563 views

Uploaded by Rajesh Pillai

- Training _ Power System Protection _AREVA
- 02-Non-Dir
- 03-Presentation Directional Protection
- 05-Presentation Motor Protection
- Alstom Training Manual
- Differential Relay MiCOM P632
- 07-Busbar Protection Busbar Protection Rf
- 08-Presentation Distance Protection
- Day 1 Part 3 Power Swing
- Day 2 Part 4 Teleprotection and Weak Infeed
- Alstom Testing
- reactor differential protection calculation
- Transformer Vector Group
- Relay setting calculation for motors.pdf
- Busbar Protection Training
- 8.Line Distance Protection
- AREVA-GECOL-Differential Protection Principle
- Mesh Ring Network
- AVR on Load Tap Changer
- Distance_Protection_Part_3

You are on page 1of 94

TO :-

z Calculate Power System Currents and Voltages during Fault

Conditions

z Check that Breaking Capacity of Switchgear is Not

Exceeded

z Determine the Quantities which can be used by Relays to

Distinguish Between Healthy (i.e. Loaded) and Fault

Conditions

z Appreciate the Effect of the Method of Earthing on the

Detection of Earth Faults

z Select the Best Relay Characteristics for Fault Detection

z Ensure that Load and Short Circuit Ratings of Plant are Not

Exceeded

z Select Relay Settings for Fault Detection and Discrimination

z Understand Principles of Relay Operation

z Conduct Post Fault Analysis

3 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 3

Power System Fault Analysis (2)

Required fault clearance times

Need for 1 phase or 3 phase auto-reclose

Vectors

relationship between electrical quantities.

Z

V I

V = Vsinwt = V ∠0°

θ

I = I ∠-θ° = Isin(wt-θ)

j Operator

j = 1 ∠90°

90° 90°

j2 = 1 ∠180° 1

= -1

90° 90°

j3 = 1 ∠270°

= -j

“imaginary” parts.

a = 1 ∠120 °

Used extensively in “Symmetrical Component Analysis”

1 3

a = 1∠120° = - + j

2 2

120°

120° 1

120°

1 3

a = 1∠240° = − − j

2

2 2

7 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 7

a = 1 ∠120 °

Balanced 3Ø voltages :-

VC = aVA

a2 + a + 1 = 0 VA

VB = a2VA

Representation of Plant

Generator Short Circuit Current

The AC Symmetrical component of the short circuit current varies with time

due to effect of armature reaction.

i

TIME

where :

I" = Initial Symmetrical S/C Current or Subtransient Current

= E/Xd" ≈ 50ms

I' = Symmetrical Current a Few Cycles Later ≈ 0.5s or

Transient Current = E/Xd'

I = Symmetrical Steady State Current = E/Xd

Simple Generator Models

Parallel Generators

11kV 11kV

XG=0.2pu 11kV

j0.05 j0.1

20MVA

XG=0.2pu

20MVA

resulting from the same ideal source - thus the circuit can be

simplified.

P.U. Diagram

IF

⇒ IF

Positive Sequence Impedances of Transformers

2 Winding Transformers

ZS = Secondary Leakage

Reactance

ZM = Magnetising impedance

P1 ZP ZS S1 = Large compared with ZP

and ZS

ZM ZM Æ Infinity ∴ Represented by

an Open Circuit

N1 ZT1 = ZP + ZS = Positive

Sequence Impedance

P1 ZT1 = ZP + ZS S1

ZP and ZS

both expressed

on same voltage

N1 base.

Motors

X Decay rate of the current depends on the system.

From tests, typical decay rate is 100 - 150mS.

X Typically modelled as a voltage behind an

impedance

Xd"

M 1.0

Induction Motors – IEEE Recommendations

Small Motors

Motor load <35kW neglect

Motor load >35kW SCM = 4 x sum of FLCM

Large Motors

SCM ≈ motor full load amps

Xd"

SCM = 5 x FLCM ≈ assumes motor

impedance 20%

Synchronous Motors – IEEE Recommendations

1200 rpm

514 - 900 rpm

450 rpm or less

Balanced Faults

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (1)

X CAUSES :-

1. System Energisation with Maintenance Earthing

Clamps still connected.

2. 1Ø Faults developing into 3Ø Faults

Valid because system is maintained in a BALANCED state

during the fault

Voltages equal and 120° apart

Currents equal and 120° apart

Power System Plant Symmetrical

Phase Impedances Equal

Mutual Impedances Equal

Shunt Admittances Equal

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (2)

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

LINE ‘X’ LINE ‘Y’

LOADS

3Ø FAULT

Eb IbF

Ec IcF

ZLOAD

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (3)

IcF

Ea

IaF

Ec Eb

IbF

Ea

ZG1 ZT1 ZLX1 F1 ZLX2

N1

Analysis of Balanced Faults

Different Voltages – How Do We Analyse?

20MVA 50MVA 50MVA

O/H Line Feeder

ZT=10% ZT=10%

Referring Impedances

X1 R2 X2

R1

N : 1

Ideal

Transformer

Primary Secondary

N2R2 X1 + N2X2 X1/N2 + X2

R1 + R1/N2 + R2

Per Unit System

than 2 voltages.

Definition

of a Quantity Base Value in the Same Units

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values

11 kV 11/132 kV 132/33 kV

20 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA

O/H LINE FEEDER

ZT = 10% ZT = 10%

several voltage levels

X All system parameters referred to common base quantities

X Base quantities fixed in one part of system

X Base quantities at other parts at different voltage levels

depend on ratio of intervening transformers

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (1)

Constant at all voltage levels

Value ~ MVA rating of largest item

of plant or 100MVA

BASE VOLTAGE = KVb = ∅/∅ voltage in kV

This value is referred through

transformers to obtain base

voltages on other parts of system.

Base voltages on each side of

transformer are in same ratio as

voltage ratio.

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (2)

(kVb )2

Base Impedance = Zb = in Ohms

MVAb

MVAb

Base Current = Ιb = in kA

3 . kVb

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (3)

Base Value

MVA a

Per Unit MVA = MVAp.u. =

MVAb

KVa

Per Unit Voltage = kVp.u. =

KVb

Za MVAb

Per Unit Impedance = Zp.u. = = Za .

Zb (kVb )2

Ιa

Per Unit Current = Ιp.u. =

Ιb

Transformer Percentage Impedance

X If ZT = 5%

with Secondary S/C

5% V (RATED) produces I (RATED) in Secondary.

∴ V (RATED) produces 100 x I (RATED)

5

= 20 x I (RATED)

X If Source Impedance ZS = 0

Fault current = 20 x I (RATED)

Fault Power = 20 x kVA (RATED)

i.e. Based on MVA (RATED) & kV (RATED)

∴ is same value viewed from either side of transformer.

Example (1)

the transformer.

1 2

MVA

kVb / kV1 kVb / kV2

Example (2)

same ratio as voltage ratio of transformer.

11.8kV 11.8/141kV 132/11kV

OHL Distribution

System

Incorrect selection

of kVb 11.8kV 132kV 11kV

of kVb 141

= 11.05kV

selection of kVb 132

Conversion of Per Unit Values from One Set of

Quantities to Another

Z p.u.1 Z p.u. 2 Za

Zp.u.1 =

Zb1

Za Z

Zp.u.2 = = Zp.u.1 x b1

Zb2 Zb2

Zb1 Zb2

MVAb1 (kVb1)2 MVAb2

= Zp.u.1 x x

MVAb2 MVAb1 (kVb2 )2

kVb1 kVb2 MVAb2 (kVb1)2

= Zp.u.1 x x

MVAb1 (kVb2 )2

Actual Z = Za

Example

11 kV 11/132 kV 132/33 kV

20 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA

3∅

11 132 FAULT

kVb 33

MVAb 50 50 50

Zb 2.42Ω 349 Ω 21.8 Ω

= kVb2

MVAb ∴ I11 kV = 0.698 x Ib =

Ib 2625 A 219 A 874 A 0.698 x 2625 = 1833A

= MVAb

I132 kV = 0.698 x 219 = 153A

√3kV b

I33 kV = 0.698 x 874 = 610A

Zp.u. 0.3 x 50 40 = 0.115 8 = 0.367

20 0.1p.u. 349

p.u. 0.1

p.u. 21.8 p.u.

= 0.75p.u.

1.432p.u.

V 1p.u. IF = 1 = 0.698p.u.

1.432

Fault Types

similar today all over the world.

Unbalanced Faults

Unbalanced Faults (1)

phase representation is adopted.

3 phase faults are rare.

Majority of faults are unbalanced faults.

UNBALANCED FAULTS may be classified into

SHUNT FAULTS and SERIES FAULTS.

SHUNT FAULTS:

Line to Ground

Line to Line

Line to Line to Ground

SERIES FAULTS:

Single Phase Open Circuit

Double Phase Open Circuit

Unbalanced Faults (2)

LINE TO GROUND

LINE TO LINE

Causes :

1) Insulation Breakdown

2) Lightning Discharges and other Overvoltages

3) Mechanical Damage

Unbalanced Faults (3)

Causes :

1) Broken Conductor

2) Operation of Fuses

3) Maloperation of Single Phase Circuit Breakers

IS LOST

Unbalanced Faults (4)

Analysed using :-

X Symmetrical Components

X Equivalent Sequence Networks of Power

System

X Connection of Sequence Networks

appropriate to Type of Fault

Symmetrical Components

Symmetrical Components

‘n’ phasors may be resolved into :-

X (n-1) sets of balanced n-phase systems of phasors, each

set having a different phase sequence

plus

X 1 set of zero phase sequence or unidirectional phasors

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB3 + VB4 - - - - - VB(n-1) + VBn

VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC3 + VC4 - - - - - VC(n-1) + VCn

VD = VD1 + VD2 + VD3 + VD4 - - - - - VD(n-1) + VDn

------------------------------------------

Vn = Vn1 + Vn2 + Vn3 + Vn4 - - - - - Vn(n-1) + Vnn

Sequence

Unbalanced 3-Phase System

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0

VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0

VA1 VA2

120° 240°

Unbalanced 3-Phase System

VA0

VB0

VC0

Zero Sequence

Symmetrical Components

VA

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0

VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0

VC

VA1 VB

VA2 VA0VB0

+ VC0

+ VC2

VC1

VB1 VB2

VC1 = a VA1 VC2 = a2VA2 VC0 = VA0

45 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 45

Converting from Sequence Components to

Phase Values

VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0 = a2VA1 + a VA2 + VA0

VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0 = a VA1 + a2VA2 + VA0

VA0

VA

VA2

VA1

VC

VC0

VC1

VC2 VB

VB1 VB0

VB2

46 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 46

Converting from Phase Values to

Sequence Components

VA1 = 1/3 {VA + a VB + a2VC}

VA2 = 1/3 {VA + a2VB + a VC}

VA0 = 1/3 {VA + VB + VC}

VA

VB

3VA0

VC

VA0

Summary

VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0

VB = ∝2VA1 + ∝VA2 + VA0

VC = ∝VA1 + ∝2VA2 + VA0

IB = ∝2IA1 + ∝A2 + IA0

IC = ∝IA1 + ∝2IA2 + IA0

VA2 = 1/3 {VA + ∝2VB + ∝VC }

VA0 = 1/3 {VA + VB + VC }

IA2 = 1/3 {IA + ∝2IB + ∝IC }

IA0 + 1/3 {IA + IB + IC }

Residual Current

IA

IB

IC

IRESIDUAL = IA + IB + IC

= 3I0

E/F

zero for :- 3∅ Faults present for :- ∅/Ø/E Faults

Ø/∅ Faults Open circuits (with

current in remaining phases)

Residual Voltage

from “Open Delta” or “Broken

Delta” VT secondary windings.

VRESIDUAL is zero for:-

Healthy unfaulted systems

3∅ Faults

∅/∅ Faults

VRESIDUAL is present for:-

VRESIDUAL = ∅/E Faults

VA + VB + VC ∅/∅/E Faults

Open Circuits (on supply

= 3V0 side of VT)

Example

components for the unbalanced phase vectors :

VC

VA = 1 ∠0°

VB = 1.5 ∠-90°

VA

VC = 0.5 ∠120°

VB

51 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 51

Solution

= 1/3 [ 1 + (1 ∠120) (1.5 ∠-90)

+ (1 ∠240) (0.5 ∠120) ]

= 0.965 ∠15

= 1/3 [ 1 + (1 ∠240) (1.5 ∠-90)

+ (1 ∠120) (0.5 ∠120) ]

= 0.211 ∠150

= 1/3 (1 + 1.5 ∠-90 + 0.5 ∠120)

= 0.434 ∠-55

Positive Sequence Voltages

VC1 = aVA1

VA1 = 0.965∠15º

15º

VB1 = a2VA1

53 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 53

VA2 = 0.211∠150° VC2 = a2VA2 -55º

150º

VA0 = 0.434∠-55º

VB0 = -

VC0 = -

VB2 = aVA2

Zero Sequence

Voltages

Negative Sequence

Voltages

Example

components

IA1 = 0.6 ∠0

IA2 = -0.4 ∠0

IA0 = -0.2 ∠0

Solution

IA = IA1 + IA2 + IA0 = 0

= 0.6∠240 - 0.4∠120 - 0.2∠0 = 0.91∠-109

= 0.6∠120 - 0.4∠240 - 0.2∠0 = 0.91∠-109

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on

Balanced Impedances (1)

Ia ZS

Va

Ib ZS Zm Zm

Vb

Ic ZS Zm

Vc

VB = IAZM + IBZS + ICZM

VC = IAZM + IBZM + ICZS

In matrix form

VA ZS ZM ZM IA

VB = ZM ZS ZM IB

VC ZM ZM ZS IC

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on

Balanced Impedances (2)

Resolve V & I phasors into symmetrical components

1 1 1 V0 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0

1 a2 a V1 = ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1

1 a a2 V2 ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

Multiply by [A]-1

-1

V0 1 1 1 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0

V1 = 1 a2 a ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1

V2 1 a a2 ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

V0 1 1 1 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0

V1 = 1/3 1 a a2 ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1

V2 1 a2 a ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

V1 = 1/3 ZS - ZM ZM + aZS + a2ZM ZM + aZM + a2ZS

V2 ZS - ZM ZM + a2ZS + aZM ZM + a2ZM + aZS

1 1 1 I0

1 a2 a I1

1 a a2 I2

57 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 57

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on

Balanced Impedances (3)

V0 ZS + 2ZM 0 0 I0

V1 = 0 ZS - ZM 0 I1

V2 0 0 ZS - ZM I2

V0 Z0 0 0 I0

V1 = 0 Z1 0 I1

V2 0 0 Z2 I2

a diagonal matrix if the system is symmetrical.

The sequence networks are independent of

each other.

The three isolated sequence networks are

interconnected when an unbalance such as a fault

or unbalanced loading is introduced.

Representation of Plant

Cont…

Transformer Zero Sequence Impedance

P Q

ZT0

a a

P Q

b b

N0

General Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuit for

Two Winding Transformer

Primary Z T0 Secondary

Terminal 'a' 'a' Terminal

'b' 'b'

N0

Open link ‘b’

Close link ‘b’

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (1)

P S

P0 ZT0 S0

a a

b b

N0

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (2)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (3)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (4)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

3 Winding Transformers

P S

T

ZP, ZS, ZT = Leakage reactances of Primary,

P ZP ZS S Secondary and Tertiary Windings

ZM = Magnetising Impedance = Large

ZM ZT ∴ Ignored

T

N1

P ZP ZS S

ZP-S = ZP + ZS = Impedance between Primary (P)

and Secondary (S) where ZP & ZS

ZT are both expressed on same

T voltage base

Auto Transformers

H L H ZH1 ZL L

1

ZM1 ZT1

T N1

Equivalent circuit is similar to that of a 3 ZM = Magnetising Impedance =

winding transformer. Large ∴ Ignored

H ZH1 ZL1 L

ZT1 ZHT1 = ZH1 + ZT1 (both referred to same voltage base)

T ZLT1 = ZL1 + ZT1 (both referred to same voltage base)

N1

Sequence Networks

Sequence Networks (2)

‘reference’ phase. This is usually taken as the ‘A’

phase.

reference ‘A’ phase.

For Ø/Ø faults consider a B-C fault

the reference phase.

Positive Sequence Diagram

E1

N1 Z1 F1

- All generator and load neutrals are

connected to N1

2. Include all source EMF’s

- Phase-neutral voltage

3. Impedance network

- Positive sequence impedance per phase

4. Diagram finishes at fault point F1

Example

Generator Transformer

Line F

N

E

E1 ZT1 ZL1

N1 ZG1 I1 F1

V1

(N1)

V1 = E1 - I1 (ZG1 + ZT1 + ZL1)

Negative Sequence Diagram

N2 Z2 F2

- All generator and load neutrals are connected

to N2

2. No EMF’s included

- No negative sequence voltage is generated!

3. Impedance network

- Negative sequence impedance per phase

4. Diagram finishes at fault point F2

Example

Generator Transformer

Line F

N

R

System Single Line

Diagram

E

V2

V2 = -I2 (ZG2 + ZT2 + ZL2)

Zero Sequence Diagram (1)

each phase of the system, there must be a fourth

connection (this is typically the neutral or earth

connection).

N IA0

IB0

IC0

Zero Sequence Diagram (2)

3ΙA0

R V0 = 3IA0.R

Zero sequence impedance of neutral to earth path

E

Z0 = V0 = 3R

IA0

Zero Sequence Diagram (3)

Generator Transformer

Line F

N

RT

R

System Single Line Diagram

E

3R 3RT V0

E0 (N0)

Zero Sequence Network

V0 = -I0 (ZT0 + ZL0)

Network Connections

Interconnection of Sequence Networks (1)

terminals F & N for external connections.

F1

POSITIVE

SEQUENCE

NETWORK

N1

I2

F2

NEGATIVE

SEQUENCE V2

NETWORK

N2

I0

F0

ZERO

SEQUENCE V0

NETWORK

N0

Interconnection of Sequence Networks (2)

For any given fault there are 6 quantities to be considered at the fault

point

i.e. VA VB VC IA IB IC

into an equivalent relationship between sequence components

V1, V2, V0 and I1, I2 , I0

This is possible if :-

1) Any 3 phase quantities are known (provided they are not all

voltages or all currents)

or 2) 2 are known and others are known to have a specific

relationship.

From the relationship between sequence V’s and I’s, the manner in

which the isolation sequence networks are connected can be

determined.

representation (in sequence terms) of the fault.

To derive the system constraints at the fault terminals :-

F

IA IB IC

VA VB VC

80 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 80

Line to Ground Fault on Phase ‘A’

IA IB IC

At fault point :-

VA = 0

VA VB VC VB = ?

VC = ?

IA = ?

IB = 0

IC = 0

Phase to Earth Fault on Phase ‘A’

At fault point

VA = 0 ; IB = 0 ; IC = 0

but VA = V1 + V2 + V0

∴ V1 + V2 + V0 = 0 ------------------------- (1)

I0 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC ) = 1/3 IA

I1 = 1/3 (IA + aIB + a2IC) = 1/3 IA

I2 = 1/3 (IA + a2IB + aIC) = 1/3 IA

∴ I1 = I2 = I0 = 1/3 IA ------------------------- (2)

To comply with (1) & (2) the sequence networks must be connected in series :-

I1 F1

+ve

Seq

N/W V1

N1 I2

-ve F2

Seq V2

N/W

I0

N2

Zero F0

Seq V0

N/W

N0

82 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 82

Example : Phase to Earth Fault

SOURCE LINE F

A-G

132 kV ZL1 = 10Ω FAULT

2000 MVA ZL0 = 35Ω IF

ZS1 = 8.7Ω

ZS0 = 8.7Ω

8.7 10 I1 F1

N1

8.7 10 I2 F2

N2

8.7 35 I0 F0

N0

√3 x 81.1

IF = IA = I1 + I2 + I0 = 3I0

= 2820 Amps

83 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 83

Earth Fault with Fault Resistance

I1 F1

POSITIVE

SEQUENCE

NETWORK V1

N1

I2 F2

NEGATIVE

SEQUENCE V2 3ZF

NETWORK

N2

I0 F0

ZERO

SEQUENCE V0

NETWORK

N0

Phase to Phase Fault:- B-C Phase

I1 I2 I0

F1 F2 F0

+ve -ve Zero

Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq V0

N/W N/W N/W

N1 N2 N0

Example : Phase to Phase Fault

SOURCE LINE F

B-C

132 kV ZL1 = ZL2 = 10Ω FAULT

2000 MVA

ZS1 = ZS2 = 8.7Ω

132000

√3 8.7 I1

10 F1

N1

8.7 10 I2 F2

N2

I1 = 132000 = 2037 Amps = a2I1 - aI1

√3 x 37.4 = (a2 - a) I1

I2 = -2037 Amps = (-j) . √3 x 2037

= 3529 Amps.

86 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 86

Phase to Phase Fault with Resistance

ZF

I1 I2

+ve F1 -ve F2

Seq V1 Seq V2

N/W N/W

N1 N2

I0

Zero F0

Seq V0

N/W

N0

Phase to Phase to Earth Fault:- B-C-E

I1 I2 I0

+ve F1 -ve F2 Zero F0

Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq

N/W N/W V0

N/W

N1 N2 N0

Phase to Phase to Earth Fault:-

B-C-E with Resistance

3ZF

I1 I2 I0

+ve F1 -ve F2 Zero F0

Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq V0

N/W N/W N/W

N1 N2 N0

Maximum Fault Level

earthed systems

fault level for all fault types.

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (1)

E XT

Xg

3Ø

Xg XT

E E

ΙF = ≡

Xg + XT Z1

Z1

E IF

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (2)

1Ø Xg XT

E Z1

Xg2 XT2

3E

ΙF =

Z2 = Z1 IF 2Z1 + Z0

Xg0 XT0

Z0

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (3)

E 3E 3E

3∅FAULTLEVEL = = =

Z1 3Z1 2Z1 + Z1

3E

1∅FAULTLEVEL =

2Z1 + Z0

∴ IF Z0 < Z1

- Training _ Power System Protection _AREVAUploaded byMallikarjun Reddy
- 02-Non-DirUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- 03-Presentation Directional ProtectionUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- 05-Presentation Motor ProtectionUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- Alstom Training ManualUploaded byMadanasekhar Tadimarri
- Differential Relay MiCOM P632Uploaded bygjkjai
- 07-Busbar Protection Busbar Protection RfUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- 08-Presentation Distance ProtectionUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- Day 1 Part 3 Power SwingUploaded bystopnaggingme1
- Day 2 Part 4 Teleprotection and Weak InfeedUploaded bystopnaggingme1
- Alstom TestingUploaded bymostafanassar
- reactor differential protection calculationUploaded byRaja Ganapathy
- Transformer Vector GroupUploaded byM V Ravindra Mutyala
- Relay setting calculation for motors.pdfUploaded byjung2008
- Busbar Protection TrainingUploaded bygandhi846
- 8.Line Distance ProtectionUploaded byMuruganantham Chandrappan
- AREVA-GECOL-Differential Protection PrincipleUploaded bymentong
- Mesh Ring NetworkUploaded bygkpalepu
- AVR on Load Tap ChangerUploaded byInsan Aziz
- Distance_Protection_Part_3Uploaded byHomer Simp
- Iso Es Cb InterlocksUploaded bygkpalepu
- 18a) Ground Distance Relays PPTUploaded byRajesh Bodduna
- Relay+Coordination+MethodologyUploaded byharikvee
- 2 Transformer (APPS)Uploaded byJyoti Singh
- Guide to Draw and Test Micom P443 Using OmicronUploaded by1453h
- Battery & Battery Charger Calculation RevAUploaded byhosein30
- Busbar ProtectionUploaded bykedsoi2
- Understanding and Testing the ABB RED670 Distanc-Line Differential RelayUploaded byAlly Raxa
- ALSTOM Transformer ProtectionsUploaded byInsan Aziz
- Ct Vt Calculations r1Uploaded bylrpatra

- Short Circuit CalculationUploaded bygraduadoesime
- ABB HV Shunt ReactorUploaded bytkdrt2166
- BasisPrinciplesofHVDCUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- Knee Voltage FormulaUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- harmonicsinyourelecsystemUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- Generator ProtectionUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- 08-Presentation Distance ProtectionUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- 07-Busbar Protection Busbar Protection RfUploaded byRajesh Pillai
- 2 Fundementals of ProtectionUploaded byharsha_iitm

- Isrm Sinorock 2009 032Uploaded bypaolo paoli
- Chapter No 5Uploaded byPiyush Agnihotri
- DISCUSSSION for transport processUploaded byShahidatulShaqila
- Abaqus CAE 6 11Uploaded byLeandro Pimenta
- SymsUploaded byJesus Silva Rojas
- chemical engineeringUploaded byxuancuong
- Performance Analysis of a Double-pass Photovoltaic-Thermal PVT Solar Collector With CPC and FinsUploaded byUmer Abbas
- Analytical Mechanics [2017]Uploaded byfluffa23
- Synchronous Machine Theory and ModelingUploaded bynanavarasmdu
- GFE - WEEK 2 - PART 1 - 2018-05-28Uploaded byAdeelAbbas
- assign2-F15Uploaded byLindsey Hoffman
- Assignment Booklet Me2353 Finite Element Analysis Dec 2013 May 2014Uploaded byAshok Kumar Rajendran
- 13IPST080Uploaded byrrcardoso230
- How to Measure Molecular Weight(Same Methode, Other Paper)Uploaded byJulien Halnaut
- worksheet_05.pdfUploaded byVijay Bhaskar
- 94646455 Kinematics of Machinery 2 Marks All 5 UnitsUploaded byvelavansu
- instructional project 5 - lesson planUploaded byapi-357637785
- Diamond like amorphous carbon.pdfUploaded byமாத்தி யோசிப்பேன்
- transmutationUploaded byapi-271036545
- Chapter 20_ Stellar Evolution – Michael KUploaded byMickyOvshievich
- Equation Sheets for Principles of Design Spring 2015Uploaded bySarah Peterson
- Eee118 Ch2 MidUploaded byalareeqi
- 03-wave-theory (1).pdfUploaded byAashish
- eksperiman fizikUploaded byNUR BATRISYIA AMALYA
- 22 Lift and Escalator Motor SizingUploaded byHEMANTKHERA
- Full Text 01Uploaded byZakirUllah
- Report Group 5Uploaded byArshid Ta
- (CRYSTAL imperfections )_2.pptUploaded byUtsav Niroula
- PerloffUploaded bySayantan Chakraborty
- Electrical Break d 031039 MbpUploaded byraulqrv