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Nike is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States. The company is headquartered in Beaverton, near the Portland metropolitan area of Oregon. It is the world's leading supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment with revenue in excess of $18.6 billion USD in its fiscal year 2008 (ending May 31, 2008). As of 2008, it employed more than 30,000 people worldwide. Nike and Precision
Castparts are the only Fortune 500 companies headquartered in the state of Oregon, according to The Oregonian. The company was founded on January 25, 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Philip Knight, and officially became Nike, Inc. in 1978. The company takes its name from Nike (Greek word), the Greek goddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Nike Skateboarding and subsidiaries including Cole Haan, Hurley International, Umbro and Converse. Nike also owned Bauer Hockey (later renamed Nike Bauer) between 1995 and 2008. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high profile athletes and sports teams around the world.
Nike, originally known as Blue Ribbon Sports, was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Philip Knight and his coach Bill Bowerman in January 1964. The company initially operated as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger, making most sales at track meets out of Knight's automobile.
The company's profits grew quickly, and in 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located on Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California. By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the newly designed Swoosh. The first shoe to carry this design that was sold to the public was a football shoe named "Nike", which was released in the summer of 1971. In February 1972, BRS introduced its first line of Nike shoes, with the name Nike derived from the Greek goddess of victory. In 1978, BRS, Inc. officially renamed itself to Nike, Inc. Beginning with Ilie Nastase; the first professional athlete to sign with BRS/Nike, the
sponsorship of athletes became a key marketing tool for the rapidly growing company. The company's first self-designed product was based on Bowerman's "waffle" design. After the University of Oregon resurfaced the track at Hayward Field, Bowerman began experimenting with different potential outsoles that would grip the new urethane track more effectively. His efforts were rewarded one Sunday morning when he poured liquid urethane into his wife's waffle iron. Bowerman developed and refined the so-called 'waffle' sole which would evolve into the now-iconic Waffle Trainer in 1974. By 1980, Nike had reached a 50% market share in the United States athletic shoe market, and the company went public in December of that year. Its growth was due largely to 'word-of-foot' advertising (to quote a Nike print ad from the late 1970s), rather than television ads. Nike's first national television commercials ran in October 1982 during the broadcast of the New York Marathon. The ads were created by Portland-based advertising agency Wieden+Kennedy, which had formed several months earlier in April 1982. Together, Nike and Wieden+Kennedy have created many indelible print and television ads and the agency continues to be Nike's primary today. It was agency co-founder Dan Wieden who coined the nowfamous slogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, which was chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century, and the campaign has been enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. San Franciscan Walt Stack was featured in Nike's first "Just Do It" advertisement that debuted on July 1, 1988. Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to include many other sports and regions throughout the world.
Nike produces a wide range of sports equipment. Their first products were track running shoes. They currently also make shoes, jerseys, shorts, baselayers etc. for a wide range of sports including track & field, baseball, ice hockey, tennis, Association football, lacrosse, basketball and cricket. The most recent additions to their line are the Nike 6.0, Nike NYX, and Nike SB
shoes, designed for skateboarding. Nike has recently introduced cricket shoes, called Air Zoom Yorker, designed to be 30% lighter than their competitors'. In 2008, Nike introduced the Air Jordan XX3, a high performance basketball shoe designed with the environment in mind. Nike sells an assortment of products, including shoes and apparel for sports activities like association football, basketball, running, combat sports, tennis, American football, athletics, golf and cross training for men, women, and children. Nike also sells shoes for outdoor activities such as tennis, golf, skateboarding, association football, baseball, American football, cycling, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, aquatic activities, auto racing and other athletic and recreational uses. Nike is well known and popular in youth culture, chav culture and hip hop culture as they supply urban fashion clothing. Nike recently teamed up with Apple Inc. to produce the Nike+ product which monitors a runner's performance via a radio device in the shoe which links to the iPod nano. While the product generates useful statistics, it has been criticized by researchers who were able to identify users' RFID devices from 60 feet (18 m) away using small, concealable intelligence motes in a wireless sensor network. In 2004, they launched the SPARQ Training Program/Division. It is currently the premier training program in the U.S. Some of Nike's newest shoes contain Flywire and Lunarlite Foam. These are materials used to reduce the weight of many types of shoes. In the video game Gran Turismo 4 there is a car by Nike called the NikeOne 2022, designed by Phil Frank.
Nike has contracted with more than 700 shops around the world and has offices located in 45 countries outside the United States. Most of the factories are located in Asia, including Indonesia, China, Taiwan, India, 4 NIKE PROJECT
Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Philippines,and Malaysia.Nike is hesitant to disclose information about the contract companies it works with. However, due to harsh criticism from some organizations like CorpWatch, Nike has disclosed information about its contract factories in its Corporate Governance Report.
For the education of thes work instructure. Chief worker and workers in the assembly line of the sole of sport shoes. interrogate. masure time taken. They use many times (much -more times) in production line. will start from collection many data in the current condition of the sale of sport shoes assembly line by notice. We studies about general working step.ASSEMBLY LINE For the education. It made us know the problem on assembly line of the sole of sport shoes that is the times problem. When we already got the data. We use the principle of Motion and Time Study to find the cause of problem and to solve all of them for the high efficiency job including to increase the quantities of products 6 NIKE PROJECT . after that we can take the result to analy for improvement in the next. Chief department. we took them to study and analyse. record and study the old data of factory from planning division manager.
28 female workers and one male worker were engaged. vibratory sensibility test. we can decrease the number of employees and reduce the cycle time of production that it made the short time to produce and to increase the quantities of product. levator muscle of scapula. thenar eminence.400 times per day by each worker.200 g. Especially the prevalence rate of tapping test. A completed shoe weighed 200-500 g. These disorders were appeared in the left shoulder. trapezius muscle. brachioradial muscle. and iv) keeping the arms in a certain position. biceps muscle of arm. 2) In the line selected for the study of work actions. Besides.the production process was already improved. tenosynovitis in the fingers. the workers passed shoes to the next worker by hand. arm and hand. The work direction of the line was one-way (from left to right or vice versa). It' s tobe increase the productivity line .400 sneaker shoes per day on the assembly line. infraspinatus muscle. and antebrachial flexor muscle were found to be different significantly by McNemar's test between the two groups. The time spent in holding a shoe in the left hand was longer than that of the right hand in holding a shoe or tool. The assembly line workers handled about 3. The metal last weighted 400-1. 3) Results of medical examinations showed a higher prevalence in assembly line workers than that in non-assembly line workers. greater pectoral muscle. Morley's test. tenderness at spinal muscle around the thoracic vertebrae. anterior scalene muscle. ii) extending or iii) bending of the arms. These fundamental actions were repeated more than 3. pain sensibility test. rhomboid muscle. The actions of the workers were classified into four fundamental actions: i) grasping the shoe or tool. 4) As the non-assembly line When 7 NIKE PROJECT . As the lines were not completely mechanized.
How to drill. Train for mastery. Avoiding illegal holds and techniques Don't use illegal holds or techniques that cost you points or matches 8 NIKE PROJECT . i.workers were not engaged in compulsory work or in one-way work direction. it is considered that compulsory transfer of shoes and one-way work direction imposes a heavier load on the left side of the body in assembly line workers. 5) It is concluded that the sustained task of handing over shoes to the next worker or one-way work direction caused cervicobrachial disorders of assembly line workers. especially on the left side of the body. and consequently they injured the left side more severely. they injured the right side (skillful side). the buddy system and intensity Drill to teach and learn Drill to work out and get in match shape Drill to learn the moves better 2. with the production capacity needed to meet the customer orders. The method can be applied in order to determine the WIP cap and the work-ahead-window of a CONWIP controlled production and can also be used to implement a new market driven production planning. On the contrary. train to win Train to get into shape Train to get better Train to be better Train right to perform right 3.e. In addition an a priori check is presented to investigate the ability to install a pure make to order system TEAM CONCEPTS IMPORTANT TEAM CONCEPTS 1. Customer Driven Production Plan A customer order driven production planning method is developed by combining the buying behavior of the customers. the required customer delivery lead time.
every match. Improve every day 21. Learn to practice correctly 16. Be a good citizen 22. Recommend getting your own headgear 30. No talking in the wrestling room or weight room 10. Learn that losing is easy and winning is hard 19.. and yourself 18. Come to practice hard 7. To learn to love wrestling 13. Listen to the coaches 9. Bring your own water to practice 35. Wear gear that fits. Learn responsibility to your team. Bring both running and wrestling shoes 31. every season 20. Learn to work hard for your goals in and out of wrestling 14. Be a good student 23. recommend buddy system 34. Learn to win. Bring both wrestling and running shoes to practice every day 11.4. Recommend bring extra shirt 32.and lose. Wash workout gear everyday. don't be taken in charge of 28. Fund raising 9 NIKE PROJECT . no baggies 33.sportsmanship 15. Practice rules and training rules 5. Get better everyday. teammates. Set high goals for yourself and your team 24. Take charge.. Act vs. You set the pace of your matches 26. React 25... Come on time 6. Take control of you practices and matches 27. Workout gear 29. Have a positive attitude 8. every week. Team work and team goals 12. every month. Learn what it is to be a good wrestling team mate 17.
too. The classical design of a new shoe is bound to the shoe last that is the form on which a shoe is constructed.many methods have been developed already.Especially serious problems in pattern generation are caused by overlaps in generated pattern. To make the design process faster and the production of new series cheaper.PRODUCTION PROCESS A New Approach in CAD System for Designing Shoes The needs on shoe market change today faster than ever. The final result obtained by all CAD systems for the shoe design is a flat pattern based on the style lines. the lines have to be digitized. the style lines are drawn on the shoe last.It is clear that the pattern designer wishes to reduce distortions to the minimum. If the style lines are drawn on the real shoe last. The exceptions are some new methods that were developed for faster rendering of surfaces modelled with irregular triangle 10 NIKE PROJECT . an arbitrary surface cannot be unrolled into the plane without the distortions. special CAD/CAM systems are used. An especially hard problem is flattening of the digitized surface since distortions like tearing and overlapping can occur in resulting flat pattern. drawn on the shoe last. We have divided them into two groups: methods for flattening the surfaces in one piece and methods for per partes surface flattening. To generate flat patterns. since overlaps are eliminated from the generated pattern only if the surface is developable.The methods of the first group are not suitable for automatically flattening of arbitrary surfaces. The style lines can be drawn either on the real shoe last or later on the digitized one. This process is expensive and requires a well-trained developer. The shoe series are therefore smaller and the new shoe models have to be developed faster. although some methods reducing the distortions significantly exist already. the shoe last has to be digitized.To construct the appearance of a new shoe. The designing of shoe uppers consists of two phases: reconstruction of digitized surfaces and flattening of these surfaces. The style lines are geodesic curves that partition the shoe last surface in the 3D patches which have to be flattened in the plane to\ get cutting model for shoe uppers manufacturing. since the distortions can only be completely eliminated if the surface is developable. The last gives the shoe a shape. This is very hard to do automatically.The flattening of these patches is therefore a reverse engineering process to assembling the leather parts for the shoe upper. Generally.Since deriving patterns from 3D surfaces is an old problem.
meshes and for non distorted texture mapping. methods of the second group are more appropriate. Zigelman’s method uses a set of mathematical techniques called multi-dimensional scaling. Both methods eliminate overlaps from the flat pattern. Gu presents an interesting method to convert irregular triangular meshes into completely regular structure. To eliminate overlaps and preserve geodesic distances. 11 NIKE PROJECT . The name is not given by accident since the surface geometry is presented by an image where standard compressing algorithms can be used. but the geodesic distances between points are not preserved. to flatten the surface into plane where the texture is mapped. This is important if we want to use a generated pattern for composing 3D objects. called geometry images.
within which customers have the same or similar requirements satisfied by a distinct marketing mix. or segments. Market segmentation is the process of splitting customers. 12 NIKE PROJECT . It is because not all customers have the same requirement and a market strategy which does not recognize this fact will result business failure. or potential customers within a market into different groups.Marketing Segmentation Market segmentation is an essential part in today's business world.
Professional soccer players include all the players playing football as their career. through Nike Team Sports. apparel and equipment products. Consumers like the young people. who emphasis much on brand and identity is more likely to choose Nike. . They need soccer boots which can enhance their performance: comfortable when running on the field and playing football and provide them with good ball control. all of which are currently its top-selling product categories. because they are either having a high salary or they are sponsored by their clubs or even the manufacturers of soccer boots. Their needs for soccer boots is high. Nike's footwear is said to be an expensive goods today.. Young people is also a main target customer group for Nike because the brand has been developed into a famous one and it is well-known for it high price and style.. They also market head gear under the brand name Sports Specialties. women and children.The price of the boots showed that Nike's major target customer groups are those on a high income level. most probably the highest in the market. Nike started selling sports apparel. They sell small amounts of plastic products 13 NIKE PROJECT . Product Nike offers a wide range of shoe.Nike has been successful in market segmentation for selling their soccer boots. The need of a pair of good quality soccer boots in the two groups is high and price is not their major considerations. So the ranking of the professional and amateur soccer players are high on the KCV table. or those who are willing to spend on expensive items... which resulted in a significant market share in that particular product category in recent years. Their brand Cole Haan carries a line of dress and casual footwear and accessories for men.. Price is not a major factor for them when choosing a pair of soccer boots. .. This segment is ranging from the players in the top of the world to those who are hardly recognized by people. Inc. athletic bags and accessory items in 1979.. What they need is a pair of high quality soccer boots which is a combination of well design and good materials.. THE SUMMARY OF 4 Ps 1.
Nike’s pricing strategy makes use of vertical integration in pricing wherein they own participants at differing channel levels or take part in more than one channel level operations. in-roller skates. Renaldo. make it one of the most recognizable brands in the world. This can control costs and influence product pricing. hockey sticks and hockey jerseys and accessories. Lebron James and Jermane O’Neal for basketball. Bauer Nike Hockey Inc. the Nike name and the trademark swoosh. 2. Nike’s quality products.000 retail accounts in the U. manufactures and distributes ice skates. Nike’s brand power is one reason for its high revenues. Nike’s brand images. and Tiger Woods for Golf. Nike as a brand commands high premiums. Place Nike shoes are carried by multi-brand stores and the exclusive Nike stores across the globe. Promotion Promotion is largely dependent on finding accessible store locations. licensees and subsidiaries. Inc. Nike also sponsors events such as Hoop It Up and The Golden West Invitational.S. 3. Lance Armstrong for cycling. Nike has a number of famous athletes that serve as brand ambassadors such as the Brazilian Soccer Team (especially Ronaldino. and in almost 200 countries around the world. 4.to other manufacturers through Nike IHM. protective gear. Price Nike’s pricing is designed to be competitive to the other fashion shoe retailers. 14 NIKE PROJECT . It also avails of targeted advertising in the newspaper and creating strategic alliances. and Roberto Carlos). The pricing is based on the basis of premium segment as target customers. Nike sells its product to about 20. In the international markets. loyal customer base and its great marketing techniques all contribute to make the shoe empire a huge success. skate blades. Independent distributors need not adapt to local pressures because the 4Ps of marketing are managed by distributors. Nike sells its products through independent distributors.
the company adopted its version of IBM's business model. its margins did not matched the corporate model. Product strategy by Bull appeared sometimes erratic and not coordinated. the Sales Network was not conscious of the pressure it exerted on Planning and Engineering. and fighting against the sole IBM as competitor. In fact. of distribution (sales) existing in the company or of time to acquire them (by hiring or by mergers).g. it has been dominated by very old trends rooted in the Sales Network during the 1950s defining Bull's market around the business applications. it focalized on IBM's short term moves. in the domain of products.Product Strategy Product Strategy is perhaps the most important function of a company. It must take in account the capabilities in terms of engineering. Sometimes new opportunities appeared and some innovative products were developed. the reverse existed sometimes (1). Bull did not address the US market directly and by consequence excluded itself from the market segments needing the quantities only addressed by a worldwide market (such as large scientific computers). While IBM's influence on Bull was extremely important. time-sharing in GE time. Before the GE's merger. Dispute between IBM World Trade and IBM US domestic may have been fueled by some worry of IBM European salesmen about some Bull's (and GE's or Honeywell's) products. The capability of Bull to match IBM's offer on the market never existed. the success did not reward it. Each time it (or its American associates) tries a significant move. of production. specially during the periods where product lines run independently. price and market following. Bull never did a comparable investment to IBM's in the technology area. following IBM with a variable delay. So. ignoring the reasons for those moves (sometimes due to legal constraints. It must evaluate the customers expectations at the time of delivery. It must guestimate the competition (including new entrants) probable moves to enter the same market. Another market that was ignored (knowledgeably) early was the small scientific market. However. other times because other competitors moves). (e. Often. sometimes by internal fighting inside IBM. The reasons of the failure were multiple: 15 NIKE PROJECT . smart card applications) but they faded as marginalized by the Sales Network.
sometimes detrimental to product and service costs.overestimation of the return on investment. They obviously attacked IBM's market but GE. Its resource limitations did not allow to embark in the simultaneous developments of more than one or a couple of compatible processors at the same time. Models were developed from a single engineering design with the same manufacturing cost by slowing down the processor clock or adding dummy cycles and/or by reducing the "connectivity" of the system. This strategy worked well as far as the manufacturer controlled completely the customer configuration by leasing the systems. other manufacturers. Bull argued to the persons objecting the strategy (suppliers. Product Planning had to prepare several product line plans and to invent models within each product line to match the competition prices and performances. Some more specific problems were due to the lack of experience in fundamental physics. That changed in the 1980s when "Open Systems" became Bull's religion. customers ) that it would respect the "de jure" standards (such as ISO's or ANSI's) but that it did not have to follow the "de facto" standards (such as IBM's). New lower models were created by slowing down a bit already shipped processors. themselves related to the isolation of the engineers. network architecture was not available even to peripheral suppliers... New higher models were also created by unleashing the design constraints after one year. Honeywell and Bull strategists ordered to take all measures. For historical reasons related to the acquisition of a park of customers and for "political" reasons. size of market. peripheral interfaces were modified and the differences kept in vaults. to escape cloners. When the performances exceeded IBM's target. Bull did not succeed to shut down a product line before the 1990s. 16 NIKE PROJECT . The architecture or the assembler of the machines remained confidential. lack of a long term perspective (that existed in architecture and software). source and object code of programs was secrete. the system was not sold at full speed to avoid the risk of undercutting IBM future announcements' price and keeping some reserve power to react against a competition "midlife kicker". The first evolution of the model was the advent of clones manufacturers.
this is one of the justified and reasonable business strategies applied under the conditions of globalization. under-standard wages etc. The price for individual items is rather high and so the overwhelming majority of purchasers buy franchise copies holding Nike’s logo. it was unbundling. Nike’s brand management strategy as a key of its global success is based on the sponsorship agreements with the world-class athletes. despite million-dollar promotional and advertising campaigns. Specially in the late 1970s and the 1980s. in the late 1980s. While the IBM pricing was more or less related to development and manufacturing costs. In the recent years. the company was subject to legal claims for unfair 17 NIKE PROJECT . Unfortunately. Nike was reported to apply unfair working practices. the original Nike’s products remain unavailable to most people worldwide. for instance. but also enhances the healthy lifestyle and devotion to sport activities. Nike not only expands its corporate image worldwide. was reproduced in far smaller number of copies. However.Another IBM decision impacted the business model. involving child labour. Considering the major revenue increase over the last decade. the company has proved its popularity and high demand for its products among people. Later. lead to a disconnect between decisions to produce and customers acceptation. but they were asked to match the IBM's catalog. Mainly all kinds of sportswear equipment are branded with Nike’s logo which reminds people of success and associates it with the achievements of star performers. adopting the same price for Bull's items where software. Bull embarked in many developments with a very low production rate. including individual performers and sport clubs. Pricing Strategy The key reasons for the success of Nike are associated with its global brand promotion. In addition to this. Due to its extensive advertising campaigns the Nike’s brand is known in almost every household worldwide. lead to some rebundling of the offer (the word was "packaging") where for instance associate a purchased data base system with a memory bank and even an additional processor. insufficient working conditions. In such a way. the competition with open systems.
Most likely. 18 NIKE PROJECT . Nike will close its subsidiary offices in a number of countries and/or shorten manufacturing rates in Asia. To this end the company should emphasise on transparent practices. It also comes as no surprise that the company constantly challenges antiglobalization claims. To this end. recently Nike has ceased its irrelevant practices and tries to lead socially and environmentally responsible business operations. the main emphasis will be put on promotions and so new sponsorship agreements will be concluded with the rising stars. Opportunities Facing Nike In The Future In the foreseeable future. Therefore. as many other multinational businesses. Nike’s management is fully aware that large corporate revenues gained from multinational operations should be combined with socially-oriented projects aimed at recycling and environmental campaigns. The company will continue to implement its corporate projects and programmes to suit the demand and social needs of its worldwide customers. Nike’s facing great opportunities backed up with the company’s 2008 financial success. in terms of further business orientation strategy. Possible Challenges Facing Nike In The Future It is rather difficult to predict corporate challenges to be faced by the company considering the overall adverse affects of global financial crisis. Therefore. Overall. the company should regain the image of more socially-oriented player on a global scale. the company will become more socially responsible in the eyes of average consumers. In this respect. Nike’s further business success necessitates changes and reconsideration of its business strategies.public campaigns associate with the advertisement of corporate brand. Hopefully. and so the availability of its brand products will further increase. considering human rights and social concerns. Though. it is apparent that Nike has a solid potential background to hold strong competitive stance in the foreseeable future.
Place Niketown at Oxford Street. which allows customers to customize designs of some styles of Nike shoes and deliver them directly from manufacturer to the consumer. Jim Courier. Nike sells its products in international markets through independent distributors. Besides Prefontaine. London Nike sells its product to more than 25. Nike has sponsored many other successful track & field athletes over the years such as Carl Lewis. Jackie Joyner-Kersee and Sebastian Coe. Lleyton Hewitt.S. it was the signing of basketball player Michael Jordan in 1984. (including Nike's own outlets and "Niketown" stores) and in approximately 160 countries in the world.000 retailers in the U.com. Nike's first professional athlete endorser was Romanian tennis player Ilie Năstase. and the company's first track endorser was distance running legend Steve Prefontaine. However. the Steve Prefontaine Building is named in his honor at Nike's corporate headquarters. Sponsorship Main article: Nike sponsorships Nike has signed top athletes in many different professional sports to endorsement deals in order to further promote their products. The company also has a program called Nikkei at nikeid. Nike has been one of the major clothing/footwear sponsors for leading tennis players. Roger Federer. Juan Martín del 19 NIKE PROJECT . that proved to be one of the biggest boosts to Nike's publicity and sales. During the past 20 years especially. licensees. with his subsequent promotion of Nike over the course of his storied career with Spike Lee as Mars Blackmon. Today. and subsidiaries. Some of the more successful tennis players currently or formerly sponsored by Nike include: James Blake. Prefontaine was the prized pupil of the company's co-founder Bill Bowerman while he coached at the University of Oregon.
Nike was awarded the contract for US$43 Million. we become the henchmen and admen of the corporations. from 2006 to 2010. Marion Bartoli. Promotional strategy Advertisement We Are What We Wear In the late 20th century American.com. Maria Sharapova. wear. Trevor Immelman and Paul Casey. such as Arsenal. Aston Villa. Some would say that this is the new form of tribalism. defining ourselves with respect to the social standing of the various corporations. Borussia Dortmund. Nike sponsors several of the world's top golf players. and eat logos. Manchester United. Nike also sponsors some of the leading clubs in world football. Nike is also the official kit sponsor for the Indian cricket team for 5 years. Andre Agassi. Mary Pierce. Steaua.com. Nike also sponsors various minor events including Hoop It Up (high school basketball) and The Golden West Invitational (high school track and field). and nikerunning. .com. Rafael Nadal. 20 NIKE PROJECT . I would say that a state where culture is indistinguishable from logo and where the practice of culture risks infringement of private property is a state that values the corporate over the human. Pete Sampras. Red Star. the cultural capital of corporations has replaced many human forms of capital. we redefine the cultural capital of the corporations in human social terms. that in sport corporate logos we ritualize and humanize them. As we buy. Porto. Nike also has several websites for individual sports. Inter Milan. nikefootball. Juventus. Celtic and PSV Eindhoven. Serena Williams.Potro. including nikebasketball. FC Barcelona. Nike uses web sites as a promotional tool to cover these events. including Tiger Woods.
universities. like any other business's. 21 NIKE PROJECT . or avant-garde artist as well as Southern Baptist churches. Examples of these may include ideas of the rebel. We must draw not only on our knowledge of language. readers of advertisements bring with them a surface knowledge of the language as well as a set of preconceived ideas about how to relate the ad to themselves. though a thorough analysis would include the Air Jordan series. Chandler writes.Have we come to this? In light of the rash of killings over Nike shoes in 1991 and the continued market dominance of the brand. "Texts are full of indeterminacies which require the reader's active interpretation." Thus. These mental templates are known as schemata. As opposed to extremists on either side of the interpretative question. and All Conditions Gear ads to name a few. but on our knowledge of the world. I hope to uncover at least the clues to Nike's pull on public imagination. or mechanics' garages. clearly Nike exerts a significant social and psychological force on the American consumer. corporate businessman. I hope to incorporate a wider variety of Nike advertisements at a later date. Through semiotic analysis of a number of Nike advertisements. (The Media and Communications Site concerning semiotic analysis informs this discussion and stands as a great study aid and interesting read) Unlocking Nike's Ads I plan to work with a small number of Nike ads that speak to the entire genre. The question remains. require interpretation. 1994:153). how? Nike ads. Nike's ads. It is my assertion that Nike appeals to a buying public that treats fitness as a worthy individual goal which simultaneously imparts social identification. I fall most nearly to the constructivist point of view in that I view meaning as an interplay between text and the reader. some unconsciously. when first released were "treated like new plays or books" (Katz. Some of this reading goes on at the conscious level. the women-oriented "Empathy"campaign.
giving him an added element of the unknown divine. psychological appeals. Again. the runner has no identity beyond his role in the ad. Yet the reader might inhabit a different role by placing themselves as the runner in the ad itself. A slightly dissimilar angle for interpretation would be to imagine the set of causes or drives that propelled the runner in the ad from his home to the streets for a run. running) and religious questioning. (cp. the reader identifies him/herself as the 'tester of faith.Ads work on a variety of different levels including. The reader feels cowed looking from a subordinate position at the figure of the runner in his element. as well as the need to continually question who we are in relation to our gods and what we hold most sacred. emotion. the impact of an ad comes from the interplay between these various aspects of make-up and the reader's own notions about him/herself and the world. exercise is the object of sanctity. values/beliefs. the reader finds him/herself thrust into the schema of religious worship. Not only must the viewer literally look up to the runner. we cannot see his face. but he/she receives the imperative to "Test your faith. Likewise. sign typology.' And finding the purity of exercise within the soul. Nike and the Sanctification of Sport in the History section of this project) The writers seem to suggest an element of transcendence possible in exercise. but not limited to. Recall Bauman's statement of drive for fit bodies. filled with the sensual pleasure of using one's body. The measure of the individual in contemporary society rests upon the extent to 22 NIKE PROJECT . taking the "Test Your Faith" ad as our first example: Straight off. For the runner in the ad. So. the reader can accept a measure of hearty selfcongratulation. paradigmatic meaning. and knowledge. Transported from reading a magazine to the middle of a run. The text implies a direct connection between exercising (in this case. That is." The runner pictured appears in the midst of a run and rests easy in the knowledge of his own god-like attention to fitness. roles.
Moving on to another example of running advertising. development and worldwide marketing of footwear. Finally. women and children.. 23 NIKE PROJECT . basketball. is engaged in the design. the reader need only answer one question. Running.": Again placed in the dichotomy between athletes and spectators. Identification and affiliation with others. even if they do not take an active part. equipment and accessory products.. shame (first and foremost) and ostracization from the 'incrowd' leave a bitter taste in the mouths of those answering 'no. although some of its products are worn for casual or leisure purposes. Seeing the runner engaged in a long run should impel the reader to imagine their own set of values and desires. Nikes athletic footwear products are designed for specific athletic use. Reading the ad. Have I run today? Respondents will fall neatly into two categories and can take with them the requisite set of emotions that come with their answer. apparel. and pride all spring from the answer 'yes. perhaps themselves members of such a life. approval. The company creates designs for men. It sells its products to approximately 18.000 retail accounts in the United States and through a mix of independent distributors. we look at "You either ran. the gritty gray and white tones of the advertisement insinuate a harsh world in which running becomes an escape. viewers will immediately seek the release and redemption that running and exercise offer. self-worth. licensees and subsidiaries in nearly 200 countries. Inc.which they exercise their body. What would it take to get them on the streets for a run? How important is exercise to that person? The ad places fitness as a top priority and suggests that the reader must acknowledge the fitness culture.' Marketing analysis Nike.' Meanwhile.
signing and year-end bonuses. including. We present Analysis of Nike Inc. Company analysis includes a history of Nike Inc. tennis. cross-training and womens shoes are the Companys top-selling product categories. vacation time. A complete and comprehensive analysis of Nike Inc. dress code. a business segment analysis of the segments Nike Inc operates through. but not limited to corporate culture. hours. football. 24 NIKE PROJECT . includes an overview of the sporting goods & equipments industry in the United States. a PEST Framework Analysis of the US Sports Goods & Equipments Industry. and opportunities for advertisement. stock options. an analysis of the company’s major competitors namely Adidas AG and Reebok International Ltd. basic profit and loss analysis. a geographical operating segments analysis. and then moves on to analyzing the company itself. Nike also markets shoes designed for outdoor activities. baseball. bicycling. a look at the organization structure of the company. presentation of the company balance sheet. soccer. aquatic activities. and much more. It sells active sports apparel that covers most of these categories. A financial analysis of Nike Inc is presented in the report which includes a ratio analysis. wrestling. Nike Recruitment Nike Employee Workplace Surveys are detailed accounts of jobs and careers at Nike. diversity. and other special perks and reimbursements that make up total compensation at Nike. golf. cheerleading. hiking and other athletic and recreational uses. volleyball.childrens. the worlds leading computer software company. athletically inspired lifestyle apparel and others. Nike Salary & Compensation Surveys include information about base salary.
He most recently was head of talent and performance rewards for PepsiCo. During his time at PepsiCo he led worldwide and regional human resources positions and lived in international markets.000 employees worldwide. for eight years. 25 NIKE PROJECT . based near Beaverton. The company has more than 28. NIKE. Nike Interview & Recruiting Surveys are detailed accounts of the recruiting/hiring process and interviews at Nike (how many rounds of interviews. products and services. lesbian. that Nike employees consider helpful for jobseekers considering employment at the company. He currently is a board member for the WorldatWork and National Business Group on Health organizations. Inc. Experience by a Employee Ayre joins Nike with more than 20 years of human resource corporate and consulting experience." Parker said. bisexual and transgender employees by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation. is the world's leading designer.Nike Business Outlook Surveys provide information about strengths and weaknesses in competition. where he worked since 1990. At Nike. employee morale. "The talent and passion of Nike people worldwide is one of our greatest competitive strengths. who conducted the interviews and whether there were any specific interview questions you remember of note). human resources. distribution channels. Oregon. apparel. affiliate brands.." For two years in a row. Inc." Nike also is recognized as a best place to work for gay. marketer and distributor of authentic athletic footwear. "We're very pleased to have David join Nike. including China. Ayre will lead human resources strategy globally for the Nike brand and Nike. etc. Nike has been named by Fortune magazine as one of the "100 Best Companies to Work For. diverse organizations will be a tremendous benefit as we grow our company and continue developing and attracting the best talent in the industry. His deep experience leading human resources strategies in global.
a leading designer and distributor of hockey equipment.. Why does Nikes Trains it Employees Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees. handbags. 26 NIKE PROJECT ... markets and distributes action sports and youth lifestyle footwear. or test.equipment and accessories for a wide variety of sports and fitness activities. accessories and coats. e. markets and distributes athletic footwear. which designs. Wholly owned Nike subsidiaries include Converse Inc. NIKE Bauer Hockey Inc. apparel and accessories and Exeter Brands Group LLC. Cole Haan. which designs and markets athletic footwear and apparel for the value retail channel. which designs. Hurley International LLC. • Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. a leading designer and marketer of luxury shoes. apparel and accessories.: • When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed • To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort.g. As part of an overall professional development program • As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization • To "pilot". the operation of a new performance management system • To train about a specific topic (see below) • Typical Topics of Employee Training • Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs.
Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. resulting in financial gain Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods Increased innovation in strategies and products Reduced employee turnover • • • • • • 27 NIKE PROJECT . These reasons include: Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees Increased employee motivation Increased efficiencies in processes. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management. repetitive activities. etc. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment .• • • • • • • Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment. Also. General Benefits from Employee Training and Development • There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. guidelines and standards for quality. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. Training can people to get along in the workplace. today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. especially about what are inappropriate behaviors. require basic training about quality concepts. and includes techniques to value diversity Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults. Quality Circles.. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views. benchmarking. etc.. hazardous chemicals. etc. etc.
who have all recently left Nike. but is not yet under contract with the company.. 7/11 issue) CHIP SHOTS: IMG will present its first-ever National Golf Consumer Show.Brooks has gone back to using Hogan clubs. "word" was Samsung. Mooney has decided to spin off Nike Golf "to let it pursue new products more rapidly and aggressively. GM Bob Rief. diversity training NIKE GOLF REORGANIZING.which he severed two weeks ago.Mark Brooks' contract with Callaway.. Hogan Dir of Market Development & Player Relations Joe Henley said." Nike Golf is "emerging as a different entity. was considering "sweetening" her deal. a dealfor Pak." according to Gene Yasuda of GOLFWEEK. burden of reorganization discouraged" the golf division's former leaders.. was worth $500.. e. in a "reshaped corporate landscape. Also. conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) Risk management. Now..000 a year. JOINING IN COMPANY-WIDE DOWNSIZING Even though Nike Golf "had clearly been one of the company's top performers" recently..GOLFWEEK's "Forecaddie" reported that after Se Ri Pak's win at the U. Designed to showcase the latest golf products and services to the public.. 7/11).g." Nike Golf plans to introduce a golf ball line soon and Mooney said it is "in the midst of creating a feasibility committee to explore the possibility of selling clubs" (GOLFWEEK. it was ordered to downsize operations in the same manner as other divisions.• • Enhanced company image.g. which already pays her $1M per year. "Discussions on the business side of the relationship will most likely take place" (GOLFWEEK. Marketing Manager Joe Moses and Dir of Marketing Rod Tallman.S. March 25-26. yet unfair."even those that hadn't performed as well. 1999 at Cleveland's Int'l Exposition Center.. training about sexual harassment. e. Yasuda reports. IMG plans to expand the inaugural Expo into a National Show Series in several major metro areas (IMG). Women's Open. who does not currently have a 28 NIKE PROJECT . "Bearing that equal." one that will operate "almost as a subsidiary" and report to new Nike VP/Global Brand Management Andy Mooney.
" he says.Dottie Pepper hired TN-based Alday Communications to handle her PR and marketing (ADWEEK."If you don't give the vendor the degrees of freedom to tailor a solution. you're going to limit what they can do extensively and also you're going to have difficulty in getting them accountable. to play Callaway clubs "likely is in the offing" (GOLFWEEK. Nagel is vice-chairman of the International Bar Association Committee on Technology and e-Commerce.club contract. Instead.With the CVS Pleasant Valley Classic ending after this year's events. is a powerful lesson to organisations considering outsourcing their IT. that global icon of sportswear.. 7/13)... Shira Springer reports that arrangements for a new LPGA stop in the state will "likely" be made "in the coming weeks" OUTSOURCING Nike. he says. Nike never outsourced its strategic thinking. the state of MA has been "effectively frozen out" of the LPGA and PGA Tours. "Nike basically is a trademark and a distribution network. which will lead to "finger pointing and then a death spiral". However. Outsourcing vendors can easily deny responsibility when things go wrong if you only hand them segments of your business processes.Major banks are another example of organisations that outsource much of the mundane work of delivering the day-to-day necessities to customers while they concentrate on developing new financial products... He says vendors will just shift the blame back on to the customer. "Companies that are in the manufacturing and distribution world are moving very much towards the Nike model. in Boston.. He was a pioneer of IT 29 NIKE PROJECT . says Nagel.Australian-born and Harvard qualified. he says.7/11). the company identified its core competencies and outsourced accordingly. at Washington DC law firm Shaw Pittman.and Friendly's announcement yesterday that it will not renew its sponsorship of the Friendly's LPGA Classic. a partner and head of the Global Technology Practice Group. says visiting outsourcing expert and lawyer Dr Trevor Nagel." Nagel says." Nagel says. he says. Nike is way out there in terms of someone who has taken this to its ultimate potential but you can see a lot of the electronic manufacturers moving towards that.Many organisations' outsourcing headaches are due to farming out too little rather than too much.
A lesson many of Nagel's clients have learned from outsourcing is the value of consolidating outsourcing agreements."During the life of the agreement you'd expect."Generally when you're outsourcing the wisest thing you can do is look for a solution rather than look for a specific technology. 2. individuals and groups are most likely to attain goals when they make a public commitment to do so.outsourcing law in the early 1990s and has advised on global outsourcing and strategic alliance arrangements for McDonald's.Nagel also warns clients that saving money or acquiring better technology are not in themselves good enough reasons to outsource.Team Work Skillful managers form work groups when possible with the hope that peer pressure will induce high levels of performance. Personal involvement Workers who are allowed to set their own performance levels will usually try to meet their own expectations.such that it made more sense to have their requirements met by a big vendor ."Not only were those clients not an expert in technology ." he says.Nagel was at Melbourne's La Trobe University last week to teach a unit in the La Trobe Law Global Business Law program covering how to structure. It is important to have the worker make a verbal commitment regarding their anticipated achievement levels.but they learnt they're not very good integrators either." he says. with the speed that technology is changing. in fact. MCI and Pepsi. change in many areas. Complexities arise when a group conforms to a level of achievement rather than a high performance level. This is reported to be an effective means of motivation because individuals appear to be more concerned with living up to the expectations of fellow workers rather than the expectations of their bosses. 30 NIKE PROJECT . This may be due to the fact that such commitments are promises and most people view themselves as persons who keep their word. Also. implement and then govern an outsourcing arrangement. or when a particular work setting makes it difficult to structure group activities." Motivation Theories used by Nike 1. that the technologies that deliver your requirements and the services you want will. Cable & Wireless.
managers are faced with the problem of motivating a worker to think positively about himself so his self-image will correlate with high performance. the reward approach is successful but it is not without its complications. the work may no longer offer an internal incentive. Generally. When employees are expected to perform more complicated job skills. 3. they expect increased compensation. managers structure jobs so the work provides fulfillment. 31 NIKE PROJECT . Basically. Some people prefer pay increases. One of the difficulties with this type of motivational strategy is that workers want to be compensated adequately for the work they do. but it might demand a manager to reinforce an employee's strengths first. When this does not happen. On the whole. At this point. 4. work Enhancement With this method. This is in contrast to the monotonous production system which now characterizes auto manufacturing in the United States. Others seek promotions. this strategy is effective. the entire group is responsible for assembling the complete automobile. Still others may desire new rugs on their office floors. The experiment in job enrichment underway at the Saab-Volvo automobile plant in Sweden illustrates rather nicely how job enrichment works. What may be considered rewarding to one worker may be no incentive whatsoever to the next employee. It is also hoped that poor performance will be eradicated once the subordinate comprehends the relationship between commendable performance and rewards. They use a team-assembly concept in which workers rotate the tasks required for building an automobile. Individuals are unique and maintain different value systems.The chief problem with this strategy results from workers who maintain a low self-image. Rewards This type of planning is based on the behavior modification approach that workers will increase or repeat the desired work performance if they are given rewards.
Also. Punishment And Fear Although frequently used.Establishing meaningful incentives for performance with individuals can be a difficult task for a manager. the least effective method of motivating a worker is with a negative consequence. Difficulties emerge when managers design contests that do not offer a fair opportunity to achieve the specified goals. workers who are backed by a strong union may dissolve the threat with a higher level of authority. workers compete against others for certain bonuses or prizes. 5. interest in competing is likely to grow lukewarm for many of the workers. Punishment may achieve immediate results. competitive measures In this design. Mutual Exchange Sometimes. Second. or the loss of the job. Third. such as a verbal dressing-down. or when he cannot come to an agreement with his supervisor as to what would be a fair exchange. or he may be allowed a day away from the job if he finishes a required project within a specified time. competition does not promote a cooperative strategy and work performance can actually be sabotaged due to the hostility that competition can trigger. but not necessarily the most effective. A supervisor may allow a worker to leave work early if he completes his task for the day. suspension. and free dinners are examples of some rewards offered. This strategy is often used for sales incentives. but it does not accomplish internal motivation for several reasons. adults are not inclined to remain in employment where they are threatened and intimidated. vacations. Banners. If the same individuals and groups consistently win the prizes due to the contest design. managers promise special privileges for the exchange of desired work performance. plaques. Mutual exchange is a frequently used strategy. Problems arise when the employee feels the exchange is out of balance. 6. First. 7. scares and intimidation can create animosity toward a superior and employees may respond with hostility and 32 NIKE PROJECT .
The company has been subject to much critical coverage of the often poor working conditions and exploitation of cheap overseas labor employed in the free trade zones where their goods are typically manufactured.subversion. Nike's annual revenues have increased from $6. Although Nike took action to curb or at least reduce the practice of child labor. A July 2008 investigation by Australian Channel 7 News found a large number of cases involving forced labour in one of the biggest Nike apparel 33 NIKE PROJECT . Sources of this criticism include Naomi Klein's book No Logo and Michael Moore's documentaries. These campaigns have been taken up by many colleges and universities.4 billion in 1996 to nearly $17 billion in 2007. Vietnam. especially anti-globalization groups as well as several anti-sweatshop groups such as the United Students Against Sweatshops Despite these campaigns.S. an activist group. according to the company's annual reports. while engaging in practices in East Asian factories which some felt disempowered women. they continue to contract their production to companies that operate in areas where inadequate regulation and monitoring make it hard to ensure that child labor is not being used. however. Vietnam Labour Watch. Nike has been criticized about ads which referred to empowering women in the U. This particular situation has a tendency to diminish creativity and lead to intellectual stagnation. Indonesia and Mexico. Another problem with the fear strategy is that it creates a punitive climate in which individuals are afraid of being different from or of offending others. Human rights concerns Nike has been criticized for contracting with factories in countries such as China. Nike faced criticism for use of child labor in Cambodia and Pakistan in factories it contracted to manufacture soccer balls. During the 1990s. although Nike claims that this practice has been halted. has documented that factories contracted by Nike have violated minimum wage and overtime laws in Vietnam as late as 1996.
In addition to this.000 pairs for sale . The factory located in Malaysia was filmed by an undercover crew who found instances of squalid living conditions and forced labour. is Nike's longest-running program that 34 NIKE PROJECT . many of their processes negatively contribute to the environment. Although these combined effects can negatively alter the environment. Nike have since stated that they will take corrective action to ensure the continued abuse does not occur. Because Nike is a large participant in this manufacturing. This program. and fossil fuel and raw material consumption.Nike has also been praised for its Nike Grind programme (which closes the product lifecycle) by groups like Climate Counts. one campaign that Nike began for Earth Day 2008 was a commercial that featured Steve Nash wearing Nike's Trash Talk Shoe.Another project Nike has begun is called Nike's Reuse-A-Shoe program. Nike claims this is the first performance basketball shoe that has been created from manufacturing waste. started in 1993. According to a New England-based environmental organisation Clean Air-Cool Planet. while also producing a throw-away mindset due to trends founded upon fast fashion and cheap clothing. Nike tries to counteract their influence with different projects. climate change. Nike ranks among the top 3 companies (out of 56) on a survey conducted about climate-friendly companies.factories. today's electronic textile plants spend significant amounts of energy. but it only produced 5. In addition to this. Environmental record The consistently growing textile industry often negatively impacts the environment. pollution. The Trash Talk Shoe also featured a sole composed of ground-up rubber from a shoe recycling program. a shoe that had been constructed in February 2008 from pieces of leather and synthetic leather waste that derived from the factory floor. Nike admitted seeking help from "relevant government departments" in the Chinese government to track down and identify an anonymous Internet poster. Following Liu Xiang's withdrawal from the 2008 Olympics. One way the expanding textile industry affects the environment is by increasing its water deficit.
Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. selling well-designed and expensive products. However.e. The material that is created from the recycled shoes is then used to help create sports surfaces. Gantt chart A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.benefits both the environment and the community by collecting old athletic shoes of any type in order to process and recycle them. and playgrounds Marketing strategy Nike's marketing strategy is an important component of the company's success. These are summarised below. Gantt charts can be used to 35 NIKE PROJECT . Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i. Nike's marketing mix contains many elements besides promotion. such as basketball courts. Nike is positioned as a premium-brand. professional teams and college athletic teams. Nike lures customers with a marketing strategy centering around a brand image which is attained by distinctive logo and the advertising slogan: "Just do it". precedence network) relationships between activities.Nike promotes its products by sponsorship agreements with celebrity athletes. running tracks.
including collaborative groupware. Gantt charts became a common feature of web-based applications. In recognition of Henry Gantt's contributions. Although now regarded as a common charting technique. This chart is used also in Information Technology to represent data that has been collected. These desktop applications were intended mainly for project managers and project schedulers. In the 1980s.show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal is awarded for distinguished achievement in management and in community service. personal computers eased the creation and editing of elaborate Gantt charts. Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when they were introduced. In the late 1990s and early 2000s. 36 NIKE PROJECT .
37 NIKE PROJECT .
They then manufacture wherever they can produce high quality product at the lowest possible price. Nike will move production. Retailers tend to offer a very similar experience to the consumer. Can you tell one sports retailer from another? So 38 NIKE PROJECT . and products can be made more cheaply elsewhere (to the same or better specification). Nike is strong at research and development. Phil Knight (Founder and CEO) is often quoted as saying that 'Business is war without bullets. Nike is a global brand. This makes a very lean organization.' Nike has a healthy dislike of is competitors. The retail sector is very price sensitive. the income of the business is still heavily dependent upon its share of the footwear market. If prices rise. Nike did not. At the Atlanta Olympics. Its famous 'Swoosh' is instantly recognisable. Nike does have its own retailer in Nike Town. most of its income is derived from selling into retailers. However. However Nike sponsored the top athletes and gained valuable coverage. Weaknesses. and Phil Knight even has it tattooed on his ankle. Reebok went to the expense of sponsoring the games. • • • Nike is a very competitive organization. It is the number one sports brand in the World. This may leave it vulnerable if for any reason its market share erodes. • • The organization does have a diversified range of sports products. It does not tie up cash in buildings and manufacturing workers. as is evidenced by its evolving and innovative product range.SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths. However. Nike has no factories.
There is also the opportunity to develop products such as sport wear. like it or not. The market for sports shoes and garments is very competitive. • • • Product development offers Nike many opportunities. building upon its strong global brand recognition. Competitors are developing alternative brands to take away Nike's market share. Nike is a fashion brand. Such an exposure could mean that Nike may be manufacturing and/or selling at a loss. The brand is fiercely defended by its owners whom truly believe that Nike is not a fashion brand. The business could also be developed internationally.margins tend to get squeezed as retailers try to pass some of the low price competition pressure onto Nike. This creates its own opportunities. There are many markets that have the disposable income to spend on high value sports goods. the retail sector is becoming price competitive. As discussed above in weaknesses. The model developed by Phil Knight in his Stamford Business School days (high value branded product manufactured at a low cost) is now commonly used and to an extent is no longer a basis for sustainable competitive advantage.e. However. consumers need to replace shoes. Such high value items do tend to have associated with them. It buys and sells in different currencies and so costs and margins are not stable over long periods of time. Some would argue that in youth culture especially. This ultimately means that consumers are shopping NIKE PROJECT 39 . This is an issue that faces all global brands. consumers that wear Nike product do not always buy it to participate in sport. since product could become unfashionable before it wears out i. emerging markets such as China and India have a new richer generation of consumers. There are also global marketing events that can be utilised to support the brand such as the World Cup (soccer) and The Olympics. high profits. sunglasses and jewellery. • • • Nike is exposed to the international nature of trade. Opportunities. For example. Threats.
making environmentally preferred material options more cost effective. quality and performance that our consumers expect from Nike products. These materials have added environmental benefits that do not compromise the aesthetic. It also encourages our suppliers to develop more sustainable materials since they know there will be a market. eliminate their use throughout production. This allows us to leverage our purchase volumes with our suppliers. 40 NIKE PROJECT .around for a better deal. post-industrial and/or post-consumer polyester waste materials such as plastic bottles. Recycled polyester Recycled polyester is a fiber derived from reprocessed. Such consumer price sensitivity is a potential external threat to Nike. we have developed and applied an appropriate approach and continue to seek ways to limit use of materials and handle them safely and. consumer textile products. we face a number of challenges. and buy the cheaper of the two. So if one store charges a price for a pair of sports shoes. We have begun using recycled polyester in many of products in our All Conditions Gear outdoor line as well as various active apparel items. uniforms and textile scraps. ranging from use of materials to handling waste. For each. Waste from cutting leather constitutes one of our largest footwear solid waste streams. the consumer could go to the store along the street to compare prices for the exactly the same item. NIKE RESPONSIBILITY: SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS Sustainable Materials What We Use As part of the production of our products. Sustainable materials Expanding our use of environmentally preferred materials as new technologies become commercially viable will allow us to integrate these materials into our products. where possible. Leather Nike is the one of the world’s largest users of white leather.
Durable and inexpensive to make. used in everything from packaging to flooring. The LWG is facilitated by BLC Leather Tech. medical supplies. Fifty-two percent of our cotton-containing products produced in FY06 contained a minimum of 5 percent organic cotton.Recognizing our impact in the athletic footwear industry. PVC was the plastic of choice until recently. The LWG developed a protocol to assess the environmental compliance and stewardship practices of leather tanneries. By assessing tanners against this protocol. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Known as vinyl. Organic cotton Nike’s long-term goal for organic cotton is for every cotton-containing apparel product to contain at least 5 percent organic cotton by 2011. toys. At the end of FY06. We are currently on track to achieve this ambitious goal. Nike has made real progress in this aim. PVC has received considerable attention because of a range of environmental issues related to its manufacturing and disposal. Virtually all of Nike-branded product is now PVC free. Over the last several years. The protocol was peer reviewed in 2006 and will be launched in FY07. and to promote best practices in the industry. We continue to work our supply chain and with ink suppliers and printers to find and implement attractive and durable alternatives to PVC 41 NIKE PROJECT . Removing PVC has required great cooperation in our supply chain and discipline from our design and production teams. In the late 1990s. pipes. PVC has become ubiquitous in the past 50 years. we – controversially at the time – announced our policy to remove PVC from our product lines. a few remaining product types still use PVC with performance. difficulty of use and price being the primary obstacles in the implementation of suitable alternatives. cars and sports equipment. we will be able to identify those that meet our threshold for environmentally preferred leather suppliers. we collaborated with tanners and other footwear brands and retailers to found the Leather Working Group (LWG) in 2006.
that is Sialkot. company found guilty practicing and encouraging it will be prosecuted. This case study will examine the claims and describe the industry and its impact on laborers and their working conditions. particularly sporting goods. Furthermore the U. Pakistan has a traditional culture where earning of one person goes on feeding 10 mouths.S. the government has taken very little action to combat it. In 1994. Are dolphins becoming more important than children? A question making WTO to reconsider the children's appeal of the third world. and with the high rate of inflation it becomes difficult for a low income population to survive. Only a boycott by the United States and other nations will have any impact on slavery and child-based industries. Pakistan has a population of approximately 1 million and is an important centre for the production of goods for export to international markets.S constitution states that child labor is an illegal and inhumane practice and any U.NIKE: Nike Shoes and Child Labor in Pakistan Nike has been accused of using child labor in the production of its soccer balls in Pakistan.GATT and WTO prohibits member nations. Description Pakistan has a per-capita income of $1. Child labor is spread all over Pakistan but has the greatest impact in the north-west of punjab province. While Pakistan has laws against child labor and slavery. And that's nonot all. like the United States.900 per year -meaning that a typical person survives barely on $5 per day. 42 NIKE PROJECT . from discriminating against the importation of goods made by children.
some as young as 4 and 5 years of age. This problem not only pertains to Pakistan but is worldwide. Bangladesh and Indonesia. About half of the world's soccer ball are made in Pakistan. but the government carries lack of willingness to do anything about it. This fact has been well documented and reported by the international media for several years but nothing has been done about it. Majority of these children work in Asia. More than 200 children. Gender and other forms of discrmination plus adding to the lack of political will. Pakistan. authoritarian government and 43 NIKE PROJECT . having very cheap labor. gives the clear picture of the existence of child labor in Pakistan. e. Provision for education is very limited. There is a good possibility that the ball has been made by someone your child's age or even younger. due to the fact that very low priority is given to education in the national budgets. In Pakistan it is clearly documented that child labor is against the law.exports from Sialkot brought income of almost US$ 385 million into the Pakistan economy. and each one of them passes through a process of production where child labor is involved. Child labor exists in Sialkot both in the export sector and the domestic sector. Education receives around 3% of the total gross domestic product when compared to over ten times of this amount spent on military. Sialkot is thus one of the world’s most important centres for production of sporting goods. Nike is characterized of making its equipments in countries which are in the developing phase. are involved in the production line. Nike as a helper or exploiter to IIIrd World Recently if you go to a shop to buy your child a new soccer ball.g in the nations of India.
more slavery. you are not only taking away those innocent years from them but also the right to be educated and the right to be free.that some parents willingly send their children off to work in a factory to survive? Is it cruel for Nike to give them the chance?" (source: http://www. Nike . Both Nike and the local production company aims to minimize cost and earn the highest amounts of profit thus involving themselves in illegal 44 NIKE PROJECT .lack of human rights appeal and union movement. If this happened to be the case. in this case SAGA sports. Increasing the demand of the products produced by child labor means encouraging more child labor. It does not launch its production directly in to the developing country. then more and more children will be bought and sold on the black market.900 per year . When doing this. In doing this it has made greater margins on the cost of mere cents to its workers. By encouraging more child labor. they will earn more. but instead it subcontracts it to them by selecting a local firm. increasing sweatshops and discouraging education . the local firm. encouraging more birth rates. Is it a a revelation . So Nike success story is not based on good name and advertising alone but also attached to it is the tears of tortured workers and child labor.com/~williamf/words96.meaning that the typical person subsists on barely $5 per day.a good chess player As a good chess player Nike always thinks ahead of its movement. hence giving themselves chane to rise above poverty level and thus also benefiting the families of the children and as well as the nation.html) Stephen argues that the best way to end child-labor is to buy more of the products that children produce. But this is not what really happens. This would increase their demand. However.or a crime . and as they will produce more. A columnist 'Stephen Chapman' from Libertarian newspaper argues that "But why is it unconscionable for a poor country to allow child labor? Pakistan has a per-capita income of $1. such as Pakistan.raincity. leading no end to this problem. the issue is not that simple. And it is the duty of the international firm (NIKE) to monitor its subcontracted production units and hold it to tight scrutuny. has to abide by the Nike's international rules and regulations when producing its goods.as parents of the children working in factories would want them to work more and earn more.
Indonesia. a practice which is not so highlighted by the government of the host developing country. such as child labor. Nike has the habit of hiding behind its good public image and its effective means of promotions and advertising. having full knowledge of the favorable conditions prevailing in terms of child labor and has taken no precautions whatsoever to prevent the use of child labor in the production of its soccer balls. Nike simply bases its operations on finding the lowest-cost labor to make its products. it means they have not implemented their rules and regulations effectively and is not abiding by the international standards which they have set for themselves. Nike knew that it was 45 NIKE PROJECT . Nike's entrance in to the Pakistani markets was the part of its long term strategic planning. Nike has refused twice to have a check in their Saga-managed center in Pakistan while on the other hand Nike's rival Reebok readily granted access to its Moltex-managed center in Pakistan. "Why Nike always land up in places having cheap or bonded labors or in places where it can easily get away with illegal labor practices?" Examples incude: Vietnam. China. It is false to explain that Nike didn't knew that child labor is an ages-old practice in Pakistan. So what happens when you question Nike about its labor practices? An answer comes that it is not they who are involved in this illegal labor practices but it is the local subcontracter who is doing so. According to a Foulball campaign report. Bangladesh and India. And if Nike cannot control its subcontracted plants. Pakistan. Nike attempts to create a good public image by offering charity. Nike went into Pakistan. Pakistan. Instead Nike has made a profit from its Pakistani contractors who inturn has used bonded child labor in the production process.practices. 1996 issue of Life magazine carried an article about child labor in Pakistan. donating equipments and never passing an opportunity to remind the public that it has set up stitching centers in places such as Sialkot.Consumer awareness 1996 When the June. How it all started .Twelve-year-old girls work in Indonesian sweatshops 70 hours a week making Nike shoes in unhealthy plants. Critically analyzing the situation. This is wrong to say as Nike and SAGA sports both benefits with access to cheap child labor in Pakistan.
Supervisors at a plant in Vietnam apparently beat workers being paid 20 cents an hour and refused to allow them to leave their work posts. And yet. arriving as countries install the necessary mechanisms for orderly business operations and leaving as living standards become too high to make manufacturing profitable. In a matter of weeks. were in Japan. Nike has not done an especially good job of scrutinizing the subcontractors with which it's working. Nor has it been open about its labor practices in the way public companies should be expected to be. And since thirty years Nike have migrating from nation to nation. American jobs have not been shipped abroad. a crucial part of Phil Knight's plan for his company. most troubling. it's important to recognize that manufacturing shoes in low-wage countries was. And. when that country was still a part of the Third World. built in the 1960s.in trouble. activists all across Canada and the United States were standing in front of Nike outlets. Cameramen have been pushed out of factory floors. holding up Tariq's photo. nearly all the soccer balls made in Pakistan have been revealed to be made by young children getting paid just cents a day." Although 1996 was the first year in which real public attention was focused on Nike's labor practices abroad. The article's lead photograph showed 12-year-old Tariq surrounded by the pieces of a Nike soccer ball which he would spend most of a day stitching together for the grand sum of 60 cents. Nike has never made shoes in the United States. 46 NIKE PROJECT . On the contrary. In other words. Nike chairman Phil Knight also acknowledged that a shipment of soccer balls Nike purchased in Pakistan in the year 1996 was made by a subcontractor using child labor in "horrible conditions. from the start. Indonesian labor organizers has been put behind bars. Its first factories.
after all. Tiger Woods. Michael Jordan. But what if the person is a 9 . Every hand that goes up. hurts Nike in the public eye. And when you're a consumer company. that impact does not seem at all devastating. it gives a very good status symbol. The more you hide. Consumers -.Nike "not Just do it but Do it right. that's the only eye that matters." When a person states that he/she is working for Nike. Nike should take immediate actions in order to provide remedy to all the activism it faces. If "beaten workers" and "child labor" get added to that list. Nike rules because of all the good things people associate with the company: sharp ads. little Penny."Just don't do it. then Nike's greatest asset will be lost. While in the short run Americans are generally horrified by the issue of child labor and has expressed concern over the working conditions in foreign factories. Now the burden is on the company both to do a better job of implementing company-wide global standards of conduct and also to improve its openness to the media." This is the first time that Nike has had to face real questions about its labor practices abroad.year old child? What image will it give you as a consumer when you buy ththose products or brands that employ child labor? 47 NIKE PROJECT . the more people think you have something to hide. the first time that it has felt a public-relations impact. and Michael Jordan again. The basic truth about Nike is that its only real strength is its good name. otherwise it can prove devastating for the company's image in the long run. At this point.
extra 20% off The Nike Store takes an Extra 20% off Already Reduced Clearance Items when using coupon code OCTCLEAR at checkout. for $35! 12/31/2008 More Babies & Kids Expired Nike Coupon Codes 20% off orders of $125 or more Online Coupon . Please let us know if a Nike Coupon Codes or Nike Promotion has expired. Available in 4 colors. This coupon is stackable with the 20% off orders of $125 or more coupon code 2PTCNC1.a new way to help your toddler walk . or if you know any additional Nike coupon codes. This is the best dollar-off coupon we have seen from Nike recently. advertised as "a new way to help your toddler walk". promotions. and Nike Hot Deals. sizes 2c to 10c. RSS Feed . receive free shipping on orders over $175. Promotions and Hot Deals Extra 20% off Already Reduced Clearance Items . 10/28/2008 More Store Events the Peanut . Our coupons and hot deals are updated multiple times every day.Nike Coupon Codes. printable coupons. 10/11/2008 48 NIKE PROJECT . Nike Promotions. Plus. Printable Coupons.com offers free shipping for all orders of $100 or more when using coupon code SHIPOCT at checkout. for both boys and girls.Nike Coupons Nike Coupons . and it may expire anytime! More Sporting Goods Free shipping for all orders of $100 or more Expired. helping shoppers like you to get big discounts at hundreds of online and retail stores.20% off $125 Expired.all deals. NikeStore. Printable Coupons and Discount Codes The Nike Coupons page is dedicated to being the complete source for Nike Coupon Codes.com just introduced the Peanut.$35 NikeStore. promotions and coupons from Nike Nike Coupons Codes. The Nike Store takes 20% off orders of $125 or more when using coupon code 2PTCNC1 at checkout. or discount codes. Nike Promotions.
these dreams (or nightmares) of idyllic exercise have only recently held popular sway. Ingham. As late as the 1950s. and Cole all place the germ of the fitness culture within the late 1970s and early 1980s. athletic body appeal to you? How many hours a week do you spend working out? What's your cholesterol level? Your resting pulse? Your VO2 max? Questions like these bombard the contemporary athletic consumer. Without delving into a discussion of the morality of the welfare state.Origins of the Fitness Culture What does it mean to be fit? How healthy are you? In what ways does a hard. writes Gruneau (1984). it should be noted that both points of view deal exclusively with the body. Yet. Conservatives saw the admission of moral weakness in placing a demand on the state to take care of one's body. The body is charged with the responsibility for success and failure in earthly endeavors. Howell (1991) cites the post-WW2 years as the time during which the massive growth of state apparatus came to define precisely the term "quality of life. As the American state assumed more and more responsibility for its poor. Katz. many citizens viewed welfare as morally repugnant. Visions of lean. American consumers rested easy in their self-conceptions of health. liberals thought the poor stigmatized for not being able to perform the role of "body-consumer." The concept of leisure came to represent." That is. the individual who purchases goods and services based upon their exercise efficacy. In turn. and the urge 'to do something about my life' is most eagerly translated into a precept 'to do something about my body. Ingham (1985) frames the preoccupation with the body in terms of a contradiction between the welfare state and consumer culture. Writing in perhaps the seminal work of fitness anthropology. But even by that time. golden-tanned bodies sweating in exercise accost us from all media. leisure became a sign of broader political and cultural advances in American life. the subtle messages that make up popular notions of health began to undergo transformation. the happiness and success of postwar social democracy.'" 49 NIKE PROJECT . In contrast. Ingham cites Bauman: The care of the body is the crucial time and money-consuming activity of the denizens of consumer society.
Nike isn’t the choice of the “serious” athletes. health. If you’re a serious basketballer or American footballer. Success of Nike Brand The Success of the Nike Brand. But serious runners typically choose something that is appropriate for their stride (New Balance. besides perhaps in the basketball category. Birth and Acceptance So in 1972 Nike was born. perhaps not in sales…). I’m not that familiar with baseball but I’ve seen a lot of logo diversity on the mound. and his principle innovation was the lightweight running shoe with the now-famous waffle outsole. my Air Force Ones. It gave the individual an iconographic representation of who they were in relation to everyone else.As the First Running Boom took off in the late 70s. Below are two photos of my most recent loves. Dang you. Until recently (with the Joga effort and its ancestors) Nike played second fiddle for adidas in soccer. a History By Clay Parker Jones | December 18. Saucony. suggesting that Nike’s hold here isn’t that strong. and stretch-panted aesthetic" (Katz. And in Golf. Michael Jordan. And most serious cyclists ride with Shimano. 2006 Reader beware: I’ve been a fan of Nike for my entire life. Working on the body became a means of taking control of and displaying one's self. Footjoy and 50 NIKE PROJECT . but other specialty brands were still considered superior by many serious Tennis players. and the fog that you put me in. or for a toned body suitable to the imminent haltertopped. Apologies. Mizuno and Asics lead here. Oddly enough. their growth hasn’t ever really been about the technical superiority of their product. Sidi or Carnac. Nike rose to great heights with Agassi and stole Sampras away from Sergio Tacchini. Instead. 1994:65-66). out of Phil Knight and Coach Bill Bowerman’s desire to make good athletic shoes. thanks in no small part to Mr. the idea of exercise and game-playing ceased being something Americans did for fun. In almost every sport. brand loyalty. Yadda yadda yadda. as I understand it. This is an enormous post. Serious backpackers and hikers stick with Asolo or some other specialty brand. it’s likely that you wear Swooshes. according to runners’ mythology. his Airness and their ability to consistently market their innovations. I’ll get to these later. "one ran for long life. they become the biggest sport brand in the world. Bowerman was a bit of a nut about running and running shoes.
in this case. It arrived on the heels of the Air Max 95. This. as far as I can tell. Can anyone help?] But as the 1990s came to a close the so-called Brown Shoe Revolution started to threaten Nike’s hold on our collective feet. which at one point (in the gray and green colorway) was selling for several thousand dollars a pair in Japan. Big worries. At top left is the Air Max 97. A New Aesthetic I remember in about 2002/3. my cousin Adam called from Italy and told me that everyone was wearing tight jeans tucked into wrestling boots. As I recollect from my middle-school and early high-school days. was the height of the technically advanced. The rise of Doc Martens and their Bleatheren (get it? God that’s stupid) ilk introduced a new “look”…a new fashion possibility/sensibility that stole a significant share of foot from Nike. I would say. It’s probably the most tasteful of the highly athletic genre. too self-celebratory. This helps wrestlers grip the mat. Nike’s design really started to suffer. as 51 NIKE PROJECT .others lead (at least in perception of quality and appropriateness) Nike despite their ownership of the Greatest Of All Time. If you’re not familiar with wrestling boots. they are tall boots with a very spare midsole (the foam part) and a thin outsole. Note the thickness and prominence of the midsole (again. As trendsetters started to wear more “adult” footwear. supportive foam is a detriment…you want as much “mat feel” as possible. too over-the-top. typically of either basketball or running varietal. the foam part). been founded on their ability to win over weekend warriors and to provide fashionable designs that can be worn outside of sporting activities. most every kid wore some sort of Nike (or Nike-inspired Payless knockoff) athletic shoe. In the above graphic I’ve shown the style progression that occurred over the past 10 years that resulted in Nike’s current position. Tiger. Nike wasn’t “about” the serious athlete and wasn’t fashionably relevant anymore. and the weight/thickness of the upper (the fabric part). the role for Nike (and other athletic footwear) became diminished. I’m sure. Brown Shoe Movement [Note: Not sure if I have my timing right here. Their shoes became too technically garish. About this time. So Nike’s success. athletic Nike design aesthetic. in Beaverton.
Jordans have always been popular. rare colorway of a popular shoe. factory variants started to become available on the internet (some real. to re-cap. pictured above. with big air pockets and such. And this trend is currently exploding. As mentioned above. These were very in for a while. Recently. So. Certainly you’ve seen these on the feet of trendy types. Puma and adidas raced in to satisfy this need with their wide range of driving-oriented shoes that looked good but weren’t quite as outlandish as the trendy wrestling boots.compared to the middle shoe. a trend started in the hip-hop community a few years back has resulted in a growing desire for retro sneaks with crazy colors. with Nelly’s Air Force Ones: 52 NIKE PROJECT . But in about 2002. In the middle is a typical wrestling boot. the Brown Shoe Movement gave people the idea that hyperathletic shoes didn’t really go with casual clothes. some fake. For example. The shoe pictured here is the Puma Speed Cat. Nike’s doing a brilliant job with this trend. along with Nike’s push toward shoes that outwardly celebrated their technical advancement. I’m not sure when this really started. It was this shoe style that helped to usher Puma and adidas to the front of the line for people looking to pair athletic shoes with their casual outfits. And Nike produced some rare colorways of Jordans on a few occasions that grew to extreme popularity. and continue to be among particularly daring types. and it may help them achieve fashion relevance again. somehow since day one. many desirable no matter their provenance). As far as I can tell. which has a decent midsole for practicality but maintains the same general design idea as the wrestling boot. This spare. but I’ll track some key events for you. But it became very cool to have a unique. retro footwear aesthetic. check out these Louis Vuitton Jordan XIs: These are almost certainly fake. Colorific So that brings us up to the present. resulted in a movement to a spare. note the lack of midsole and thin outsole and the high-top construction. One particular example was the Space Jam Air Jordan XI. almost retro aesthetic led to the rise of the driving shoe (bottom right). it started in hip-hop. This.
And in New York. It’s a tribute to Nike’s Air Force One shoe. 53 NIKE PROJECT . and seen lime green forces and kiwi You couldn’t get this color if you had a personal genie… I like the limited edition to khaki and army green Patent leather pin stripe you should see how I do the strings Size twelve with the strap Red and white with a cardinal cap… And once it crossed-over into the general public. or one-off Air Force Ones (like the ones pictured at the top of the post). I think it’s more a collection of small ideas that work for specific niches. they were talking about Nike’s big brand idea. Kicks Finder. For example. originally made in 1982 and still worn in the NBA by Rasheed Wallace. as evidenced by this lyric from the song: Now if you looked. check out Sneakerplay. You used to be able to define it as Just Do It… but I’m not so sure that’s applicable. it went crazy. and Nike SB. through their moves with iD and by picking up on the customizability trend. And they’ve picked up some of their slack with the serious athletes. custom. The song is all about having rare. they’ve got an invite-only Nike store where you can customize to your heart’s content. And that may be a big brand idea in itself. there were some limited-edition (or paintedat-home) versions of the Ones showing up on the street. Over at Adliterate. In the end… So Nike. serious footballers are wearing Nikes.Seriously. for what that’s worth). NikeLab. and the rise of LeBron James has been helpful. has been able to win back some ground. The Shox technology has been well-received by runners (and by Runner’s World. Freshness. watch it. But at about this time. I’m not so sure what that is anymore.
54 NIKE PROJECT .
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