INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION:
The use of Information Technology (IT) is well recognized. This has become must for the survival of business houses with the growing information technology trends. Computer is one of the major components of an information technology network and gaining increasing popularity. Today, computer technology has performed every sphere of existence of modern man. From railway reservation to medical diagnosis, from T.V programs to satellite launching, from matchmaking to criminal catching, everywhere we witness the elegance, notification and efficiency possible only with the help of computers.

COMPUTER:
Computer is defined in the OXFORD dictionary as “An automatic electronic apparatus for making calculation or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms”

Definition:
It is an electronic device which is used to perform arithmetic and logical operations. The word computer comes from word ‘compute’ which means to calculate. The important confluence of the definition is the fact that the computer can perform only those operations/calculations which can be expressed in Logical or Numerical terms. The basic function performed by a computer is the execution of the program. A program consists if a number of sequence of steps. Each of these steps, require air thematic or logical or input/output operations to be performed on data. The unit which interprets a code to generate respective control signal is termed as Control Unit (CU). The arithmetic Logic Unit ALU) and the Control Unit (CU0 together are termed as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is the most important component of a computer’s hardware. The ALU performs the air thematic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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CHARACTERISTICS
SPEED: - A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in few seconds
the amount of work that a human being can do in many years.

ACCURACY: - The accuracy of a computer is very high nearly 100%.
Errors can occur but these are mainly due to human rather than technological
weakness.

DELIGENCE: - Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony
tiredness, lack of concentration and hence can work for hours together.

VERSALITY: - A computer is capable of performing almost any task
provided that the task can be reduced to a series of logical steps.

POWER OF REMEMBERING: - In computer every piece of information
can be retained as long as desired by the user and can be recalled as and when required.

NO INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT AND NO FEELING: - Computers do
not have their own I.Q and own feeling.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Present day computers can be classified into three categories.
1.

ANALOG COMPUTERS: - These are computers which work on the
basis of continuous measurements of physical quantities e.g. pressure voltage current length temperature etc. Example- Thermometer, speedometer, wall-clock.

2.

DIGITAL COMPUTERS :- This are the computers which show the
data in terms of the discrete numbers and processes data using the standard arithmetic operations These computers directly operate on numbers and produce precise results.

3.

HYBRID COMPUTERS: - These computers have the qualities of
both analog and digital computers.
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CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS
1.

MICRO COMPUTERS: - It is the low cost small digital computer.
This type of computer contains a microprocessor at its CPU a memory unit, input and output devices. The word length of these computers lies between 8 to 32 bits. These have a wide range of applications e.g. Personal computers, desktop micro computers, portable micro computers.

2.

MINICOMPUTERS: - These are more faster than micro computers.
The word length of these computers is usually 32-bits. A mini computer can support up to 64 or even 100 terminals. They are extensively used for multi user and interactive applications in colleges universities, research organizations, industries and so on.

3.

MAIN FRAME COMPUTERS:- The mainframe remains a distinct
class of computers and are very powerful large general purpose computers. Large organizations use mainframe computers. Speed of these computers is million of instructions per second.(MIPS)

4.

SUPER COMPUTER: - These computers are much faster and more
powerful than mainframe computers. Super computers are specially designed to maximize the number of flops. These computers are operational, mostly at research centers and government agencies with scientific or engineering functions are used. E.g. Deep blue computer, Param computer.

INPUT
PRIMARY MEMORY

PROCESS MEMORY

PRIMARY MEMORY

OUT PUT

SECONDARY MEMORY

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STORAGE DEVICES
The same device can be used to overwrite the earlier data and store some new data just as in an audio cassette. The devices used are:1.

MAGNETIC TAPE: - It is a plastic tape which is half inch

wide and 600, 1200 or 2400 feet in length. One side of the plastic tape is coated with iron oxide which is used for the recording of data. The tape is divided into tracks frames across its length.
2.

MAGNETIC DISC: - The magnetic tape has a serious

limitation in that it is sequently device. The disk allows us to have a direct access just as in a gramophone record. (1)Floppy Disk or Micro Disk (2)Hard Disk

FLOPPY DISK: - There are two types of floppies commonly
used i.e. (a) 3/1/2 inch diskettes (b) 5/1/4 inch diskettes.

(a)

3/1/2 inch diskettes:-

This is an enclosed in a rigid protective cover. Inside the cover, the micro disks the same familiar flexible plastic with iron oxide coating. There is a read –write opening which is sealed by a sliding mental protector.

(b) 5/1/4 inch diskettes:This dish has a whole in the middle where the disk drive holds it. The disk has a square jacket around it. This is protected by a tape.

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Those devices which receive results and other information from computer and provides it to the user are known as output devices.

PRINTER
(A)DOT MATRIX PRINTER (B)INKJET PRINTER (C)LASER PRINTER (D)DAISY WHEEL PRINTER MONITOR (A)MONOCHROME (BLACK AND WHITE) (B)CGA (COLOR GRAPHIC ADAPTOR) (C)EGA (ENHANCED GRAPHIC ADAPTOR) (D)VGA (VIDEO GRAPHIC ADAPTOR) (E) SVGA(SUPER VISUAL GRAPHIC ADAPTOR) PLOTTER (A) (B)MICRO GRIP PRINTER (C)FLAT BED PRINTER (D) (E)FLAT BED TYPE (F) ROLER FEED TYPE DROM PRINTER INK-JET PRINTER

PRINTER
Printers are output devices that print the result of an operation on paper.
MECHANISM

IMPACT

PRINTERS

NON IMPACT PRINTERS

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A printer is capable of producing output that contains printed words. It is also capable or printing straight lines and simple figures like squares rectangles and circles .Printer are classified based on a number of parameters; like the mechanism used for printing; the speed of printing the quality of output the direction of printing and the kind of interface they have with the computer .the following section will elaborate on these parameters
SPEED QUALITY OF OUTPUT DIRECTION INTERFACE

PLOTTERS
It is used to create high-quality visuals on paper which cannot be obtained using a printer .for this purpose ;a plotter is used .plotter is an output device that is used to create presentation visuals ;charts ;graphs tables and diagrams A plotter consists of an arm that moves across the paper on which the diagram or graph needs to be drawn A pen moves along the arm ;and the arm itself moves relative to the paper A combination of the to thus provides movement along the horizontal and vertical axes. In some plotter the paper is held stationary while the arm and the pen move over it. This is called a flat-bed plotter .In the other type of plotter ;the paper is wrapped around a drum and anchored at both ends .the drum rotates while the pen moves laterally along a fixed rail thus is called a drum plotter

SPEAKER (SOUND OUTPUT)
Music can be made by some special programs to activate the loudspeaker

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DEVICES WHICH ARE USED TO FEED DATA AND INSTRUCTIONS TO THE COMPUTER ARE CALLED INPUT DEVICES

IMPORTANT IMPUT DEVICES ARE :
o KEYBOARD o MOUSE o TRACKBALL o GAME DEVICES o PEN INPUT o TOUCH SCREEN o GLIDE PAD o SOUND INPUT DEVICES o VOICE INPUT DEVICES o VIDEO INPUT DEVICES

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MOUSE
A mouse is an input device that is used to point and select an option on the VDU. A mouse can be classified on the basis of the number of buttons it has, the technology it uses and the kind of interface it has with the computer. A mouse may have one, two or all three of them. In its simplest form, a mouse has one button. Moving the mouse on a flat surface produces a corresponding movement of a pointer on the screen. Placing the pointer on an option and clicking the button results in selecting that option. A mouse may be classified as a mechanical mouse or an optical mouse, on the basis of technology used. In a mechanical mouse, the ball that projects through the bottom surface rotates as


The mouse is moved along a flat surface. The direction of rotation is detected and relayed to the computer by the switches inside the mouse. Microsoft, IBM and Logitech are some well known makers of the mechanical mouse. An optical mouse uses a light beam instead of a rotating ball to detect the movement across a specially patterned mouse pad. MSC Corporation makes the optical mouse that uses LEDs and photo detectors to trap movement.

SCANNERS
Another input device that is being increasingly used is the scanner. Often, there are situations when some information (picture or text) is available on paper and is needed on the computer disk for further editing. The simplest way would be to take a photograph of the image directly from the source, and convert it into a form that can be saved on the disk and then printed. A scanner scans an image and transforms the image to ASCII codes that is the code used by a computer to represent the characters you find on your keyboard- letters of the alphabet,
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numbers punctuation marks and graphics. These can be edited, manipulated and printed. Scanners are of two types- the flat-bed type and the roller-feed type.

While in the roller feed type scanner, the image is passed over a roller where it is captured, the flat bed scanner works like a photocopier. Flat-bed scanners can scan and store images from books without having to remove the page, which is difficult in the case of the roller-feed scanner. Many of the scanners available now-a-days are capable of not only scanning text and graphic files. Scanners are used to reproduce photographs on the computer screen. They can be employed in training programs using the computer and in desktop publishing. Business use scanners for storing documents on the computer. TOUCH SCREENS Touch screens are normally used when information has to be accessed with minimum effort. Two popular technologies exist for touch screens. In one, the screen is made sensitive to touch and the exact position is detected. In the, other the screen is lined with the light emitting devices and photo detectors. When the user’s finger approaches the screen, the light beam is broken and is detected by the photo detectors. Touch screens are used in information-providing systems like the explained above. It is also used in airline and railway reservation counters. The users indicate their current location and the destination by touching the screen, and all the possible routes with timings and rates are displayed.
LIGHT PENS

A light pen is a pointing device that can be used to select an option at it; or drawing figures directly on the screen .Alight pen has a photo –detector can detect Changes in brightness of the screen. When the pen is pointed at a particular spot on the screen; it records change in brightness instantly and informs the computer about this .The computer can find out the exact spot with this information .thus the computer can identify where you are pointing on the screen KEY BOARD

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The keyboard is one of the most common input devices for computer. It is used for entering information and instructions into the computer. Most of the keyboards have 101 keys.

Meaning of WWW
www stands for world wide web. The World Wide Web is officially described as wide area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a long universal of documents.

Search Engine
A search maintains a database of Keywords. When you request the search engine for the information. It attempts to locate the specified information in the database of keywords. If the search engine finds a match, it displayed its references. Examples of popular search engines are yahoo, WebCrawler, AltaVista, excite, info seek and Lycos.

Make Your E-Mail Address
Step-1: Connect Computer to the Internet and Open a site for Exp: hotmail.com Step-2: Click a sign up for a free mail account link from the mail hotmail home page. You will get a form. Fill this form on computer itself. Step-3: A Copy of the form is given.

Step-4: You will get a few terms of services being provided by hotmail.com at the end of the hotmail terms of the services you will get two options. “I don’t accept”. Just click at “I Accept”. Step-5: After the form is completely filled. Please, click at ‘Sign up’ Key. You have got your e-mail address ready which will be as follows: Your login name (a) hotmail.com you will always have to remember your password, which is the key to open your e-mail box.
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www. WEBSITES VISITED

@yahoo.com

1. www.ddnow.com 2. www.jnu.inc.com 3. www.mdu.inc.com 4. www.gju.inc.com 5. www.ignou.org

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