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# Distance Protection

J. Royle

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Distance Protection

## X Popular, widely used on Sub-Transmission and

Transmission Systems
X Virtually independent of Fault Current Level
(ZS/ZL ratios)
X Fast Discriminative Protection:- Zone 1 or
‘Aided’ Distance Scheme
X Time Delayed Remote Back-Up:- Incorporated
at little extra cost

## X Measures Z, X or R correctly irrespective of

System Conditions

Protection:-

ZS = 10 Ω

ZL = 4 Ω
ZS = 10 Ω
IF1 F1

115kV 50

∴ Is > 7380A

ZS = 10 Ω
F2

IF2

50

## IF2 = 115kV/√3 x 10 = 6640A

∴ Is <6640A
>7380A - IMPRACTICAL
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Simplified Line Diagram

L R L L L R
R R
C C C

XL = jWL XC = -j
WC
at FN (50Hz) XC = large :-

L R

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZS ZL

Generation IR
Distance
Relay 21 VR

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Impedance Seen By Measuring Element

jX

ZL

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

Relay
ZS PT.
IR ZL

Normal

VR
Impedance measured ZR = = Z L + Z LOAD
ΙR

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZL

ZS IR ZF

## X Impedance Measured ZR = VR/IR = ZF

X Relay Operates if ZF < Z where Z = setting
X Increasing VR has a Restraining Effect ∴VR
called Restraining Voltage
X Increasing IR has an Operating Effect

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Plain Impedance Characteristic

jX ZL Impedance Seen At
Measuring Location
For Line Faults

TRIP STABLE

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Impedance Characteristic Generation

jIX
IF zF
IZ
V2 V1
VF V3

IR
Trip TRIP STABLE
Spring

## Restrain Voltage to Relay = V

Operate
Current to Relay = I
Replica Impedance = Z
Ampere Turns : VF IZ
Trip Condition : S2 < S1
Trip Conditions : VF < IFZ
where : S1 = IZ ≈ Z
S2 = V ≈ ZF

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

I1/I2 ZP

IR
V1
21 VR VFP
V2

## VFP x V2 /V 1 VFP Ι1/ Ι 2

Z R = VR/ ΙR = = x
ΙFP x Ι 2 / Ι1 ΙFP V1/V 2

C.T. RATIO
ZR = Z P x
V.T. RATIO
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Example

C.T. RATIO
ZR = ZP x
V.T. RATIO

## ZR(5) = 4 x 600/5 x 115/115x103 = 0.48Ω -5A Relay

ZR(1) = 2.4 Ω - 1A Relay

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Input Quantities for ∅-∅ Faults

## FAULT VRESTRAINT IOPERATE

A-B VA - VB IA - IB
B-C VB - VC IB - IC
C-A VC - VA IC - IA

## X VRESTRAINT & IOPERATE are selected inside the relay

X No setting adjustments are required apart from
Z1 = Phase Replica Impedance

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Input Quantities for Phase to Earth Faults

A-E VA ? IA ?

B-E

C-E

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation

## Replica impedance circuit :-

IRA Z1
∑IZN Z1 = Phase replica impedance
Z1 ZN = Neutral replica impedance

Z1
IRA passes through Z1
IRN passes through ZN
IRN ZN
N ZT = Z1 + ZN

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Compensation

## For a single phase to ground fault the total earth

loop impedance is given by :- (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 = ZT

ZT = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 = Z1 + ZN
ZN = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 - Z1
= (2Z1 + Z0)/3 - Z1
= - Z1 + Z0
3 3
= KN Z1

## where KN = (Z0 - Z1)

3Z1
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Neutral Impedance Vectorial Replica Compensation
Line CT’s
A
ZPH IAZPH
B
ZPH IBZPH
C
ZPH ICZPH

ZN INZN

Set Z PH = Z F1

Set Z N = (Z F0 - Z F1 )
3
Usually ∠ Z N = ∠ Z PH for OHL’s

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Replica Compensation

## For cables ∠Z0 ≠ ∠Z1

∴ VECTORIAL COMPENSATION MUST BE USED

KN = Z0 - Z1 = ⏐KN⏐ ∠∅N
3Z1

Characteristics

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Distance Characteristics

jX
jX
jX jX
Zn
Zn Zn Zn
R R R R
MHO OFFSE
Zs Zn′
IMPEDANC T
E CROSS- MHO
POLARISED
MHO

jX
Zn Zn
Zn
R R R
R

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Self Polarised Mho Relays

## X Very popular characteristic jX

X Simple
RESTRAIN
X Less sensitive to power swings
Z
X Inherently directional
X Operates for F1, but not for F2 OPERATE

X Mho = 1/OHM F1
ϕ
R

Settings :-
Z = reach setting F2
ϕ = characteristic angle

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation

## Vectorial compensation allows for ∠ZN ≠ ∠ZPH which is

especially important for cable distance protection
where ∠ZN < ∠ZPH and ∠ZN is sometimes negative.

jX
ZPH
ZN

ZE ZE = Earth-loop impedance
for ∅ - earth fault on a
R
cable

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Offset Mho Characteristic

jX

Z
X Normally used as
backup protection
X Operates for zero
faults (close up
faults)
R
-Z’ X Generally time
delayed (as not
discriminative)

Mho Relays

## Directional circular characteristic obtained by

introducing VPOLARISING

X VF → self polarised
X VSOUND PHASE → fully cross-polarised
X VF + xVS.F. → partially cross-polarised
X VPRE-FAULT → ‘memory’ polarised

## Purpose for this is to ensure operation for close up

faults where measured fault voltage collapses

jX

ZL
RF
R
RS

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

jIX
Lenticular
characteristic created
from two offset Mho
comparators

b
a

IR

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Lenticular Characteristic

Z3
0.41
0.67
a 1.00
b
area

R
Z3 reverse

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Forward Offset Characteristic

Z3
X
Rf

Z2

Forward blinder
Z1

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zones of Protection

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zones of Protection

Time

Z3A Z3C
T3

Z2A Z2C
T2

Z1A Z1C

A Z1B B C D
T2
Z2B

## Z1A = 80% of ZAB

Z2A = 120% of ZAB
Z3A(FORWARD) = 120% of {ZAB + ZCD}

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zones of Protection

jX

D Z3A

C Z2A
B
Z1A

A
R

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1

X FAST OPERATION
Trips circuit breaker without delay as soon as
fault within Zone 1 reach is detected.

X REACH SETTING
Cannot be set to 100% of protected line or may
overreach into next section.
Overreach caused by possible errors in :-
CTs
VTs
ZLINE information
Relay Measurement

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1

Possible
Overreach
ZONE 1 = ZL

ZL
F
Possible incorrect tripping for fault at ‘F’

ZONE 1 = 0.8ZL

ZL

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1 Settings for Teed Feeders

Z1C = 0.8ZAC
A

Z1A = 0.8ZAB
Z1B = 0.8ZBA

Z1C

Z1A
Z1B

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes

Z1A
A ZL
Z1B B

Z1A

Trip ‘B’

Z1B

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes

## Effective Zone 1 reaches at A and B must overlap.

Otherwise :- No trip for fault at ‘F’

Z1A
A

Z1B B
F

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Minimum Zone 1 Reach Setting

Dictated by :-

## Minimum relay voltage for fault at Zone 1

reach point to ensure accurate measurement.

1 → 3 volts.

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

System Impedance Ratio :- SIR

SIR = ZS/Zn

## where :- ZS = Source impedance behind relay

Zn = Reach setting

## Can be expressed in terms of an equivalent value

of SIRMAX

SIRMAX = ZS MAX
Zn MIN

∴ Zn MIN ≡ ZS MAX
SIRMAX
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Zone 2

## X Covers last 20% of line not covered by Zone 1.

X Provides back-up protection for remote busbars.
Z2G

TIME
Z1G Z1H

G H
F

Z2G > 1.2 ZGH

## Zone 2 is time delayed to discriminate with Zone 1 on

next section for faults in first 20% of next section.

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2
Zone 2 on adjacent line sections are not normally time
Z2G Z2H

Z1G Z1H

‘G’ ‘H’
F

## X Overlap only occurs for faults in first 20% of following line.

X Faults at ‘F’ should result in operation of Z1H and tripping of circuit breaker ‘H’.
If ‘H’ fails to trip possible causes are :-
Î Z1H operates but trip relays fail.
Z2H may operate but will not trip if followed by the same trip relays.
Fault must be cleared at ‘G’ by Z2G.
Z1H and trip relays operate but circuit breaker fails to trip.

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2

Z2H
Ð
Unless Z2H + trip relays energise a 2nd circuit
breaker trip coil.

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2
Î Z1H fails to operate.
Ð
Results in race between breakers ‘G’ and ‘H’ if Z2H and Z2G
have the same time setting.
Ð
Can only be overcome by time grading Z2G with Z2H.
Z2G

Z2H

Z1G Z1H

‘G’ ‘H’
Problem with this :-
Zone 2 time delays near source on systems with several line
sections will be large.
End zone faults on lines nearest the infeed source point will be
cleared very slowly.
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Maximum Allowable Zone 2 Reach to Allow for
Equal Zone 2 Time Settings

ZL1 ZL2
A B

## Z2A must not reach beyond Z1B

i.e. Z2A(EFF) MAX must not reach further than Z1B(EFF) MIN

Z1BSETTING = 0.8ZL2
Z1B(EFF) MIN = 0.8 x 0.8ZL2 = 0.64ZL2
∴ Z2A(EFF) MAX < ZL1 + 0.64ZL2
∴ 1.2 Z2ASETTING < ZL1 + 0.64ZL2

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2 Time Settings on Long Line Followed by
Several Short Lines

Z2G

Z3H

Z3J

Z2H
Z2J

F

## To limit remote back-up clearance for a fault at

‘F’, the time setting of Z2G must discriminate
with Z3H.
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Zone 3

## X Provides back-up for next adjacent line.

X Provides back-up protection for busbars (reverse offset).
X Actual Zone 3 settings will be scheme specified, i.e.
permissive or blocking schemes.
X Many modern relays have more than 3 Zones to allow the use
of three forward and an independent reverse zone.
Z3G
REV Z3G FWD
Z2G
Time Z1G Z1H

G H K

## Typical settings : Z3FWD > 1.2 x (ZGH + ZHK)

Z3REV 0.1 to 0.25 of Z1G

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone Time Coordination - Ideal Situation

## Zone 2 :- tZ2 = tZ1(down) + CB(down) + Z2(reset) + Margin

e.g. tZ2 = 35 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 275mS

## Zone 3 :- tZ3 = tZ2(down) + CB(down) + Z3(reset) + Margin

e.g. tZ3 = 275 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 515mS

## Note: Where upper and lower zones overlap, e.g.

Zone 2 up sees beyond Zone 1 down, the
upper and lower zone time delays will need to
be coordinated, e.g. tZ2(up) to exceed
tZ2(down).

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Under / Overreach

Under-Reach

ZR

## where ZR = Reach setting

ZF = Effective reach

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between
Relay and Fault

ZA ZB
IA IA+IB

IB
Relay Location

## VR = IAZA + (IA + IB) ZB

IR = IA

ZR = ZA + ZB + IB . ZB
IA

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between
Relay and Fault

infeed.

## Relay with setting ZA + ZB + IB . ZB will measure

IA
correctly with infeed present but if infeed is removed
the relay will overreach.

impedance

Under-Reach
IP

ZK
IG+IP F

ZG
IG

RELAY

## What relay reach setting is required to ensure fault at F is at

boundary of operation ?
Impedance seen for fault at F
= ZG + IG + IP . ZK
IG
Limit of operation is when Impedance Seen = Reach Setting
∴ Reach setting required
= ZG + IG + IP . ZK
IG
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Over-Reach

ZR

## where ZR = Reach setting

ZF = Effective reach

Mutual Coupling

Mutual Coupling

## X Mutual coupling causes distance relays to either

underreach or overreach.

## X Zero sequence mutual coupling can have a

significant influence on the relay.

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling Example Under Reach

Z2 ‘Boost’ G/F

Z2 PH

Zmo

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach

Z2 ‘reduced’ G/F

Z2 PH

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach

Z1 G/F (optional)
Z1 G/F (normal)

Zmo

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Ancilliary Functions

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Switch on to Fault (SOTF)

X
X
X

## X Fast tripping for faults on line

energisation, even where line VTs
provide no prefault voltage memory

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Voltage Transformer Supervision

## X A VT fault and subsequent operation of VT fuses

or MCB’s results in misrepresentation of primary
voltages
X Relay will remain stable as the current phase
selector will not pick up
X Subsequent system fault may cause unwanted /
incorrect tripping
X VTS operating from presence of V0 with no I0 or
V2 with no I2 is used to block relay if required

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

VT Supervision

 Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages
 Loss of all 3 phase voltages

## X Upon line energisation

 Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages
 Loss of all 3 phase voltages

Zone 1 Mho Relay

## K X Will not operate for load

ZS or stable power swing
HH X Ø1, Ø2, Ø3, = Angles
between system
voltages at ‘K’ and ‘L’
Z1
Ø3 Ø increases as power
J Ø L swing
2
O approaches relay at G
G Ø1 A X ‘J’ is point where power
ZS D swing enters relay
characteristic
G
X At ‘J’ the angle between
Power Swing Locus
L voltages at ‘G’ & ‘H’ is
90°
X Normal limit of angle
between voltages at ‘G’
& ‘H’ for load is of the
order of 30°

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Comparison between Stability of Mho and Quadrilateral
Impedance Elements during a Power Swing

jX

Power
Swing
Locus

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Illustration of Basic Power Swing
Blocking System
jX

Power Swing
Locus

ZP

Z3

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Power Swing Blocking

current

## X Continuous output from the relay superimposed

current element can be used to block for a power
swing

## X Using this method the relay is able to operate for

faults occurring during a power swing

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Directional Earth Fault Protection (DEF)

## O High resistance ground faults

O Instantaneous or time delayed
O IEC and IEEE curves
O Single or shared signalling channel

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Transformer Feeders

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Transformer Feeders

ZT
ZL

21

Zone 1 = ZL + 0.5ZT
T1 = Instantaneous

## Zone 2 = 1.2 (ZL +ZT)

T2 = Co-ordinate with downstream protection

Zone 3
- Back-up use as appropriate
T3

## > Distance Protection - January 2004

Low Voltage VT, High Voltage CT

ZT
ZL

21

## * 1 VT may be required to account for phase shift.

Example 1
ZT = 10Ω , ZL = 1Ω
Set relay Z1 = 0.8 x (ZT + ZL) = 8.8Ω
∴ Z1 does not reach through transformer.
Example 2
ZT = 10Ω , ZL = 1Ω
Z1 = ZT + 0.8ZL = 10.8Ω
with 20% error = 12.96Ω - overreach problem