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Segmentation

M.Mohamed Sathik

1

, K.Senthamarai Kannan

2

and Y.Jacob Vetha Raj

3

1

Department of Computer Science, Sadakathullah Appa College, Tirunelveli, India

mmdsadiq@gmail.com

2,3

Department of Statistics, Manonmanium Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, India

senkannan2002@gmail.com

jacobvetharaj@gmail.com

Abstract-- Image compression is an inevitable solution for

image transmission since the channel bandwidth is limited and

the demand is for faster transmission. Storage limitation is also

forcing to go for image compression as the color resolution and

spatial resolutions are increasing according to quality

requirements. JPEG compression is a widely used compression

technique. JPEG compression method uses linear quantization

and threshold values to maintain certain quality in an entire

image. The proposed method estimates the vitality of the block

of the image and adapts variable quantization and threshold

values. This ensures that the vital area of the image is highly

preserved than the other areas of the image. This hybrid

approach increases the compression ratio and produces a

desired high quality output image.

.

Key words-- Image Compression, Edge-Detection,

Segmentation. Image Transformation, JPEG,

Quantization.

I. INTRODUCTION

Every day, an enormous amount of

information is stored, processed, and transmitted digitally.

Companies provide business associates, investors, and

potential customers with financial data, annual reports,

inventory, and product information over the Internet. And

much of the online information is graphical or pictorial in

nature; the storage and communications requirements are

immense. Methods of compressing the data prior to storage

and/or transmission are of significant practical and

commercial interest.

Compression techniques fall under two broad

categories such as lossless[1] and lossy[2][3]. The former

is particularly useful in image archiving and allows the

image to be compressed and decompressed without losing

any information. And the later, provides higher levels of

data reduction but result in a less than perfect reproduction

of the original image. Lossy compression is useful in

applications such as broadcast television,

videoconferencing, and facsimile transmission, in which

certain amount of error is an acceptable trade-off for

increased compression performance. The foremost aim of

image compression is to reduce the number of bits needed

to represent an image. In lossless image compression

algorithms, the reconstructed image is identical to the

original image. Lossless algorithms, however, are limited

by the low compression ratios they can achieve. Lossy

compression algorithms, on the other hand, are capable of

achieving high compression ratios. Though the

reconstructed image is not identical to the original image,

lossy compression algorithms obtain high compression

ratios by exploiting human visual properties.

Vector quantization [4],[5] , wavelet transformation

[1] , [5]-[10] techniques are widely used in addition to

various other methods[11]-[17] in image compression. The

problem in lossless compression is that, the compression

ratio is very less; where as in the lossy compression the

compression ratio is very high but may loose vital

information of the image. Some of the works carried out in

hybrid image compression [18]-[19] incorporated different

compression schemes like PVQ and DCTVQ in a single

image compression. But the proposed method uses lossy

compression method with different quality levels based on

the context to compress a single image by avoiding the

difficulties of using side information for image

decompression in [20].

The proposed method performs a hybrid

compression, which makes a balance on compression ratio

and image quality by compressing the vital parts of the

image with high quality. In this approach the main subject

in the image is very important than the background image.

Considering the importance of image components, and the

effect of smoothness in image compression, this method

segments the image as main subject and background, then

the background of the image is subjected to low quality

lossy compression and the main subject is compressed with

high quality lossy compression. There are enormous

amount of work on image compression is carried out both

in lossless [1] [14] [17] and lossy [4] [15] compression.

Very few works are carried out for Hybrid Image

compression [18]-[20].

In the proposed work, for image compression, the

edge detection, segmentation, smoothing and dilation

techniques are used. For edge detection, segmentation

[21],[22] smoothing and dilation, there are lots of work has

been carried out [2],[3]. A novel and a time efficient

method to detect edges and segmentation used in the

proposed work are described in section II, section III gives

a detailed description of the proposed method, the results

and discussion are given in section IV and the concluding

remarks are given in section V.

II. BACKGROUND

A. JPEG Compression

Components of Image Compression System (JPEG).

Image compression system consists of three closely

connected components namely

- Source encoder (DCT based)

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- Quantizer

- Entropy encoder

Figure 2 shows the architecture of the JPEG encoder.

Principles behind JPEG Compression. A common

characteristic of most images is that the neighboring pixels

are correlated and therefore contain redundant information.

The foremost task then is to find less correlated

representation of the image. Two fundamental components

of compression are redundancy and irrelevancy reduction.

Redundancy reduction aims at removing duplication from

the signal source. Irrelevancy reduction omits parts of the

signal that will not be noticed by the signal receiver, namely

the Human Visual System (HVS). The JPEG compression

standard (DCT based) employs the use of the discrete cosine

transform, which is applied to each 8 x 8 block of the

partitioned image. Compression is then achieved by

performing quantization of each of those 8 x 8 coefficient

blocks.

Image Transform Coding For JPEG Compression

Algorithm.

In the image compression algorithm, the input image is

divided into 8-by-8 or 16-by-16 non-overlapping blocks,

and the two-dimensional DCT is computed for each block.

The DCT coefficients are then quantized, coded, and

transmitted. The JPEG receiver (or JPEG file reader)

decodes the quantized DCT coefficients, computes the

inverse two-dimensional DCT of each block, and then puts

the blocks back together into a single image. For typical

images, many of the DCT coefficients have values close to

zero; these coefficients can be discarded without seriously

affecting the quality of the reconstructed image. A two

dimensional DCT of an M by N matrix A is defined as

follows

M-1 N-1

p q mn

m=0 n=0

0 p M-1

0 q N-1

(2m+1)p (2n +1)q

α α A cos cos ,

2M 2N

pq B

= s s

s s

¯¯

where

1/ M , p = 0

p =

2/M , 1 p M-1

α

¦

¦

´

s s ¦¹

1/ N , q = 0

q =

2/N , 1 q N-1

α

¦

¦

´

s s ¦

¹

The DCT is an invertible transformation and its inverse is

given by

M-1 N-1

p q pq

m=0 n=0

0 p M-1

0 q N-1

(2m+1)p (2n +1)q

α α B cos cos ,

2M 2N

mn A

= s s

s s

¯¯

Where

1/ M , p = 0

p =

2/M , 1 p M-1

α

¦

¦

´

s s ¦

¹

1/ N , q = 0

q =

2/N , 1 q N-1

α

¦

¦

´

s s ¦

¹

The DCT based encoder can be thought of as essentially

compression of a stream of 8 X 8 blocks of image samples.

Each 8 X 8 block makes its way through each processing

step, and yields output in compressed form into the data

stream. Because adjacent image pixels are highly correlated,

the ‘forward’ DCT (FDCT) processing step lays the

foundation for achieving data compression by concentrating

most of the signal in the lower spatial frequencies. For a

typical 8 X 8 sample block from a typical source image,

most of the spatial frequencies have zero or near-zero

amplitude and need not be encoded. In principle, the DCT

introduces no loss to the source image samples; it merely

transforms them to a domain in which they can be more

efficiently encoded.

After output from the FDCT, each of the 64 DCT

coefficients is uniformly quantized in conjunction with a

carefully designed 64 – element Quantization Table. At the

decoder, the quantized values are multiplied by the

corresponding QT elements to recover the original

unquantized values. After quantization, all of the quantized

coefficients are ordered into the “zig-zag” sequence as

shown in figure 1. This ordering helps to facilitate entropy

encoding by placing low-frequency non-zero coefficients

before high-frequency coefficients. The DC coefficient,

which contains a significant fraction of the total image

energy, is differentially encoded.

Figure 1 Zig-Zag Sequence

The JPEG decoder architecture is shown if figure 3

which is the reverse procedure described for compression.

B. Segmentation

Let D be a matrix of order m x n, represents the

image of width m and height n. The domain for Di,j is

[0..255] , for any i=1..m, and any j=1.. n.

The architecture of segmentation using histogram

is shown in figure 4. To make the process faster the high

resolution input image is down sampled 2 times. When the

image is down sampled each time the dimension is reduced

by half of the original dimension. So the final down sampled

image (D) is of the dimension

4

m

x

4

n

. The down sampled

image is smoothed to get smoothed gray scale image using

equation (1).

S

i,,j

= 1/9(D

i-1,,j-1

+D

i-1,,j

+D

i-1,,j+1

+D

i,,j-1

+D

i,,j

+D

i,,j+1

+D

i+1,,j-1

+D

i+1,,j

+D

i+1,,j+1

)

…(1)

AC

77

AC

07

AC

01

DCC

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Figure 2. JPEG Encoder Block Diagram

Compressed

Image data

Figure 3. JPEG Decoder Block Diagram

Figure -4 Classifier

The histogram(H) is computed for the gray scale image(S).

The most frequently present gray scale value (Mh) is

determined from the histogram by equation (2) and is shown

as indicated by a line in figure 5.

Mh = arg{max(H(x))}

…

(2)

The background value of the images is having the highest

frequency in the case of homogenous background. In order

to surmise background textures a range of gray level

values are considered for segmentation. The range is

computed using the equations (3) and (4).

L = max( Mh – 30,0)

…(3)

U = min( Mh + 30,255)

…(4)

The gray scale image S is segmented to detect the

background area of the image using the function given in

equation (5)

B

i,j

= (S

i,j

> L) and (S

i,j

< U) …(5)

Figure – 5

After processing the pixel values for background area is 1 in

the binary image B. To avoid the problem of over

segmentation the binary image is subjected to sequence of

morphological operations. The binary image is eroded with

smaller circular structural element (SE) to remove smaller

segments as given in equation (6).

SE B B O =

…(6)

Smooth the

Image

(S)

Down

Sample

2 Times (D)

Histogram

Computation

(H)

Range

Calculation

(L & U)

Binary

Segmentation

(B)

Up

Sample

2 Times

8 X 8 blocks

FDCT Quantizer Entropy

Encoder

Quantizer

Table

Huffman

Table

Compressed

image data

Source image

Entropy

Decoder

Dequantizer IDCT

Quantizer

Table

Huffman

Table

Reconstructed

Image

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Then the resultant image is subjected to morphological

closing operation with larger circular structural element as

given in equation (7).

SE B B - =

…(7)

III. PROPOSED HYBRID JPEG COMPRESSION.

The input image is initially segmented into

background and foreground parts as described in section

II.B Then the image is divided into 8x8 blocks and DCT

values are computed for each block. The quantization is

performed according to the predefined quantization table.

The quantized values are then reordered based on zig-zag

ordering method described in section II A. The lower values

of AC coefficients are discarded from the zig-zag ordered

list by comparing the threshold value selected by the

selector as per the block’s presences identified by the

classifier. If the block is present in foreground area then the

threshold is set to a higher value by the selector, otherwise a

lower value for threshold is set by the selector. After

discarding insignificant coefficients the remaining data are

compressed by the standard entropy encoder based on the

code table.

Algorithm

1. Input High Resolution Color image.

2. Down sample the input image 2 times.

3. Convert the down sampled image to gray scale

image (G).

4. Find histogram (H) of the gray scale image.

5. Find the lower (L) and upper (U) gray scale value

of background area.

6. Find Binary segmented image (B) from the gray

scale image (G)

7. Up sample Binary image (B) two times.

8. Divide the input image into 8x8 blocks

9. Find DCT coefficients for each blocks

10. Quantize the DCT coefficients

11. Discard lower quantized values based on the

threshold value selected by the selector.

12. Compress remaining DCT coefficients by Entropy

Encoder

The architecture of the proposed method is shown in figure

6. The Quantization Table is a fixed classical table derived

from empirical results. The Quantizer quantizes the DCT

coefficients computed by FDCT. The classifier identifies the

class of each pixel by segmenting the given input image.

The selector and limiter works together to find the discard

threshold limit. The entropy encoder creates compressed

code using the Code Table. The compressed image may be

stored or transmitted faster than the existing method.

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Hybrid JPEG Compression method is implemented

according to the description in section III and tested with a

set of test images shown in figure 8. The results obtained

from the implementation of the proposed algorithms are

shown in figures 7, 9,10 and table I. Figure 7.a shows the

original input image. In Figure 7.b the segmented object

and background area is discriminated by black and white.

The compressed bit rates of the twelve test images are

computed and tabulated in table 1. The low quality (LQ) and

high quality (HQ) JPEG compression is performed and the

corresponding compression ratios(CR) and PSNR values

are tabulated. The PSNR is higher for HQ and CR is higher

for LQ. The Hybrid JPEG compression performs HQ

compression on main subject area and LQ compression on

background area thus the PSNR value at main subject area is

the same for Hybrid JPEG and HQ JPEG. Figure 9 shows

the comparison of normalized CRs of Hybrid JPEG and HQ

JPEG, it is observed that almost all of the images are

compressed better than classical JPEG compression. Figure

10 shows how well the compression ratio is increased than

the classical JPEG compression method.

Quantizing

Table

Input

Image

FDCT Quantizer

Classifier

Selector

Limiter

Code Table Entropy

Encoder

Compressed

Image

Figure 6. Hybrid JPEG compression method

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a)Input Image

b)Segmented Main Subject Area

Figure – 7 Input /Output

Table -1 Compression Ratio and PSNR values obtained by Hybrid JPEG and JPEG

Image LQ Hybrid Hybrid/HQ HQ

CR2-CR3

CR1 PSNR1 CR2 PSNR2 PSNR@

MainSubject

CR3 PSNR3

3 26.00 21.52 7.46 27.82 27.84 7.46 27.82 0.0000

5 25.29 22.09 6.80 28.87 28.93 6.80 28.87 0.0004

10 23.83 20.78 5.41 28.09 28.13 5.41 28.09 0.0031

4 24.33 22.08 6.61 31.13 31.20 6.60 31.13 0.0068

11 27.75 25.33 8.62 35.97 36.25 8.61 36.01 0.0198

9 24.92 21.62 6.58 30.45 30.56 6.56 30.51 0.0204

1 27.54 23.03 8.40 29.37 29.40 8.37 29.37 0.0276

7 24.85 17.71 4.01 23.38 23.43 3.92 23.38 0.0911

8 24.63 21.97 6.73 31.05 31.13 6.64 31.10 0.0921

12 29.18 22.73 5.92 28.70 29.07 5.61 28.93 0.3111

6 26.47 20.12 5.54 25.31 25.33 5.19 25.30 0.3449

2 22.84 20.40 7.91 27.93 28.21 7.25 28.06 0.6541

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Figure – 8 Test Images (1-12 from Left to Right and Top to Bottom)

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Images

N

o

r

m

a

l

i

z

e

d

C

R

HyBrid

HQ Lossy

Figure – 9 Normalized Compression Ratio Obtained for Test Images

Increased Compression Ratio by Hybrid JPEG Compression

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Images

C

o

m

p

r

e

s

s

i

o

n

R

a

t

i

o

Figure – 10 Increased Compression Ratios by Hybrid Compression.

V. CONCLUSION

The compression ratio of Hybrid JPEG method is

higher than JPEG method in more than 90% of test cases. In

the worst case both Hybrid JPEG and JPEG method gives

the same compression ratio. The PSNR value at the main

subject area is same for both methods. The PSNR value at

the background area is lower in Hybrid JPEG method which

is acceptable, since the background area is not vital. The

Hybrid JPEG method is suitable for imagery with larger

trivial background and certain level of loss is permissible.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors express their gratitude to University

Grant Commission and Manonmanium Sundaranar

University for financial assistance under the Faculty

Development Program.

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