You are on page 1of 73

Distance Protection

J. Royle

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Distance Protection

X Popular, widely used on Sub-Transmission and


Transmission Systems
X Virtually independent of Fault Current Level
(ZS/ZL ratios)
X Fast Discriminative Protection:- Zone 1 or
‘Aided’ Distance Scheme
X Time Delayed Remote Back-Up:- Incorporated
at little extra cost

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Advantages of Distance Protection

X Measures Z, X or R correctly irrespective of


System Conditions

X Compare this with Instantaneous Overcurrent


Protection:-

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Advantages of Distance Protection

ZS = 10 Ω

ZL = 4 Ω
ZS = 10 Ω
IF1 F1

115kV 50

IF1 = 115kV/√3(5+4) = 7380A


∴ Is > 7380A

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Advantages of Distance Protection

X Consider with one source out of service:-

ZS = 10 Ω
F2

IF2

50

IF2 = 115kV/√3 x 10 = 6640A


∴ Is <6640A
>7380A - IMPRACTICAL
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Simplified Line Diagram

L R L L L R
R R
C C C

XL = jWL XC = -j
WC
at FN (50Hz) XC = large :-

L R

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZS ZL

Generation IR
Distance
Relay 21 VR

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Impedance Seen By Measuring Element

jX

ZL

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Basic Principle of Distance Protection

Relay
ZS PT.
IR ZL

Normal
VS VR ZLOAD
Load

VR
Impedance measured ZR = = Z L + Z LOAD
ΙR

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZL

ZS IR ZF

VS VR ZLOAD Fault

X Impedance Measured ZR = VR/IR = ZF


X Relay Operates if ZF < Z where Z = setting
X Increasing VR has a Restraining Effect ∴VR
called Restraining Voltage
X Increasing IR has an Operating Effect

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Plain Impedance Characteristic

jX ZL Impedance Seen At
Measuring Location
For Line Faults

TRIP STABLE

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Impedance Characteristic Generation

jIX
IF zF
IZ
V2 V1
VF V3

IR
Trip TRIP STABLE
Spring

Restrain Voltage to Relay = V


Operate
Current to Relay = I
Replica Impedance = Z
Ampere Turns : VF IZ
Trip Condition : S2 < S1
Trip Conditions : VF < IFZ
where : S1 = IZ ≈ Z
S2 = V ≈ ZF

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Basic Principle of Distance Protection

I1/I2 ZP

IR
V1
21 VR VFP
V2

X Relays are calibrated in secondary ohms :-

VFP x V2 /V 1 VFP Ι1/ Ι 2


Z R = VR/ ΙR = = x
ΙFP x Ι 2 / Ι1 ΙFP V1/V 2

C.T. RATIO
ZR = Z P x
V.T. RATIO
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Example

ZP = 4Ω; V1/V2 = 115kV/115V; I1/I2 = 600/5A

C.T. RATIO
ZR = ZP x
V.T. RATIO

ZR(5) = 4 x 600/5 x 115/115x103 = 0.48Ω -5A Relay


ZR(1) = 2.4 Ω - 1A Relay

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Input Quantities for ∅-∅ Faults

FAULT VRESTRAINT IOPERATE


A-B VA - VB IA - IB
B-C VB - VC IB - IC
C-A VC - VA IC - IA

X VRESTRAINT & IOPERATE are selected inside the relay


X No setting adjustments are required apart from
Z1 = Phase Replica Impedance

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Input Quantities for Phase to Earth Faults

FAULT VRESTRAINT IOPERATE


A-E VA ? IA ?

B-E

C-E

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation

Replica impedance circuit :-

IRA Z1
∑IZN Z1 = Phase replica impedance
Z1 ZN = Neutral replica impedance

Z1
IRA passes through Z1
IRN passes through ZN
IRN ZN
N ZT = Z1 + ZN

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Neutral Impedance Compensation

For a single phase to ground fault the total earth


loop impedance is given by :- (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 = ZT

ZT = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 = Z1 + ZN
ZN = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 - Z1
= (2Z1 + Z0)/3 - Z1
= - Z1 + Z0
3 3
= KN Z1

where KN = (Z0 - Z1)


3Z1
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Neutral Impedance Vectorial Replica Compensation
Line CT’s
A
ZPH IAZPH
B
ZPH IBZPH
C
ZPH ICZPH

ZN INZN

Set Z PH = Z F1

Set Z N = (Z F0 - Z F1 )
3
Usually ∠ Z N = ∠ Z PH for OHL’s

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Neutral Impedance Replica Compensation

For cables ∠Z0 ≠ ∠Z1


∴ VECTORIAL COMPENSATION MUST BE USED

KN = Z0 - Z1 = ⏐KN⏐ ∠∅N
3Z1

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Characteristics

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Distance Characteristics

jX
jX
jX jX
Zn
Zn Zn Zn
R R R R
MHO OFFSE
Zs Zn′
IMPEDANC T
E CROSS- MHO
POLARISED
MHO

jX
Zn Zn
Zn
R R R
LENTICULA QUADRILATERAL POLYGON
R

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Self Polarised Mho Relays

X Very popular characteristic jX

X Simple
RESTRAIN
X Less sensitive to power swings
Z
X Inherently directional
X Operates for F1, but not for F2 OPERATE

X Mho = 1/OHM F1
ϕ
R

Settings :-
Z = reach setting F2
ϕ = characteristic angle

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation

Vectorial compensation allows for ∠ZN ≠ ∠ZPH which is


especially important for cable distance protection
where ∠ZN < ∠ZPH and ∠ZN is sometimes negative.

jX
ZPH
ZN

ZE ZE = Earth-loop impedance
for ∅ - earth fault on a
R
cable

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Offset Mho Characteristic

jX

Z
X Normally used as
backup protection
X Operates for zero
faults (close up
faults)
R
-Z’ X Generally time
delayed (as not
discriminative)

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Mho Relays

Directional circular characteristic obtained by


introducing VPOLARISING

X VF → self polarised
X VSOUND PHASE → fully cross-polarised
X VF + xVS.F. → partially cross-polarised
X VPRE-FAULT → ‘memory’ polarised

Purpose for this is to ensure operation for close up


faults where measured fault voltage collapses

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Quadrilateral Characteristic

jX

ZL
Z1 Load
RF
R
RS

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Lenticular Load Avoidance Characteristic

jIX
Lenticular
characteristic created
from two offset Mho
comparators

Aspect ratio = a/b


b
a

IR

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Lenticular Characteristic

X Aspect ratios a/b


Z3
0.41
0.67
a 1.00
b
Load impedance
area

R
Z3 reverse

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Forward Offset Characteristic

Z3
X
Rf

Z2

Forward blinder
Z1

Load area

X Enhanced resistive coverage for remote faults

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zones of Protection

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zones of Protection

Time

Z3A Z3C
T3

Z2A Z2C
T2

Z1A Z1C

A Z1B B C D
T2
Z2B

Z1A = 80% of ZAB


Z2A = 120% of ZAB
Z3A(FORWARD) = 120% of {ZAB + ZCD}

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zones of Protection

jX

D Z3A

C Z2A
B
Z1A

A
R

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 1

X FAST OPERATION
Trips circuit breaker without delay as soon as
fault within Zone 1 reach is detected.

X REACH SETTING
Cannot be set to 100% of protected line or may
overreach into next section.
Overreach caused by possible errors in :-
CTs
VTs
ZLINE information
Relay Measurement

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 1

Possible
Overreach
ZONE 1 = ZL

ZL
F
Possible incorrect tripping for fault at ‘F’

∴ Zone 1 set to ∼ 0.8ZL

ZONE 1 = 0.8ZL

ZL

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 1 Settings for Teed Feeders

Z1C = 0.8ZAC
A

Z1A = 0.8ZAB
Z1B = 0.8ZBA

Z1C

Z1A
Z1B

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes

Z1A
A ZL
Z1B B

Z1A
Send Receive

Trip ‘B’

Z1B
Receive Send

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes

Effective Zone 1 reaches at A and B must overlap.


Otherwise :- No trip for fault at ‘F’

Z1A
A

Z1B B
F

∴ Effective Z1A and Z1B must be > 0.5ZL

Settings for Zone 1 > 0.8ZL are o.k.

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Minimum Zone 1 Reach Setting

Dictated by :-

Minimum relay voltage for fault at Zone 1


reach point to ensure accurate measurement.

Minimum voltage depends on relay design typically


1 → 3 volts.

> Distance Protection - January 2004


System Impedance Ratio :- SIR

SIR = ZS/Zn

where :- ZS = Source impedance behind relay


Zn = Reach setting

VRPA = Minimum voltage for reach point accuracy

Can be expressed in terms of an equivalent value


of SIRMAX

SIRMAX = ZS MAX
Zn MIN

∴ Zn MIN ≡ ZS MAX
SIRMAX
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Zone 2

X Covers last 20% of line not covered by Zone 1.


X Provides back-up protection for remote busbars.
Z2G

TIME
Z1G Z1H

G H
F

To allow for errors :-


Z2G > 1.2 ZGH

Zone 2 is time delayed to discriminate with Zone 1 on


next section for faults in first 20% of next section.

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 2
Zone 2 on adjacent line sections are not normally time
graded with each other
Z2G Z2H

Z1G Z1H

‘G’ ‘H’
F

X Overlap only occurs for faults in first 20% of following line.


X Faults at ‘F’ should result in operation of Z1H and tripping of circuit breaker ‘H’.
If ‘H’ fails to trip possible causes are :-
Î Z1H operates but trip relays fail.
Z2H may operate but will not trip if followed by the same trip relays.
Fault must be cleared at ‘G’ by Z2G.
Z1H and trip relays operate but circuit breaker fails to trip.

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 2

No advantage in time grading Z2G with


Z2H
Ð
Unless Z2H + trip relays energise a 2nd circuit
breaker trip coil.

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 2
Î Z1H fails to operate.
Ð
Results in race between breakers ‘G’ and ‘H’ if Z2H and Z2G
have the same time setting.
Ð
Can only be overcome by time grading Z2G with Z2H.
Z2G

Z2H

Z1G Z1H

‘G’ ‘H’
Problem with this :-
Zone 2 time delays near source on systems with several line
sections will be large.
End zone faults on lines nearest the infeed source point will be
cleared very slowly.
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Maximum Allowable Zone 2 Reach to Allow for
Equal Zone 2 Time Settings

Z2A (EFF) MAX

Z1B (EFF) MIN

ZL1 ZL2
A B

Z2A must not reach beyond Z1B

i.e. Z2A(EFF) MAX must not reach further than Z1B(EFF) MIN

Z1BSETTING = 0.8ZL2
Z1B(EFF) MIN = 0.8 x 0.8ZL2 = 0.64ZL2
∴ Z2A(EFF) MAX < ZL1 + 0.64ZL2
∴ 1.2 Z2ASETTING < ZL1 + 0.64ZL2

Z2ASETTING < 0.83ZL1 + 0.53ZL2

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 2 Time Settings on Long Line Followed by
Several Short Lines

Z2G

Z3H

Z3J

Z2H
Z2J

Z1G Z1H Z1J

‘G’ ‘H’ ‘J’


F

Z2G reaches into 3rd line section.

To limit remote back-up clearance for a fault at


‘F’, the time setting of Z2G must discriminate
with Z3H.
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Zone 3

X Provides back-up for next adjacent line.


X Provides back-up protection for busbars (reverse offset).
X Actual Zone 3 settings will be scheme specified, i.e.
permissive or blocking schemes.
X Many modern relays have more than 3 Zones to allow the use
of three forward and an independent reverse zone.
Z3G
REV Z3G FWD
Z2G
Time Z1G Z1H

G H K

Typical settings : Z3FWD > 1.2 x (ZGH + ZHK)


Z3REV 0.1 to 0.25 of Z1G

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone Time Coordination - Ideal Situation

Zone 1 :- tZ1 = instantaneous (typically 15 - 35mS)

Zone 2 :- tZ2 = tZ1(down) + CB(down) + Z2(reset) + Margin


e.g. tZ2 = 35 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 275mS

Zone 3 :- tZ3 = tZ2(down) + CB(down) + Z3(reset) + Margin


e.g. tZ3 = 275 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 515mS

Note: Where upper and lower zones overlap, e.g.


Zone 2 up sees beyond Zone 1 down, the
upper and lower zone time delays will need to
be coordinated, e.g. tZ2(up) to exceed
tZ2(down).

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Under / Overreach

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Under-Reach

Impedance presented > apparent impedance

%age Underreach = ZR - ZF x 100%


ZR

where ZR = Reach setting


ZF = Effective reach

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between
Relay and Fault

ZA ZB
IA IA+IB

IB
Relay Location

VR = IAZA + (IA + IB) ZB

IR = IA

ZR = ZA + ZB + IB . ZB
IA

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between
Relay and Fault

∴ Relay with setting ZA + ZB will underreach with


infeed.

Relay with setting ZA + ZB + IB . ZB will measure


IA
correctly with infeed present but if infeed is removed
the relay will overreach.

Maximum allowable setting dictated by load


impedance

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Under-Reach
IP

ZK
IG+IP F

ZG
IG

RELAY

What relay reach setting is required to ensure fault at F is at


boundary of operation ?
Impedance seen for fault at F
= ZG + IG + IP . ZK
IG
Limit of operation is when Impedance Seen = Reach Setting
∴ Reach setting required
= ZG + IG + IP . ZK
IG
> Distance Protection - January 2004
Over-Reach

Impedance seen < apparent impedance

%age Overreach = ZF - ZR x 100%


ZR

where ZR = Reach setting


ZF = Effective reach

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Mutual Coupling

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Mutual Coupling

X Mutual coupling causes distance relays to either


underreach or overreach.

X Positive and negative sequence has no impact.

X Zero sequence mutual coupling can have a


significant influence on the relay.

X Only affects ground fault distance.

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Mutual Coupling Example Under Reach

Z2 ‘Boost’ G/F

Z2 PH

Zmo

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach

Z2 ‘reduced’ G/F

Z2 PH

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach

Z1 G/F (optional)
Z1 G/F (normal)

Zmo

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Ancilliary Functions

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Switch on to Fault (SOTF)

X
X
X

X Fast tripping for faults on line


energisation, even where line VTs
provide no prefault voltage memory

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Voltage Transformer Supervision

X A VT fault and subsequent operation of VT fuses


or MCB’s results in misrepresentation of primary
voltages
X Relay will remain stable as the current phase
selector will not pick up
X Subsequent system fault may cause unwanted /
incorrect tripping
X VTS operating from presence of V0 with no I0 or
V2 with no I2 is used to block relay if required

> Distance Protection - January 2004


VT Supervision

X Under load conditions


Š Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages
Š Loss of all 3 phase voltages

X Upon line energisation


Š Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages
Š Loss of all 3 phase voltages

X Digital input to monitor MCB

X Set to block voltage dependent functions

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Zone 1 Mho Relay

K X Will not operate for load


ZS or stable power swing
HH X Ø1, Ø2, Ø3, = Angles
between system
voltages at ‘K’ and ‘L’
Z1
Ø3 Ø increases as power
J Ø L swing
2
O approaches relay at G
G Ø1 A X ‘J’ is point where power
ZS D swing enters relay
characteristic
G
X At ‘J’ the angle between
Power Swing Locus
L voltages at ‘G’ & ‘H’ is
90°
X Normal limit of angle
between voltages at ‘G’
& ‘H’ for load is of the
order of 30°

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Comparison between Stability of Mho and Quadrilateral
Impedance Elements during a Power Swing

jX

Power
Swing
Locus

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Illustration of Basic Power Swing
Blocking System
jX

Power Swing
Locus

ZP

Z3

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Power Swing Blocking

X A power swing will result in continuous change of


current

X Continuous output from the relay superimposed


current element can be used to block for a power
swing

X Using this method the relay is able to operate for


faults occurring during a power swing

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Directional Earth Fault Protection (DEF)

O High resistance ground faults


O Instantaneous or time delayed
O IEC and IEEE curves
O Single or shared signalling channel

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Transformer Feeders

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Transformer Feeders

ZT
ZL

21

Zone 1 = ZL + 0.5ZT
T1 = Instantaneous

Zone 2 = 1.2 (ZL +ZT)


T2 = Co-ordinate with downstream protection

Zone 3
- Back-up use as appropriate
T3

> Distance Protection - January 2004


Low Voltage VT, High Voltage CT

ZT
ZL

21

* 1 VT may be required to account for phase shift.


Example 1
ZT = 10Ω , ZL = 1Ω
Set relay Z1 = 0.8 x (ZT + ZL) = 8.8Ω
∴ Z1 does not reach through transformer.
Example 2
ZT = 10Ω , ZL = 1Ω
Z1 = ZT + 0.8ZL = 10.8Ω
with 20% error = 12.96Ω - overreach problem

> Distance Protection - January 2004