353 views

Uploaded by Ayush_Rai_2506

A report introducing the reader to some basic concepts of robotic manipulator. The introduction to robotic manipulators, their control theory
and methods of programming have been discussed. The architecture of an exemplar manipulator (Unimation PUMA-560) is also shown.

A report introducing the reader to some basic concepts of robotic manipulator. The introduction to robotic manipulators, their control theory
and methods of programming have been discussed. The architecture of an exemplar manipulator (Unimation PUMA-560) is also shown.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Robot Modeling and Control
- Mechanics of Robotic Manipulation
- robotics
- Simulation of Robotic Manipulators
- Nonlinear Control Systems, Third Edition by Alberto Isidori
- Robotic Arm
- Jacak Intelligent Robotic Systems. Design, Planning, And Control
- MEchanics of Robot Manipulations
- Robotic
- 31444612-Robotics
- Serial and Parallel Robot Manipulators - Kinematics Dynamics Control and Optimization
- Robot Manipulators Trends and Development
- Industrial Robotics.pdf
- Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots - Siegwart Nourbakhsh
- Control of Robot Manipulators
- Robotics and Automation in Construction
- Introduction to Robotics Mechanics and Control 3rd Edition
- Nonlinear Control Systems - II by Isidori
- Craig Solution Manual
- introduction to robotics

You are on page 1of 29

Manipulators

A report on industrial robotic manipulators. The introduction to robotic manipulators, their control theory

and methods of programming have been discussed. The architecture of an exemplar manipulator is also

shown.

Table of Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2

Control Theory of Manipulators ................................................................................... 5

Mathematical background ........................................................................................ 5

Position .................................................................................................................. 6

Frames.................................................................................................................... 7

Representation of Angles..................................................................................... 11

Kinematics ............................................................................................................... 12

Link Parameters ................................................................................................... 13

Forward kinematic solution ................................................................................. 15

Robotic Manipulators

Inverse kinematic solution ................................................................................... 15

Kinetics .................................................................................................................... 17

Jacobian ............................................................................................................... 17

Trajectory generation .......................................................................................... 18

Position control .................................................................................................... 21

Force control ........................................................................................................ 21

Robot programming .................................................................................................... 21

Three Levels - .......................................................................................................... 21

Requirements of RPLs ............................................................................................. 22

Off-line Programming.............................................................................................. 23

Architecture of Unimation PUMA 560 ........................................................................ 24

Physical structure .................................................................................................... 24

Controller ................................................................................................................ 27

References .................................................................................................................. 28

1

Introduction

are the means with which a robot interacts with its surroundings. The

structure of a typical manipulator is shown in the following figure-

Robotic Manipulators

2 suit different needs. For example welding-torch, electromagnet, spray

can, etc.

A robot is contrasted from fixed automation by the fact that robots are

programmable and can adapt to their surroundings. A change in the

task just requires a change in the program. For example the same robot

will be able to choose different welding/painting patterns based on

specific car models.

Machine tending

Welding

Robotic Manipulators

Painting

Space exploration

Remote handling

3

Robotic Manipulators

4

Control Theory of Manipulators

into two parts: Kinematics and Kinetics.

involves calculating the position and orientation of the manipulator.

Robotic Manipulators

under motion. This involves calculating velocity, acceleration and torque

of the manipulator. Trajectory generation is also an important aspect

and is required for smooth motion. Force control and position control

are also studied.

mathematical tools which will help us in solving the aforementioned

problems.

Mathematical background-

We need ways in which to describe the position and orientation of a

body in space. First of all a co-ordinate system must be chosen to suit

the needs. The most intuitive system is the Cartesian co-ordinate system

and is used henceforth. Other systems can also be used as per the

specific needs. 5

Next a reference point is chosen. All the other points are described w.r.t.

this reference point. Usually the base of the robot forms the reference.

column vector whose elements are the projections if the vector on the

unit vectors of the reference system.

Robotic Manipulators

study point and describe this system w.r.t. the reference system. This

results in a rotation matrix . It is a 3x3 matrix whose columns are the

projections of unit vectors of {B} on the axes of the reference system.

Thus they are the direction cosines.

6

Robotic Manipulators

Frames are a concept that encompasses both position and orientation.

It is the description of one coordinate system with respect to another.

Position can be represented by a frame whose rotation matrix part is an

identity matrix and whose position vector part locates the point being

described. Similarly orientation can be represented by a frame whose

position vector part is a zero vector.

ordinate systems. This process is called Mapping. We have three types

of mappings- 7

Translated Frames

Robotic Manipulators

Both {A} and {B} have the same orientation. The position of point P is

known w.r.t. the {B}. And the position of the origin of {B} is known w.r.t.

the origin of {B}. So if we need to find the position of P w.r.t. {A}, we just

add the position vectors.

8

Rotated Frames

Robotic Manipulators

Frames {A} and {B} have the same origin but different orientations. The

position of P is known w.r.t. {B} and the rotation matrix is also

known. Therefore to describe P w.r.t. {A} we just need to multiply the

position vector with the rotation matrix.

9

General Fames (both translated and rotated)

Robotic Manipulators

the addition of APBORG with the rotated BP. This can be more intuitively

10 represented with the transformation matrix. This is a 4x4 matrix

consisting of the rotation matrix and position vector along with a

redundant row of scalars.

It can be readily seen that the solution of the above equation results in

the first equation.

Representation of Angles

Fixed Angles –

Robotic Manipulators

In these representations rotations are done about the axes of a fixed

frame.

e.g. - XYZ Fixed angles

11

Euler Angles –

In these representations rotations are done about the axes of a rotating

frame.

e.g. - ZYX Euler angles

Robotic Manipulators

Rotation is done about the rotating axes ZB, YB and XB, in that order.

Kinematics

Forward Kinematics –

The deduction of the position and orientation of the end-effector if all

joint angles are known is called Forward Kinematics

Inverse Kinematics –

orientation of the end-effector is called Inverse Kinematics.

Robotic Manipulators

Manipulator is a set of bodies connected by joints and these bodies are

called links.

Link Parameters

To describe a robot we need to express some parameters about the

links.

13

Any robot can be described kinematically by giving the values of the four

quantities for each link.

2 of these describe the link itself and the other 2 describe its connection

to a neighboring link.

Frames are attached to the links according to fixed conventions.

This notation of frames and associated parameters are commonly

known as Denavit-Hartenberg parameters.

Robotic Manipulators

a = Link Length

α = Link Twist

d = Link Offset

= Joint angle

Based on these frames and parameters we develop a transformation

14 matrix. This matrix defines the general translational and rotational

relation between two neighboring links.

Concatenation

Transformations can be concatenated to derive a relation between any

two frames.

Robotic Manipulators

Forward kinematic solution-

It can be obtained easily by the concatenation of T matrices. By the

concatenation of frames, we can easily describe the tool frame (position

and orientation of end-effector) w.r.t. the base frame (reference).

This problem is much more complex than forward kinematics. Generally

two popular approaches are used:

15

Algebraic

transformations.

Geometric

Robotic Manipulators

problems which are easily solvable.

16

Kinetics

of matrix quantity called Jacobian.

Jacobian-

It is a matrix quantity used for velocity analysis

Consists of the matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector- or

scalar-valued function with respect to another vector

Robotic Manipulators

It specifies the mapping of angular velocities in joint space to velocities

in Cartesian space.

17

It also provides the joint torques needed for desired contact force and

moment.

Robotic Manipulators

software.

Trajectory generation-

18

The trajectory is the path followed by the manipulator while moving

from A to B. It can be described by the joint angles as a function of time.

apart from the destination. To smoothen this motion through the via

points, spline curves are utilized.

Robotic Manipulators

Spline curve

19

In order to achieve a smooth motion the position and its first two

derivatives must be continuous. Cubic polynomials satisfy this condition.

Robotic Manipulators

20 Higher order polynomials and linear functions with parabolic blends are

also compliant.

Other than trajectories, we need to have control systems to have

precise control of position and force.

systems which get feedback from position and velocity sensors (shaft

encoders and tachometers).

desired amount of force.

Robotic Manipulators

Reaction surfaces are not present in all directions so some directions will

have position control and others will have force control which results in

hybrid control.

Robot programming

Three Levels -

Teach By Showing

It is a very primitive method. It involves moving the robot to the desired

goal point and recording its position in a memory. The robot can be

moved by hand or by a teach pendant .Teach pendant is a handheld

device which enables controlling individual joints of the manipulator.

21

This pendant is useful for large unwieldy industrial robots.

Explicit RPLs

It involves programming robots via programs written in computer

programming languages. Advent of inexpensive and powerful computers

has made this approach popular.

Three categories –

Specialized manipulation languages (VAL by Unimation)

Robot Library for an existing language (AR-BASIC, ROBOT-BASIC, JARS for

Pascal by NASA JPL.) Robot Library for a new general-purpose language

(AML by IBM, KAREL by GMF Robotics)

Robotic Manipulators

Command desired subgoals of the task directly. Instructions are given at

a significantly higher level than other languages. Requires sophisticated

robots.

Requirements of RPLs-

World modeling (support for geometric types, sets of joint angles and

frames

Motion specifications (instructions like “moveto goal1”; “moveto goal2,

via goal1”)

Flow of execution (testing, branching, parallel execution)

Programming environment (IDE)

22 Sensor integration (integrate with different sensors and monitor them in

the background)

Off-line Programming-

An off-line system is an extended form of a robot programming system

It facilitates the development of programs without the presence of a

real robot by using simulations

The original production equipment is not tied-up during program

development

Robotic Manipulators

23

Architecture of Unimation PUMA 560

Robotic Manipulators

Physical structure-

Physically it is an open chain articulated robot with 6DOF. The first three

joints provide 1DOF each and wrist joint is a 3DOF joint.

24

The link parameters are shown in the following figure-

Robotic Manipulators

25

The frame attachment is shown in the following figure-

Robotic Manipulators

26

Controller-

Robotic Manipulators

programmed in VAL and controls the Rockwell 6503 microprocessor by a

suitable interface. The 6503 is an 8-bit microprocessor responsible for

PID control of joint angles by feedback received from optical shaft

encoders. There are no tachometers, so the joint velocity is estimated 27

by differentiating joint position in consecutive servo cycles.

References

Introduction to Robotics - Mechanics and Control. 2nd

edition

- John J. Craig

Fundamentals of Robotic Mechanical Systems - Theory,

Methods, and Algorithms. 2nd edition

- J. Angeles

Wikipedia

Robotic Manipulators

End.

28

- Robot Modeling and ControlUploaded byrameshgs
- Mechanics of Robotic ManipulationUploaded byAmmar Husain
- roboticsUploaded byDaniel Milosevski
- Simulation of Robotic ManipulatorsUploaded bytaydoman
- Nonlinear Control Systems, Third Edition by Alberto IsidoriUploaded byElias Valeria
- Robotic ArmUploaded byVijaya Kumar
- Jacak Intelligent Robotic Systems. Design, Planning, And ControlUploaded byMelvin
- MEchanics of Robot ManipulationsUploaded byFernando Arce
- RoboticUploaded bySøren Møller Dath
- 31444612-RoboticsUploaded bynissim47
- Serial and Parallel Robot Manipulators - Kinematics Dynamics Control and OptimizationUploaded byJosé Ramírez
- Robot Manipulators Trends and DevelopmentUploaded byJosé Ramírez
- Industrial Robotics.pdfUploaded bycemoksz
- Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots - Siegwart NourbakhshUploaded byMichael Nikowitz
- Control of Robot ManipulatorsUploaded byDomagoj Majstorović
- Robotics and Automation in ConstructionUploaded byantony777
- Introduction to Robotics Mechanics and Control 3rd EditionUploaded bydarlissonmar
- Nonlinear Control Systems - II by IsidoriUploaded bybhargavgadhvi
- Craig Solution ManualUploaded byCasey Miles
- introduction to roboticsUploaded byMuhammadtanveer15
- Pneumatic PickplaceUploaded byragdapattice
- Robot Dynamics and ControlUploaded byBaichuan Sun
- Lung-Wen Tsai - Robot AnalysisUploaded byMohamed Mamdouh
- Industrial Robotics Theory Modelling and ControlUploaded byusmani.yusuf
- Solutions - SPONGUploaded byteocjc
- Basic Electronics Basic RoboticsUploaded bySachin Bhat
- Introduction to Robotics Analysis, Systems, ApplicationsUploaded by92alaa
- Downey (2011) - Physical Modelling With MatlabUploaded byGeorges Kouroussis

- ASTM C127Uploaded byIsaac Correa Julcarima
- Promotion Request Email - Not Informative _ PTC CommunityUploaded byerzerz
- apparel_1009983421_1425895801Uploaded byRahulKumbhare
- The Degree of Responsiveness of Quantity Demanded of a Commodity to the Change in Price is Called Elasticity of DemandUploaded bykalpna_prestige
- Tissue Machine Energy Balance 148877Uploaded byWilson Figueira
- TM-1002 AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Drawing Production (Basic) Rev 2.0Uploaded byMuthukumaran A
- BRO_H300Uploaded byp_ines
- Barracuda Spam Admin GuideUploaded byEnvisage123
- FAO29-Chap2Uploaded byJeyid Daye
- PAL vs SavilloUploaded byKareen S. Defensor
- Intro (1)Uploaded byMuhammad Junaid
- ESC Key on Keyboard Not Working - AutoCAD 2012 - Autodesk CommunityUploaded bycivilsalman
- USDA Forest Service Floating Trail Bridges and DocksUploaded byRockWagon
- Chapter 09Uploaded byIvo_Nicht
- Case EUploaded bymoneshivangi29
- ccs brochure 2 10 2015Uploaded byapi-278152866
- IRJET- Density Based Smart Traffic Light Control System and Emergency Vehicle Detection Based On Image ProcessingUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Prudential Regulations for Corporate or Commerial BankingUploaded byPlatonic
- Flitched BeamUploaded byAnonymous hprsT3WlP
- As NZS 3008.1.1-2009 Electrical Installations - Selection of Cables Cables for Alternating Voltages Up to AndUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Downloading Data From a Nikon Total Station TS415 – a (Necessary!) Step-By-step Guide _ Palaeoenvironmental LaboratoryUploaded byBambang Herdiana
- PV Potential California NREL StudyUploaded byfas5066
- TA ZC232-L1.pptxUploaded bySeshu Bollineni
- Auto Frett AgeUploaded byVenu Gopal
- Oracle Performance ManagementUploaded bymanjucapl
- Questionnaire About Islamic BankingUploaded byNasir Muhammad
- Anthony Burfoot IndictmentUploaded by13News Now
- CPB 20104 Mass Transfer 2 UniKL MICET Experiment 2: Tray Dryer full lab reportUploaded bySiti Hajar Mohamed
- Hydraulic FluidsUploaded bymohananc67
- Cmdlist SortedUploaded byKatherine Nelson