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# Fault Analysis

## All Protection Engineers should have an understanding

TO :-
z Calculate Power System Currents and Voltages during Fault
Conditions
z Check that Breaking Capacity of Switchgear is Not
Exceeded
z Determine the Quantities which can be used by Relays to
Distinguish Between Healthy (i.e. Loaded) and Fault
Conditions
z Appreciate the Effect of the Method of Earthing on the
Detection of Earth Faults
z Select the Best Relay Characteristics for Fault Detection
z Ensure that Load and Short Circuit Ratings of Plant are Not
Exceeded
z Select Relay Settings for Fault Detection and Discrimination
z Understand Principles of Relay Operation
z Conduct Post Fault Analysis
3 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 3
Power System Fault Analysis (2)

## X Consider Stability Conditions

 Required fault clearance times
 Need for 1 phase or 3 phase auto-reclose

Vectors

## Vector notation can be used to represent phase

relationship between electrical quantities.
Z

V I

V = Vsinwt = V ∠0°
θ

I = I ∠-θ° = Isin(wt-θ)

j Operator

j = 1 ∠90°

90° 90°

j2 = 1 ∠180° 1
= -1
90° 90°

j3 = 1 ∠270°
= -j

## Used to express vectors in terms of “real” and

“imaginary” parts.

a = 1 ∠120 °

## Rotates vectors by 120° anticlockwise

Used extensively in “Symmetrical Component Analysis”

1 3
a = 1∠120° = - + j
2 2

120°

120° 1

120°

1 3
a = 1∠240° = − − j
2

2 2
7 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 7
a = 1 ∠120 °

Balanced 3Ø voltages :-

VC = aVA

a2 + a + 1 = 0 VA

VB = a2VA

## 8 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 8

Representation of Plant

## 9 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 9

Generator Short Circuit Current
The AC Symmetrical component of the short circuit current varies with time
due to effect of armature reaction.

i
TIME

## Ι ac = (Ι" - Ι' )e- t/Td" + (Ι' - Ι )e- t/Td' + Ι

where :
I" = Initial Symmetrical S/C Current or Subtransient Current
= E/Xd" ≈ 50ms
I' = Symmetrical Current a Few Cycles Later ≈ 0.5s or
Transient Current = E/Xd'
I = Symmetrical Steady State Current = E/Xd

## 10 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 10

Simple Generator Models

## 11 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 11

Parallel Generators

11kV 11kV

XG=0.2pu 11kV
j0.05 j0.1

20MVA

XG=0.2pu

20MVA

## If both generator EMF’s are equal ∴ they can be thought of as

resulting from the same ideal source - thus the circuit can be
simplified.

P.U. Diagram

IF
⇒ IF

## 13 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 13

Positive Sequence Impedances of Transformers

2 Winding Transformers

## P S ZP = Primary Leakage Reactance

ZS = Secondary Leakage
Reactance
ZM = Magnetising impedance
P1 ZP ZS S1 = Large compared with ZP
and ZS

ZM ZM Æ Infinity ∴ Represented by
an Open Circuit

N1 ZT1 = ZP + ZS = Positive
Sequence Impedance

P1 ZT1 = ZP + ZS S1
ZP and ZS
both expressed
on same voltage
N1 base.

Motors

## X Fault current contribution decays with time

X Decay rate of the current depends on the system.
From tests, typical decay rate is 100 - 150mS.
X Typically modelled as a voltage behind an
impedance

Xd"

M 1.0

## 15 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 15

Induction Motors – IEEE Recommendations

Small Motors
Motor load <35kW neglect
Motor load >35kW SCM = 4 x sum of FLCM

Large Motors
SCM ≈ motor full load amps
Xd"

## Approximation : SCM = locked rotor amps

SCM = 5 x FLCM ≈ assumes motor
impedance 20%

## 16 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 16

Synchronous Motors – IEEE Recommendations

1200 rpm

514 - 900 rpm

450 rpm or less

Balanced Faults

## 18 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 18

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (1)

## X RARE :- Majority of Faults are Unbalanced

X CAUSES :-
1. System Energisation with Maintenance Earthing
Clamps still connected.
2. 1Ø Faults developing into 3Ø Faults

## X 3Ø FAULTS MAY BE REPRESENTED BY 1Ø CIRCUIT

Valid because system is maintained in a BALANCED state
during the fault
Voltages equal and 120° apart
Currents equal and 120° apart
Power System Plant Symmetrical
Phase Impedances Equal
Mutual Impedances Equal
Shunt Admittances Equal

## 19 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 19

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (2)

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
LINE ‘X’ LINE ‘Y’

LOADS

3Ø FAULT

Eb IbF

Ec IcF

ZLOAD

## 20 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 20

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (3)
IcF
Ea

IaF

Ec Eb

IbF

## Positive Sequence (Single Phase) Circuit :-

Ea
ZG1 ZT1 ZLX1 F1 ZLX2

N1

## 21 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 21

Analysis of Balanced Faults

## 22 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 22

Different Voltages – How Do We Analyse?

## 11kV 11/132kV 132/33kV

20MVA 50MVA 50MVA
O/H Line Feeder

ZT=10% ZT=10%

## 23 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 23

Referring Impedances

X1 R2 X2
R1
N : 1

Ideal
Transformer

## Consider the equivalent CCT referred to :-

Primary Secondary
N2R2 X1 + N2X2 X1/N2 + X2
R1 + R1/N2 + R2

Per Unit System

than 2 voltages.

Definition

## : P.U. Value = Actual Value

of a Quantity Base Value in the Same Units

## 25 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 25

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values

11 kV 11/132 kV 132/33 kV
20 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA
O/H LINE FEEDER

## ZG = 0.3 p.u. ZL = 40Ω ZL = 8Ω

ZT = 10% ZT = 10%

## X Particularly useful when analysing large systems with

several voltage levels
X All system parameters referred to common base quantities
X Base quantities fixed in one part of system
X Base quantities at other parts at different voltage levels
depend on ratio of intervening transformers

## 26 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 26

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (1)

## BASE MVA = MVAb = 3∅ MVA

Constant at all voltage levels
Value ~ MVA rating of largest item
of plant or 100MVA
BASE VOLTAGE = KVb = ∅/∅ voltage in kV

## Fixed in one part of system

This value is referred through
transformers to obtain base
voltages on other parts of system.
Base voltages on each side of
transformer are in same ratio as
voltage ratio.

## 27 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 27

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (2)

## Other base quantities :-

(kVb )2
Base Impedance = Zb = in Ohms
MVAb

MVAb
Base Current = Ιb = in kA
3 . kVb

## 28 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 28

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (3)

## Per Unit Values = Actual Value

Base Value

MVA a
Per Unit MVA = MVAp.u. =
MVAb
KVa
Per Unit Voltage = kVp.u. =
KVb
Za MVAb
Per Unit Impedance = Zp.u. = = Za .
Zb (kVb )2
Ιa
Per Unit Current = Ιp.u. =
Ιb

## 29 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 29

Transformer Percentage Impedance

X If ZT = 5%
with Secondary S/C
5% V (RATED) produces I (RATED) in Secondary.
∴ V (RATED) produces 100 x I (RATED)
5
= 20 x I (RATED)

X If Source Impedance ZS = 0
Fault current = 20 x I (RATED)
Fault Power = 20 x kVA (RATED)

## X ZT is based on I (RATED) & V (RATED)

i.e. Based on MVA (RATED) & kV (RATED)
∴ is same value viewed from either side of transformer.

Example (1)

the transformer.

## Consider transformer of ratio kV1 / kV2

1 2
MVA
kVb / kV1 kVb / kV2

Example (2)

## Base voltage on each side of a transformer must be in the

same ratio as voltage ratio of transformer.
11.8kV 11.8/141kV 132/11kV
OHL Distribution
System

Incorrect selection
of kVb 11.8kV 132kV 11kV

of kVb 141
= 11.05kV

## Alternative correct 11.8kV 141kV 141x11 = 11.75kV

selection of kVb 132

## 32 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 32

Conversion of Per Unit Values from One Set of
Quantities to Another

Z p.u.1 Z p.u. 2 Za
Zp.u.1 =
Zb1
Za Z
Zp.u.2 = = Zp.u.1 x b1
Zb2 Zb2
Zb1 Zb2
MVAb1 (kVb1)2 MVAb2
= Zp.u.1 x x
MVAb2 MVAb1 (kVb2 )2
kVb1 kVb2 MVAb2 (kVb1)2
= Zp.u.1 x x
MVAb1 (kVb2 )2
Actual Z = Za

## 33 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 33

Example
11 kV 11/132 kV 132/33 kV
20 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA

## 0.3p.u. 10% 40Ω 10% 8Ω

3∅
11 132 FAULT
kVb 33
MVAb 50 50 50
Zb 2.42Ω 349 Ω 21.8 Ω
= kVb2
MVAb ∴ I11 kV = 0.698 x Ib =
Ib 2625 A 219 A 874 A 0.698 x 2625 = 1833A
= MVAb
I132 kV = 0.698 x 219 = 153A
√3kV b
I33 kV = 0.698 x 874 = 610A
Zp.u. 0.3 x 50 40 = 0.115 8 = 0.367
20 0.1p.u. 349
p.u. 0.1
p.u. 21.8 p.u.

= 0.75p.u.

1.432p.u.

V 1p.u. IF = 1 = 0.698p.u.
1.432

Fault Types

## Statistics published in 1967 CEGB Report, but are

similar today all over the world.

## 35 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 35

Unbalanced Faults

## 36 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 36

Unbalanced Faults (1)

## In three phase fault calculations, a single

phase representation is adopted.
3 phase faults are rare.
Majority of faults are unbalanced faults.
UNBALANCED FAULTS may be classified into
SHUNT FAULTS and SERIES FAULTS.
SHUNT FAULTS:
Line to Ground
Line to Line
Line to Line to Ground
SERIES FAULTS:
Single Phase Open Circuit
Double Phase Open Circuit

## 37 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 37

Unbalanced Faults (2)

LINE TO GROUND

LINE TO LINE

## LINE TO LINE TO GROUND

Causes :

1) Insulation Breakdown
2) Lightning Discharges and other Overvoltages
3) Mechanical Damage

## 38 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 38

Unbalanced Faults (3)

## OPEN CIRCUIT OR SERIES FAULTS

Causes :

1) Broken Conductor
2) Operation of Fuses
3) Maloperation of Single Phase Circuit Breakers

IS LOST

## 39 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 39

Unbalanced Faults (4)

Analysed using :-

X Symmetrical Components
X Equivalent Sequence Networks of Power
System
X Connection of Sequence Networks
appropriate to Type of Fault

## 40 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 40

Symmetrical Components

## 41 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 41

Symmetrical Components

## Fortescue discovered a property of unbalanced phasors

‘n’ phasors may be resolved into :-
X (n-1) sets of balanced n-phase systems of phasors, each
set having a different phase sequence
plus
X 1 set of zero phase sequence or unidirectional phasors

## VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA3 + VA4 - - - - - VA(n-1) + VAn

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB3 + VB4 - - - - - VB(n-1) + VBn
VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC3 + VC4 - - - - - VC(n-1) + VCn
VD = VD1 + VD2 + VD3 + VD4 - - - - - VD(n-1) + VDn
------------------------------------------
Vn = Vn1 + Vn2 + Vn3 + Vn4 - - - - - Vn(n-1) + Vnn

Sequence

## 42 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 42

Unbalanced 3-Phase System

## VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0
VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0
VA1 VA2

120° 240°

## 43 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 43

Unbalanced 3-Phase System

VA0
VB0
VC0

Zero Sequence

## 44 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 44

Symmetrical Components

VA

## VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0
VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0
VC

VA1 VB

VA2 VA0VB0
+ VC0
+ VC2
VC1
VB1 VB2

## VB1 = a2VA1 VB2 = a VA2 VB0 = VA0

VC1 = a VA1 VC2 = a2VA2 VC0 = VA0
45 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 45
Converting from Sequence Components to
Phase Values
VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0
VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0 = a2VA1 + a VA2 + VA0
VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0 = a VA1 + a2VA2 + VA0

VA0
VA

VA2

VA1

VC
VC0
VC1
VC2 VB
VB1 VB0
VB2
46 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 46
Converting from Phase Values to
Sequence Components
VA1 = 1/3 {VA + a VB + a2VC}
VA2 = 1/3 {VA + a2VB + a VC}
VA0 = 1/3 {VA + VB + VC}

VA

VB
3VA0
VC

VA0

## 47 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 47

Summary
VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0
VB = ∝2VA1 + ∝VA2 + VA0
VC = ∝VA1 + ∝2VA2 + VA0

## IA = IA1 + IA2 + IA0

IB = ∝2IA1 + ∝A2 + IA0
IC = ∝IA1 + ∝2IA2 + IA0

## VA1 = 1/3 {VA + ∝VB + ∝2VC}

VA2 = 1/3 {VA + ∝2VB + ∝VC }
VA0 = 1/3 {VA + VB + VC }

## IA1 = 1/3 {IA + ∝IB + ∝2IC }

IA2 = 1/3 {IA + ∝2IB + ∝IC }
IA0 + 1/3 {IA + IB + IC }

Residual Current

## Used to detect earth faults

IA

IB

IC

IRESIDUAL = IA + IB + IC
= 3I0

E/F

## IRESIDUAL is Balanced Load IRESIDUAL is ∅/E Faults

zero for :- 3∅ Faults present for :- ∅/Ø/E Faults
Ø/∅ Faults Open circuits (with
current in remaining phases)

Residual Voltage

## Residual voltage is measured

from “Open Delta” or “Broken
Delta” VT secondary windings.
VRESIDUAL is zero for:-
Healthy unfaulted systems
3∅ Faults
∅/∅ Faults
VRESIDUAL is present for:-
VRESIDUAL = ∅/E Faults
VA + VB + VC ∅/∅/E Faults
Open Circuits (on supply
= 3V0 side of VT)

Example

## Evaluate the positive, negative and zero sequence

components for the unbalanced phase vectors :

VC
VA = 1 ∠0°
VB = 1.5 ∠-90°
VA
VC = 0.5 ∠120°

VB
51 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 51
Solution

## VA1 = 1/3 (VA + aVB + a2VC)

= 1/3 [ 1 + (1 ∠120) (1.5 ∠-90)
+ (1 ∠240) (0.5 ∠120) ]
= 0.965 ∠15

## VA2 = 1/3 (VA + a2VB + aVC)

= 1/3 [ 1 + (1 ∠240) (1.5 ∠-90)
+ (1 ∠120) (0.5 ∠120) ]
= 0.211 ∠150

## VA0 = 1/3 (VA + VB + VC)

= 1/3 (1 + 1.5 ∠-90 + 0.5 ∠120)
= 0.434 ∠-55

## 52 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 52

Positive Sequence Voltages

VC1 = aVA1

VA1 = 0.965∠15º
15º

VB1 = a2VA1
53 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 53
VA2 = 0.211∠150° VC2 = a2VA2 -55º
150º

VA0 = 0.434∠-55º
VB0 = -
VC0 = -

VB2 = aVA2
Zero Sequence
Voltages
Negative Sequence
Voltages

Example

## Evaluate the phase quantities Ia, Ib and Ic from the sequence

components
IA1 = 0.6 ∠0
IA2 = -0.4 ∠0
IA0 = -0.2 ∠0

Solution
IA = IA1 + IA2 + IA0 = 0

## IB = ∝2IA1 + ∝IA2 + IA0

= 0.6∠240 - 0.4∠120 - 0.2∠0 = 0.91∠-109

## IC = ∝IA1 + ∝2IA2 + IA0

= 0.6∠120 - 0.4∠240 - 0.2∠0 = 0.91∠-109

## 55 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 55

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on
Balanced Impedances (1)
Ia ZS
Va

Ib ZS Zm Zm
Vb

Ic ZS Zm
Vc

## VA = IAZS + IBZM + ICZM

VB = IAZM + IBZS + ICZM
VC = IAZM + IBZM + ICZS
In matrix form

VA ZS ZM ZM IA
VB = ZM ZS ZM IB
VC ZM ZM ZS IC

## 56 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 56

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on
Balanced Impedances (2)
Resolve V & I phasors into symmetrical components

1 1 1 V0 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0
1 a2 a V1 = ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1
1 a a2 V2 ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

Multiply by [A]-1
-1
V0 1 1 1 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0
V1 = 1 a2 a ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1
V2 1 a a2 ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

V0 1 1 1 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0
V1 = 1/3 1 a a2 ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1
V2 1 a2 a ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

## V0 ZS + 2ZM ZS + 2ZM ZS + 2ZM

V1 = 1/3 ZS - ZM ZM + aZS + a2ZM ZM + aZM + a2ZS
V2 ZS - ZM ZM + a2ZS + aZM ZM + a2ZM + aZS

1 1 1 I0
1 a2 a I1
1 a a2 I2
57 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 57
Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on
Balanced Impedances (3)
V0 ZS + 2ZM 0 0 I0
V1 = 0 ZS - ZM 0 I1
V2 0 0 ZS - ZM I2

V0 Z0 0 0 I0
V1 = 0 Z1 0 I1
V2 0 0 Z2 I2

## The symmetrical component impedance matrix is

a diagonal matrix if the system is symmetrical.
The sequence networks are independent of
each other.
The three isolated sequence networks are
interconnected when an unbalance such as a fault
or unbalanced loading is introduced.

## 58 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 58

Representation of Plant
Cont…

## 59 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 59

Transformer Zero Sequence Impedance

P Q

ZT0
a a
P Q

b b

N0

## 60 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 60

General Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuit for
Two Winding Transformer
Primary Z T0 Secondary
Terminal 'a' 'a' Terminal

'b' 'b'

N0

Open link ‘b’

Close link ‘b’

## 61 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 61

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (1)

P S

P0 ZT0 S0
a a

b b

N0

## 62 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 62

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (2)

P S

P0 ZT0
a a S0

b b

N0

## 63 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 63

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (3)

P S

P0 ZT0
a a S0

b b

N0

## 64 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 64

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (4)

P S

P0 ZT0
a a S0

b b

N0

## 65 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 65

3 Winding Transformers

P S

T
ZP, ZS, ZT = Leakage reactances of Primary,
P ZP ZS S Secondary and Tertiary Windings
ZM = Magnetising Impedance = Large
ZM ZT ∴ Ignored
T

N1

P ZP ZS S
ZP-S = ZP + ZS = Impedance between Primary (P)
and Secondary (S) where ZP & ZS
ZT are both expressed on same
T voltage base

## 66 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 66

Auto Transformers

H L H ZH1 ZL L
1

ZM1 ZT1

T N1
Equivalent circuit is similar to that of a 3 ZM = Magnetising Impedance =
winding transformer. Large ∴ Ignored

H ZH1 ZL1 L

## ZHL1 = ZH1 + ZL1 (both referred to same voltage base)

ZT1 ZHT1 = ZH1 + ZT1 (both referred to same voltage base)
T ZLT1 = ZL1 + ZT1 (both referred to same voltage base)

N1

## 67 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 67

Sequence Networks

## 68 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 68

Sequence Networks (2)

## X +ve, -ve and zero sequence networks are drawn for a

‘reference’ phase. This is usually taken as the ‘A’
phase.

## X Faults are selected to be ‘balanced’ relative to the

reference ‘A’ phase.

## e.g. For Ø/E faults consider an A-E fault

For Ø/Ø faults consider a B-C fault

## X Sequence network interconnection is the simplest for

the reference phase.

## 69 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 69

Positive Sequence Diagram

E1
N1 Z1 F1

## 1. Start with neutral point N1

- All generator and load neutrals are
connected to N1
2. Include all source EMF’s
- Phase-neutral voltage
3. Impedance network
- Positive sequence impedance per phase
4. Diagram finishes at fault point F1

## 70 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 70

Example
Generator Transformer
Line F
N

E
E1 ZT1 ZL1
N1 ZG1 I1 F1

V1

(N1)

## I1 = Positive sequence phase current flowing into F1

V1 = E1 - I1 (ZG1 + ZT1 + ZL1)

## 71 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 71

Negative Sequence Diagram

N2 Z2 F2

## 1. Start with neutral point N2

- All generator and load neutrals are connected
to N2
2. No EMF’s included
- No negative sequence voltage is generated!
3. Impedance network
- Negative sequence impedance per phase
4. Diagram finishes at fault point F2

## 72 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 72

Example
Generator Transformer
Line F
N

R
System Single Line
Diagram
E

V2

## I2 = Negative sequence phase current flowing into F2

V2 = -I2 (ZG2 + ZT2 + ZL2)

## 73 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 73

Zero Sequence Diagram (1)

## For “In Phase” (Zero Phase Sequence) currents to flow in

each phase of the system, there must be a fourth
connection (this is typically the neutral or earth
connection).

N IA0

IB0

IC0

## 74 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 74

Zero Sequence Diagram (2)

3ΙA0

## Zero sequence voltage between N & E given by

R V0 = 3IA0.R
Zero sequence impedance of neutral to earth path
E
Z0 = V0 = 3R
IA0

## 75 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 75

Zero Sequence Diagram (3)

Generator Transformer
Line F
N
RT
R
System Single Line Diagram
E

## N0 ZG0 ZT0 ZL0 I0 F0

3R 3RT V0

E0 (N0)
Zero Sequence Network

## I0 = Zero sequence current flowing into F0

V0 = -I0 (ZT0 + ZL0)

## 76 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 76

Network Connections

## 77 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 77

Interconnection of Sequence Networks (1)

## Consider sequence networks as blocks with fault

terminals F & N for external connections.

F1
POSITIVE
SEQUENCE
NETWORK
N1

I2
F2
NEGATIVE
SEQUENCE V2
NETWORK
N2

I0
F0
ZERO
SEQUENCE V0
NETWORK
N0

## 78 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 78

Interconnection of Sequence Networks (2)
For any given fault there are 6 quantities to be considered at the fault
point
i.e. VA VB VC IA IB IC

## Relationships between these for any type of fault can be converted

into an equivalent relationship between sequence components
V1, V2, V0 and I1, I2 , I0

This is possible if :-
1) Any 3 phase quantities are known (provided they are not all
voltages or all currents)
or 2) 2 are known and others are known to have a specific
relationship.

From the relationship between sequence V’s and I’s, the manner in
which the isolation sequence networks are connected can be
determined.

## The connection of the sequence networks provides a single phase

representation (in sequence terms) of the fault.

## 79 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 79

To derive the system constraints at the fault terminals :-
F

IA IB IC

VA VB VC

## Terminals are connected to represent the fault.

80 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 80
Line to Ground Fault on Phase ‘A’

IA IB IC
At fault point :-

VA = 0
VA VB VC VB = ?
VC = ?
IA = ?
IB = 0
IC = 0

## 81 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 81

Phase to Earth Fault on Phase ‘A’
At fault point
VA = 0 ; IB = 0 ; IC = 0
but VA = V1 + V2 + V0
∴ V1 + V2 + V0 = 0 ------------------------- (1)
I0 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC ) = 1/3 IA
I1 = 1/3 (IA + aIB + a2IC) = 1/3 IA
I2 = 1/3 (IA + a2IB + aIC) = 1/3 IA
∴ I1 = I2 = I0 = 1/3 IA ------------------------- (2)

To comply with (1) & (2) the sequence networks must be connected in series :-
I1 F1
+ve
Seq
N/W V1

N1 I2
-ve F2
Seq V2
N/W
I0
N2
Zero F0
Seq V0
N/W
N0
82 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 82
Example : Phase to Earth Fault
SOURCE LINE F
A-G
132 kV ZL1 = 10Ω FAULT
2000 MVA ZL0 = 35Ω IF
ZS1 = 8.7Ω
ZS0 = 8.7Ω
8.7 10 I1 F1
N1
8.7 10 I2 F2

N2
8.7 35 I0 F0
N0

## I1 = I2 = I0 = 132000 = 940 Amps

√3 x 81.1
IF = IA = I1 + I2 + I0 = 3I0
= 2820 Amps
83 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 83
Earth Fault with Fault Resistance

I1 F1
POSITIVE
SEQUENCE
NETWORK V1

N1
I2 F2
NEGATIVE
SEQUENCE V2 3ZF
NETWORK

N2

I0 F0
ZERO
SEQUENCE V0
NETWORK

N0

## 84 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 84

Phase to Phase Fault:- B-C Phase

I1 I2 I0
F1 F2 F0
+ve -ve Zero
Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq V0
N/W N/W N/W
N1 N2 N0

## 85 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 85

Example : Phase to Phase Fault
SOURCE LINE F
B-C
132 kV ZL1 = ZL2 = 10Ω FAULT
2000 MVA
ZS1 = ZS2 = 8.7Ω

132000
√3 8.7 I1
10 F1

N1

8.7 10 I2 F2

N2

## Total impedance = 37.4Ω IB = a2I1 + aI2

I1 = 132000 = 2037 Amps = a2I1 - aI1
√3 x 37.4 = (a2 - a) I1
I2 = -2037 Amps = (-j) . √3 x 2037
= 3529 Amps.
86 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 86
Phase to Phase Fault with Resistance

ZF

I1 I2
+ve F1 -ve F2
Seq V1 Seq V2
N/W N/W
N1 N2

I0
Zero F0
Seq V0
N/W
N0

## 87 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 87

Phase to Phase to Earth Fault:- B-C-E

I1 I2 I0
+ve F1 -ve F2 Zero F0
Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq
N/W N/W V0
N/W
N1 N2 N0

## 88 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 88

Phase to Phase to Earth Fault:-
B-C-E with Resistance

3ZF

I1 I2 I0
+ve F1 -ve F2 Zero F0
Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq V0
N/W N/W N/W
N1 N2 N0

## 89 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 89

Maximum Fault Level

earthed systems

## Check that switchgear breaking capacity > maximum

fault level for all fault types.

## 90 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 90

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (1)

E XT
Xg

Xg XT
E E
ΙF = ≡
Xg + XT Z1
Z1
E IF

## 91 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 91

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (2)

1Ø Xg XT

E Z1

Xg2 XT2

3E
ΙF =
Z2 = Z1 IF 2Z1 + Z0

Xg0 XT0

Z0

## 92 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 92

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (3)

E 3E 3E
3∅FAULTLEVEL = = =
Z1 3Z1 2Z1 + Z1

3E
1∅FAULTLEVEL =
2Z1 + Z0

∴ IF Z0 < Z1