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) – Degree Programme
Course No. and Title Course Teacher
: HOR .312 Vegetable Production ( 2+1) : Dr.M.Kannan, Associate Professor (Hort.)
SYLLABUS THEORY Importance of vegetable growing –area and production of vegetables in India and Tamil Nadu-nutritive value of vegetables –classification of vegetables –types of vegetable growing –vegetable forcing –kitchen garden-market garden-truck gardennutrition garden-climate and soil –varieties and hybrids –seeds and sowing, manures and manuring –irrigation management –cropping systems in vegetable crops –role of plant growth regulators in vegetable production –seed production techniques-tropical, subtropical and temperate vegetables – Hybrid seed production techniques - vegetable production under protected structures –post- harvest handling, storage –value addition – marketing in vegetables. Crops: Tomato –chillies –capsicum –brinjal –bhendi-onion-gourds-peas and beans– potato-cassava–sweetpotato-carrot-radish–beetroot--cabbage-cauliflower-amaranthusmoringa.
PRACTICAL Preparation of nursery beds, seed treatment and sowing –preparation of main field and sowing / transplanting –identification of varieties and hybrids-manures and manuring –irrigation methods-laying out nutrition garden-practices in use of plant growth regulators- identification of physiological disorders-seed production in OP varietieshybrid seed production-seed extraction methods-working out cost of production and descriptive blanks for solanaceous, legume, gourds, onion, root and cole crops- visit to green house/ployhouse units.
LECTURE SCHEDULE THEORY 1. Importance of vegetable growing in India and Tamil Nadu and classification of vegetables. 2. Types of vegetable growing (vegetable forcing-market garden, truck gardennutrition garden). Production technology –soil, climate, land preparation, seeds and sowing, planting, cropping systems, intercultural operation, manuring, weed control, irrigation harvesting and post harvest handling of the following vegetable crops. 3. Tomato, Brinjal and Chillies. 4. Bhendi and Onion. 5. Pumpkin, Ash gourd and Bottle gourd, 6. Snake gourd, Ribbed gourd and Bitter gourd. 7. Peas, Beans and Potato. 8. Cassava, Sweetpotato and elephant foot yam 9. Mid semester examination 10. Cabbage and cauliflower. 11. Amaranthus and moringa 12. Role of plant growth regulators in vegetable production. 13. Seed production techniques in vegetables 14. Hybrid seed production techniques in vegetables 15. Vegetable growing in green house structures 16. Post-harvest handling and storage in vegetable crops 17. Value addition and marketing in vegetables
PRACTICAL SCHEDULE 1. Nursery management and raising seedlings 2. Preparation of main field for growing vegetables 3. Layout of kitchen garden/ nutrition garden 4. Practices in manure and fertilizer application in vegetables
5. Practices in irrigation of vegetable crops
6. Practices in use of plant growth regulators in vegetable crops 7. Identification of physiological disorders in major vegetable crops 8. Identification and description of varieties and hybrids in major vegetable crops. 9. Fixing maturity standards and harvesting of vegetables 10. Practices in seed production techniques of vegetable crops 11. Practices in hybrid seed production techniques of vegetable crops 12. Practices in extraction of seeds in vegetable crops 13. Working out cost of production and descriptive blank for solanaceous and legume vegetables. 14. Working out cost of production and descriptive blank for gourds and onion 15. Working out cost of production and descriptive blank for root and cole crops 16. Commercial vegetable production in protected structures –visit to greenhouse/ polyhouse units 17. Final practical examination
REFERENCES Bose, T.K., Som. M.K. and Kabir. J. 1993. Vegetable crops Naya Prakash, Calcutta. Shanmugavelu, K.G. 1989. Production Technology of Vegetable Crops, Oxford India Publication, N.D. Singh, S.P.1989. Production technology of vegetable crops-Universal Publication centre, Karnal. Veeraragavathatham, D., Jawaharlal, M. and Seemanthini Ramadas, 1996. A guide on vegetable culture –A.E. Publication, Coimbatore. Choudhary. B. 1967. Vegetable, National Book trust of India. New Delhi. Premnath. 1976. Vegetable Crops for tropical region. ICAR, New Delhi. John. H. Mac Gillivray. 1961. Vegetable Production with reference to Western crops Mc. Graw Hill Book Company Inc. New York, Toronta, London.
NURSERY MANAGEMENT, SEED TREATMENT SOWING SEEDS AND RAISING SEEDLINGS Nursery : Nursery is a place where seedlings, cuttings and grafts are raised with care before transplanting. Depending on the method of cultivation, vegetable crops can be grouped into three types 1. 2. Direct sown vegetables Transplanted vegetables : : Bhendi, raidish, peas, amaranthus, cucurbits, beans, annual moringa etc. Tomato, brinjal, chillies, Sweet potato, cabbage, cauliflower, bellary onion, seed propagated aggregatum onion. Potato, Tapioca, sweetpotato, coccinea, chekurmanis etc.
For transplanted vegetables, raising of nursery is an important operation. Advantages of raising seedlings in nursery 1. It is very convenient to look after the tender seedlings. 2. It is easy to protect the seedlings from pests and diseases 3. Economy of land usage (duration in the mainfield is reduced) 4. Valuable and very small seeds can be raised effectively without any wastage. 5. Uniform crop stand in the mainfield can be maintained by selecting healthy, uniform and vigorous seedlings in the nursery itself. Preparation of nursery beds Selection of site 1. The nursery area should be nearer to the water source. 2. Generally, the location should be partially shaded ie. under the trees. If not, artificial shade to be provided. 3. It should be well protected from animals. 4. Proper drainage facilities should be provided.
Selection of soil
Normally two packets (400 g). one part of sand and one part of FYM can be incorporated to each bed to improve aeration and fertility of the soil. loam (or) sandy loam soil is preferred.1. Soil should be rich in organic matter. Seed treatment The seeds should be treated with Captan or Thiram 2g or carbendazim one g or Trichoderma viride 4 g per kg of seed 24 hours before sowing to control the seed borne pathogens. Advantages of raised nursery bed 1. 3. 2. Height of the raised bed should be 10-15 cm with a width of 1 m and length may be according to the requirement and convenience. 2. 3. Water movement will be uniform and drainage of excess water is possible (In the case of flat bed. Raised nursery bed. Germination percentage of seeds is normally high. Types of nursery bed 1. Preparation of raised nursery bed Selected soil should be worked well to break the clods and weeds. These inoculants are helpful in getting healthy vigorous seedlings in the nursery itself so that the correct population can be maintained in the mainfield. Two parts of fine red earth.3% copper oxychloride to kill the pathogenic spores in the soil. Flat bed 2. water moves from one end to the other and there is possibility of washing away of seeds). A medium textured. are needed for treating the seeds required for one hectare. Nowadays solarisation of nursery bed with white polythene sheet can check the nematode infection and weed growth. Before preparing the bed. the soil should be drenched with 4% formaldehyde or 0. Microorganism inoculants like Azospirillum and phosphobacteria can be mixed with rice gruel @ 250 ml per packet of Azospirillum or phosphobacteria and dried under shade before sowing. . Soil depth should be preferably 15-25 cm. Operations like weeding and plant protection measures are easy. stones and stubbles should be removed.
If it is too shallow the seeds come up and dry out early. vegetable seeds are sown in there district seasons. – Oct. .Sowing of seeds The surface of the bed should be prepared well mixed with well decomposed FYM or compost and leveled by using a wooden plank. and removal of disease infected seedlings. Straight lines are drawn at a spacing of 10 cm to a depth of 1-2 cm. Depth of sowing determines the rate of emergence. Seeds are sown in soil inside the concrete structure. and Feb.-Nov. Line sowing of seeds facilitates easy weeding. Sept.-Oct.-Mar. a thumb rule is followed. The straw cover should be removed after germination and watering once a day will be sufficient. Permanent nursery: Side walls with drainage holes are constructed with concrete to a height of 75 cm. Jan. May-June and Jan. Season of sowing In general.-Feb and July-Aug. for plains. After removal of each batch of seedlings.. A week before transplanting. June-July. Seeds are sown in the lines and covered with sand or fine soil or powdered FYM. If it is two deep. Sept.-Feb. for hills Aug. Types of nursery 1.-Jan and May-June May-June. – Fed. Temporary nursery : It consists of raised nursery beds. Jan.. the seedlings should be exposed to full sunlight and the number of waterings should be reduced so that the seedlings become hardy to bear the shock of transplanting in the mainfield. So. Watering should be done twice daily till the seeds germinate. the bed is covered with paddy straw and watered by using a rose can so as to avoid packing of the soil and washing away of seeds. the seedling emergence is much delayed. Nov-Dec. Sow the seeds approximately at a depth of 3-4 times the diameter of the seed. 2. After sowing the seeds. the soil is enriched with manures. It can be changed from one place to another. depending on needs. Brinjal Tomato Chillies Bellary onion Cabbage and cauliflower Dec.
Cabbage Cauliflower Bellary onion Seed propagated ⎬ aggregatum onion ⎬ .m 10 days before pulling of seedlings will also control the sucking pests in the nursery and at the early stages in the mainfield. The disease affects the seedlings in two ways. cabbage. Sucking pests – Aphids. 1. and cauliflower are highly affected by this disease. . Application of carbofuran @ 10g/sq.375-500 g .8-12 kg . brinjal. Application of systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Dimethoate @ one ml per litre of water by using a hand operated sprayer. spp. Thrips act as vector for leaf curl virus disease in chillies and spotted wilt virus disease in tomato. leaf eating caterpillars etc.8 kg/ha. grasshoppers. Eg.Seed rate: (Per hectare). thrips etc. ii.. Tomato Chillies Brinjal 400-500 g 1 kg 370-500 g Pest and disease management Pests There are two types of pests. the sucking pests also act as vectors for transmitting some of the viral diseases even in the nursery stage itself. Control i. 1. white flies. Diseases Damping off (Pythium spp. Aphids spread mosaic disease in chillies 2. chillies. Biting (or) chewing pests – Beetles. Phytophthora.375-500 g .) Seedlings of tomato. Rizoctonia spp. 2. Water logging with poor drainage leads to infection. Apart from causing damage to the seedlings. which normally attack the nursery plants.
Raising seedlings in raised beds with good drainage facility reduces the infection. the fungi attack the seedlings in the collar region. The tissues will become soft and succulent. Control 1. the seedlings become lodged and get decayed. Treating the seeds with captan. 5. Nematodes Root knot and lesion nematodes commonly infect the seedlings. 2.(1) Affected seeds get decayed inside the soil resulting in failure of germination. thirm @ 2g or carbendazim @ one g/kg or Trichodama viride @ 4g of seeds before sowing can reduce the infection. 3.3% dust at the rate of 100 g/bed on all sides to protect the seeds from ants.m should be incorporated in the soil and watered regularly. Before sowing the seeds. Addition of organic matter improve the soil texture and soil aeration. Ants: Application of Lindane 1. Periodical changing of nursery sites. 4. 6. carbofuran @ 10 g/sq.3% can also reduce the infection. . Avoiding thick sowing of seeds in beds. Drenching the nursery bed once or twice with bordeaux mixture 1% or copper oxychloride 0. In advanced stages. (2) After germination.
large. It yields 42 t/ha (18.R. The fruits are round pale green at unripe stage and turns to capsicum red on ripening. 4.8%) with a flesh to seed ratio of 17%. PKM 1 Tomato (1978) It is an induced mutant from Annanji giving 32. type. The fruits contain high TSS (4.2% increase over CO. It is a semi determinate type.69%). COTH. CO.2°Brix) and acidity (0. leaves broad and thick. The fruits contain 3. 3 Tomato (1980) It is an induced mutant from CO.0 t/ha in a duration of 135 days. CO.90% acidity. Paiyur 1 Tomato (1988) This variety is a hybrid derivative evolved by crossing Pusa Ruby x CO 3.7 mg/100 g of vitamin C and 0. borne in cluster of 4-5 fruits. It yields about 30 t/ha.6°Brix of TSS 23.1 Tomato (1969) It is a pureline selection from an exotic type.S. It bears in clusters of 6 to 8 fruits. rich in vit C (25 mg/100g). The fruits are best suited for long distance transport. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. 2 Tomato (1974) It is a pureline selection from U.1). The plants are determinate with fruits of attractive capsicum red in colour with green shoulders and uniform ripening.VARIETIES OF VEGETABLE CROPS RELEASED FROM TNAU CO. Fruits are ovate. 1 having 100 days duration with very dwarf. compact and determinate plants.99% acidity. The . Coimbatore by crossing IHR 709 and LE 812. The plants are semi-dwarf.S. The crop duration is 135 days and yields 38 tonnes/ha.2° Brix) and acidity (0. It is a determinate F1 hybrid requiring minimum staking. The plants are dwarf and semi round and need no staking. The fruits are round to slightly oblong each weighing 50 g with deep red skin and thick flesh and borne in clusters of 4-5.22°Brix TSS and 0.1 Tomato (1999) This was developed at the Horticultural College and Research Institute. It is suitable for rainfed cultivation. devoid of cracking and rich in ascorbic acid (1821 mg/100g). It yields 50 t/ha and is suitable for summer season also. TSS (3. Fruits are globular attractive red.
The fruit are oblong in shape having eminent deep purple colour with inter mittent pale green streaks. The plants are medium in height and spread and capable of yielding as high as 38 t/ha. It yields 24. It is moderately resistant to root-knot and reniform nematodes. bushy with greenstem and leaves and greenish purple petiole. bright. It is drought tolerant and can withstand long distance transport. The fruits are round. Chenglepet and Chennai.36 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid. The fruits contain 0. The leaves are broad with light green pigments. The crop duration is 160 days. It is high yielding (34. The estiamted yield is 96 tonnes / ha in a crop duration of 110-115 days after transplanting. CO. It stores well under normal room temperature. It has got a self life of 8-10 days under ambient temperature. Sometimes borne in clusters. It yields an average of 15 t/ha. The crop duration is 150 days. The plants can be planted at a spacing of 60 x 45 cm. The plants are compact and medium spreading. medium sized (50-60 g/fruit) with good keeping quality. 2 Brinjal (1988) It is a selection from the local cultivar called Coimbatore Varikkathiri. The fruits contain 0.juice is acidic rendering the fruits for use in culinary preparation unlike the most of the hybrids developed by a number of private firms which lack acidity and hence used mostly for salad.0 t/ha. 1 Brinjal (1978) It is a selection. The fruits are small to medium in size. The fruits measure 6 to 8 cm and 10-14 cm in length and girth respectively with a mean weight of 45 to 65 g.38% acidity and 11. . The plants are erect. Egg shaped and with bright glossy purple colour.0 t/ha in a crop duration of 135 days. purple coloured and each weights 280g. PLR 1 Brinjal (1990) This is a selection. Fruits are light green with white base.29% acidity and 14 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid. medium. MDU 1 Brinjal (1979) It is a selection from a local type and yields 34. The quality is very good and this variety is suitable for growing in Coimbatore and Periyar districts. It fetches premium price in the markets of Cuddalore.75 t/ha) with a duration of 150-155 days. CO. PKM 1 Brinjal (1984) It is an induced mutant of a local type.
. 1 selected in F1 generation and fixed by selfing. The potential yield at this spacing is 3000-3500 kg of dried chilli per hectare.72 mg/g). The fruits are green when unripe and bright shiny red on ripening. Fruits medium sized. It is suitable for harvest as green pods and red ripe pods. It has very bold pods which are dark red in colour. The fruits are 6-6. egg shaped. CO.56%. CO.No. Seed content is high (60%) Capasicin content of dry pod is 0. It is suitable for cultivation both under rainfed and irrigated conditions in Tirunelveli district. The stem is angular semidwarf and less spreading. The crop duration is 210 days and yields 2110 kg of dry pods per hectare. It has a very low stalk weight in comparison with pod weight unlike other cultivars and high oleoresin and capsaicin content and hence suitable for export purpose. milky white in colour and bears in clusters of 2-4 per cluster. 1 Chilli (1979) It is a selection from Sathur Samba. 3 Chilli (1991) This is a dwarf and compact growing samba culture suitable for very close planting of 30 cm x 15 cm. 1797 x CO. The crop duration is 210 days and yields 2200 kg of dry pods per hectare. It has got a very high yield potential of 3000-3200 kg of dry pods per hectare in a crop duration of 180 days. The pods are oblong and bright red in colour. CO.5 cm long with sharp tip and bulged shoulders. medium tall and compact with medium branching.KKM 1 Brinjal (Killikulam-1) (1995) It is a pureline selection from Kulathur local. PKM 1 Chilli (1990) This is a hybrid derivative of the cross between Ac. The seed content is 55% with high capsaicin (0. The plants are erect. It is also suitable to be used as green chilli. It yields 37 t/ha in a duration of 135 days. 2 Chilli (1982) It is a selection from a local Gundu type.
Duration is 200 days and suitable for semi-dry cultivation in Ramanathapuram district. The variety is suitable for rainfed cultivation in southern districts of Tamil Nadu.70 mg/g of capsaicin. K 1 Chilli (1964) It is a selection from local Sathur Samba. The fruits are longer and bears in clusters of 6 to 8. The fruits contain 0. The increased yield is 29% over K1 chilli. PMK 1 Chilli (1993) Plants are medium tall. The plants are tall and compact. less pungent and turns to capsicum red colour after ripening.4 tonnes of dry pods/ha. The crop duration is 210 days. The pods are long and bright red in colour with high seed content. It has the potential to yield 23 t/ha of green chilli.58% increased yield over PKM-1. The crop duration is 210 days and yields 1. The crop duration is 210 days with an yield of 1. It is more suitable for southern districts of Tamil Nadu.9 tonnes of dry pods per ha. It is suited for kharif and rabi seasons. This variety recorded 96. . PLR 1 Chilli (1994) It is a pureline selection from Kandengadu local. It yields about 2.4 Vegetable Chilli (2000) It is a pureline selection made from an open pollinated type introduced from Sri Lanka with a crop duration of 165 days after transplanting. stout.CO. It is more suited for green chillies and yields per hectare. The fruits are dark green. The fruits are long and contain high capsaicin. MDU 1 Chilli (1978) It is a mutant from K 1 chilli. K 2 Chilli (1975) It is hybrid derivative of the cross B 70-A and Sathur Samba. The crop duration is 210 days and yields 1980 kg of dry pods/ha.8 t/ha.
MDU 1 Bhendi (1978) It is an induced mutant from Pusa Sawani. The seeds are bolder with early germination and early vigorous growth. moderately vigorous and deeply lobed leaves. with moderate branching. It can be grown throughout the year.72 tonnes of greens per hectare.5 t/ha accounting for 26 to 64% increase over CO. It lends itself for 10 clippings. 20. The yield is 18. CO.0 mg of iron.3% crude fibre. The crude fibre content is less (1. The crop duration is 90 days with an yield of 14. 1 Bhendi (1976) It is a selection from 'Red Wonder' of Hyderabad.1 Amaranthus (1968) It is a selection from a local type. The crop duration is 25 days for mulakkeerai and 50 days for thandukeerai.75 t/ha. It yields 16.CO. The yield is 8 t/ha. CO. The fruits are long and light green in colour. CO. It yields 12 to 14 t/ha in a crop duration of 100 days. The greens contain 4.75 tonnes of greens/ha. The leaves are dark and seeds are black and small sized. First harvest can be done 45 days after sowing and the crop duration is 90 days. The pods contain 12. CO. commencing from 20 days after sowing and provide a . Pods are slender. The plants are erect.25 t/ha.85% iron. 1.8% calcium and 3.3%) with 19.2 Bhendi (1987) It is a F1 hybrid bhendi involving two parents AE 180 and Pusa Sawani. CO.2 Amaranthus (1979) It is a selection from a germplasm type with a duration of 25 days for mulakeerai and 35-50 days for thandukeerai. This hybrid has high degree of field tolerance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease.0 mg of calcium per 100 g. MDU 1 and Pusa Sawani. The plants are medium tall.3 Hybrid Bhendi (1991) It is a high yielding hybrid evolved from the cross between Parbhani Kranti x MDU 1 and suitable for fresh Market with dark green colour of medium sized fruits. smooth and fleshy. It yields 10.3 Amaranthus (1988) It is a selection from the local type and yields 30.
1 Onion (1963) It is a selection.5% dry matter. 0.2 mg/ 100 g) and isoleucine (1. The stem is also free of fibres. The variety contains 17. The crop duration is 65 days and yields 15. hypochondriacus which is suitable for growing in plains and hills throughout Tamil Nadu. Bulbs are medium sized.4 Onion (1982) . The plants are erect with green nutritious leaves containing 25. 1. It gives a rosette growth in early stages. Amaranthus (1989) It is a selection from A.0°Brix TSS. phenylalanine (5 mg/100g).8 mg.8% iron and 2. The first harvest starts 25 days after sowing and in a crop duration of 55 days it produces on an average of 40 tonnes of green leaves per hectare. leycine (1.4. The bulbs store well over 120 days. CO. 0. The grain can be substituted for minor millets like ragi and tenai.continuous supply of luscious tender green for three months. The seeds are black in colour. The crop duration is 65 days yielding 12 t/ha.3 Onion (1979) It is a clonal selection from open pollinated progenies of CS 450.2 mg per 100 g of vitamin C. The crop duration is 90 days/ The seeds are rich in protein (15. CO.0°Brix). CO. CO.5 mg/100g). CO. It is a photo insensitive type. The variety has double coloured leaves (green and pink). It has high leaf to stem ratio (2.555 kg/ha in addition to 8.200 kg/ha of leaf on 25 the day. It is amendable for various food preparations just like any other grains.75% crude fibre.5 Amaranthus It is a single plant selection (A 166-I) from an OP plant introduction.48% Ca. CS 911.2 Onion (1975) It is a selection from a germplasm type. CO. pink in colour with 8 bulbs per plant weighing 55 to 60 g.95%) and amino acids like lysine (7. The bulbs are fairly pungent. This variety is pungent with high total soluble solids (12./100 g). The crop duration is 90 days and yields 10 t/ha.0).53 per cent sulphur and 13.8 t/ha. It is a high yielding grain amaranthus with an yield of 2.
The crop duration is 135 days and yields 18.7% higher than CO 2. 1 Snake gourd (1976) It is a selection from a local germplasm type. The bulbs store well over 150 days devoid of sprouting in well ventilated store rooms. It yields 52. CO.1 Bitter gourd (1978) It is a selection from a local type.6%)..4 mg/100g) and very low in fibre content (0. C (44. The fruits are medium long (66. MDU 1 Onion (1984) This is a selection from a local type. CO.8 mg/100 g of iron. The crop duration is 115 days and yields 14. . The crop duration is 105 days.74 t/ha.0 t/ha.2 Snake gourd (1986) It is a selection from a local type. The vines are vigorous giving fruits of dark green colour with white strips outside and light green inside.94 cm) and short with an average weight of 551 g. long (30-35 cm) and contain 1. The fruit is light greenish white and each weighs 400-600 g. PKM 1 Snake gourd (1979) It is an induced mutant from H 375 type and yields 25. It is moderately resistant to powdery mildew. MDU 1 Snake gourd (1981) It is a hybrid between Panri Pudal and selection 1.It is a hybrid derivative of the cross AC 863 x CO3. The fruits are dark green with white stripes.0 t/ha. 20 mg/100g of calcium and 1. long fruits (160-180 cm) each weighing 500 to 750 g with good cooking quality. The crop duration is 65 days and yields 19. It is an early flowering type (84 days) with an average yield of 31. It keeps well for a long time with less reduction during storage in bulb weight (45%) for 5 months compared to 65% in CO 2 onion. CO. The fruits are green. The fruits are short and stout. Sempatti. The variety does not require pandal. Bulbs are big sized with attractive red colour. It yields on an average 36 t/ha. Each fruit weighs 700 g.1g/100 g of minerals.0 t/ha. The fruits are fairly rich in Vit.5 t/ha in a duration of 145 days.
0 kg with 5 to 6 fruits per vine. each weighing 7.0 g on an average.2 Pumpkin (1974) It is a selection from a local type. It is early in flowering (60 days) and yields 16. The duration is 135 days and yields 23.0 t/ha. PKM 1 Ribbed gourd (1980) It is an induced mutant from the type H 160 and gives 28.. CO.025 kg. light green. The plants are tolerant to pumpkin beetle.0 t/ha of fruits in a duration of 160 days/ The fruits are dark green with shallow grooves.0 t/ha. First harvest can be had 115 days after sowing and the total crop duration is 180 days. The crop duration is 120 days with an yield of 25 t/ha.MDU 1 Bitter gourd (1984) It is an induced mutant. The . It yields 32. It is a small fruited variety suitable for kitchen garden. long (1 m) and fleshy. Fruits are long (60-75 cm). The fruits are green.1 Pumpkin (1971) It is a selection from a local type and yields 30 t/ha. The fruits are bigger and globular. The vines are moderately vigorous and less spreading. CO.0 t/ha.54 cm and each fruit weighs 410. CO.66 fruits/plant.19 t/ha. attractive in appearance each weighing 300 g on an average. Fruits are round at the base with a prominent bottle neck at the top. fruit fly and leaf spot. CO. CO.34 cm and a girth of 17. developed by gamma irradiation of local cultivar (MC 103). Individual fruit weighs 1. The fruits are long with mean length of 40. medium sized. The crop duration is 135 days and yield of 36.00 kg.1 Ribbed gourd (1976) It is a selection from a local type.5 to 2.2 Ribbed gourd (1984) It is a selection from a germplasm type. Moderately tolerant to pest and disease. One vine yields 6 to 7 fruits. The vines are vigorous and spreading. attractive light green in colour with mean weight of 2.1 Bottle gourd (1981) It is a selection from a germplasm type. The crop duration is 125 days and yield of 14.
1 Ash gourd (1971) It is a selection from a local type with a crop duration of 150 days. The HCN content is less (10g/g) in the flesh. The plants grow to a height of 4-6m and come to flowering 90-100 days after planting. The duration is 120 days and yields 34. The starch content of tubers is 35. The tubers are medium sized with whitish grey skin. CO.14% acidity. creamy white rind and white flesh. It yields 98 tonnes/ha/year. PKM.1 Annual Moringa (1989) It is a pure line selection from the population generated by continuous selfing of the seed moringa types for six generations.8 brix TSS. The fruits are light green with waxy bloom. small sized with a mean weight of 2. less seeded. The tuber is whitish brown with white flesh.0 kg.1 Tapioca (1977) It is a clonal selection with a crop duration of 8½ -9 months. The crop duration is 8 ½ to 9 months .fruits contain 9. CO. The first harvest starts 160-170 days after planting. more fleshy and delicious.0 per cent with an out turn of 10. It takes 85-90 days from sowing to harvest.0 t/ha. light green with ash coating with less seeds. CO. CO.2% starch. The pods are 65-70 cm long with 6. It comes to bearing in six months after sowing.2 Tapioca (1984) It is also a clonal selection. The yield is 25 t/ha.18% in number of pods over PKM1 Annual Moringa.2 Annual Moringa It is a high yielding type with an increase of 9. Every year after the harvest is completed. 10.2 Ash gourd (1982) It is a selection from a local type. It yields 30 t/ha. The fruits contain 200-300 seeds. The pods are long. Ratoon crops can be taken for 3 years. The plants are tolerant to mosaic virus. the trees have to be cut back to about one metre from ground level. and is suitable for industrial uses and consumption purpose.35 tonnes of starch per hectare.5 to 3. The fruits are globular. 10 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid and 0. The starch .3 cm girth and 150 g weight. Each tree bears on an average 200-225 fruits/year (3 kg). PKM.
It yields 32 t/ha in a crop duration of 180-190 days.6% and low HCN of 77. CO. CO.50 per cent. Tuber flesh is white with brown skin and creamy white rind. It yields 31.20 developed through half-sib evaluation of open pollinated seedlings.3 Tapiaco (1993) It is also a clonal selection from open pollinated seeds obtained from Ibadan.8°Brix.89µg/g. The number of tubers per plant is 3. Tubers have pink skin and white flesh and have a starch content of 29. The tubers contain low HCN of 10 g/g in the flesh. CO. The crop duration is 105-110 days and yields 42 t/ha. Tolerant to weevil incidence (14.2 Sweetpotato (1980) It is a clonal selection. The incidence of mosaic virus is low. CO.1 Dioscorea (1991) . CO.76 t/ha.1 Sweetpotato It is a clonal progeny of IB 19.5 per cent and TSS of 10. It yields 43 t/ha in a crop duration is 8 months.28 mg/100 g and starch of 30.1 Coleus (1991) It is a clonal selection. The tubers have 21.3 Sweetpotato (1982) It is also a clonal selection. Duration is 95-110 days September-October. CO.2 with a starch content of 24% and a TSS of 10.1 Sweetpotato (1976) It is a clonal selection. The tubers have light pink skin and orange flesh and contain a carotene of 13. It is suitable for cultivation in both seasons and tolerant to root weevil.6° brix.5 per cent starch.CIP.72 per cent. The crop duration is 135 days and yields 28 t/ha.85%). It is a branching type. It yields 38. The crop duration is 110 to 115 days and yields 32 t/ha. February-March and June-July are best suitable seasons. Nigeria.6 t/ha of tubers. The plants exhibit field tolerance to mosaic virus disease. The cooked tubers are tasty and have lesser soil odour.10. CO. The tubers contain high starch 35.content is 34. The tubers have light pink skin and white flesh.
It yields 9 tonnes of green pods or 6 tonnes of grain per hectare in a duration of 105 days. Ooty-1 Beetroot (1992) It is a selection and yields 31. .5%). green with dark purple bold seeds. It has an yield potential of 24 t/ha. Top to root ratio is 0. suitable for intercropping and other systems of cropping.28% crude fibre.S. CO. long (22 cm) cylindrical and tapering and thick (12. The selection yields 7 tonnes of green pods/ha with 31 per cent increase over local.It is a clonal selection. Tubers are rich in carbohydrate (28%) and protein (2. Roots have better consumer's preference. It exhibits field tolerance to yellow vein mosaic and anthranose disease.5 cm girth) and medium sized (226 g). The crop duration is 120-130 days if direct sown and 135-150 days if transplanted. It is suitable for growing in all seasons. KKL-1 Moringa bean (1996) It is a selection from a local type.8 tonnes of tubers/ha in a crop duration of 8 to 8½ months. The roots are blood red in colour with thin skin. YCD. CO. The pods are flat.1 Colocasia (1991) It is a high yielding selection. It gives 44. Pods are green. The tubers are big in size with white flesh.L. Tubers have high starch content (22. C per 100 g and 1. fleshy and thick. less pungent.5%) and higher protein content (2.4 t/ha in the hills.1 Radish (1971) It is a selection from a germplasm type.99. Roots contain 10. Tubers have less acidity and good cooking quality.4%) than cassava and sweet potato.1 French bean (1994) It is a pureline selection from a local type and suitable for rainfed cultivation in the hills upto an elevation of 1500 m above M. Roots are milky white.9 mg/vit.
PKM. It yields 15 t/ha/harvest. CO. Ca 39 mg.69% protein. tapering towards stalk end.1 Garlic (1991) It is a high yielder and gives on an average 17.33% crude fibre. P. tender and fleshy. It is suitable for cultivation in the plains during monsoon seasons.1 Dolichos bean (1993) It is a selection. The bulb is dull white in colour. The harvest will continue upto 140 days. The yield is 12 t/ha in a crop duration of 110 days. beans are 5-6 in number per pod. CO. duration 165 days.47 t/ha in 3 to 4 pickings. Duration is 120-135 days and yield is 38 t/ha. 100 g or edible portion with 1. Fe 2 mg. It is a high yielding selection (2528 t/ha). Comes to harvest in 120130 days.1 Watermelon (1993) Fruits are oblong. Each fruit weighs about 3-4 kg. Ooty 1 Palak (1995) It is a selection and can be grown all through the year. The leaves contain higher carotene. The crop will be ready for harvest from 100 days. Ooty. It is tasty green leafy vegetable in which first picking can be had 45 days after sowing and continued at 15 days interval for a period of 2 years. 12 mg vit. It yields 3. green in colour with light green stripes. Simla potato (1970) It is a selection from the hybrids obtained from CPRI. C. Pods contain 4.KKL-1 Butter beans (1991) KKL-1 butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) is a selection from a type collected from Vilpatti.1 t/ha. CO. Yield 18 t/ha. It is a pole type and bears pods in clusters.6 cm long. The pods are 11. The fruits are long (60 to 65 cm).1 Cucumber (1989) It is a selection from Kanyakumari local type. Simla. Matured seed is black in colour. . Pods are dark green flat and slightly curved.14 mg. slightly curved.
Cauliflower and spinach come up well in a pH range of 6. Plenty of organic matter and moisture should be available in the top soil for these crops.5 to 7.5. Transport facilities and cost of transportation from production site to market place (more than one mode of transport is essential) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Suitable climate for vegetable cultivation. while peas and cabbage can tolerate a soil pH of 5.0. Highly acidic or alkaline soil should be avoided. iii) Soil should have a good physical properties (which enables proper root development and anchorage of the plant) iv) Soil should be free from adverse chemical reactions. P & K are highly available at a pH range of 6.0 to 6. . A good soil for vegetable cultivation should have the following characters. So soils which are high in fertility and moisture in top layer should be selected.7. Extent and suitability of land Nature of available soil conditions Availability of labour force. i) ii) Marketing facility to sell the produce. Soil should be selected depending on the crop to be grown. (1) Crops like celery. Each vegetable crop requires on optimum pH range for better performance. It should have a reasonable water storage capacity and ability to maintain sufficient moisture. Assurance of water supply. i) ii) Soil should have ample plant nutrients for good yield.METHOD OF FIELD PREPARATION AND PLANTING OF SEEDLINGS Selection of site for vegetable cultivation The points to be considered while selecting a particular site for vegetable cultivation are. onion and lettuce have shallow root system. The bacteria which fix nitrogen and decompose organic matter are very active in the pH of 7.0. Soil reaction influences the availability of plant nutrients N.
....................40-45 Cabbage........ 3................ 5.............. Age of seedlings suitable for transplanting Crops 1............ Fertile....... well drained loamy soils should be selected.25-30 Chillies ...30-35 Cauliflower ...................... Gap filing may be done during the life irrigation or during the subsequent irrigation.. Life irrigation should be given on the third day..................30-35 Tomato ........30-40 .... 6.....30-35 Seedlings in polybags 7 8 Cucurbits ........................... 4..................... Age (days) Brinjal ................. During summer................(2) Cucurbits have tap root system which grows to a depth of 45 to 75 cm..................25-30 Annual Moringa . it is desirable to provide some artificial shade to newly planted seedlings by inserting twigs with leaves near the seedlings........................... While transplanting.............................................................. But the lateral roots spread as much as the spread of the top of the plant.. Hence it is better to transplant in the late evenings or on a cloudy day......................... roots are injured and the capacity of the plant to absorb water to compensate transpiration loss is reduced..............40-45 Bellary onion....... 2...
Fertilization beyond this level must be considered a wasteful practice. Bone meal is especially beneficial to soil deficient in lime. pongamia. such as ammonium nitrate and superphosphate are synthesized from inorganic minerals. etc.6% potassium. Oil cakes: They are residues left after the oil is extracted from the seeds of groundnut. It is more suited to light than heavy soils. Cattle manure or farmyard manure: The manures produced by horse. 0.METHODS OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN VEGETABLE CROPS Fertilization refers to the addition of nutrients to the plant. They are best applied to potted plants in the form of liquid manure. Zn.35% phosphorus and 0. . gingelly. Natural organics (eg. Chemical fertilizers. Not only it is subjected to an excess loss by leaching and volatilization. fish scraps and cotton seed meal) are compounds derived from living organisms. Neem. In addition to soil application.5% N and 23% Phosphoric acid. manure. The primary objective of crop fertilization is to achieve an optimum plant response.6% N.5-2% P. Important organic manures 1. The manure is applied as a basal dressing by broadcast and immediately incorporated into the soil by ploughing. Bone meal: This is rich in phsophoric acid and lime. However. 3. Steamed bone meal contains not less than 3. It takes a long time to decompose nearly a year before it becomes usable. N can be efficiently applied through the leaves by spraying them with urea. Iron. etc. This contains 0. but also it becomes toxic to crops. boron. blood. condition of animals and storage and handling including the kind of litter used. and they contain 3 to 5% N and 1. castor. age of the animals. cattle or other animals are included in this category. the percentage of these nutrients may vary depending upon the substances the animal feed. Fertilizers may be classified as natural organics and chemicals. 2. has also proved practical. The application to the foliage of such trace elements as manganese. nutrients may be applied directly through the foliage.
4.75% P2O5 and 1-1. A well prepared compost contains 0. Leaf mould is rich in humus and is hence applied to both sandy and clayey soils. Sunnhemp (Crotolaria juncea) 3. 0. Daincha (Sesania aculeata) 3. Wood ash: It is rich in potassium. Compost: The soil organic matter can be increased by the addition of Compost.75-1% N. It is usually mixed with soil in the preparation of pot mixtures. 6. Gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) 2. Sesbania (Sesbania speciosa) . Daincha (Sesbania aculeata) 3. green manure or green leaf manures are ploughed into the soil for the purpose of incorporating organic matter. Sometimes. Pungam (Pungamia pinnata) 4. Pillipesara (Phaseolus trilobus) 4. The popular plants are 1. It may be defined as the material resulting from the decomposition of plant residues under the action of bacteria and fungi. The following are the commonly grown green manure legumes in India. 1. Decomposition will be completed within a year. thus applying humus as well as nutrients contained in them.5% K2O. Leaf mould: Withered and dried leaves and garden sweepings are thrown into a pit in a shady corner in the garden and covered over with earth and watered copiously once or twice in summer to assist decomposition. Sesbania (Sesbania speciosa) Green leaf manuring refers to the incorporation of the green leaves and other tender parts of the plants collected from the shurbs and trees grown outside the field and also collected from the waste lands and nearby forests into the soil. 5.60-0. Vegetables generally require liberal manuring with wood ash.
0 16.0-40.0 12.6 46.0 60. Advantages: 1.0 48. Application of phosphobacteria solubilizes the insoluble phosphorus thereby it increases the availability of phosphorus.) Rhizobium and non-leguminous crops. 2.0 Mixed fertilizers: It is a mixture of straight fertilizers which can supply more than one plant nutrient elements. (eg. . Unit cost of various nutrients contained in the mixed fertilizers will always be higher than the unit cost of nutrients in the straight fertilizers. Biofertilizers Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is carried out by specific group of microroganisms either in free living condition (Eg) Azotobacter or in symbiotic association with leguminous crops (eg. Disadvantages 1.) Azospirillum. Specific needs of crops for individual nutrient element cannot be met.Type of fertilizers Nitrogenous fertilizers a) Ammonium sulphate b) Urea c) Sodium Nitrate d) Potassium Nitrate Phosphatic fertilizers a) Superphosphate b) Rock phosphate Potassic fertilizers a) Muriate of potash b) Potassium Sulphate - Nutrient content % 20. there are different methods of fertilizer application. a) b) c) Seed treatment or seed inoculation (400 g/ha) Seedling dip or root bacterization (1 kg/ha for 10 minutes) Soil application or broadcasting (2kg/ha) Depending upon the nature of soil and the crop.0 30. They are applied in the following methods.5 16. Saving in time and labour for application.5-13.
. It is incorporated by using a tiller or cultivator. The nutrients can penetrate the cuticle of the leaf and stomata and then enter the cells. Zinc sulphate. Nutrients reach the plant roots immediately. It has the advantage that there is less chance of injury to roots. Ferrous sulphate. Urea is highly suitable for foliar application .5% solution of micronutrients viz. This method provides. 2. Manganese sulphate and copper sulphate for 4 hours has been found effective.Organic manures are mostly spread uniformly in the field and incorporated at the last ploughing. Starter solution Solution of fertilizers consisting of NPK is applied to young plants at the time of transplanting. Foliar application The water soluble fertilizers may be applied directly to the aerial portion of the plants. Such type of solution is known as starter solution which has the following advantages. Micronutrients are highly effective when given as foliar spray. Seed Treatment Seed treatment with nutrient solution is also one of the ways to fulfill the nutrient needs of the crop at the early stages of growth. One of the main disadvantages in this method is that more amounts of fertilizers are leached out. Solution is sufficiently directed so that it does not inhibit growth (Eg) tomato. more rapid utilization of nutrients and permits the correction of observed deficiencies in shorter time than the soil treatments. 3) With seed The fertilizers are applied along with the seed at the time of sowing. 2) Side band Fertilizer is applied in bands to one or both sides of the seed or plant. (Eg) Potato-soaking of seed tubers in 0. The emergence of seedlings is affected if seedlings get scorched. 1. Methods 1) Broadcast The fertilizer is applied uniformly over the field before planting the crop.
(Eg) Foliar application of 2% urea at weekly intervals in bhendi for 6 times from 20 DAS.0% urea. Time of application is equally important. This nutrient is required throughout the crop growth and all plants are found to absorb the nitrogen continuously through out the entire growth phase. foliar application of micronutrients should be neutralized with 0. easy and quick absorption by plant tissues and it contains more nitrogen. Urea injury could be corrected by sucrose or by the addition of Magnesium sulphate.25% lime or 3. Moreover. To avoid scorching effect. It can also be mixed with pesticides and fungicides while spraying. So it is advisable to supply nitrogenous fertilizers in split doses instead of applying the entire quantity at one time. Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is readily soluble in water and more loss is found to occur. Phosphorus This nutrient is required in large amounts in the early stages of plant growth. micronutrients like Zn. Cu and Fe are not highly soluble in soil. Soil amendments like Lime. .because of its high solubility. Skill is required in preparation of the solution for sprays as the foliage of the vegetable crops is damaged by high concentration of fertilizers. the foliage may get scorched due to rapid drying of sprayed solution over the foliage and thus increase in the concentration. Nutrient requirement of Vegetable Crops Vegetable crops are fertilized in order to supply the nutrient elements which are not present in sufficient quantities in the soil. Disadvantages 1. Micronurients are highly effective if given as foliar spray because of their requirements in small amounts by the plants. Iron pyrites may be incorporated in alkaline soils to change the pH before application of fertilizers to reduce the fixation. If the solution is sprayed in the hot sun. Dolomite or Magnesium sulphate are easily decomposable organic matter in acid soils. Phosphorus fertilizers are found to be slow acting and the available phosphorus become unavailable due to fixation. 2.
A major part of nitrogen from urea broadcast on soil surface is lost easily. . Potassium: In acid soils. it is desirable to apply the entire quantity of K before sowing or planting of crop. Phosphorus: It is generally recommended that the entire quantity of phosphatic fertilizers should be applied before planting or sowing of crop. whereas placement in the root zone is advantageous for deep rooted crops. Therefore.Surface application or broadcasting is preferred for shallow rooted crops. Powdered neem cake and urea at 1:5 ratio (Neem coated urea) reduce quick mineralisation of ammoniacal nitrogen thus increasing the period of nitrogen availability for the crop and reduces losses by leaching and run-off from upland soils (slow release fertilizer). potassic fertilizers should be applied after Lime application. otherwise potassium may be lost by leaching. Time of application Nitrogen: It should be applied through more number of splits for long duration as well as perennial crops. But the release of this nutrient in the soil is very slow. Potassium Potassium is required throughout the crop growth.
earliness in maturity. check bunds are formed enclosing the large area of trees which are provided with channels between two rows. When water holding capacity of soil is increased. For vegetables. Crops like cauliflower and other root crops are drought sensitive. Factors governing water supply to vegetable crops i) Nature of crops Some crops like tapioca. sweetpotato are drought tolerant and require less irrigation. 4. 1. like tapioca and sweetpotato. Check: This is a more economical method than flooding. This system generally requires more quantity of water. the channel is widened to form a basin. Uniform availability of water and plant nutrients in the root zone are essential for the growth. Incorporation of organic matter improves water holding capacity. ii) Nature of soil Fine textured soils hold moisture for longer time than soils of coarse texture.METHODS OF IRRIGATION IN VEGETABLE CROPS Vegetables are composed largely of water. 3. It is a wasteful method which leads to the stagnation of water. Here. this can be followed for agathi and moringa. . Systems of irrigation I. A shallow rooted crop requires more frequent watering than a deep rooted crop.. Surface irrigation : Water is directly applied to the soil surface. This method is followed in cucurbitaceous vegetables. mango and sapota. Except a few crops. the interval between irrigations can be extended. good market and table quality. Adequate water supply ensures maximum yield. Basins: This method of irrigation is widely practiced for perennial tree crops like coconut. Ring: Here a single irrigation channel connecting all the trees is formed and around each tree. 2. Deep soils hold large quantities of water than shallow soils. all other vegetables require regular irrigation. Flooding: This method of irrigation is followed widely in wetland banana cultivation. and require more frequent irrigation. development and yield of vegetable crops.
Pipes are laid 45-60 cm deep and 6m apart. water is supplied near to the root zone gradually. But. II. coriander. this is the most common system of irrigation. the root zone is supplied with enough moisture. evaporation of moisture is prevented to a great extent. Saving in labour and water.5. fenugreek etc. Drip irrigation This type of surface irrigation ensures uniform supply of water to all plants. brinjal. Overhead system of irrigation Sprinkler irrigation Sprinkler irrigation is a versatile means of applying adequate amount of water to any crop. 6. The water leaks from small holes in the hose and seeps into the soil at a slow and uniform rate. brinjal. The pot has to be filled with water once in 4-5 days which helps in the economy of water use and at the same time. Advantages 1. Furrows: For crops like. The pipes have holes at regular intervals. The soil around each pitcher is pressed firmly. onion etc. tomato. the water consumption is about half to one fifth in the drip irrigation method as compared to other methods of surface irrigation. Beds: Bed system of irrigation is followed for direct sown vegetables like amaranths. An earthen pot of 20 litres capacity having 4 small holes of about 1 mm at a height of 5 cm from the bottom is buried in pits of 50 cm diameter and 50 cm depth. Hence. This method is too costly and deep cultivation is not possible. Sub soil irrigation This method supplies water through underground pipes or pitcher pots on one side. More uniform wetting of soil . Here. chillies. This method of irrigation can be followed for line planted vegetable crops like tomato. 2. particularly for drought prone areas where fruit crops and widely spaced vegetables are grown. I. in general. there is possibility of washing of seeds from one end of the bed to the other end. This is useful for green houses. In general. beet root etc. Pitcher method This method is highly useful.
2. 8. c) Certain disease may spread easily. Best suited for steep and terraced lands 5. 3. Radish. 3. Brussels sprout. Disadvantages a) Due to the influence of wind. Cauliflower. II. 2. cauliflower etc. 5. Carrots. 2. Moderately deep rooted crops : (Root depth 61-120 cm) 1. Beans. Lima beans. 6. 8. 9. Cabbage. 5. Squash III Deep rooted crops : (Root depth 121-180 cm) 1. Most suited for plantation crops and vegetables like cabbage. Based on water requirement of the rooting depth. 10. 4. 5. Beets. Shallow rooted crops: (Root depth upto 60 cm) 1. I. Sweetpotato. Spinach. 6. b) In hot sunny days. Asparagus. Onion. Potato. Sweet pepper. vegetables are classified as. Tomato. Soil erosion can be minimised 4. Celery. 7. Turnip. peas. Broccoli. Watermelon . 4. 4. there may be ununiformity in coverage. water droplets on leaves and fruits may cause sunburn. 7. Brinjal.3. 3. Lettuce. Artichoke. 6.
banana. Manure Pits Manure pits are dug at two corners of the garden at the rear end near the perennial plot. coccinia. 3. agathi and fruits like lime. bitter gourd. It creates a healthy. In this pit. barbed wire or plain wire can be erected for fencing.KITCHEN/NUTRITION GARDEN A kitchen garden is a vegetable garden where the vegetable crops are grown in the backyard of a house or any available space in the home compound to meet the daily requirement of the family. 1. For a balanced diet. curry leaf. live fence can be grown. Hence to fill up the gap. Growing vegetables by the family members serves as a good hobby and helps save money in purchase of fresh vegetables. tapioca. It helps to grow selected vegetables of our choice in fresh form. every home should lay out a small kitchen garden with available area. Due to increased cost and non-availability of fresh vegetables. vegetable cultivation not only in farmers' holdings but also in home gardens is encouraged. yams. West Indian Cherry can be grown in this area. lab lab and basella can be grown. . if the land availability is very low or nil. Crops like moringa. Features of a Kitchen Garden Perennial plot This area should be located at the rear end of the garden so that the perennial plants can be grown effectively as its shade does not affect the growth of other crops. Waste water and land available within our house compound are best utilized for growing vegetables. 300 g of vegetables are to be included in our daily food. beautiful atmosphere to the house. But on an average. Fence It is very important to fence the garden to protect it from animals and trespass. This can be used for manuring kitchen garden. 4. Indians take only 160 g per day. Arrangements may also be made to grow vegetables in containers. 2. If no compound wall is provided. On this fence line. garden and kitchen wastes including ash and household sweepings are dumped in and composted. Bamboo thatties.
French beans. cluster beans Pumpkin. coccinia Sweetpotato. According to the area available. The number of irrigation channels should also be at the minimum. The following vegetables can be grown in different beds depending upon the location. greens like ponnanganni. Along the side paths. ribbed gourd can be grown near the manure pit and trained on pandal erected above the manure pit. yams Cabbage. Carrot. bellary onion. Alternenthra. climate and choice of the family members. mint etc. Duration 4-5 months 3 months 3-4 months 3-4 months 4-5 months 6) 7) 8) Tuber crops Cole crops Leafy vegetables - 8-9 months 3-4 months 2 months . garlic Lab lab. palak. snake gourd. The area for main and side paths should be the minimum. ribbed gourd. The width of the path should be 45 to 60 cm. Cowpea. Brinjal. Along the main path. knol-khol Amaranthus. Mint and small onions can be grown. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Fruit vegetables Root vegetables Bulb crops Legumes Curcurbits Tomato.Gourds like snake gourd. Ridges that are seperating the beds may be grown with radish or small onion for effective utilization of the land area under cultivation. Paths and irrigation channels A main path dividing the entire garden into two halves with side paths and walks are to be made. peas. Chillies Raddish. fenugreek. 6-8 beds may be formed. palak. Tapioca. turnip Small onions. Beds After allocating areas for the above features. pandal may be provided and above that grapes can be trained. Beet root. coriander. bitter gourd. the rest of the area can be divided into beds of equal size and rectangular shape. cauliflower.
crop rotation. green leafy vegetables may be sown or planted at different dates preferably short duration crops first and later the long duration crop. Vegetables Brinjal + radish Cabbage Bhendi 2. Cropping intensity should be the maximum in kitchen garden. For continuous supply of vegetables almost throughout the year. so as to ensure regular supply of vegetables. Bed No. has to be followed. A cropping programme for a kitchen garden is furnished below for guidance. Shallow rooted vegetable (onion) may be rotated with deep rooted one (lab lab and Brinjal) or a leguminous vegetable (cow pea) may be rotated with a non-leguminous vegetable (brinjal and tomato) or tuber forming vegetable (sweetpotato) may be rotated with non tuber forming vegetable (Bhendi) etc. Oct-Jan Feb-March April-May . In general. By crop rotation the soil characters are maintained without any crop loss. Tomato + cluster beans Beet root Greens Cowpea 3. vegetables could be grown throughout the year with a few exceptions. Bhendi Cauliflower Radish Greens Season of growing June-September October-January Feb-May June-September October-December Jan-Feb March-May June-September October-January Feb-May June-Sep. 1.In each bed. Growing more than one crop in a bed in a year enables judicious utilization of the soil nutrients and the air space above. Avarai Brinjal and Turnip Cluster beans 4.
13.-Feb. 14.-January Feb. 7. 4. 5. Duration (months) Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial 6.I.4 months 4 months 5 months Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Crop Curry leaf Chekurmanis Tapioca Amorphophallus Dioscorea Colocasia Spinach . 12. No.Bed No. 2. 10. 1. March-May Sl.-May June-September Oct. 9. Cherry Lime Duration 3 ½ . 11. Vegetables Chillies + onion (small) Greens Brinjal + Radish Season of growing June. No. 3.November Dec. Crop Tomato Brinjal Chillies Moringa Banana W. 8. 6. 5. Onion (Bellary) Chillies French beans Sl.
Some of the synthetic substances having auxin activity are IAA.USE OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN VEGETABLE CROPS Vegetables occupy the vital place in our balanced diet. Application of plant growth regulators. It is equally important that the area and production of vegetable crops should be increased. (ii) Cell elongation by hydrolysis of starch leads to increased concentration of sugar in cell sap. Plant growth regulators are also chemical substances applied exogenously to promote or inhibit or otherwise modify growth and development (Eg) Spraying of 2.4 D enhances fruit set in short styled flowers of brinjal. Cytokinins This type of chemicals interact with auxins. . Gibberellins: This kind of substances stimulate growth in tissues of young internodes (e. tips of stem. has become essential for increasing the productivity of vegetable crops.) GA3. it has control over cell elongation. Plant growth hormones are chemical substances other than nutrients produced by plants in small quantities at one place and transported to the place of action. It acts by (i) modifying RNA produced in nuclei i. intrun make entry of water finally it stretches the cell size.g. NAA etc. Use of high yielding varieties and improved technologies can increase the production to meet our growing demand for vegetables. The prevalence of equal ratio leads to undifferentiated callus production. shoot development will be more. It acts on cell initiation/cell division. These growth hormones may promote or inhibit or otherwise modify growth and development. Main action of these auxin like substances are (i) cell elongation (ii) cell enlargement (iii) cell differentiation. When cytokinin Auxin ratio is more.e. Growth Promoters (i) Auxins: The auxin like substances are produced in buds. root etc.
CCC etc. .4-D) 4) 6-Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) (or) Benzyladenine (BA) - SIGMA 5) 6) 7) Indole-3-Butyric Acid Kinetin (6-Furfuryl aminopurine) 1-Phenyl-3-urea (Thidiazron) Thiourea - SIGMA SIGMA SIGMA 8) 9) Gibberellic Acid (GA) Paclobutrazol (cultar) - SIGMA SIGMA Tomato: Temperature requirement is a very essential factor for fruit set in tomato. Application of GA 50 ppm or 2-4-D 2 ppm or Triacontanol 1 ppm at 15DAP and at flowering will increase the fruit set and yield when the night and day temperatures are below 15°Cand above 35°C respectively.II. phosphon-D. (5) MH (Maleic hydrazide).5-T. III. (8) 2. etc. Plant growth retardants: Main action of these chemicals is retardation of stem elongation by preventing cell division in subapical meristem.4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid (2. (6) 2-4-D (7) Triacontanol. Some of the growth regulators widely used are (1) NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid) (2) GA (Gibberellic acid). Plant Inhibitors Plant inhibitors have the actions like (i) induction of senescence.) SADH. List of growth regulators Name of growth regulator 1) 2) 3) P-Chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid (CPA) Make SIGMA SIGMA SIGMA α -NAA 2. 2. (3) Ethrel (4) CCC (Cycocel). 1. (ii) inhibition of growth. (E. Growth regulators are generally applied in the evening hours. (iii) prolongation of rest period in seeds (Eg):ABA in seeds.4. It has been found that spraying of cycocel 250 ppm can check the spread of leaf curl virus disease. High volume hand operated sprayers are recommended for spraying.g.
the yield of chillies could be increased. pumpkin and ribbed gourd. To arrest the sprouting of onion bulbs during storage onion crop can be sprayed with MH 2500 ppm as a pre harvest spray 15 days prior to harvest. 2. For bitter gourd.Brinjal. spraying of Triacontanol 5 ppm at four leaf stage and at vining stage was found to improve the yield. if moisture content is increased. This practice is widely followed by chilli growers. SweetPotato: Ethrel spray @ 250 ppm five times at 15 days interval starting from 15 days after planting can be practised to increase the tuber yield in sweetpotato. Gourds: In gourds. the fruit set was found to be increased to a considerable amount in true short styled flowers also. The spray should be taken up four times at weekly intervals starting from 15 days after sowing.5 ml per 4. though the flowers are produced profusely. 55 and 75 days after planting.4-D 2 ppm or Triacontanol 2 ppm at the time of flowering. ethrel can be sprayed at 250 ppm and for snake gourd and bitter gourd it can be sprayed at 100 ppm. spraying of NAA 10 to 25 ppm (Planofix 1-2. the number of male flowers is generally more than the female flowers (high sex ratio) which leads to less yield. It has also been found that by spraying of 'Biozyme Crop' @ 180 ml in 180 litres of water on 35. To increase the number of female flowers and fruit set. Long styled.4-D 5 ppm can also be used for seed treatment for the above purpose. there are four types of flowers depending upon their style length viz. Tapioca: Spraying of ethrel 250 ppm five times at monthly intervals starting from 3rd month after planting can improve the tuber yield of tapioca. To increase the fruit set and check the flower and fruit drop. medium styled. pseudo -short styled and true-short styled. Fruit set occurs mostly in long and medium styled flowers and to a certain extent in pseudo short styled flowers. .5 litres of water) on 60 and 90 days after planting is recommended. By spraying 2. Brinjal responds well to application of micronutrients when combined with triacontanol 4 ppm at 15 DAP and at flowering for increasing production. The bulbs would start sprouting during storage. ethrel spray is recommended. Onion: Long storage of onion bulbs is a difficult task.: In brinjal. the fruit set percentage is very low. Chillies: In chillies. For Ash gourd.
It is essential to prepare the solution of correct concentration for a particular crop to get the expected results.Method of application Growth regulators are generally applied at very low concentrations i. The growth regulators may be applied in powder form or paste (lanolin paste) or spray solution.e. Good water should be used for dissolving chemicals. . hot water or alcohol can be used to dissolve the chemicals. Higher or lower concentration of chemical may some times give negative effect. in ppm (parts per million) i. one mg in 1 litre of water gives 1 ppm solution. It is a general rule that spraying of growth regulators should be taken up in early morning and late evening hours for better utilization of the chemical.e. If the growth regulator is insoluble in cold water.
Extraction of seeds from ripe fruits: 1. It is washed with water. The next day morning it is washed with fresh water repeatedly until all the chemicals are washed away. Brinjal Fully ripe yellow coloured fruits are crushed and allowed to stand overnight. Tomato-50 m. Then it is allowed to cool down overnight. The seeds should be washed thoroughly and dried. In this method also. b. 300 g of washing soda is dissolved in 4 litres of boiling water. II. The pulp and skin floats and the seeds settle down at the bottom. Moisture content of seed is 6-8% and viability is 2 years. This may vary according to the nature of pollination. c. .SEED PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN VEGETABLE CROPS Solanaceous Vegetables Tomato. dried and sieved. Then it is washed free of acid and dried. Fermentation method: The ripe fruits are crushed and allowed to ferment for 1-2 days.Tomato seed extractor is used. For bacterial canker – 0.8% acetic acid treatment for 24 hrs. proper isolation distance should be given. Isolation distance: To maintain genetic purity of seeds. Average seed yield is 590-880 kg/ha. Chillies-400 m. This solution is mixed with equal volume (4 kg) of slimy mass of seeds. d. brinjal and Chillies The method of cultivation for seed production is more or less the same as for vegetable production. Average seed yield is 16-20 kg/ha. The flesh can be used after seed extraction. Individual plants with good fruiting quality should be marked and ripe fruits harvested for seed extraction. Mechanical Extraction . Brinjal 200m. Acid method: The fruits are cut into halves and the slimy mass is removed 100 ml of (10-15 ml per kg) commercial HCl is mixed with 10 kg of slimy mass. flesh can be used. Alkali method: In this method. Seeds separate out from the mass within one hour. Tomato a.
Some growers leave the plants in situ and allow it to produce the seeds. . after removing the off types. Leguminous vegetables Peas and beans These are self pollinated crops and hence no appreciable contamination is expected. IV. Good quality roots are selected. Seeds are collected from fully matured fruits in bottle gourd.. One half or one fourth of the root is cut and planted in well prepared field. hence seed production is limited to the hills only. whereas the Asiatic varieties produce seeds in the plains. Gourds and Melons All melons and gourds are highly cross pollinated. the stecklings are given one third shoot cut and one fourth to one half root cut to obtain better quality and higher seed yield. Proper roguing is essential. Seeds are collected from ripe fruits and dried under sun or using mechanical driers. Agronomic practices for crop to be raised for seed production are more or less the same as for vegetable production. Average seed yield : French beans – 1000-1500 kg/ha Peas – 2000-2500 kg/ha Root crops Radish: It is a cross pollinated crop and requires an isolation distance of 1600 m. ash gourd . The stecklings are again planted in the field at 75 x 20 cm spacing. Isolation distance of 50 m and 20 m is followed for beans and peas respectively. Carrot: European varieties do not set seed in plains. Except watermelon and roundmelon all the other melons are cross compatible with each other. Isolation distance of 1000 m is recommended for foundation seed production. Some times only root cut is given without any shoot cut. Chillies Red ripe dried pods are broken and the seeds are collected. bitter gourd . Roots are harvested at marketable stage. pumpkin and cucumber.III. Average seed yield is 105-225 kg/ha depending on varieties. Isolation distance of 800 m is recommended. Roots are harvested at marketable stage. This practice is not recommended as the removal of off types (which are not true to variety) is not possible. Dry pods are collected and threshed carefully without injuring the seed. No two melons should be grown in the same field for seed production.
Before planting. the plants are removed from field during November. The selected plants are uprooted and stored for over wintering. (b) Trench method of storage: A trench of 1m width. which facilitate cross pollination. During first week of April. small furrows are dug in between two rows and the soil is used to cover the plant. Trenches are covered with wooden plank. At maturity. When they mature earlier. off types are rogued based on the shape and size of head and appearance of basel leaves. After maturity. (melting of snow). small holes are provided for ventilation which keeps the head in good condition. (ii) Seed to seed method This is an easy method to adopt. The non-wrapper leaves are removed. On both the ends of trench.Cole crops Cabbage (i) Head to seed method The time of planting of seedlings is adjusted so that full maturity of the heads occurs just prior to winter. threshed and seeds are sieved.P. The plants are kept in a slanting manner inside the trench. This ensures better emergence of flowering stalk. The roots and stem are covered with soil. Heads which are less compact and with large number of non-wrapper leaves are also eliminated. again selection for true shape and size of head is done and replanted in a well prepared field at a spacing of 90-180 x 45-90 cm depending on varieties. Off types are rogued and in late autumn. they tend to split. a crosscut of 2. dried.5 cm deep is given to the head without causing injury to the growing point. Storing or over wintering (a) Cellular method (or) Cold storage : 32°F (0°C) and 90-95%R. Soil is spread over it to a depth of 15 cm. When pod colour changes from green to yellow. the heads are taken out of the trench. This method of seed production is usually followed in Kulu valley of H. . The heads are left in situ in the mainfield. they are harvested. 3m length and 1m depth is dug.H. there will be mild temperature and bright weather. During spring. The top is left exposed and partially buried plants withstand low temperature.
Stump with central core-intact method Heads are not removed but chopped on all sides with a downward perpendicular cut. heads are cut off just below the base by means of a sharp knife retaining the stem with outer leaves. the yield of seeds is increased and the crop matures 12-15 days earlier than the head intact method. Heads are marked and the deheaded portion of the plant. Isolation distance is 1000m. Seed is dried in sun and then graded. Pods are borne in racemes and harvested in two to three lots. seed is thrashed and separated from dust. the time of sowing and transplanting is same as that of market crop. It is a highly cross pollinated crop. . Under South Indian conditions for seed production. Harvested crop is piled. roguing is done for curd size. Hence. bulbs are replanted to produce seeds. staking and tying the flowering shoots is essential.(iii) Stump method After full maturity of the crop. Onion is a biennial crop for the purpose of seed production. Average seed yield is 500-600 kg/ha.-Sept. and curds are left in situ for seed production. But flowering shoots are spreading and may break down easily during inter cultural operation or spraying. After curd formation. colour. There are two methods of seed production (1) Bulb to seed method (2) Seed to seed. CAULIFLOWER Seed to seed method (i) Transplanting of seedlings and leaving in situ: Scooping the curd at 2/3 rd maturity result in higher seed production. Seeds are sown during JulyAugust. Through this method. BULBS Onion Onion seed is usually produced in the temperate and subtropical conditions. bulbs are produced from seed and in the second season. transplanted in Aug. covered with tarpaulin and kept for 4-5 days. Early plants are harvested first and the remaining crop is cut when about 75% of the pods turn yellowish brown. Average seed yield is 500-600 kg/ha. known as stump is either left in situ or replanted during autumn. compactness and free from riceyness/fuzziness etc. After curing. In one season.
Bulbs harvested during warm weather is carefully stored at a temperature of 4. remain viable for 3-4 years in sealed containers. doubles. The growing portion of the selected bulb is cut to the extent of ¼ to 1/3rd before planting for quick sprouting. under and over sized bulbs. (3) Loss during storage of bulbs is high. Heaped for few days.Bulb to seed method Seeds are sown and seedlings are transplanted to produce the bulbs Roguing Late maturing plants are discarded before harvesting the bulbs. (2) It is more expensive as large quantities of bulbs are to be stored for planting. the seed yield is more because of more number of plants and seed heads per unit area. Disadvantages: (1) It takes two years for seed production. for seed production. Seed to seed method: After bulb formation the plants are left in situ for bolting. When fruits open and expose the black seed. . threshed and seeds are cleaned. In this method. bulbs are rogued carefully for off types like thick necks. the umbels are harvested along with 10-15 cm stalk. Average seed yield is 8-10 kg/ha. All the umbels do not mature at the same time. Planting is done normally during Oct-Nov at a spacing of 30 x 30 cm. Advantages : Since roguing of bulb is done. the seeds are pure which is favourable for production of nucleus and foundation seeds. Viability decreases with paper packing. the seeds are ready for harvest. bottle necks. Seeds from seed to seed method should not be used again.5 to 12°C till October. Seeds are dried to 8% moisture for packing in porous containers and 5-6% for packing in Aluminium foil. After harvest. Normally bulb size is 50-60 g. The lower portion which is disc like along with the roots are used for planting. When the 10% of the heads in the field have black seeds exposed.
small. growth stunted. stems are thin. Retarded growth. short leaves of small diameter. defoliation of old leaves. lower leaves turn yellow and dry up. with short petioles. Older leaves show yellowing followed by wilting and death Leaves yellowish green to yellow. fruit light in colour. veins become deep purple. older leaves die. older or lower leaves turn yellow and shed. premature bolting with small and tough pods. abscission of leaves at advanced stage of deficiency. pointed at blossom end. blossoms are sparse. imperfectly developed. Potato Radish Sweet potato Tomato Bhendi Deficiency symptoms of phosphorous in vegetable crops Crop Beetroot Broad bean Cabbage Symptoms Leaves are dull purple. leaves small. Stunted growth. Leaves light green. petioles weak. followed by yellowing. Young leaves pale green. hard and fibrous. especially on underside. turning dark reddish. followed by death and drying or 'firing'. thin shoots small and sickly leaves. Leaves are dull green with purple cast. stems slender. narrow thin yellowish. they are small and firm. showing bleached yellowish colour. Leaves light green. purple later.NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN VEGETABLE CROPS Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen in vegetable crops Crop Beet root Symptoms Leaves pale green. red to Brussels sprout purple. tip leaves light green. flower buds turn yellow and drop. older leaves drop. faded reddish colour. Carrot Celery Cucumber Lettuce Onion Leaves coloured light green. stems few and slender. followed by shedding. but margins die. Leaves yellowish green with reddish tinged areas. the plants ultimately turning yellow with hard and brittle foliage. growth stiff and upright. short petioles. habit of growth thin erect. older leaves coloured orange. Leaves light green. older leaves showing yellowing. stems hard and purple. Leaves pale green. . small. growth upright tubers small. Broccoli. Leaves are dark green. Roots small.
plant is stunted. roots are spindly. Leaves are olive green. Stunted growth with dark foliage. growth is stunted with poor head formation. Leaves arereddish purple on underside. tubers may have internal lesions. foliage is sparse. Older leaves wilt. shoots are weak. stems of older leaves show brown spots and stripes. fruit is constricted at stem end. Leaves are bluish green and sparse.Crop Carrot Lettuce Onion Pea Potato Symptoms Leaves are dull green with purple cast. with necrotic areas. growth is short. young leaves are puckered or crinkled. heads are soft. roots are dark and tend to rot. Leaves show forward roll and marginal scorch. older leaflets die. followed by necrosis and ragged appearance. Leaves become bluish green near veins : leaf margins show bronzing and necrosis. Leaves become dark green. and mootling of green areas. growth is upright and spindly. curling of leaflets and brown colouration caused by necrosis. plants are stunted. Radish Tomato Bhindi 9 Deficiency symptoms of K in vegetable crops Symptoms Leaflets become chlorotic with necrotic brown areas at margins between veins. Leaflets are more or less mottled. Crop Beans Beetroot Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Celery Cowpea Cucumber . Leaves become dark green. older leaves show yellowing and browning of margins and interveinal areas. stems are slender. older leaves become yellowish to reddish brown between veins. showing tip die back. Leaves bluish green around veins: surface is crinkled and margins curl downward. the older ones drop. petioles are upright Leaves are dull green to reddish brown or purple. root development is poor. Leaves are slightly chlorotic followed by browning. are poorly developed. underside shows a purple cast. Leaves show yellowing. growth is slow. puffy and small. leaf stems are short. and at margins. leaflets curl or drop downward. thin and stunted. older leaves die.
pods are poorly filled. Leaves become dark green with yellowing and firing of lower leaves at margins. appearing like crepe paper. with margins pale yellow to brown. leaflets are cupped downward. giving lower part of plant a bronzed appearance. growth is retarded. Roots are forked and tuned. older leaves become yellowish followed by necrosis and browning starting from tips and margins. necrosis. followed by brown colouration and scorching and abscission of scorched leaves. necrotic and ragged. followed by necrosis at rims. followed by necrosis at rims. stems may show bronze colouration. stalks are slender and may show necrotic areas in extreme cases. older leaves become deep yellow to bronze. death or growing point. Root tips die. as with tobacco. Older leaves show chlorosis and necrosis at margins between veins. Leaves are first bluish green. stalks are slender with short internodes an may collapse prematurely. dead areas turn brown. Suppression of leaf formation turning brown yellow. Pea Potato Radish Sweet potato Tomato Muskmelon Bhindi 10 Deficiency symptoms of Ca in vegetable crops Symptoms Blackening and death of the plant.Crop Onion Symptoms Older leaves first show slight yellowing. Lower leaves become yellowish or grayish green along margins and at tips followed by necrosis. followed by browning and death. Leaves show some chlorosis. Leaves are pale green around margins. leaves are thick and leathery. Youngest leaves are curled and tough. curled toward upper surface. bulb formation is poor. Leaves rolled up at margins which are ragged and discoloured. lower leaves are chlorotic. fruit ripens unevenly and lacks solidity. dying and drying start at tips of older leaves. foliage is sparse. white in narrow band. tuber flesh is bluish. growth is reduced. followed by wilting and death. stems are few. Leaves rolled up at margins which are ragged and discoloured. Plants are short and die prematurely. Crop Beans Beetroot Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Pea . leaflets are cupped and crowded together. Leaves are bluish green in the middle part. curling backward. with downward cupping and some shedding. white in narrow band. Margins of older leaves become yellow. or scorching and finally die.
the stalk. tips or lobes show light yellow or brown spots. Fruits sparse and undersized. Roots are short. much branched. red and purple tinting appears. bud dies. Stalks are slender. rolled towards upper surface. leaf margins turn up. old leaves are severely chlorotic. these increase in number until only the veins remain green. there may be some interveinal chlorosis. Leaves become chlorotic. lower leaves may drop. Roots are long. stubby and brown. with marginal necrosis. Later the leaves turn yellow and drop and the plants die. Leaves are light coloured. Radish. petioles become etched. tubers are dwarfed and useless. Older leaves become chlorotic between veins. Rape Sweet potato Tomato 11 Deficiency symptoms of magnesium in vegetable crops Symptoms Older leaves show chlorosis and reddish tinting between veins Older leaves become chlorotic between veins. leaves die prematurely. Leaves are chlorotic between veins. growth is slow. Leaves die back at tips. Terminal flowers die. with erect growth. Plants are small. Plants lack turgor and are weak and flabby. Crop Bean Beetroot . Young leaves are light green. more marked in central areas between veins. with dead spots in pith region. Young leaves of terminal growth turn yellow. brown or purple and become necrotic. and tend to hang down. some older leaves may show reddish areas and necrosis. Severe chlorosis may be followed by yellow areas around the rim and at centre which may die or decay. Leaves turn pale green followed by interveinal yellowing. blossom ends rot. Leaves of young plants show narrow white bands at margins. margins are curled towards upper surfaces. Interveinal yellow spots appear on leaves. Older leaves show interveinal chlorosis and necrosis. with few branches.Crop Potato Symptoms Young leaves are small and pale green. The fruits are small and may shed. foliage dies prematurely. Leaf tips are browned. also marginal wilting. Crop Beetroot Cabbage Carrot Egg plant Bhindi Onion Pea Chillies Radish Tomato 12 Deficiency symptoms of magnesium in vegetable crops Symptoms Young leaves first exhibit chlorosis followed by necrosis. ‘Marbling’ occurs. leaves are puckered. necrosis and rolling up.
and are marked by yellow mottling between veins. Tomato 13 Deficiency symptoms of molybdenum in certain vegetable crops Symptoms Leaves are pale green and mottled interveinally with rapidly developing brown scorched areas in interveinal tissues. scorched and coupled with irregular margins. with distorted shrunken areas. mottling and marginal burn. Roots have wide deep splits. Older leaves become mottled. whiptail. followed by red extending inward. rolled forward. Stems may appear normal or leaves may show a slight interveinal chlorosis. A pale brown scorching being at the tip of the apical leaflet of the oldest leaf. Margins curl upward and leaflets appear rolled. which may be covered with small. and somewhat chlorotic. deformed leaves. brittle stiff. head formation is poor. Laminae are often corrugated irregularly. Flower curds are irregular with ‘ricey’ and leafy formation in slightly affected plants. Green bands remain close to midribs and veins even after death of affected tissue. later the youngest leaves become conspicuously mottled. relatively thick.Crop Cabbage Pea Symptoms Leaves are smaller and yellower than normal. petioles having swellings which later become corky. Crop French Beans Beetroot Cabbage Cauliflower Tomato Turnip Beetroot Cabbage Carrot Onion . Leaves become pale with diffused marginal and interveinal yellow mottling. leaves are twisted and elongated with laminae showing various degree of narrowness and irregularity. older leaves wilt and become necrotic. thick mottled along margins and wilted. Red veins are more conspicuous against chlorotic background. Leaves are of deep blue colour. ‘Whiptail’ develops. cupped. Leaves show marginal yellowing. bleached. chlorosis. yellow and green. Leaves making up head are unattached. Leaves die in crown. most varieties show small dark brown spots along veins or distributed sporadically on younger leaves. In severe cases the plant die. Leaves show cupping. turgid and abnormally dark green or blue green. Roots show heart rot and dry rot. leaves near shoot tips are small. flat surface of seeds have a brown spot or cavity in the centre. Shoot growth varies from normal to severe stunting. Leaves are distorted.
followed by small changes in interveinal areas. Remedy: Balanced irrigation and staking. vascular and placental tissue after fruit development. Terminal shoots curl upward. Terminal growing tip dies. furrows. fruits are darkened. leaves are discoloured and distorted. Roots show internal darkening. The fruits have ridges. (iii) Puffiness: As the fruit reaches about two-third normal size. Lesion appear at blossom end of the fruit while it is green. Tomato (i) Blossom end rot: This is a very common and destructive disorder. the outer wall continues to develop normally while the growth of internal tissues is retarded. Such fruits are light in weight. Roots are poor. leathery and dark coloured. Growing points die. The cells at blossom end of the ovary die and turn black and forms leathery blotch. reduced calcium content. Causes: High or low temp and low soil moisture. (ii) Catface: The fruit gets distorted at the blossom end. partially filled and lack firmness. This occurs due to fluctuating rate of transpiration during moisture stress. portion of the fruit becomes sunken. Abnormal growing conditions during There is no blossom formation are the main cause of cat-faced fruits. This is due to non-fertilization of ovule.5% calcium chloride solution at the time of fruit development. which finally die back. yellow or brown. older leaves turn yellow at tips. Blossoms shed.Crop Pea Chillies Radish Tomato Symptoms Leaves develop yellow or white veins. Leaf veins show decomposition and granulation. Remedy: Maintaining high soil moisture. indentations and blotches. Cotyledons and true leaves of young plants turn purple. PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN VEGETABLE CROPS A. yellowing and die. Single foliar spray of 0. Water-soaked spots The affected appear at the point of attachment of the senescent petals. embryo abortion after fertilization and necrosis of . plant looks bushy because of lateral. progress in the size of the blotch unlike that of blossom end rot.
Rapid desiccation leads to sunken area. Causes: Boron deficiency Remedy: Soil application of Borax 20% or 22 kg/ acre. the greater is the amount of splitting and large roots are more likely to split than small ones. Causes: It occurs due to decreased accumulation of calcium and increased accumulation of potassium. crack proof etc should be grown. hard or corky spots are found scattered through out the roots but more numerous on the light colour zone or cambium layers. resistant cultivars e. B.(iv) Sunscald: Green or nearing green fruits when exposed to extreme heat. The tissues have blistered. Remedy: Cultivars with heavy foliage provide protection to fruits. Remedy: Increased calcium supplement. Decay of cut surface by fungal infection. which is white/grey in green fruits and yellow in ripe ones. . water-soaked appearance. Sioux. Crust formation on ridges due to excess irrigation. radial (in ripe) and concentric (in semi ripe). Potato (i) Poor / Uneven sprouting Causes • • • Planting soon after removal from cold storage. scald. (v) Cracking: It is of two types. High concentration of ammonium compounds in soil causes this problem. Causes: Rain after a long dry spell Remedy: Irrigation regulation. Beet root: (i) Internal black / brown spot/ heart rot: With in fleshy roots. Wider the spacing. Carrot (i) Carrot splitting or cracking: It is a major problem in many carrot-growing areas. 14 D. (ii) Cavity spot: It is presence of cavity in the cortex.g. C. The splitting is reduced by low N and increases as the amount of N in the soil increases.
. ♦ High temperature during early flowering stages. F. The spots become light brown and papery as the lesions dry out. 15 days before planting. Cause: Heavy irrigation after a dry spell and heavy application o nitrogenous fertilizer. (ii) Flower and fruit drop Causes: Low humidity and high temperature resulting moisture stress which leads to abscission of buds. Chilli and Sweet Pepper (i) Blossom – end rot: Water-soaked spots appear on the blossom end of the fruit.Remedy • • • E.3% Agallol) before planting. soil should have good water-holding capacity. ♦ Foliar application of 20 ppm NAA at first flower opening followed by two sprays an interval of 30 days increases fruit set. flowers and small fruits. Fungicide treatment (0. ♦ Application of Triacontanol (vipul 1 ml / 2 l water) also reduces flower and fruit drop. Remedy: 2. Brinjal (i) Poor fruit set: Due to presence of large number of pseudo short styled and short styled flowers and dropping of long and medium styled flowers. Remedy Irrigation at flowering and fruit set. ♦ Foliar application of 50 ppm NAA at full bloom stage. Remedy: Heavy dose of nitrogenous fertilizer should be avoided and irrigation should be properly done.4-D (2 ppm) spray at flower initiating stage and NAA (60 ppm) spray at full bloom stage helps in fruit set. Presprouting of seed tubers in diffused light at normal room temperature. Tubers should be kept in cold storage till the end of dormancy period.
5 by liming makes molybdenum available. ♦ Ammonium molybdate (0. Sometimes only the mid rib develops thereby giving the name “whiptail’ to this syndrome.50% solution of borax at the rate of 1-2 kg/ha along with 0. stem and curd surface appear. Control: Proper variety and good seed stock. Older leaves curl down ward. (iii) Buttoning Causes: Over aged seedlings.1%) along with 0. browning in stem appears due to this disorder along with thickening and brittleness of leaves. ♦ Application of 1. In cabbage.1% Teepol. nutrition or biotic stress. Cole crops (i) Boron deficiency Browning: (Red rot or Brown rot) occurs in cauliflower. distortion of growing point along with reduction of leaf area is the symptoms. splitting of tuber occurs. They become cupped and wither. Control: Molybdenum availability is low on very acidic soil. In cabbage and other Cole crops. Leaves change in colour and thicken. wrong cultivars etc. In knolkhol. or any check in the vegetative growth of seedlings. The check may be insufficient . Remedy: To avoid all kinds of biotic and abiotic stress. ii) Molybdenum deficiency (whiptail): Young cauliflower plants become chlorotic and turn white along leaf margins.25 -0. Causes: Temperature fluctuation higher or lower than the optimum. raising the pH to 6. which turn rusty brown in colour. poor nitrogen supply.G. (iv) Riceyness : Premature initiation of floral buds is called Riceyness.1% Teepol. Potassium deficiency aggravates splitting. Water soaked lesions in the leaf.5 kg sodium or ammonium molybdate per hectare mixed with fertilizers. Control: Soil application of borax @ 10-15 kg/ha. Four sprays of 0.
Causes: Subzero temperature when plants are small. Boron 3 ppm. ♦ Avoid excess nitrogen application and irrigation. ♦ Spray of growth regulators at 2-4 leaf stage helps in increasing the number of female flowers. calcium 5 ppm. thick a leathery. Cucurbits: (i) Preponderance of staminate flowers and low fruit set Control: Too much vegetative growth should be avoided. It does not produce curd. ♦ Snakegourd – Ethrel 100 ppm. mechanical injury of terminal bud or injury caused by insects such as cutworms. Okra (i) Poor seed germination Causes: Sowing during low temperature conditions. . ♦ Pumpkin Cucumber and sponge gourd: Ethephon 250 ppm ♦ Summer squash – ethrel 600 ppm ♦ Ridge gourd – ethrel 300 ppm ♦ Muskmelon and water melon – Maleic hydrazide 200 ppm ♦ Bottle gourd – Maleic hydrazide 50 ppm. The leaves are large dark green. avoiding exposure of plants to very low temperature. Control: Careful handling of plants. H. (vi) Multiple curds: A number of small button-like curds appear in a bunch. Cause: High temperature during curd development Control: Selection of right variety. I. Control : Same as blindness. (vii) Leafyness or Bracting : Green leafy bracts in between segments of the curd. Control: Seed soaking for 24 hrs.(v) Blindness: The cauliflowers lack terminal bud. Cause: Due to terminal bud injury and resultant branching before curd initiation.
stimulates germination. J.♦ Water soaked seeds tied in the cloth and put in fresh cow dung overnight. ♦ Use of healthy 8-10 weeks old seedling. Onion (i) Poor seed germination Control: Use fresh seed ♦ Soaking of stored onion seeds in water or sodium phosphate solution for 2-6 hours followed by drying. ♦ Spraying 2000 ppm MH 10-15 days before harvest. (ii) Bolting: Premature seed stock formation. ♦ Proper curing for 4-5 days. Spray bulbs with 0. Causes: Low temperature at Bulbing and bulb development Control: Adjustment of transplanting time according to the temperature condition.2% Difolatan before storage. ♦ Cutting of seed stalks at early stage. ♦ Harvesting at neck fall. ♦ Irrigation should be stopped 15 days before harvesting. . (iii) Poor bulb storage: Control: Adjustment of planting time so that harvesting can be done in dry period.
By analysing the economic produce of vegetables. (v) Hard ripe : Nearly all the areas are red or pink but flesh is firm.HARVEST INDICES AND MATURITY STANDARDS IN VEGETABLE CROPS Identifying the correct stage of maturity in vegetables and harvesting at proper time is one of the important pre harvest factors. This is suitable for processing as it possesses good quality with colour development. filling the seed cavity. Some visual characters like (i) increase in size. This kind of fruits are artificially ripened and suitable for long distance market. Fruits are not suitable for Increase in sugar content Increase in fibre content Increase in sugar : acid ratio . Seeds are surrounded by jelly like substance. (iii) Turning : (Breaker Stage) ¼th of the surface at blossom end shows pink colour (iv) Pink : ¾th surface of fruit shows pink colour. (vi) Over ripe : Fully coloured and soft. Onion Bulbs are considered mature when the neck tissues begin to soften and tops are about to abscise and decolourise. we can also fix the maturity standards like (a) (ii) (iii) Tomato The maturity standards of tomato are grouped as follows: (i) Immature : Before seeds have fully developed and jelly like substance surrounding the seeds have formed . (ii) Mature Green : Fully mature light green at bloom end and yellowish green in all other areas. (ii) colour development. (iii) softening of the tissues (iv) seediness (v) development of net like structures (vi) drying of foliage or top and (vii) flowering/bolting are generally taken as maturity indices. consumption.
Brinjal and cucumber: Tenderness is the main criteria for fixing maturity standard. French beans : Seed size. most of the vegetables are harvested . drying and then dropping of leaves. This will reduce the possibility of mechanical damage. with or without mechanical aids or gadgets and by mechanical harvesting. dry matter content. percent seed. Tapioca : Maturity is indicated by the cracks formed in the soil. radish. In immature tuber. Chillies : Development of uniform red colour is treated as maturity index. Then it is lifted upwards by loosening the soil. turnip and tubers like potato. The tubers can also be cut and judged . cut surface shows dark greenish colour while the colour will be milky white in fully mature tubers. maturity is indicated by yellowing. yellowing and falling of leaves. Harvesting of vegetables is done in two ways viz. tapioca and sweet potato are easily harvested by digging the soil below the roots or tubers. tubers can be harvested. distribution of seeds are some of the reliable maturity indices. Sweet potato : When the leaves turn yellow and begin to shed.Okra Development of crude fibre is used to determine the optimum stage of maturity. carrot. Tender and fleshy pods can be harvested for vegetable purpose. Dioscorea and Amorphophallus: In these crops. Root crops: Beet root. manually. harvesting potato. In Punjab. by hand. Muskmelon : Development of net like structure is the indication of maturity for harvesting. tractor drawn potato diggers are used for In India. Harvesting : Harvesting of vegetables at optimal maturity and careful handling constitute the successful storage life. Peas : Pod colour changes from dark green to light green with well filled grains/seeds at full maturity.
What are the vegetables consumed in different stages? 4.e. Brinjal : Brinjal is harvested at tender stage i. What are the criteria of harvesting cole crops? 6. What are the vegetables consumed at immature stage? 2. onion and okra? . Simple tractor drawn implements are also available for loosening soil while harvesting onions and garlic like crops. What are the vegetables consumed in full maturity stage? 3.15-20 days after fruits set when the seeds are immature. Cabbage.Leafy Vegetables In spinach and methi. How tomatoes are harvested for local and distant market? 5. tender fruits should be picked 3rd to 5th day from the time of first pod formation. What are the sings of maturity of potato. soil is loosened first with a fork or hoe. Harvesting during evening hours in summer keeps the fruit firm and uniform ripening. knolkhol and lettuce : Here the main stem is cut off with a sharp knife. Bulbous crops : Green onions and leaves can be easily pulled out by hand from the moist soil while for harvesting fully mature onions and garlic bulbs. Assignment 1. Tomato : Harvesting the fruits at breaker stage is recommended for long shelf life and optimum quality. cauliflower. Onion blubs can harvested one week after 50% of the leaves have fallen reduce losses in post harvest handling. Okra: Immature green. the lateral buds and the stems are snapped off by hand.
6. during summer and rainy season. cabbage. 8. 4. The demand for off season and high value vegetables also exists in these big cities. The high value vegetable crops have been more popular for cultivation in greenhouse. lettuce. 1. 7. during winter and summer months and crops like cauliflower. 3.GREEN HOUSE VEGETABLE CULTIVATION (a) Green house The choice of the crop to be raised in greenhouse is made on the basis of the physical size of the structure and the economics of the crop production. 2. The material requirements and the structural details of the above mentioned greenhouses have not been presented here for the sake of brevity. Several single and multispan greenhouses for use in various regions of India have been developed. Greenhouses can be commercially exploited for successful cultivation during off season and production of several high value thermo sensitive vegetables like cucumber. sweet peppers. There is always a large and sustained demand of fresh vegetables round the year in big cities. tomato. Single span 5m x 24m Single span 6m x 24m Single span 8m x 24m Single span 9m x 24m Four span 20m x 40m Lean to greenhouse for colder regions Saw tooth type greenhouse (24mx 36m) Wooden framed greenhouse of IPCL design Bamboo framed greenhouse of Jorhat design The selection of greenhouse design has been made with a view to maintain relative simplicity of the framework and to encompass various types of structures. The following is the list of such greenhouses. . 9. The labour and other input requirement per unit of cultivated area in greenhouse is more than that of field conditions. 5. tomato. radish etc.
UV stabilized 200 micron thick plastic film is normally used for coverage. The main consideration in choosing the vegetable to be grown inside the limited and expensive space of polyhouse is the most efficient and economical utilization of space for the longest period possible. the polyhouses are categorized as low cost. Thus there are three types of green house. gusty winds and precipitation and from certain diseases and pests. Greenhouse production requires high levels of economic investment. medium cost and high cost. heating. In India. The low cost polyhouse does not have any control system. polyhouses are made in India. Air exchange from warm soils tend to Although any accumulate. cooling and humidification system. Depending upon the environment control facilities and the cost involved in the construction. It has only the supporting structure. The high cost polyhouse may have all the modern facilities including UV stabilized cladding film/poly carbonate sheet. Greenhouse structures designed to extend the cropping season of tender vegetables and ornamental crops and to protect them from adverse environment conditions. drip irrigation system.(b) Polyhouse A poly house is a framed on an inflated structure covered with a transparent polythene which permits at least partial control of plant environment is large enough to permit a person to carry out cultural operations. which may be made of GI pipe. iron angle or even bamboo. . auto control mechanism etc. In this context low volume and high value crops may be most profitable to grow in the environmental controlled poly house. It may also have misting and shading facilities. creating a high humidity. and space is at premium. the structure of the greenhouse / polyhouse depends on the economic condition of the farmers. vegetable could be grown under greenhouses economic feasibility is are viable Growing vegetables in the open field during offseason is not all that successful and polyhouse cultivation during such periods can produce the desired results. The medium cost polyhouse is made of iron structure may have double layer of UV stabilized plastic film with cooling pad/fan or heating arrangements. such as low or high temperatures. for high value crops only.
HiTech green house / poly house This type of green house consists of a sensor. This model is highly expensive. Medium cost green house / poly house With a slightly higher cost. brinjal. and solar radiation’s are sub optimal for growing off-season vegetables – tomato. especially in the The temperature within the In UV-stablilized plastic polyhouse increases by 6-10oC more than out side. the day temperature is higher and night temperature lower than outside. cultivated under poly house. These are indicated through sensor or signal receiver. a compactor and an operator. it has one opening for 1-2 hours during the day. ii. The temperature. Okra. requiring qualified operators. a Quonset shaped poly house / green house can be framed with GI pipe of 15mm. The solar radiations entering the poly house is 30-40% lower than that reacting the soil surface outside. film covered. ventilation and these are thermo statistically controlled. Vegetable forcing for domestic consumption During winters in North India and hills. RH and light are automatically controlled. pipe. Sensor measures the variables. iii. cucurbits. This poly house has a single layer The exhaust fans are used for The polyhouse frame & glazing covering UV stabilized polythene 800 gauge. amaranthus and chilli. compare the measurement to a standard value and finally recommends to run the corresponding pounding device.i. care and precautions. It is size depends on the purpose of its utilization and availability of space. framed polyhouse. green house. morning to reduce the level of humidity inside. In tomato. humidifying the air entering the polyhouse. Hence during extreme conditions of winter season (October-February) these vegetables can be well . Cooling pad is used for material have a life span of about 20 years and two years respectively.Low cost green house / polyhouse The low cost polyhouse is a zero energy chamber made of polythene Like the sheets of 700 gauge supported on bamboos with “Sulti” and nails. capsicum. low temperature and low radiation cause puffiness and blotchy ripening.
transplants can be raised under greenhouses or polytunnels. soil block. plastic pot. thrips and whiteflies in the seedling stage. coir and peat. Nowadays many commercial mixes of organic origin (eg. Sand and peat/cocoa peat containers since the containerized plants are usually expensive. This infection can be minimized when seedlings are raised under cover.Transplant Production (Nursery business) Transplant production is a very specialized segment of the vegetable business which demands facilities and careful attention and any laxity on the part of a grower growing his own transplants at this stage can prove to be very expensive. The system to be chosen for producing transplants depends on the crop. peat pellet. Any of these organic mix could be used at the recommended proportions to raise transplants. Here the services of a quality conscious transplant producer can be utilized. High value hybrid vegetable seedlings are generally raised in the Under North Indian conditions when winter is severe. To produce transplants and to cultivate greenhouse vegetable crops.. The transplants can be produced in various containers (clay pot. the season and the geographical location . Phytophthora and bacteria like Pseudomonas and Erwinia. Similarly during summer there is a severe incidence of viral diseases in tomato. preformed plastic tray. Media for Transplant Production One has to minimize the use of the field soil in a seeding media as they may crust or drain poorly and may harbour pests and disease organisms. Under South Indian conditions there is enough scope to raise disease free transplants under cover during rainy season.Application of greenhouse technology in vegetable growing In the present scenario greenhouses in India can best be exploited to serve two broad aspects of vegetable growing viz. capsicum and cucumbers which are transmitted by vectors like aphids.. fiber tray etc. peat pot. cocopeat) are available in the market. . Generally seedlings grown in open field beds in conventional methods carry diseases caused by fungi like Pythium. the degree of earliness desired. The whole program has to be scheduled so that transplants are produced as per the requirements. 1.).
causes damage to the photosynthesis and this may lead to secondary injuries (heat stress or drought stress) such as sun scald and other detrimental effects on quality reduced shelf life and uneven ripening of fruits or necrosis. carbondioxide concentration in the greenhouse atmosphere. polyester. A desirable seeding media should provide good drainage but retain moisture well enough to prevent rapid fluctuation. For producing the vegetables under poly house / green house following factors should be addressed properly. optimum temperature 20 – 30°C Cold injury 5°C Heat injury 40-45°C Ventilation is used to limit humidity by exchanging humid internal with external air. Temperature Temperature is one of the most governing factors of green house climate. humidity and CO 2 concentration. Crop Cucumber Ventilation Ventilation influences temperature. good aeration. Irrespective of the type of media used it should be sterilized before seeding. Radiation Ventilation also affect the Light may be considered the most important environmental factor in polyhouse culture as it influences a wide range of process related to photosynthesis.mixtures or mixtures of peat and vermiculite or perlite form the best seeding media. it is almost always possible to reduce greenhouse humidity in this way. diseases and weed seeds. energy balance including transpiration. (a) Glass (b) Acrylic (PMMA) (c) polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) (d) Polyvinyl chloride(PVC) (e)Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) and polyerylene. An extremely high irradiance. be low in soluble salts and be free from insects. . All green houses polyhouses used to produce commercial crops require ventilation during summer. As the temperature in a greenhouse is invariably higher than outside. Various types of cladding materials are used for construction of polyhouses.
muskmelon. summer squash. Limiting RH to 75% compared to 90% High reduced the incidence of Botrytis cinerea on glass house tomatoes. humidity cause the fungal spores to develop and spread the disease organisms. broccoli. bottle gourd.Humidity Green house humidity is considered to be an important factor in connection with fungus diseases. lettuce. Carbondioxide enrichment In the production of green house vegetables green house atmosphere is enriched with carbondioxide to increase photosynthesis. However. because each hybrid seed has its accountability to perform in terms of yield and quality in the main field or greenhouse. chilli and capsicum during the rainy season in northern parts of India. cabbage. capsicum. ventilation appears to be the most cost effective. tomato. field conditions during the rainy season are not favourable. Raising the transplants of different vegetable crops under polyhouse or greenhouse and sowing the individual seed in potting plugs or in plastic trays having different sizes of cavaties with artificial growing media is well –established practice in developed countries. because of high population of white fly and other insects. watermelon. cauliflower. bitter gourd and some ornamental flowers can be raised for on commercial scale. High –tech nursery raising technology Very high cost of hybrid seeds of vegetable has warranted the attention of vegetable growers to produce seedlings of different vegetables under protected conditions. and to maintain the ambient concentration of CO2 when the ventilations are open. brinjal. These exists possibility of number of ways of reducing RH humidity but. nursery raising techniques under protected conditions becomes essential for year round production of vegetables seedlings of cucumber. which is the main reason of setback for growing vegetables like tomato. in our country. The general practice of growers is to increase the concentration of CO2 two and three times the normal atmospheric concentration of 350 mol ml-1 in winter and spring when ventilation is not required. Therefore. Nursery from potato TPS can also raised .
It can be pasteurized. It is very light in weight and has minerals (magnesium and potassium) for enriching the mix. This medium has god porosity and improved drainage and air movement activity. Grade 1 includes largest particles. 760°C to produce folded structure associated with the material. Neutral in reaction (pH). High –tech Nursery Ingredients for root medium Mainly cocopeat. It is essentially heatexpanded aluminium silicate rock. Its role in mix is to improve aeration and drainage. as well as good water-holding capacity. A disadvantage of the use of perlite is its low weight. it is available in grades according to sizes. characteristics of these ingredients are: Cocopeat: Cocopeat is prepared from the waste of coconut husk in southern states in India. vermiculite and perlite are used as a root medium for raising the nursery in high-tech nursery greenhouse. If this ingredient is used in a mix. which makes it float when the medium is watered. Perlite: Perlite is a light rock material of volcanic origin. This mineral is heated at These ingredients are The mixed in a 3:1:1 ratio before filling in trays used for raising nursery. further. During mixing. the horticultural grade should be selected since it has larger particle size and is thus more effective. it produces dust. and grades 4 and 5 are fine in texture. This medium is completely free from infestation of any pest or pathogen. The volcanic ore is heated to extreme temperatures of about 980°C to cause the rock particles to expend to produce the white product used in mixes. Its fineness. Vermiculite: Vermiculite is heat expanded mica. The most commonly used grades are 2 and 4. Nowadays cocopeat is commonly being used as a medium for raising nurseries of vegetables and ornamental plants in developed countries. which can be eliminated by wetting the material before its use. Perlite is neutral in reaction and provides almost no nutrients to the mix (except for small amount of sodium and aluminium).successfully in the protrays in nursery greenhouse for transplanting outside in the field. .
develop uniformly. When used in potted plant production. • Versatility: Mixes can be made to order (custom mixed) for specific needs. Seedlings germination is less prone to diseases such as damping off. provided other growth factors are also consistent. They are convenient for use in container The homogeneity of the medium makes it possible for plants to grow and Disadvantage of soilless mixes • Light in weight: Some mixes are very light. are free from diseases and pests. they are easily toppled over by even a gentle wind or push. • Lack of field correspondence: Mixes are constituted to provide minimum problems to germinating seeds are rooting plants. lawns or garden soil. Good drainage and moisture retantion: A mix can be custom-made to provide the appropriate degree for drainage and moisture retention. • East of handling: Mixes are light weight and easy to transport. Ingredients are easy to scoop and move around during manual preparation. • Limited nutritional supply: Mixes that incorporated fertilizers provde nutrition for a limited period of time. a condition not found in field soil. nutrients. plants.incidentally makes it prone to being compressed easily in the mix. initially at least. • • • Sterility: Mixes. Advantages of soilless mixes The major advantages of soilless mixes are • Uniformity of mix: The physical and chemical properties of a mix are uniform throughout the mix. especially when dry. the . As such. To reduce this potential. They can be used to amend soils in the field by mixing into flower beds. a mix indulging vermiculite showed not be pressed down hard. The component ingredients of mixes are generally void of any appreciable amount of plant growth Micronutrients are especially lacking and should be supplemented with an appropriate fertilizer programme when growing a crop or seedlings. Convenience of use: Mixes are ready to use when purchased.
5 cm (1. of irrigation water should be 1. These trays help in proper germination. Thermocol base provides a good insulator to help in minimizing fluctuation in root temperature.0") size.5") size.61. we use trays having 187 cavities of 3. Sowing of seeds First the trays are filled with the mixture of root media and then the seeds are sown in cavities (one seed in each cavity).6-6. muskmelon. the optimum E. Kind of pro-trays or seedlings trays used for raising seedlings There are 2 kinds of plastic trays used in raising the seedlings. Special treatment of growth regulators @ 140 ppm is applied just after germination (emergence of seedlings) of seeds in winter season and 70 ppm special treatment is applied for summer season nursery. Hundered per cent humidity is maintained and when level comes down irrigation is applied. One tray has 187 cavities of 3.7 and the optimum temperature should be 20°C during the winter. cauliflower and capsicum. we use trays having 345 cavities of 2.physical conditions of mixes are different than field soild conditions. The optimum temperature for raising seedlings during summer season is 30°C.75 cm (1. whereas the other tray has 345 cavities of 2. When temperature goes below 20°C in winter. application of special . Water is applied after sowing of seed in each tray through trays. Nutrients are applied in the form of N:P:K (1:1:1) @ 140 ppm in winter and 70 ppm in summer. These trays are fixed in the thermocol trays having the same number and size of cavities before filling the media.75 (1. reliable and economical in transportation. Some plants may not establish quickly if root contact with the soil is poor. maintain uniform and healthy growth of seedlings.7 with a pH of 6.5 cm (1. tomato and brinjal. care should be taken to create good root contact with the soil. cabbage. During transplanting into the field.C.0") size. provide independent area of each seed to germinate. • Cost: Some mixes are expensive (but worth the investment). For cucumber.5") size and for lettuce. once a week through the fine sprinkler to maintain the uniformity in application of nutrients. Roots grow rapidly and ball up in pots. For raising good and healthy seedlings. eliminate the mortality rate. are easy in handling and storing.
treatment is not recommended. we can use the germination room as per requirement of the crops. looking to the very high cost of hybrid seeds in vegetables. Drastic reduction in the mortality in transplanting of seedlings compared to the traditional system of nursery raising. In reduces the seeds rate in hybrid vegetables. Healthy seedlings can be raised in short period compared to the time taken under open field nursery raising conditions. In summer. Raising seedlings for transplanting Under greenhouse conditions. . seedlings of cucurbits are ready only in 12-15 days. Management of insect/pests and diseases under greenhouse/protected conditions is quite easy particularly the infection of virus. and farmers can get the nursery ready from such greenhouse any time as per their requirement. For maintaining the optimum temperature. whereas muskmelon 30-32 days during winter season. Advantages of raising vegetable nursery under greenhouse • • • • • • • Seedlings can be raised under adverse climatic conditions where it is not possible under open field conditions. if the germination room is used for initial period of germination during winter season. Early planting is accomplished by raising off-season nursery. It is suitable raising the nursery of sexually and aseuxally propagated vegetables and ornamental crops. cucumber seedlings become ready for planting in the main field or greenhouse 25-28 days after sowing. The seedlings of tomato and brinjal are ready for transplanting in 30-32 days. It is easy for transporation after packing for long distances. Summary By raising the nursery under this system there is no chance of transplanting shock.
Vegetables lose water mainly by transpiration through stomata (e. sprouting.potato) and cracks that Minimum water loss causes many This vegetables wilted or shriveled which make the tissue tough or mushy. Other paths of water loss are stem scars (e. cabbage. water and growth regulators from the parent plant to the harvested vegetables.. contain as high as 90-95 per cent water.g... toughening. leafy greens). the harvested vegetables are able to continue their normal development which lead to ripening.g. senescence. less crispy and palatable and eventually render the produce unmarketable. are resulted from mechanical injury. French bean. lettuce. Losses due to physiological processes Different physiological processes like transpiration senescence. asparagus. (ii) losses due to biochemical reactions. Respiration Higher the rate of respiration. . sprouting and seed germination which go on in the fresh vegetables are the main causes of this type of loss. Respiration in the harvested vegetables depends on happens to several leafy greens and root crops within few hours after harvest.g. lenticels (e.. etc. spinach. cucumber. shorter will be the shelf-life of the produce and vice versa.POST-HARVEST HANDLING OF VEGETABLES A complex series of metabolic changes occur in vegetables after harvest which are influenced by dislocation of supply of nutrients. tomato). Basic respiratory processes are necessary to supply the energy required to maintain the essential repair reactions upon which the integrity and independent existence of the organ depend. and (iii) losses due to microbial invasion. palak. Transpiration Majority of the vegetables contain more than 80 per cent water and some of them like tomato. Nature and causes of loss of the harvested vegetables The nature and causes of losses of the fresh vegetables may be categorized as : (i) losses due to physiological processes. By this maintenance metabolism.etc.
During over-ripening. respiration. water melon.temperature. parsley Ripening The vegetables which are consumed at their ripe stage are spoiled due to over-ripening. Chilli. Respiratory activity of the produce i. tomato. lettuce. lima bean. radish Green onion. Vegetables which respire less after harvest deteriorate less rapidly and can be stored relatively for long period if other factors remain in favour. phosphorylation and shift in protein synthesis lead to deteriorative processes and eventually senescence. Very high Crop Potato. Increased membrane permeability. okra. turnip. Carbon dioxide output may be less than 40 mg/kg/hour in the vegetables with low respiratory activity. Sprouting Seed germinaton Losses due to biochemical reactions Enzymatic carbohydrate conversion Enzymatic change in flavour Enzymatic change in vitamin content Synthesis or destruction of pigment . beet. Senescence It is the last stage of development of the tissue when anabolic biochemical processes give way to catabolic processes leading to death of the tissue. peas. pectin is decomposed to pectinic acid and alcohol. carrot. while it may be more than 120 mg/kg/hour in the vegetables with high respiratory activity. French bean.. onion Cabbage. musk melon. Moderate iv. cucumber sweet potato. Very low ii Low iii. High v. broccoli. sweet pepper Hyacinth bean. cauliflower. asparagus. leafy greens.
Botrytis. Phomopsis. Keep: the produce dry after washing because free moisture on the produce surface enhances the growth of spores of micro-organisms. Control of post-harvest losses Start: controlling post-harvest diseases before harvest. thus. etc. Pseudomonas and Ceratocystis. storage rot of brinjal by Botrytis cineria. Diplodia. Aspergillus. solani. Rhizopus. Handle: the produce carefully during harvesting. black mould of onion by Aspergillus niger. because these may be the carriers of micro-organisms from the field. providing entry points for disease causing micro-organisms. sorting. Fusarium. Penicillium etc. . packaging and storing because careless handling may bruise the fruits. Some harvested commodities carry latent infection that may not be detected at harvest. because ripe fruits may serve as sources of inoculum (decay causing microorganisms). dry rot of garlic by Fusarium oxysporium and F. Separate: ripe from unripe fruits either in the containers or storage rooms. because many postharvest diseases begin while the crop is still in the field. Clean: the commodity of soil and other sources of infection after harvest. and most common bacteria causing rots are Erwinia. Some of the important storage diseases are : neck rot of onion caused by Botrytis allii. wounds and other mechanical injuries serve as ports of entry for micro-organisms. Avoid: injuring the commodity throughout the entire distribution process from harvesting to marketing because bruises. soft rot of cabbage by Erwinia carotovora.Softening of tissues Toughening and spongyness Losses due to microbial invasion The most common fungi causing rots in vegetables are Alternaria.
commodities may contaminate healthy ones upon contact. Store: commodities at the recommended temperature because disease causing micro-organisms do not grow at low temperatures. Growth will resume upon transfer of the commodity to room temperature. Provide: aeration in storage areas and keep the commodity free of excess moisture because moist conditions favour the growth and multiplication of disease causing micro-organisms. Practice: sanitation and cleanliness at all times in transit, storage areas, containers and market stalls because dirty and unsanitary containers and areas may serve as sources of infection. The post-harvest loss minimizing operations may be categorized as preharvest operations, harvesting techniques, handling of the produce, packaging, transportation, marketing, storage and processing. Pre-harvest operations Proper pre-harvest cultural operations sometimes help in prolonging the shelf-life of vegetables. Some of the pre-harvest operations are given below. (b) Avoidance of heavy application of nitrogenous fertilizers and at the same time essential supply of potassic fertilizers improve the keeping quality of vegetables. (c) (d) Irrigation should be discontinued 15 days before harvesting potato, onion and garlic for obtaining tubers/bulbs with maximum storage life. Pre-harvest spray of 2000-3000 ppm maleic hydrazide, a growth inhibitor in combination of 0.25% Difolatan, a fungicide 15 days before harvest reduces storage loss and inhibits sprouting in onion. (e) (f) Pre-harvest spray of 500-2500 ppm maleic hydrazide inhibits sprouting and thereby reduces losses of potato in storage. Pre-harvest spray of maleic hydrazide to carrot inhibits both sprouting and rooting during storage at 0o C.
Pre-harvest spray of
ppm maleic hydrazide 3 weeks before
harvest is effective to inhibit sprouting and prevents weight loss and discolouration of cloves in garlic. (h) Blanching in cauliflower (tying of leaves to protect the curd from scorching sunlight) ensures good quality and comparatively long storability of the curd. (i) Mulching also some what prolongs the shelf-life of vegetables because mulching materials obstruct reflection of soil heat to the produce and thereby keep them less hot which checks deterioration. Harvesting techniques
Harvesting should always be done at proper stage of maturity because it not only determines the quality of the product but also prolongs its shelf-life. Harvesting should be done with care to avoid damage, bruising and cracking of the product which checks easy entry of the decay causing micro-organisms. Harvesting during hot period of the day should be avoided as immense field heat causes wilting and shriveling of the produce. Evening harvested tomato has longest shelf-life, uniform ripening and better quality. Harvesting during or immediately after rain should not be done because most favourable conditions for multiplication of the decay causing micro-organisms are provided at that time.
Handling of the produce Washing, trimming and grading After harvesting, the produce should be thoroughly washed with clean water to reduce the load of micro-organisms and to remove field heat from the produce. Washing of vegetables should preferably be done by sprayers. Rotten, diseased, insect damaged and discoloured leaves of the vegetables should be trimmed off and at the same time damaged vegetables should be discarded. The harvested vegetables should be graded in accordance with shape, size, colour, maturity, freedom from disease and pest attack, etc., which helps the storage process convenient and prevents the healthy produce from being contaminated by decay causing micro-organisms.
Pre-cooling Pre-cooling refers to rapid removal of field heat from freshly harvested produce before packaging or transportation. It reduces weight loss and shrinkage, causes delay in ripening and retards ethylene production which restrict enzymetic and respiratory activity and also reduce refrigeration load while storing at low temperature. Most modern method of pre-cooling is vacuum cooling. Various methods of pre-cooling are hydrocooling, air-cooling, room cooling, forced air-cooling, top icing and vacuum cooling. Curing
In this treatment, the produces are exposed to relatively high temperature and relative humidity at farm level which cause suberisation of the outer tissue followed by development of wound periderm in potato, sweet potato and other tuber crops and drying of scale leaves and compaction of neck in onion and garlic. These tough coverings act as effective barrier against microbial infection and water loss by transporation (ie) potato, onion and other bullb ad tuber vegetables, like garlic, sweet potato, cassava, elephant-foot yam, yam, etc. Curing of onion and potato in perforated plastic crates for 15 days at room temperature is most effective for reduction of losses due to rotting in storage.
Waxing Application of fungicides and sometimes growth substances and other chemicals along with edible wax is quite helpful in prolonging the shelf-life of vegetables. Fruits of bitter gourd, snake gourd and watermelon dipped in solution of wax emulsion (6-12%) + sodium phenyl phenoate for 30-60 seconds prolong the shelf-life up to 3, 14 and 8 days, respectively at room temperature. Post-harvest treatment of chemicals Plant Protection Chemicals: Fungicides, like Benlate, Thiabendazole, Benomyl, Dithane M-4, Captan, etc., have been found very effective against many decay causing pathogens. Antitranspirants: (Mobileaf, Kaoline, etc) leafy vegetables. is particularly beneficial to green
Growth Substances: Yellowing is one of the main factors that limits the shelf-life of cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli and Brussels sprout. Senescence which causes yellowing can effectively be retarded by pre- or post-harvest application of BA (n/M (benzyladenine), a cytokine-like compound at lower concentrations (5-15 ppm). Auxinic growth substances like 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T have profound effect on delaying leaf abscission of cauliflower when applied before or after harvest. Growth substances like MH (maleic hydrazide), CIPC (chloro-iso-propyl carbamate) and MENA (methyl ester of naphthaleneacetic acid) are effective in controlling sprouting of tuber and bulb crops. Cycocel (2-chloroethyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride) can prolong the shelf-life of lettuce, asparagus, broccoli, etc. However, effective concentration and right stage of application is very important for obtaining maximum benefit.In Brussels sprouts, spraying with GA 100 ppm extends the shelf-life to 9-10 days at 20o C. In tomato, application of cycocel 100 ppm decreases fruit decay and weight loss. In okra, fruit dipping in the solution of 100 ppm GA for 10 minutes and packed in polyethylene bags extend the shelf-life up to 9 days. Other Chemicals: In cucumber, application of borax (4%) reduces fruit decay when stored at room temperature. In tomato, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) increases the length of storage by absorbing ethylene from around the stored fruits. Post-harvest application of calcium nitrate o chloride in the form of dip o pressure infiltration extends the shelf-life of tomato and other vegetables mainly by reducing weight loss and checking CO solution extends the shelf-life up to 7 days in ambient condition. Ethylene Absorbants: Ethylene, a volatile plant hormone, is usually synthesised and eventually emitted from the tissue under the process of senescence or This emitted ethylene also acts as an autocatalyst to these Several ripening.
production. In pointed gourd, fruit dipping in 250 ppm sodium benzoate
physiological processes which lead to deterioration of the produce.
chemical formulations like brominated activated carbon, celite with KMnO4 , KMnO4 on vermiculite have been proved to be effective as ethylene absorbants. Application of KMnO4 1000 ppm in paper lining can effectively be used as cushioning material for packaging tomato which acts as ethylene absorbent.
ripe winter squash. Polyethylene packaging reduces decay and softening of the produce. prompt to minimize deterioration. corrugated fibreboard boxes. yam . Thus a substantial quantity of the produce are wasted. bamboo baskets. turnip etc. Sometimes. stick baskets. The losses at both wholesale and retail sale levels vary from commodity to commodity. like ripe pumpkin. huge quantity of wastes are also dumped due to poor marketing. can effectively be used in packaging. plastic crates and bags. on-farm storage of these vegetables is done in trench or pit (eg. Marketing Interest of the producers as well as consumers are poorly served due to present faulty marketing systems for vegetables in our country. Wrapping of vegetables with newspaper and tissue paper may be useful because it reduces physiological loss in weight. Handling of the produce during packaging should be . Home storage: Limited quantity of vegetables which require relatively high temperature and low relative humidity for storage. cabbage. This huge wastage can be minimized by good distribution and effective marketing system for vegetables. jute Cheap materials. Storage On-farm storage: The crops are generally placed in piles on the ground and covered with straw at first and then with soil. beet. sweet potato. paperboard boxes lined with polyethylene. carrot. like polyethylene films. Moreover. certain vegetables get stagnated in particular areas resulting in surfeit owing to lack in propr distribution system and climatic factors. Plastic crates are better in case of bulk transportation from the point of view of less bruising loss. can be kept in the shady and cool corner of the house for quite a long time. wire-bound boxes. Very often.PACKAGING AND STORAGE OF VEGETABLES Packaging The common packages are wooden boxes. etc.
Low temperature also reduces the moisture loss from . Shelf-life of the vegetables inside the zero energy cool chamber Shelf-life(days) when kept outside 3 3 2 2 3 5 5 5 7 Shelf-life (days) when kept in cool chamber 8 10 6 5 8 12 10 10 12 Vegetables Palak Fenugreek leaf Round melon Pointed gourd Cucumber Carrot Peas Radish Cauliflower Cold storage Storage months February-March February-march May-June -do-doFebruary-March -do-do-do- Low temperature storage is the best method of slowing down metabolic processes and decay of vegetables and thereby. Based on the principle of evaporative cooling. cooling and humidification by evaporation of water. IARI. Zero Energy Cool Chamber This low cost cool chamber has been developed at the Division of Horticulture. New Delhi.Low Cost Storage without Refrigeration Ventilated storage structure for onion and garlic Onion and garlic are the vegetable crops of great economic significance in our country. most effectively extends the shelf-life of the produce. A large quantity of onion and garlic is lost due to inadequate post-harvest handling. They are the major export earners and have great demand in The recommended ideal storage conditions for onion domestic market. this cool chamber achieves its objective by maintaining low temperature and high humidity as compared to the ambient conditions outside.1. The cool chamber is provided with a wet porous bed and the passage of air which causes Table. and garlic are 0°temperature and 70 to 75 per cent relative humidity.
0-1.7 0. the requirements are specific for each vegetable.the produce because moisture holding capacity of air at low temperature is much less than it is at warm temperatures.0 0.0 3-4 1.0 0.0 0.7 8.0 0.7 0. 2.7 0.0 11. Improper low temperature leads to freezing injury of the produce whereas improper high temperature leads to shrivelling of the produce and at the same time favours the growth of decay-causing micro-organisms.0 0.7 10.0 8-14 1.0-1.0-11.2 0. Storage requirement of some cool season vegetables Vegetable Potato Cabbage(early) Cabbage(late) Cauliflower (late) Beet (topped) Beet (bunched) Carrot (topped) Radish (topped) Turnip Pea Celery Lettuce (head type) Lettuce (leaf type) Asparagus Tomato (ripe) Chilli (green) Bitter gourd Cucumber Onion (bulb) Cassava Okra Temperature (0°C) 3.5 20-24 3-5 8-16 2-3 1.0 20-24 23 2.0 7. For example. both temperature and relative humidity are considered simultaneously and in fact.6-1.0-1.0-1.0-1.9 Relative humidity (%) 85 92-95 92-95` 85-95 90-95 90 95 88-92 90-95 88-92 92-95 90-95 95 95 90 85-90 85-90 92 70-75 85 90 Storage life (weeks) 34.0 4-6 12.0 3.2 7.0 .0 7.0 0.0 3-5 4.0 0.4 0.6 0.0-10.7 0.0 2. asparagus requires 0oC and 95% relative humidity whereas pumpkin requires 10-12oC and 70-75% relative humidity for storage.0 0. In the cold storage.0-4.7 0. Table.
respiration and senescence and thereby prolongs Irradiation Irradiation is found useful to extend the shelf-life of the produce by restricting the growth of decay –causing microorganisms and by slowing down the rate of metabolism in the produce.A) storage Usually. This storage markedly retards ripening. . Irradiated produce also maintains its quality for prolonged period. reduction of oxygen and/or elevation of carbon dioxide concentration inside the storage chamber is maintained.Controlled atmosphere (C. In addition to this. irradiation has been found to be of great practical significance in controlling sprouting of potato and onion. shelf-life of vegetables.
Consequently. Producer→Commission agent→Wholesale trader→Retailer→Consumer 2. seasonal market arrivals and bulky nature. Producer→Commission agent→ Wholesale trader→Consumer 4. Udhagamandalam. about 12 state and central level societies and more than 275 primary marketing societies are directly engaged in the marketing of vegetables. At present. Horticultural Producers Marketing and Processing Society (HOPCOMS). Assembling and subsequent marketing of the produce is further lopsided due to lack of proper storage facilities and quick transport systems. Very often the producers are forced to dispose of their produce at a very nominal price when there arises seasonal gluts due to these bottlenecks. Another major defect in vegetable marketing is the involvement of several intermediaries who dominate the trade and reap huge profit. several State Tribal Co-operative Corporations headed by TRIFED and primary co-operative marketing societies have taken up procurement and marketing of potato. the following four channels are predominant. Producer→ Retailer→Consumer Majority of the produce are marketed through channel 1 and 2. 1. Bangalore. In vegetable marketing. Nilgiris Co-operative Marketing Society. Market channel ‘4’ only operates where the producing area is situated near big markets or cities. Besides NAFED. onion and ginger. Organised effort of marketing through co-operatives is inadequate in our country. Nasik District Potato and Onion . It is urgently felt that more horticultural producers’ co-operative marketing societies should be established at village and district levels to control the activity of the intermediaries and to regulate the vegetable marketing. Producer → Wholesale trader→ Retailer→Consumer 3.MARKETING SYSTEMS IN VEGETABLE CROPS Marketing of vegetables faces a number of constraints due to their high perishability. Nilgiris Vegetable Growers Co-operative Marketing Society Udhagamandalam. producers’ margin in the consumers’ price become very low. National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation (NAFED). Vegetables are generally marketed in the big hotels or other establishments through channel 3.
Growers Co-operative Association are some of the other co-operative agencies rendering their services in the marketing of vegetables. closer co-ordination among the Agriculture Marketing Board. The existing systems need to be streamlined and monitored and the facility of the co-operative societies should be extended to the grass-root level. Moreover. . National Horticulture Board has started catering information regarding the prevailing prices of vegetables at various wholesale markets on daily basis. National Horticulture Board and State Department of Agriculture/Horticulture should be ensured to formulate an action plan for marketing of vegetables.
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