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Susan M. Frey, P.E., S.E. June 2006

Designers of structural masonry, like designers of steel and concrete structures, must decide when and why to use load factor design (strength design) methods or allowable stress design (ASD or working stress design) methods. Based upon recent data from a variety of college course example problems on masonry building element design, this paper examines both design methods. The summary of comparisons and choices might prove useful to the general design community. The designs involved the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC), the 2003 International Code (IBC), and the 2002 and 2005 Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) “Building Code Committee for Masonry Structures, ACI 530/ ASCE 5/TMS 402.”

Background

All design methods addressed in this paper focus on criteria for reinforced, rather than un-reinforced, masonry design. Many west coast designers have recently moved from the UBC masonry design requirements to the IBC/ MSJC design codes, although designers of structures in California and parts of Hawaii continue to use UBC. The UBC has included strength design for several code cycles, starting with the factored load method for slender out-ofplane wall design in the 1991 edition and adding strength design of all other elements in the 1997 edition. The 1997 UBC changed the actual presentation of the loads (gravity, wind, seismic) as well as their factors, but not the general design approach for the masonry material strength design. The current designer’s learning curves are twofold: UBC designers are moving to the use of the MSJC design code, and former MSJC designers now have the option of using strength design, starting with the 2002 MSJC edition. The 1999 MSJC edition, as well as earlier versions, provided only an ASD methodology. The discussion that follows provides some opinions, findings, and recommendations based on work in consulting engineering, academia, and seminar presentations. The 1997 UBC is still provided for two reasons: (1) several states and other areas are still using it as the adopted code, and (2) some code requirements that provided good practice are present in that code, but not in the current MSJC codes, and are still suggested as guidelines for the IBC/MSJC code designs. One’s choice of design method may of course follow one’s passions! Some designers believe that strength design is more accurate, produces a more economical design, or is “a modern approach” to design, compared with ASD methods, which they consider more conservative or “an antiquated approach.” Masonry design courses at the collegiate level usually require a prerequisite course in concrete design, in which load-factored, strength design is the only method presented. Newly graduated engineers are comfortable with factored loads and material reduction factors. However, ASD relates very directly to the materials and components, produces economical designs in most cases, is reasonably fast to do by hand as well as with a spread sheet, revisits an understanding of basic static stresses relating to linear stress and strain relationships in the member, and collates the unfactored loads for serviceability checks and foundation designs.

Masonry: Design Method Choices Page 1

as these codes transition into strength design.04 ƒ’m. ASD traditionally has been used to design this range of short (non-slender) walls constructed from the most available and economical materials with a low f ’m design assembly strength. require minimum to light reinforcing. Out-of-Plane Wall Design The slenderness of the wall can lead to the choice of one design method over the other. it is anticipated that the codes will be updated so that similar designs can be achieved with either method. In the near future. as befits an efficient compression material. As students move from college design courses to design offices. which prepares students to use either method or the most appropriate method for a given element under certain load cases. or 12 inches thick. The following summaries were based on reinforced concrete masonry unit (CMU) designs. either method is allowed. as well as overall base shear comparisons—and for foundation loads. the 2005 MSJC Code has already addressed some of the issues. formulas hidden.In addition. These criteria. Walls are designed and detailed for both in-plane and out-of-plane forces. Engineering judgment should be employed to make the determination. are being modified in upcoming code changes and updates. If h/t is less than or equal to 30. 10 inches. the information conveyed here might be of use in deciding whether a certain element can be designed by another method if it initially does not meet the requirements of the chosen method. or for those who are comfortable in both methodologies and would appreciate a general summary of which method to choose for a particular design. usually require code minimum reinforcing. and to some extent the 2005 MSJC. Then load factors should be applied as each element or system is designed under the strength design approach. Several collegiate curricula include both design methods in their masonry design classes. with light to high axial loads. multi-wythe brick or to reinforced hollow core brick unit structures. However. have some strength design requirements that preclude a reasonable member designed with factored load cases. spreadsheets with visible formulas. which relate to detailing and maximum reinforcement ratios. For those choosing to use some or all of the strength design methods. many find that ASD (working strength design) is alive and well in the industry. One more code cycle should resolve most of these issues. The recommendations are based upon hand calculations. The following information should be of some value to those in one camp or the other. although it is not yet a requirement of the MSJC. or slightly more. The final design must accommodate all code load resistant and detailing requirements for loads in both directions. common masonry walls 8 inches. These loads are always used for serviceability checks—such as deflection calculations. whereas strength design might not. but apply equally well to reinforced solid grouted. In the meantime. ASD for certain members produces a reasonable design. results out. This is still a reasonable starting place. and the wall is lightly loaded axially. however. based on user input. Wall Design Walls are the main element of any masonry building and are the most influenced by design method selection. (The UBC defined light axial loads as 0. strength design is an option. In high-end wind or seismic load areas. hard to verify or check). with light to medium axial load levels and h/t close to the UBC maximum of 30. it is still strongly recommended that all initial loads for element design and for the overall lateral load systems at service (unfactored) load levels be fully developed. The historic UBC approach relies on the height-to-thickness ratio (h/t) as one decision criterion to choose a method of design. the following design suggestions are not based on “black box” computer program use (data in. the 2002 MSJC.) Shorter walls. and/or checking of the “black box” computer ware. The design is frequently checked with the code Page 2 Masonry: Design Method Choices . If h/t exceeds 30. However. Of course many designers will prefer to choose either ASD or strength design and generally should not mix and match methods within a single building’s design.

but can be analyzed more accurately by means of an interaction diagram or comparison of axial and tension forces. The first appearance of strength design in the MSJC code is in the 2002 edition. particularly for a hand calculation or a computer output check. beam-like wall elements. h/t may not exceed 30. when a wall is very slender.04 ƒ’m unfactored axial load limit was increased to a factored load 0. The 2002 and 2005 MSJC Codes for out-of-plane strength design are based on the 1997 UBC methods. 6 bars (and smaller) at spaces 32 inches on center or greater.05 ƒ’m limit for any h/t ratio. The design ƒ’m is limited to 6. For those who prefer factored loads and strength design. but less than or equal to 0. However. in-plane shear stress. produce similar results.5 ρb. although there is some limitation on the amount of axial load that can be applied: service level axial loads must be less than (0. so that brittle failure cannot occur. These design walls are usually solid grouted. In-Plane Wall Design There are many personal preference design approaches to in-plane walls in which either ASD or strength design could be used. Usually both jamb steel and shear stress are nominal in long wall calculations. For ASD. for walls with a factored axial load range greater than 0. although not requiring an h/t limit for use of ASD criteria.unity equation for total compressive stresses (axial and flexural compression). rather than partially grouted. but because out-of-plane wall designs typically have a small reinforcement ratio compared to the area of compression available. walls must be lightly loaded: unfactored axial loads of less than 0. The 2002 and 2005 MSJC Codes. there is no maximum reinforcing requirement for out-ofplane wall design in any code other than a reasonable. and P – ∆ effects must be calculated in an iterative process to determine a design moment. However. short story buildings. in which the axial compression is taken into account for resisting flexural tension. the maximum reinforcement ratio requirement is not normally a controlling factor for a reasonably reinforced wall. The UBC 0. All load ranges must consider P – ∆ effects. If the required steel area value is nominal. In addition. Walls designed with this method have performed well in service. Methods and equations are similar for ASD. all of these shorter walls can also be designed by strength design code requirements. Strength design for slender walls (h/t > 30) is the only UBC option available and has been successfully used for many years.5 of the balanced reinforcement ratio ρb. the 2003 IBC requires a maximum reinforcement Masonry: Design Method Choices Page 3 .20) ƒ’m. is checked and shear steel provided if needed. Doing the more involved and more accurate calculations includes making interaction diagrams and accounting for tension steel distribution along the wall length from the jamb to the neutral axis.04 ƒ’m. while holding the allowable compressive stress. is the ongoing design philosophy.or 10-inch walls) or at each face (10. a more refined calculation is not required. The linear stress requirements force low steel stress allowable values. Strength design for non-slender walls is not usually the most common design office tool or back-of-an-envelope check for single and two-story. MSJC methods for calculating maximum reinforcement ratios are more complicated than 0. with lower allowable values for more slender. However.or 12-inch walls). and experience. The simplest approach ignores compression effects for a tension jamb steel calculation of As = (Vh)/ [(ƒy or ƒs) (jd)]. However. However. economical masonry walls are partially grouted and use vertical No. allowable shear stresses based on the height to length ratio of the wall. it is prudent to check the P – ∆ refined moments as opposed to taking a reduction in allowable stress.000 psi. strength of the material.20 ƒ’m. Slender walls can be checked with strength design methods very similar to the UBC design requirements.05 ƒ’m. The main force resisting function of the wall. which is the case for many long walls. The use of small bars (#4 or #5) at 16-inch to 24-inch spacing is a typical design result that also provides tension crack size control. most constructable. buildable design. either centered (8. Compression from all axial loads combined with flexural bending compression should still be calculated and checked against code values by means of a unity equation or an interaction diagram. Such a design decision is based on magnitude of axial loads. In both ASD and strength design approaches. a maximum reinforcement ratio is imposed of 0. Design finesse increases because of higher loads or shorter wall lengths. However. h/t ratio. or as a result of personal preference. that requirement could be prohibitive in some cases. non-slender. some refinements have been made.

Strength design of masonry allows both the masonry and the reinforcing shear steel to carry shear stresses simultaneously. The design criteria method is similar to the reasoning described for out-of-plane wall design.limit for tension steel (the jamb steel plus other tension steel to the neutral axis) for slender walls with moderate or greater axial loads in special reinforced shear walls. Formulas are somewhat different in the two codes. shear checks can be done more quickly in a design with ASD methods. where shear strength calculations can be quickly checked to determine nominal shear stress values. In addition. From an overall approach. different strength reduction factors are used based on the strength limit reached in shear. it can be said that. which is a more realistic and less conservative assumption. The codes for ASD design allow a greater range of sections and reinforcement. based on wall proportions. The 2002 MSJC does not address boundary elements. The strains and stresses of the compressive masonry forces and steel tensile forces are represented by a linear distribution (stresses are proportional to strain). for example. ASD shear calculations require that once the allowable value of the masonry shear has been exceeded. UBC and IBC requirements dictate that a 1. These limits provide reasonable design and detailing requirements. the UBC strength design method for beams is similar to strength design for concrete. Page 4 Masonry: Design Method Choices . the same stress block that strength design of concrete uses. Beam design methods are frequently the personal choice of the designer.5 ρb. There is a maximum reinforcement ratio of 0. Therefore. where ρb is based on the Whitney stress block. if one method of design has been used. In-Plane Shear In all the codes considered here. However. and to ensure a ductile failure. Dimensional limits and unbraced lengths are addressed. in general. some items can be reconsidered if a design does not work with the chosen method. compared to another criterion if the strength limit state is flexural. The prescriptive minimum seismic reinforcement requirements are similar in the UBC and the MSJC. the designer generally continues calculations for other elements with that same method. Under all referenced design codes. and the stresses are exceeded. but if shear stress is the only controlling factor. the spacing of both vertical and horizontal reinforcing for special reinforced masonry shear walls which are commonly used in the higher seismic areas. Therefore the reinforcing amount is excessively stringent for walls with low shear forces. for an ASD approach. Beam Design After the major out-of-plane and in-plane walls have been designed. the MSJC has additional detailing (spacing) requirements that are not included in the UBC. Strength design for shear wall in-plane forces is more complex than a simple V/bd check against an allowable stress value.05 ƒ’m. In both UBC and MSJC. The benefits of the use of small bar sizes and the constructability of the section dictate a reasonable design and should prevent the designer from using a heavily reinforced section such as four #9 bars in the bottom of an 8-inch wide lintel that is 24 inches deep. shear regions are considered and detailed separately and boundary members require compressive steel confinement for higher loads. A reasonable section cannot be over-reinforced to the point where a non-ductile failure would occur. The calculation of ρb does account for axial loads. Therefore. The same limits do not exist in ASD designs. The ASD method is frequently used for buildings with many long walls. One of these requirements. allowable stress in the reinforcement is lower if the compressive force in the masonry is at the code maximum allowable stress. which are limited to 0. is based solely on the wall element’s height and length. when the top of wall location limits a lintel height. In the 1997 UBC and the 2005 MSJC. However. where stress limitations and constructability conditions are met instead. all shear loads must be carried by the shear steel alone.5 factor be applied to the calculated working load level shear stress to ensure a ductile failure mechanism. a check by means of strength design might ensure that the wall section will meet code requirements. there is no maximum (or minimum) reinforcement requirement.

Most strength design methodology in current codes produces a practical beam design for beams with nominal axial loads. in addition to the support location of intersecting beams or point loads. if the section is in net tension. although the confined compression steel in columns may be used in determining the allowable stress Fa. One change in strength design in the MSJC is the use of a “rational masonry” stress block. or most available computer programs will plot and evaluate combined stresses by means of an interaction diagram. The UBC has long used a conservative unity equation (fa/Fa + fb/Fb ≤ 1. ball-park plot can be made.0025(Area) in the MSJC codes. but a half a percent (0.04 maximum of the column area. thus reducing the area of the stress block.005) of the area as a minimum would be prudent in columns affected by moderate to high seismic loads.0. instead of using the allowable axial stresses.04 of the area. Refer to concrete design methods to similarly calculate moment magnification Masonry: Design Method Choices Page 5 . the same factor was less than or equal to 0. Or if the moment is large compared to the full flexural capacity of the member. UBC designers usually assume an eccentricity of the compression load along each axis. In some cases. although the MSJC has chosen a unity equation of (fa+fb)/Fb ≤ 1. Flexural ASD column design is similar to ASD beam design. The minimum value is 0. or other experience-based judgments.0) to consider combined compression stresses. limit the available design geometry. so that all columns are designed for both flexure and compression for all gravity and wind/seismic load cases. A quick. Overall. or even with an in-wall flush column section where reinforcing within a bearing wall is locally detailed to column requirements. the masonry component of the shear resistance is limited. the strength reduction factor phi (Φ) is taken at 0. However. where in the UBC. MSJC codes dictate a few more geometry requirements than UBC for ASD design. Columns designed under traditional UBC ASD methods have met minimum reinforcement of 0. the two codes are similar. Axial load are limited to 0. which has limits of 0.85 values for both used in the Whitney stress block for concrete design. The 2002 MSJC maximum reinforcement ratio requirement for strength design does make strength design of beams a slightly longer procedure and might. Column and Pilaster Design Column sections include free-standing elements.8 of c. comparisons of axial and bending induced stresses (fa vs fb) can also determine compression and tension relationships. This same equation is used for out-of-plane wall designs. Such integration allows the use of the confined vertical reinforcing to carry vertical compression loads in addition to flexure. 1-inch minimum. strength design for masonry is similar to concrete design and this method might provide a comfort level for experienced concrete designers. in some cases. but more typically they are integral with a wall (pilaster). The 2005 MSJC has revised the 2002 equations for the maximum reinforcement amount and now gives reasonable reinforcing limits for beams with axial loads. In either wall or column design.8. The MSJC maximum reinforcement amount is also 0. most designers proceed to plot an interaction diagram to more realistically consider combined loads. whereas the unconfined wall steel may not be used.05 ƒ’m in both the 2002 and 2005 editions of the MSJC code. However. Otherwise. ASD design in the MSJC is similar to ASD design in the UBC. On the other hand. as opposed to the limits of 0. Common values range from 10% of the out-ofplane depth.9. four-point. MSJC does address minimum eccentricities of load at a required 10% of the side dimension for each axis considered. the section might not be cracked and only minimum reinforcing will be required. Beam shear design methods have attributes similar to those described previously for shear walls for each design method. The UBC does not address minimum eccentricities for ASD design. the masonry shear strength is again discounted.005 minimum to 0. In the UBC.The 2002 MSJC implemented some refined changes in strength design from the 1997 UBC when it added this design method. in strength design. the neutral axis location. If the quick check unity equation is exceeded.8 of ƒ’m and 0. column design results for ASD design are similar under UBC and MSJC codes.

although ASD methods under the MSJC in many cases allow a greater range of column choices. Note: For the moment magnifier. but column factors. The ρmax design evaluation. The code equations and load factors determine this outcome. A wall pier’s height is less than five times its length. would not meet code requirements. Therefore. Table 1 attempts to capture the main comparisons and opinions. The Canadian masonry code recommends a value of 0.5 bd instead of bd for masonry design in calculating Pcritical and EI factors. Wall Piers A wall pier is an isolated vertical member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness is not less than three times nor more than six times its thickness. However. the materials values for masonry are somewhat more conservative than for concrete. The design approach for piers should be consistent with the overall wall design method chosen. Designers who use MSJC strength design of columns should refer to and use the 2005 edition for the greater range of reinforcing in column sections. The commentary equations in the 2005 MSJC eliminate the maximum reinforcement limit for column-like elements by providing zero in the denominator for elements where the tension and compression reinforcing are balanced. Page 6 Masonry: Design Method Choices . derived mainly for walls and then applied to columns. The main difference in column strength design under the 2002 MSJC code versus the UBC.factors to account for minimum eccentricities. The intent of this article is to capture the current state of the art and to answer many questions on the codes frequently asked by both students and design consultants. may come into play. bd = ratio of factored dead load moment to total factored moment. Anchor Bolts Under either UBC or MSJC. The intent is to prohibit brittle failures for elements designed with the strength method. Conclusion The foregoing opinions are based solely on the author’s experience as a masonry designer who submits masonry building designs and calculations to municipal permitting departments and serves as a masonry building design instructor at Oregon State University. because the allowed maximum amount of reinforcing is less than the calculated minimum reinforcement requirement for columns. The article will be revised as new codes and amendments are issued. such as a 16-inch square column with four #5 bars. anchor bolt capacity for both shear and tension is maximized with strength design rather than ASD methods. the designer’s personal choice is again the main factor for choosing ASD rather than strength design methods. For example. as these are not addressed directly in the masonry codes. there is no upper limit except for the maximum reinforcing based on percent of area of the column. as infinity results. is the maximum reinforcement ratio parameters. the UBC will no longer be a common design code and the MSJC/IBC design requirements will stabilize for strength design. the limit on maximum reinforcement for non-column elements might still be more stringent than UBC designers are used to determining. led to some unintended limitations. At some point. The 2005 MSJC code and commentary provided revised recommendations for columns and other nonshear wall elements with compression reinforcement that allow a higher maximum reinforcement ratio for the flexural steel and produce designs closer to those that have performed well under UBC strength design. The parameters are similar to those for wall and column design. Therefore. beyond minor dimensional limit differences. Overall. the maximum reinforcement for some common column designs. Piers within the length of a wall may be elements located at ends of walls and adjacent to an opening or between wall openings. as noted in the previous section.

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She has also recently taught classes in masonry material design and selection at the University of Oregon’s School of Architecture. P. Ms. and quality assurance reviewer in CH2M Hill’s West Coast Design Group’s structural engineering department. Since 1995 Ms.org © Copyright 2006 Northwest Concrete Masonry Association. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any way without the express consent of the Northwest Concrete Masonry Association. She has served as President of the Structural Engineers of Oregon (SEAO) and is currently their permanent delegate to the Western Council of Structural Engineer Associations.. S.. Suite 211 Lynnwood. Frey has been on staff as an adjunct faculty member in the Civil Engineering Department of Oregon State University. She also served as an advisory council member for the Civil Engineering Department at Purdue University and performed guest lectures in Purdue’s Civil Engineering masonry design class. Every effort has been made to ensure that this document is complete and correct. neither the Northwest Concrete Masonry Association nor the author assumes responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of this document. Page 12 Masonry: Design Method Choices . However. Frey. senior designer.nwcma. All rights reserved.Susan M. is a project manager.E. Frey has co-authored and co-presented code updates for the 1997 UBC and to the 2003 IBC for professional design engineers. WA 98036-5767 (425) 697-5298 www. where she is teaching a graduate level course in the design of masonry structures. Northwest Concrete Masonry Association 19109 36th Avenue West.E.

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