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Section 1 Hardware / Software Pre-requisites
Section 2 Installation Procedure
Section 3 Operating the software 3.1 Sign-on Procedure 3.2 The User Interface
6 6 6
Section 4 Course Notes 4.1 An Introduction to Prince 2 4.2 Prince 2 Processes 4.3 Prince 2 Components 4.3.1 Organisation 4.3.2 Planning & Control 4.3.3 Other Components 4.4 Prince 2 Techniques
8 8 11 15 15 17 22 27
Appendix Glossary Processes/Components Matrix
30 30 40
This interactive overview of the Prince 2 Project Management Method is the product of a joint venture development between Key Skills Limited and SPOCE Project Management Limited. SPOCE were one of the first training organisations to be accredited for Prince 2 training and have provided the subject matter content of this Foundation course. Key Skills Limited are a leading developer and distributor of multi-media training products who specialise in the area of project and programme management. Prince 2 Foundation uses the very latest multi-media educational techniques to provide a learning environment which is stimulating, easy-to-use and stress-free. The aim of this course is to take students with little or no knowledge of Prince 2 to the level where they could take the Foundation (Part 1) examinations with a high degree of confidence in achieving a pass. The examination within the course package uses previous examination questions which are accessed at random to provide an accurate simulation of the real thing. An important complement to the training course is the unique on-line electronic copy of the full Prince 2 manual. This can be run in parallel with the course to provide a complete source of reference to facilitate your understanding of the whole method. We hope you enjoy the course and that you find it a useful starting point in your Prince 2 training programme.
and an Acrobat Viewer is embedded within the courseware. you should operate this multi-media course on a computer with the following minimum specification: • • • • IBM/PC Pentium 100 Processor with 16 mb RAM 8x CD-ROM drive Sound-card & speakers SVGA Monitor Note The course uses 800x600 resolution • • Mouse/Pointing device A Windows (95/98 or NT) environment is also needed.Section 1 Hardware / Software Pre-requisites For optimum performance.EXE programme which is located in the root directory of the CD-ROM and follow the on-screen instructions. To set up the software simply run the INSTALL. 5 . Section 2 Installation Procedure The courseware is run directly from the CD-ROM and the only function of the installation program is to copy the run-time files to your hard disk drive and to set up the Programme Group/Folder and Items. The electronic Prince 2 manual which is contained on the CD-ROM provided with Prince 2 Overview is in Adobe Acrobat format.
taking care that you always use the same name so that the system can maintain your own individual bookmark. 3.2 The User Interface Once sign on is completed you will be presented with the main menu which looks like this: 6 .1 Sign-On Procedure Once you have passed the title screen and copyright notices you will be asked to identify yourself to the system. Simply enter your name at this point.Section 3 Operating the software The course is invoked by clicking on the icon in the Program Group Window. 3.
the main user controls are located at the bottom of the screen.Section 3 3. Throughout the course. The lower one-third of each box is the book mark area and a red bar will appear in this area to show whether you have part or fully completed the corresponding lesson. sequentially. The Contents and Index facilities are particularly useful for browsing in this way. for example: Start at First Page Go to Book Mark Each of these lesson boxes is divided into two distinct areas. However. Note The bookmarking system is switched off as soon as you move around the course using either the Index or the Contents buttons at the bottom of each page. Newcomers to the course will gain most benefit from starting at the beginning of the first lesson and working their way through.2 The User Interface Each lesson is represented by one of the “boxes” on the menu screen. If you click on the upper two-thirds of each box then you will be taken to the start of the corresponding lesson. at any time. the package is also a valuable source of reference and it is possible to re-visit specific lessons. 7 . and their functions are as shown below: Course Index Clock Course Contents s Glossary Progress Meter Previous Page Next Page EXIT Frequently Asked Questions Prince 2 On–line Manual Note It is also possible to move backwards and forwards through each lesson using the Page-Up and Page-Down key on your computer’s keyboard. or parts of a lesson. to the end. By clicking in the book mark area you will be taken to your last point of study within the corresponding lesson.
Why use a project management method? Project failures are all too common – some make the headlines.1 An Introduction to Prince 2 PRINCE was established in 1989 by CCTA (the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency). When PRINCE was launched in 1989. resulting in the delivery of products that are unacceptable or unusable. PRINCE remains in the public domain and copyright is retained by the Crown. leading to products being delivered which are not what the Customer wanted poor estimation of duration and costs. wellmanaged. Some common causes are: • • • • • • • lack of co-ordination of resources and activities lack of communication with interested parties. a project management method created by Simpact Systems Ltd in 1975. PRINCE is a registered trademark of CCTA. PRINCE adopts the principles of good project management to avoid the problems identified above and so helps to achieve successful projects. 8 . The reasons for failure are wide and varied. as a result. visible set of activities to achieve the desired results. those who manage it and those who work on it will have different ideas about how things should be organised and when the different aspects of the project will be completed. projects are rarely completed on time and within acceptable cost – this is especially true of large projects. The method was originally based on PROMPT. there will often be confusion surrounding the project. Without a project management method. and scheduling lack of control over progress so that projects do not reveal their exact status until too late lack of quality control. Without a project management method. PROMPT was adopted by CCTA in 1979 as the standard to be used for all Government information system projects. A good project management method will guide the project through a controlled.Section 4 Course Notes 4. those who commission a project. leading to projects taking more time and costing more money than expected insufficient measurables inadequate planning of resources. activities. authority and accountability they have and. the vast majority are quickly forgotten. Those involved will not be clear about how much responsibility. it effectively superseded PROMPT within Government projects.
and what their responsibilities are in that achievement. It is a de facto standard used extensively by the UK Government and is widely recognised and used in the private sector. The key features of PRINCE are: • • • • • its focus on business justification a defined organisation structure for the project management team its product-based planning approach its emphasis on dividing the project into manageable and controllable stages its flexibility to be applied at a level appropriate to the project. how the outcome is to be achieved. what it is intended to achieve. PRINCE. all parties must be clear about why the project is needed. Benefits of using PRINCE PRINCE provides benefits to the managers and directors of a project and to an organisation. however. when and for whom. through the controllable use of resources and the ability to manage business and project risk more effectively. why. PRINCE provides projects with: • • a controlled and organised start. is in the public domain. What is PRINCE? PRINCE (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is a structured method for effective project management. PRINCE encourages formal recognition of responsibilities within a project and focuses on what a project is to deliver. It is widely recognised and understood. a registered trademark of CCTA. PRINCE® is.Section 4 4. the method. providing a common language for all participants in a project. offering nonproprietorial best-practice guidance on project management. both in the UK and internationally. PRINCE embodies established and proven best practice in project management.1 An Introduction to Prince 2 These principles are: • • • a project is a finite process with a definite start and end projects always need to be managed in order to be successful for genuine commitment to the project. middle and end regular reviews of progress against plan and against the Business Case flexible decision points 9 .
1 An Introduction to Prince 2 • • • automatic management control of any deviations from the plan the involvement of management and stakeholders at the right time and place during the project good communication channels between the project. time-consuming meetings. They are kept fully informed of the project status without having to attend regular. authority and communication divide the project into manageable stages for more accurate planning ensure resource commitment from management is part of any approval to proceed provide regular but brief management reports keep meetings with management and stakeholders to a minimum but at the vital points in the project.Section 4 4. 10 . Those who will be directly involved with using the results of a project are able to: • • • participate in all the decision-making on a project if desired. Managers using PRINCE are able to: • • • • • • establish terms of reference as a pre-requisite to the start of a project use a defined structure for delegation. For senior management PRINCE uses the ‘management by exception’ concept. project management. and the rest of the organisation. be fully involved in day-to-day progress provide quality checks throughout the project to ensure their requirements are being adequately satisfied.
It is a pre-project process. reacting to exception situations) Project closure (confirming the project outcome and controlled close). monitors via reports and controls through a number of decision points. The work of the process is built around the production of three elements: • • • ensuring that the information required for the project team is available designing and appointing the Project Management Team creating the Initiation Stage Plan. providing advice and guidance.2 Prince 2 Processes Directing a Project (DP) Directing a Project runs from the start-up of the project until its closure. designed to ensure that the pre-requisites for initiating the project are in place.Section 4 4. This process is aimed at the Project Board. This process does not cover the day-to-day activities of the Project Manager. The Project Board manages by exception. Starting up a Project (S1-1) should be very short. Initiating a Project (1P) The objectives of Initiating a Project are to: • • • agree whether or not there is sufficient justification to proceed with the project establish a stable management basis on which to proceed document and confirm that an acceptable Business Case exists for the project 11 . The key processes for the Project Board break into four main areas: • • • • Initiation (starting the project off on the right foot) Stage boundaries (commitment of more resources after checking results so far) Ad hoc direction (monitoring progress.2 Prince 2 Processes 4. Starting up a Project (SU) This is the first process in PRINCE. The process expects the existence of a Project Mandate which defines in high level terms the reason for the project and what outcome is sought.
Managing Stage Boundaries (SB) This process provides the Project Board with key decision points on whether to continue with the project or not. taking account of the risks to the project. together with its delegated tolerance level record any measurements or lessons which can help later stages of this project and /or other projects. The process forms the core of the Project Manager’s effort on the project. The objectives of the process are to: • • • • assure the Project Board that all deliverables planned in the current Stage Plan have been completed as defined provide the information needed for the Project Board to assess the continuing viability of the project provide the Project Board with information needed to approve the current stage’s completion and authorise the start of the next stage.2 Prince 2 Processes • • • • • ensure a firm and accepted foundation to the project prior to commencement of the work agree to the commitment of resources for the first stage of the project enable and encourage the Project Board to take ownership of the project provide the baseline for the decision-making processes required during the project’s life ensure that the investment of time and effort required by the project is made wisely.Section 4 4. Controlling a Stage (CS) This process describes the monitoring and control activities of the Project Manager involved in ensuring that a stage stays on course and reacts to unexpected events. 12 . being the process which handles day-to-day management of the project. Throughout a stage there will be a cycle consisting of: • • • • • • authorising work to be done gathering progress information about that work watching for changes reviewing the situation reporting taking any necessary corrective action.
The process covers the Project Manager’s work to wrap up the project either at its end or at premature close. Most of the work is to prepare input to the Project Board to obtain its confirmation that the project may close. to: • • • • • • • check the extent to which the objectives or aims set out in the Project Initiation Document have been met confirm the extent of the fulfilment of the Project Initiation Document and the Customer’s satisfaction with the deliverables obtain formal acceptance of the deliverables ensure to what extent all expected products have been handed over and accepted by the Customer confirm that maintenance and operation arrangements are in place (where appropriate) make any recommendations for follow-on actions capture lessons resulting from the project and complete the Lessons Learned Report 13 . Also. therefore. together with the on-going work of risk management and change control.Section 4 4. The objectives of Closing a Project are.2 Prince 2 Processes This process covers these activities. Closing a Project (CP) The purpose of this process is to execute a controlled close to the project. Managing Product Delivery (MP) The objective of this process is to ensure that planned products are created and delivered by: • • • • • • making certain that work on products allocated to the team is effectively authorised and agreed. accepting and checking Work Packages ensuring that work conforms to the requirements of interfaces identified in the Work Package ensuring that the work is done assessing work progress and forecasts regularly ensuring that completed products meet quality criteria obtaining approval for the completed products.
14 . • PRINCE provides a product-based start to the planning activity. main ones being: • • • Planning an Initiation Stage (SL16) Planning a Project (IP2) Planning a Stage (SB1) Producing an Exception Plan (SB6). This involves: • • • • establishing what products are needed determining the sequence in which each product should be produced defining the form and content of each product resolving what activities are necessary for their creation and delivery.2 Prince 2 Processes • • prepare an End Project Report notify the host organisation of the intention to disband the project organisation and resources. It also provides planning framework which can be applied to any type of project. Planning (PL) Planning is a repeatable process.Section 4 4. and plays an important role in other processes.
PRINCE 2 is flexible and thus the job definitions describe roles most of which may be allocated. divided or combined according to the needs of the project. A project management team is a temporary structure specifically designed to manage the project to its successful conclusion meeting the requirements defined in the project brief.1 Organisation The Project Board Senior User Executive Senior Supplier Project Assurance Project Manager Project Support Team Manager The project team The PRINCE2 project management structure. shared. consists of roles and responsibilities which bring together the various interests and skills involved in. 15 . which is shown above.Section 4 4.3 Prince 2 Components 4. the project.3. All the roles set out above need to be accommodated within job definitions which clearly set out the authority and responsibility of those concerned. and required by.3 Prince 2 Components 4.
The Project Board do not work full time on the project. This is in order to give the Project Board confidence that the project remains consistent with and continues to meet a business need and that no change to the external environment.3 Prince 2 Components The Project Board represents the business. It is therefore necessary for them to be sufficiently senior to fulfil this role. This is the Project Assurance function and members of it report to the relevant member of the Project Board . 16 . Project Board membership is a part time job which involves being kept informed regularly but only asks for joint decision making at key points in the project. The Project Board members must have authority because they are the decisionmakers and responsible for commitment of resources to the project. user and supplier interests of the project at managerial level. The Project Manager has the responsibility to ensure the project produces: • • • • the required products to the right standard of quality within the time within the budget In addition the Project Manager is responsible for producing a result which is capable of achieving the benefits as defined in the Project Initiation Document. The project board are accountable for: • • • • • • • approval of the appointment and responsibilities of the project manager approval of all major plans signing off completion of each project stage authorising the start of the next project stage ensuring required resources are committed to the project arbitrating on conflicts within the project liaison and communication with the world outside the project The Project Manager is given the authority to run the project an a day-to-day basis on behalf of the Project Board within the constraints laid down by the Project Board. A role is therefore defined within the PRINCE 2 structure to which members of the project board may delegate responsibilities for monitoring the project’s performance and products independent of the Project Manager.Section 4 4.
3. The Project Board provide resources and the Project Manager manages them on a day to day basis. A plan is a statement of: • • • • • what has to be produced what has to be done to produce it what has to be done to make sure it is produced correctly what has to be done to monitor progress what has to be done to control risks 17 .Section 4 4.3 Prince 2 Components Project Support The Project Manager is likely to be very busy and administrative help may well be supplied by a Project Support function.2 Planning & Control What is a plan? A plan is a document describing how. Also there may be mandated use of certain tools in which the Project Manager has insufficient expertise such as planning and control or configuration management tools (more of these subjects later). Summary Establishing an effective organisational structure for a project is crucial to its success. The Project Board are responsible for the success of the project . The Project Manager may be part time or full time. The Project Board are strictly part time on the project. PRINCE 2 offers an approach which provides these elements and is sufficiently flexible to be mapped to any environment. control and communication. when and by whom a target is to be achieved. have individually assigned responsibilities and make the high level decisions. 4. The Project Manager reports to the Project Board and carries out their instructions. In many instances a central Project Support function will serve many projects. management. Every project has need for direction.
Tolerance may. The number of levels of plan chosen for your project should reflect a balance between: • • • the different information and control needs of the Project Manager and the Project Board the effort of creating extra plans the problems involved in ensuring compatibility between different plan levels 18 . This will give the Project Manager some room to maneuver without escalation to the Project Board. Small projects may have only one stage after Initiating a Project and so may possibly need only one level of plan.3 Prince 2 Components Levels of Plan PROJECT PLAN STAGE PLAN TEAM PLAN The size and complexity of the project and the level of control required will be used in deciding the number of levels of plan required. If there is need to use Team Plans. will incorporate ‘tolerance’ on finance and time as determined by the Project Board. The plan being used for control purposes by the Project Manager.Section 4 4. Stages cannot run in parallel. The Project Plan is mandatory. A project will always be broken down into at least 2 stages. normally the Stage Plan. be set at zero if applicable. Note A stage within PRINCE 2 is a division of the project for management purposes and is a length of time. the Stage Plan would normally act as a summary of the key start and end dates. of course.
Quality criteria This describes the measurable criteria which will be applied to determine whether the product is acceptable. Composition This will vary according to the type of final product but is basically a list of the items one would expect to find in the product.Project Brief. For example . A product is defined by a Product Description under the following major headings: Purpose This is a definition in measurable terms of what must be done for the final product to be acceptable to the customer and staff who will be affected. For example . to ensure that the people working on the project know what they expected to produce so that the project can be controlled by monitoring the satisfactory completion of products which signifies the completion of the activities which produced them. Project Level activity network. For example . project timescale acceptable to the users. 19 . major control points and provide a baseline against which to monitor project progress.Project level Gantt Chart.3 Prince 2 Components Products A product is any input to or output from a project. Format This describes how the product should be presented.every team members work planned. Derivation This describes the products or knowledge which are input to the process to produce this product. For example . Products may make up the final deliverable from the project or may be items delivered on the way through the project.Section 4 4. For example in a Project Plan . Senior User.a Project Plan must provide the business case.on presentation foils in landscape with A4 paper back up. 2. Products are defined for projects for two reasons: 1.
PRINCE 2 does not recommend any specific estimating methods or tools but it does define two basic approaches . This method will normally be used for a project plan.a review meeting. Products within a PRINCE 2 structure are broken down to three broad sections: • • • management products (produced to enable management of the project) quality products (produced to enable the quality of the project to be managed) specialist products (the products whose development is the subject of the plan.3 Prince 2 Components Quality method This describes how the adherence to quality criteria will be determined. For example . Senior User to approve on behalf of all users.Section 4 4. Top down estimating This involves an estimate for the total project broken down across the normal stages for a project of that type. Also called ‘technical’ products) Product flow diagram A Product Flow Diagram shows the sequence of production and interdependencies of the products listed in the Product Breakdown Structure. 20 . Product breakdown structure A product breakdown structure is a hierarchy of all the products to be produced during a plan. Estimating The fundamental principle of estimating within PRINCE 2 is that estimating is not going to produce an accurate prediction of what will happen but it is better than no estimating at all.top down and bottom up. Breaking down a product into its constituent sub-products helps clarify and identify all necessary work for its creation.
money. for each level of the Project Management Team. PRINCE 2 identifies the major steps in a typical estimating process as: • Identifying resource types required This will include human resources who may require specific skills depending on the nature of the project. In order to produce a plan to show the ultimate feasibility of achieving its objectives the activities are put together in a schedule. • Identifying the time and effort required for each activity. the next level up can: • • • • • • monitor progress compare achievement with plan review plans and options against future scenarios detect problems initiate corrective action authorise further work. Controls Control is all about decision making and is the central role of project management.3 Prince 2 Components Bottom up estimating This involves an estimate for each product which is built up into a figure for the whole of the job in hand. Controls ensure that. In addition to the above. This method will be used for a stage plan. Having done this the estimates will be approximate or provisional. 21 . and also non-human resources such as equipment. travel.Section 4 4. The purpose of control is to ensure that the project: • • • is producing the required products which meet the defined acceptance criteria is being carried out to schedule and in accordance with resource and cost plans remains viable against the business case.
Projects are set up to bring about change and hence project work is usually less predictable than routine work. Examples of business risks are: • • • change in the business area involved legislative changes change in political factors such as public opinion Project Risks cover the threats to the management of the project and hence the achievement of the project’s end results within cost and time. Projects also take time and there is always a risk that things in the real world will alter during the course of a project. Types of risk Risks fall broadly into two categories: Business Risks cover the threats associated with a project not delivering the products which can achieve the expected benefits. Examples of project risks are: • • • failure of third party to deliver satisfactorily skill shortages requirements not fully understood Risk Analysis This comprises three activities: • Risk Identification which determines the potential risks that could be faced by the project 22 .3 Other Components 1.Section 4 4.3 Prince 2 Components 4. Risk Management What is a risk? Risk is defined as: • ‘the chance of exposure to the adverse consequences of future events’ Risk is a major factor to be considered during the management of a project.3.
23 .3 Prince 2 Components • • Risk Estimation which determines how important each risk is based on an assessment of its likelihood and its consequences to the project and business. Risk management consists of four major activities: • • • • planning for any countermeasure actions itemised during the risk evaluation activities resourcing which will identify and assign resources to be used for the work to carry out the risk avoidance or amelioration actions.Section 4 4. Risk Management Once the risks have been identified and evaluated. The actions which may be taken break down to five broad types: • • • • • Prevention stop the risk occurring or prevent it having any impact on the project or business Reduction reduce the likelihood of the risk developing or limit the impact to acceptable levels Transference pass the impact of the risk to a third party via perhaps an insurance policy Contingency where actions are planned to come into force as and when the risk occurs Acceptance where the Project Board decides to go ahead and accept the possibility that the risk may occur. attention needs to focus on managing them. if not. monitoring which will involve checking planned actions are having the desired effect and watching for early signs that a risk is developing. controlling which is taking action to ensure that the events of the plan really happen. what actions can be taken to make it more acceptable. Risk Evaluation which decides whether the level of each risk is acceptable or not and.
PRINCE 2 itself will typically form part of a corporate quality system where it has been adopted as a corporate standard.Section 4 4. Quality in a project environment What is Quality? For PRINCE 2 purposes the definition of quality is as defined in ISO standard 8402: “totality of features and characteristics of a product or service which bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs” This is normally expressed more succinctly as “fitness for purpose”. 24 . Quality Assurance This element sets up the Quality System and assures that it operates to achieve an end product which meets customer quality expectations. Quality System A quality system will normally include an organisation structure. Quality Control This is the means of ensuring the products meet the quality criteria specified for them. Quality control applies to the completed product and is therefore done after the job has been done . The quality system and the corporate quality policy may be dependent on the international standard for quality systems ISO 9001 issued under the authority of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). The PRINCE 2 manual contains a description of which parts of ISO 9001 are satisfied by PRINCE 2.3 Prince 2 Components 2. Quality Planning This element establishes the objectives and requirements for quality on the project and lays out the activities for the application of the quality system. Quality assurance is done before the job. procedures and processes to implement quality management.
• • 4.Section 4 4. Status accounting the recording and reporting of all current and historical data concerned with each configuration item. Once a product has been approved the motto is “Nothing moves. the car’s serial number in conjunction with the records kept by configuration management will ensure the right one is supplied. The construction of a car is a good example. and a judgmental decision by management to decide whether to include them or not. 25 . Verification a series of reviews and audits to ensure that there is conformity between the project’s products and the authorised state of configuration items as registered in the Configuration Management records. their importance.3 Prince 2 Components 3. The four basic functions of configuration management • • Identification specifying and identifying all components of the final product Control the ability to agree and freeze configuration items and then to make changes only with the agreement of the appropriate named authorities. The control of change means the assessment of the impact of potential changes. Any approved changes must be reflected in any necessary corresponding change to schedule and budget. Change Control Purpose of change control Change during a project is inevitable. Configuration Management What is Configuration Management? Configuration Management may be thought of as product control. their cost. nothing changes without authorisation”. change to specification or scope can potentially ruin any project unless carefully controlled. However. What components have to be brought together to assemble a particular model of car? What about components being redesigned and updated? If a replacement window winder for a five year old example is required.
This arrangement can avoid a number of mid stage assessments where the frequency of changes is high. The Project Board needs to decide before the project moves out of initiation where the authority for making changes lies. and the responsibilities must be written into the appropriate job descriptions. that product cannot be changed without the Project Board’s agreement. If a product has been approved by the Project Board.Section 4 4. Authority levels In some projects the Project Board may choose to delegate consideration of changes to a group often called a change authority. its Product Description should be checked to see if any changes are necessary. A budget to pay for changes is normally given to this change authority.3 Prince 2 Components What is being changed? If a product is changed. 26 .
It absence would be very inconvenient a nice to have a cosmetic change no change involved 27 . a must an important change.4 Prince 2 Techniques There are many techniques used within project management regardless of what approach is being used. Within the PRINCE 2 Manual there are only 4 techniques described. 4.All changes are treated as types of Project Issue and are handled through the same change control process. PRINCE 2 does not set out to cover these or the specialist techniques involved in the creation of the products. 1.Section 4 4. One technique is Product Based Planning which uses: • • • product descriptions product breakdown structures product flow diagrams and was described in Lesson 4. There are 3 other techniques described in the PRINCE 2 Manual and these are described in the following sections. 3. A Project Issue can be: • • • • a request to change requirements (request for change) a suggestion for improving products (request for change) a record of some current or forecast failure to meet a requirement (off specification) a question on any topic Every issue is sent to the Project Manager and entered on the Issue Log together with its priority as indicated by the author: 1. 5. 2. Change Control Project Issues . These are the project management techniques which are unique to PRINCE or PRINCE 2.4 Prince 2 Techniques 4.
4 Prince 2 Techniques 2. A quality review is intended to review the product. It brings together those with a vested interest in the product and with specialist knowledge which can contribute to quality. Management do not attend quality reviews in a people management role although they may go as reviewers. Steps in a quality review There are three basic steps in a quality review: • • • preparation review meeting follow-up 28 . for example. not the producer of the product. The result of a quality review will normally be one of three: • • • product is error free product can be approved once the identified errors are corrected and signed off correction of errors will radically alter the product and it should be reviewed again. It is an opportunity for detection of errors and potential errors. improving the design. not for their correction. a report or a drawing but could be other products such as a model or prototype. The product to be reviewed will typically be a document such as a plan. Quality Review Why have quality reviews? Benefits which can be gained from quality reviews include: • • • • assessment of the product against criteria in the product description early identification of defects measurement of progress by the formal completion of products shared ownership of products What is a quality review? A quality review is a team review of a product with the emphasis on checking the product for errors as opposed to.Section 4 4.
Section 4 4. review chairman producer reviewer scribe Project Filing This is a suggested filing system to be used by a project. The files decided upon may be tied in with the configuration management system as required. There are 3 major types of files within PRINCE 2: • • • Management Specialist Quality 29 .4 Prince 2 Techniques Responsibilities in a quality review There are four basic roles in the quality review procedure: • • • • 3.
Business Case Information which describes the justification for setting up and continuing a PRINCE project. including the submission. Change Control The procedure to ensure that the processing of all Project Issues is controlled. Change Budget The money allocated to the Change Authority to be spent on authorised Requests For Change. B Baseline A snapshot. It is updated at key points throughout the project. analysis and decision-making.Appendix Glossary A Acceptance Criteria A prioritised list of criteria which the final product(s) must meet before the Customer will accept them. They should be defined as part of the Project Brief and agreed between Customer and Supplier no later than the Project Initiation Stage. 30 . They should be in the Project Initiation Document. C Change Authority A group to which the Project Board may delegate responsibility for the consideration of Requests For Change. a position or situation which is recorded. The Change Authority is given a budget and can approve changes within that budget. the baseline remains unchanged and available as a reminder of the original state and as a comparison against the current position. It provides the reasons (answers the question 'Why?') for the project. Although the position may be updated later.
control. Contingency Plan A plan which provides an outline of decisions and measures to be taken if defined circumstances. The word is used to avoid confusion particularly between the public and private sectors. Customer The person or group. normally supported by software tools. the products of a project). government department. and provides reporting data as defined in the Project Initiation Document. Corporate Body Used to describe any company. status accounting and verification of the products. Checkpoint Report A progress report of the information gathered at a Checkpoint meeting. which is given by a team to the project manager. It can be a customer for the end results. corporation or charitable body which is involved in the project. covering identification. Concession An Off-Specification which is accepted by the Project Board without corrective action. Configuration Management A discipline. assurance or auditing body. which gives management precise control over its assets (eg. should occur.Appendix Glossary Checkpoint A team level. supplier of specialist skills or deliverables. outside the control of a PRINCE project. time-driven review of progress. who commissioned the work and will benefit from the end results. 31 .
Appendix Glossary D Deliverable An item which the project has to create as part of the requirements. The approval to proceed should be documented as an important management product. It may be part of the final outcome or an intermediate element on which one or more subsequent deliverables are dependent. According to the type of project. 32 . This provides information about the project performance during the stage and the project status at stage end. another name for a deliverable is 'product'. the review may be formal or informal. According to the size and criticality of the project. Exception A situation where it can be forecast that there will be a deviation beyond the tolerance levels agreed between Project Manager and Project Board (or between Project Board and corporate or programme management). Exception Report A report which describes an exception. E End Project Report The review by the Project Board and Project manager of the End Stage Report to decide whether to approve the next Stage Plan (unless the last stage has now been completed). provides an analysis and options for the way forward and identifies a recommended option. End Stage Report A report given by the Project Manager to the Project Board at the end of each management stage of the project. It is given by the Project Manager to the Project Board. Executive The chairman of the Project Board. representing the Customer.
its evaluation. It is approved by the Project Board. what decisions about it have been made and its current status. I Issue Log A log of all issues and change request raised during the project. L Lessons Learned Report A report which describes the lessons learned in undertaking the project and which includes statistics from the quality control of the project's management products. 33 . then held centrally for the benefit of future projects. H Highlight Report Report from the project Manager to the project Board on a time-driven frequency on stage progress. It also sets out proposals for Post Implementation Review of the project's products. showing details of each issue.Appendix Glossary F Follow-on Action Recommendations A report which can be used as input to the process of creating a Business Case/Project Mandate for any follow-on instructions covering incomplete products or outstanding issues.
Typically it will be filled by the person who has produced the product. PRINCE Project A project whose product(s) can be defined at its start sufficiently precisely as to be measurable against pre-defined metrics and which is managed according to the PRINCE method. Process That which must be done to bring about a particular outcome. Useful term where the project result is not an easily definable 'product'. Producer This role represents the creator(s) of a document which is the subject of a Quality Review. but currently is not (or is forecast not to be provided). Outcome The result of a project. in terms of information to be gathered.Appendix Glossary O Off-Specification Something which should be provided by the project. P Post Implementation Review One or more reviews held after project closure to determine if the expected benefits have been obtained. decisions to be made and results which must be achieved. The acronym stands for PROJECTS IN Controlled Environments. PRINCE A method which supports some selected aspects of project management. or who led the team responsible. 34 . This might be a missing product or a product not meeting its specification.
Appendix Glossary Product Any input to or output from a project. as soon as the need for the product is identified. Product Description A description of a product's purpose. plus key dates in their delivery. PRINCE distinguishes between management products (which are produced as part of the management of the project). A product may itself be a collection of other products. derivation and quality criteria. Project Assurance The Project Board's responsibilities to assure itself that the project is being conducted correctly. Product Checklist A list of the major products of a plan. Project A temporary organisation which is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified business case. composition. Project Brief A description of what the project is to do. a refined and extended version of the Project Mandate. Product Breakdown Structure A hierarchy of all the products to be produced during a plan. specialist products (which are those products which make up the final deliverable) and quality products (which are produced for or by the quality process). which has been agreed by the Project Board and which is input to Project Initiation. Product Flow Diagram A diagram showing the sequence of production and interdependencies of the products listed in a Product Breakdown Structure. 35 . It is produced at planning time.
which forms the terms of reference and is used to start up the PRINCE project. quality and performance. Project Initiation Document (PID) A logical document whose purpose is to bring together the key information needed to start the project on a sound basis. Project Management Team A term to represent the entire management structure of Project Board. 36 . equipment and access. demobilised. Project manager.Appendix Glossary Project Closure Notification Advice from the Project Manager to inform the host location that the project resources can be disbanded and support services. suggestions. monitoring and control of all aspects of the project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost. Project mandate Information created externally to the project. plus any Team Leaders and project assurance roles. Project Issues can be about anything to do with the project. such as space. Requests For Change and Off-Specifications. Project Issue A term used to cover both general issues and change requests raised during the project. They cover questions. and to convey that information to all concerned with the project. Project Manager The person given the authority and responsibility to manage the project on a day-today basis to deliver the required products within the constraints agreed with the Project Board. Project Management The planning.
Project Support Office A group set up to provide certain administrative services to many projects. procedures and responsibilities for a site or organisation. Quality Management System The complete set of quality standards. It will be part of the text in the Project Initiation Document. This is revised in later versions as information on actual progress appears. Project Start-up Notification Advice to the host location that the project is about to start and requesting any required project support services. It is a major control document for the Project Board to measure actual progress against expectations. specialist and quality products and other material.Appendix Glossary Project plan A high-level plan showing the major products of the project. An Initial Project Plan is presented as part of the Project Initiation Document. when they will be delivered and at what cost. Project Records A collection of all approved management. Project Quality Plan The definition of key quality criteria and quality control and audit processes to be applied to project management and technical work in the PRINCE project. Q Quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service which bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. which is necessary to provide and auditable record of the project. Note This does not include working files. 37 .
Senior user A member of the Project Board. estimation. It should be created during the start-up of the project and developed during the life of the project. defined roles and procedure designed to ensure a document's completeness and adherence to standards. accountable for ensuring that user needs are specified correctly and that the solution meets those needs. 38 . Reviewer A person asked to review a product which is the subject of a Quality Review. S Senior Supplier The Project Board role which provides knowledge and experience of the main discipline(s) involved in the production of the project's deliverable(s). The participants are drawn from those with an interest in the document and those with the necessary skills to review its correctness. impact evaluation and countermeasures for all risks to the project. Risk Log A document which provides identification.Appendix Glossary Quality Review A Quality Review is an inspection with a specific structure. An example of the checks made by a Quality Review is 'does the document match the Quality Criteria in the Product Description?' Quality System see Quality Management System R Request For Change A means of proposing a modification to the current specification of the product required. It is one type of Project Issue.
It will contain the Product Description(s). and confirmation of the agreement between the Project Manager and the person or Team Leader who is to implement the Work package that the work can be done within the constraints. 39 . details of any constraints on production such as time and cost. U User(s) The person or group who will use the final deliverable(s) of the project. Supplier Supplier is defined as the group or groups responsible for the supply of the project's products. T Tolerance The permissible deviation above and below a plan's estimate of time and cost without escalating the deviation to the next level of management. Work Package Authorisation Authority from the Project manager to produce a defined Work Package. The Project Board approves the project to proceed one stage at a time.Appendix Glossary Stage A division of the project for management purposes. Separate tolerance figures should be given for time and cost. interfaces. W Work Package The set of information relevant to the creation of one or more products.
40 .Appendix Processes/Components Matrix Processes/Components Matrix The matrix below is reproduced from Lesson 1 and shows the relationships which exist between the Prince 2 Processes and the Prince 2 Components.
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