximum range is then "rifleman's rule" for small values of α and θ (i.e.

close to horizontal firing, which is the case for many

. At this angle sin(π / 2) = 1 so the firearm situations). For small values, both tanα and

tanθ have a small value and thus when multiplied

together (as in equation 11), the result is almost

zero. Thus equation 11 may be approximated as:

maximum height obtained is .

To find the angle giving the maximum height for a

given speed calculate the derivative of the

maximum height H = v2sin(θ) / (2g) with respect to

And solving for level terrain range, R

when . So the maximum height Thus if the shooter attempts to hit the level

distance R, s/he will actually hit the slant target. "In

other words, pretend that the inclined target is at a

horizontal distance equal to the slant range

distance multiplied by the cosine of the inclination

is obtained when the projectile is fired

angle, and aim as if the target were really at that

straight up.

horizontal position."[1]

[edit] Uphill/downhill in uniform gravity in a

[edit] Derivation based on equations of a

vacuum

parabola

Given a hill angle α and launch angle θ as before, it

The intersect of the projectile trajectory with a hill

can be shown that the range along the hill Rs forms

may most easily be derived using the trajectory in

a ratio with the original range R along the

parabolic form in Cartesian coordinates (Equation

imaginary horizontal, such that:

10) intersecting the hill of slope m in standard

linear form at coordinates (x,y):

11) case, y = dv, x = dh and b = 0

In this equation, downhill occurs when α is between Substituting the value of dv = mdh into Equation 10:

0 and -90 degrees. For this range of α we know:

tan( − α) = − tanα and sec( − α) = secα. Thus for

this range of α, Rs / R = (1 + tanθtanα)secα. Thus

Rs / R is a positive value meaning the range

downhill is always further than along level terrain.

The lower level of terrain causes the projectile to

remain in the air longer, allowing it to travel further

horizontally before hitting the ground.

While the same equation applies to projectiles fired (Solving

uphill, the interpretation is more complex as above x)

sometimes the uphill range may be shorter or

longer than the equivalent range along level This value of x may be substituted back into the

terrain. Equation 11 may be set to Rs / R = 1 (i.e. linear equation 12 to get the corresponding y

the slant range is equal to the level terrain range) coordinate at the intercept:

and solving for the "critical angle" θcr:

and provided much of the motivation for the

development of differential calculus.

Range of a projectile

intercept from the origin, which is just the

hypotenuse of x and y:

has a range d.

conditions in a uniform gravity field will have a

Now α is defined as the angle of the hill, so by predictable range. As in Trajectory of a projectile,

definition of tangent, m = tanα. This can be we will use:

substituted into the equation for Rs: • g: the gravitational acceleration—usually

taken to be 9.80 m/s2 near the Earth's

surface

• θ: the angle at which the projectile is

launched

Now this can be refactored and the trigonometric • v: the velocity at which the projectile is

launched

• y0: the initial height of the projectile

identity for may be used:

• d: the total horizontal distance travelled by

the projectile

When neglecting air resistance, the range of a

projectile will be

by the previously used trigonometric identity and

sinθ / cosθ = tanθ so:

If (y0) is taken to be zero, meaning the object is

being launched on flat ground, the range of the

projectile will then simplify to

If instead of a uniform downwards gravitational Contents

force we consider two bodies orbiting with the [hide]

mutual gravitation between them, we obtain

Kepler's laws of planetary motion. The derivation of • 1 Derivations

these was one of the major works of Isaac Newton ○ 1.1 Flat Ground

Note that when (θ) is 45°, the solution becomes

○ 1.2 Uneven Ground

○ 1.3 Maximum Range on Uneven

Ground

[edit] Derivations

[edit] Uneven Ground

[edit] Flat Ground

Now we will allow (y0) to be nonzero. Our equations

First we examine the case where (y0) is zero. The of motion are now

horizontal position (x(t)) of the projectile is

and

In the vertical direction

We are interested in the time when the projectile (y) position of the projectile is at zero (since this is

returns to the same height it originated at, thus how we defined our starting height to begin with)

By applying the quadratic formula Again by applying the quadratic formula we find

two solutions for the time. After several steps of

algebraic manipulation

or

The first solution corresponds to when the projectile since the velocity and the cosine of the launch

is first launched. The second solution is the useful angle can also be assumed to be positive, the

one for determining the range of the projectile. solution with the greater time will occur when the

Plugging this value for (t) into the horizontal positive of the plus or minus sign is used. Thus, the

equation yields solution is

Applying the trigonometric identity Solving for the range once again

sin(2x) = 2sin(x)cos(x)

[edit] Maximum Range on Uneven Ground

allows us to simplify the solution to

It might be of interest to know how to compute the

elevation angle which will provide the maximum

range when launching the projectile from a non-

zero initial height. This can be computed by finding

the derivative of the range with respect to the

elevation angle and setting the derivative to zero to

find the extremum:

equation:

produces:

expression:

produces the maximum range for uneven ground,

ignoring air resistance:

that produces maximum range is 45 degrees, as

expected. For positive initial heights, the elevation

angle is below 45 degrees, and for negative initial

heights (bounded below by y0 > − 0.5v2 / g), the

elevation angle is greater than 45 degrees.

Example: For the values g = 9.80m / s2, y0 = 40m ,

and v = 50m / s, an elevation angle θ = 41.1015°

produces a maximum range of Rmax = 292.11

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