Cajori History of mathematics

48 00376 4479








I am sure that no subject loses more than mathematics J. W. L. any attempt to dissociate it from, its history."













ITortooob prt
J. S,



& Co, -Berwick & Smith,

Boston, Mass,, U.S.A.

cause me to believe that a brief general History of Mathematics will be The form found acceptable to teachers and students. of the University of Nebraska. M. W. University College. have been made by . B. J.I)r. as well as to Dr. and Professor Gr. and the attention given to historical inquiry in the mathematical class-rooms and seminaries of our leading universities. to Dr.PREFACE. Davies and Professor C. Stanford Jr. Many valuable suggestions and cisms on the chapter on &quot. The proof-shoots of this Dr. Halsted. Loud. chapter have also been submitted to Van Velzer. D. all . Olds. although I have spent much time in the effort render them accurate and criti reasonably complete. of Colorado has read the proof-sheets throughout. G-. Davis. of Amherst of whom have afforded valuable assistance. AN increased interest in the history of the exact sciences manifested in recent years by teachers everywhere. of the Leland . E. are put forth with great diffidence. A. 3T. HosMns. E. of the University of Texas Professor L. To all the gentlemen above named. 1 am specially indebted to Professor H.B/ecent Times&quot. Carlo Veneziani College. who v . pages treating necessarily in a very condensed of the progress made during the present to century. both of the University of Wisconsin.

1893. . December. I trust that I shall not seem upon them any share in the responsibility for errors which I may have introduced in subsequent revision of the FLORIAN CAJOBL COLORADO COLLEGE. in acknowledging to lay their kindness. Lake City. of Salt PKEFACE. who read the first part of my work But in. I desire to express my hearty thanks.

INTRODUCTION ANTIQUITY THE BABYLONIANS 1 5 5 9 THE EGYPTIANS THE GREEKS Greek Geometry 16 16 17 The Ionic School of Pythagoras The School The 19 The Sophist School Platonic School First Alexandrian School 23 29 34 54 The The Second Alexandrian School Greek Arithmetic 63 77 TUB ROMANS MIDDLE AGES ^ 84 THE HINDOOS THE ARABS EtJBOPE DURING THE MIDDLE AOES Introduction of 84 100 117 Roman Mathematics its 117 Translation of Arabic Manuscripts 124 128 138 : The First Awakening and Sequel MODERN EUROPE THE RENAISSANCE VIETA TO DJCSOARTES DBSGARTES TO NEWTON . . 189 ^ 183 NBWTGN TO EULBK vii 199 . .TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE . .


zig. Unter Mitwirlcung von EPPING. Reference to any of them is made in the text by giving the respective number. JAMES. Die Qeometrie und die G-eometer vor EukliBituTHOHNKiDfflR. Mittelalter. Erlangen. F. Vorlesungen uber Gfeschichte der MathematiJc. HANKBL. Ziele 2. Leipzig. 9. 1889. C. II.. XEUTIIISN. J. 1874. Theorie der Complexen Zahlensysteme. *CANToit. Bel I. Bd. HERMANN. G. 1892. ix KopQnlaagen. A. 12. 6. and articles have been used in the preparation of this history. Histories marked with a has been made.BOOKS OF REFEKENCE. Zur Gfeschichte der MathematiJc Cambridge.. Freiburg. 1889. 3. in Smith s Dictionary of Greek and Itoman Biography and Mythology. CAJTOEI. DB MORGAN. 7. A. J. &quot. 10. 4. G. im Alterthum Dublin. J. torischen JForschung. The following books. STUASSMAIER. Washington. * Gow. 1876. History of the Inductive Sciences. 1890. 1886. . The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the U. HERMANN. S. 1870. Leip 11. WILLIAM.Euclides&quot. 5. Astronomisches aus Babylon. und 8. Leipzig. 1880. tmd Hesultate der neueren Mathematisch-hisstar are the only ones of which extensive use 1. Die Lehre von den Kegelschnitten im Alterthum. WmcwELL. 1884. MORITZ. G-reek G-eometry from Thales to JEuclid. * HANKBL. II. des. A Short History of Greek Mathematics. 1807. *ALLMAN. GUNTHER. pamphlets. P. Leipzig. K. S.

Die ISntwickelung der Mathematik in den Tubingen. 17. A. M. W. 16. * CHASLES. L. A. GUNTHER. &quot. W. F. 1852. 1887. in Edinburgh Jfflncy- dopcedia. to the Arithmetical Books from the Invention of Printing Present Time. November. Aritlimetic. 1863. Philosophy of Mathematics. London. B. Cfeschichte der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. 28. MOIUTZ. W. GEORGE. LESPIE. 1839. SUTER. A. Vol. NAPIER. 35. 24. R. 32. BtiHRiNG. 18. Halle. CANTOR. W. Translated into The Life of Mr. 1879. A. Geschichte der reinen Mathematik.&quot. Article 22. Grundzilge der Antiken und Modernen Algebra der Litteralen GUichungen. Philosophical Magazine. LTIDWIG. 1 23. &quot. in The Encyclopedia.wton. Edin 29. W. BALL. ten Jahrhunderten. SOHNCKE. siques. !F. Bruxelles. QUETELET. G-eschichte der Geometric. Article u Progress of the Mathematical and Phys in Encyclopedia Britannica.&quot. MAXIMILIEN. 19. 25. 1888. HANKEL. 26. XL. in the BREWSTER. ARNETH. 1847. Paschal. HALSTEB. Tome I. SIEGMUND und WiNBELBAND. Sciences Mathetna&iques et IViysiques ehe% les Beiges. 1866. MARIE. Leipzig. Memoirs of John Napier of Merchiston. PLAYFAIR. MONTUCLA. Fort$chritte der Mathematik. 1852. 1873-75. . D.-XII. 1802. DR. Mechanik. A. Nordlingen. ^81. A. OURTMANN und MULLER. 1878. G. 20. HEINRICH. HERSCHEL. MADAME PERIER. 1860. Histoire des Sciences Matheniatiques et Paris. Aus dem Franzosischen Phy GILletz- tibertragen durcli 14. London. J. translated by W. M. A.&quot. MARK.E. of Pure Mathematics. burgh. 15. BE MORGAN. COMTE. Kritische Geschichte der allgemeimn Principien der Leipzig. Histoire des Mathematiques. &quot. 1883-1888.On the Early History of lEfiEitesixualB. GesckicJite der antiJcen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophic. 1888. 33. 30. 2nd edition. 1834. The Memoirs of Nc. PEACOCK. American Journal of Mathematics. 189S. 7th editi6n. 1744.X 13. ical Sciences. Halle. BOOKS OF REFERENCE. Edinburgh. English by 31. HERMANN. Stuttgart.. 1884. London. DE MORGAN.&quot. J. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Article * Mathematics. 27. MATTIIIESSEN. 21. Paps.Note on the First English Euclid. con tinued in the 8tlx edition by SIK JOHN LESLIE. Zurich. JOHN. Mathematische Beitrage zum Kulturleben der VoUcer.

BaHol. Geschichte der Mathematik in. Cfeschichte der Astronomie. 1876. 39. 1874. Ueber das Quadratische J&eciprocitatsgesetz. HATHAWAY.&quot. and u Commercimn Epistoli- in Penny 42. SntdecJcung der Di/erenzialrechnung durch Leib &quot. Translated by B. RUDOLF. OSWALO. GERIIARBT. Lehrfatch der Darstellenden Gfeometrie. 41. the S. SIEGMUND. Leipzig. Y. Leipzig. 1848. C. Strength of Materials. &quot. A. *Toi&amp. Die JBasler Mathematiker. A. 1886. Miinclien. 1867. 1887. &quot. 44. 1873. FeTbruar.&quot. Eulogy on Laplace. 1888. 1884. *GERHARDT. Cyclopaedia. niz. Mathematical Society. WITHER. Gauss . herausgegeben von GUSTAP ENESTROM. 40. BAUMCJART. 1885.BOOKS OF REFERENCE. mm Q-ed&chniss. ical Trigonometry. cum. Deutschland. K. 50. Stockholm. 46. I. SAHTOUIXIS. RKIFF. ALEXANDISR.&quot. History of the Bulletin of 49. *TODUUNTEK. Leipzig. History of the Mathematical Theory of Probabil to that of Laplace. A ity from the Time of Pascal London. Smithsonian 54. 1871. Leip 55. WOLF. W. Halle. 7 Smitlisonian 52* llPfiort. I). . Gfeschichte der Unendlichen Heihen. 58. I. Tubingen. History of Certain Formulas in Spher 46. xi Bibliotheca Mathematica. GERHARDT. 1865. 36. Vermischte Untersuchtingen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften. 1891. in jSitzirngsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen Academic der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. R. &quot. C. tlie TOBHUNTKR. 3. Leibniz in London. AUAOO. AUAOO. BEAUMONT. F. GUNTHER. DB MoR(UK. I.iniNTBK. C.Early Potential. 1877. A. Translated by Eeport. Leip 48. of the Theory of Elasticity and of the Edited and completed by KARL PEARSON. ihrer fr dhtren Die Ilmptsilchliehstm Theorien der Geometrie in und heutlgen fJntwicMnnff. A History &quot. Smithsonian Iteport. . Philosophical Magazine. 1850. Daniel Bernoulli und Leonhard Euler. zig. 51. I. I. ins deutsche tibertravon Fitm SOHUTTB. POWELL. J. WALTKRSIIAUSKN zig. gen GTKO.Memoir of Legendre. X Joseph Fourier. Cambridge. Mtinchen.&quot. CnuiHTiAN. *LoiA.Muxions&quot.&quot. I^LIK DB. 1884. M. 38. N. 47. Cambridge and 43.&quot. February. Note on I. tlie Articles &quot. F. 1). 37. I.

Geometry of Position. R. Vergleichende Betrachtimgen uber neuere geometrische Forschungen. W. BURKHARDT.Xll 56 . BOOKS OF REFERENCE. SPOTTISWOODE. THOMAS. Ilankol. 39:10. GIBBS. ALFRED CLEBSCH.James Joseph Sylvester. Grrunertfs Archiv. v.&quot. 1881. &quot. Inaugural Address before the British 58. 74. WILLIAM. 1886. FINE. 1893. SCHLEGEL. ARMIN. 1872. 75. Erlangen. FRANZ. Ikiffim. 59. 1871. Leben zweier ungarischer Mathe&quot. ZAHN. Supple ment. FORSYTH. MUIR. KARL. 1868. 1883.&quot. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1878. Multiple Algebra. 1892. 1874. AUGUST. Zur Qeschichte des Malfatttf schen Problems. Bonn.&quot. KLEIN.&quot. ANTON. 73.Arthur Cayley. 1890. 69. WITTSTEIN. A. 65. BRONICE. Cambridge. R. Zeitschrift fur Mathematik FAVARO. CAYLEY. 1881. Julius Plucker. 1873. 1889. 48:2. Inaugural Address before the British Association. GRAHAM.System of Algebra. Justus Bellavitis. BAUER. Tubingen. ^1 Treatise on Determinants*. January.&quot. : 1882. 76. 67. 4. 1883. FELIX. 1878. Hermann Gfrassmann. GEORGE. The Number.&quot. VII. Miinchen. 57. Association. Tubingen. &quot. VICTOR. 63. London. A. 1891. Boston and New York. Geschichte der Elenientar-Mathematik. SALMON. 66. FINK. 72. ARTHUR. wissenschaftlichen Leistungen von einigen seiner Freunde. Nordlingen. 26 5. 28:21. &quot. AD. Krwnmungsmasses. 64. September. H. HENRY B. . 71. Gfedachnissrede auf Otto Hesse. GUSTAV.&quot. J. Versuch einer Darstellung der Geschichte dvs HAAS. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. 1878. Werke. zig. 68. 60. Zeitschrift der Die AnfUngo der Gruppontliooiie und MathemaUk und Physik. Paolo HEiNRicii. 62. WILLARD. Nature. &quot. sein Leben und seine Leipzig. 1890. Einige Worte zum Andenkon an Hermann 1882. SCHMIDT. CAYLE Y.Aus dem matiker Johann und Wolfgang Bolyai von Bolya. Versuch einer Darlegung und Wunligung seiner Leip 70. und Physik. 61. Mathematische Annalen. Nature.

E. J. VIII. GASTON. Harrington and 94. 80. V. Gas- Paris. DARBOUX.. Bremen. 1884. Nature. HENRICI. 1890. Notice Travaux Scientijlques de M. 87. BJERKNES. &quot. Theorie und Ge14 Halle a/S.&quot. JUlliptische JFunktionen. ress of Physics.W. 1882. 81. 1852. 1891. &quot. R. SMITH. XLIV. Bremer Ifandlungslehrling. A. W. DIRICHLET. BOIS-KEYMOND. Tblique. W. LEJEUNE. 43 stir les : and 15. Konigsherg. Hussey. 1888. Zur G-eschichte der Trigonometrischen Tubingen.&quot. 1879. 4.W&quot. KERBEDJS. Festrede aus Veranlassung von HesseVs hundertjahrigem Geburtstag. KUMMER..&quot. Gottingen. Inaugural Presidential Address to the Mathe matical and Physical Section of the British Association at Exeter. C. J*. Translated into English by M.Carl 83. 1876.. J. Bessel als 92. Berlin. STEPHEN. Influence of Mathematics on the Prog Nature. Paris. Mathematical Theories &quot. 90. 1884. II. BE. Kirchhoff. &quot. ALFRED.. 88. Paris. Heilien. Versuch einer Qeschichte der Darstellung willkiirlicher Funktionen einer variablen durch trigonometrische Meihen. J. &quot. &quot. 1891. 1877. J. POINCARE. ton Darboux. Bendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo. Henry John Stephen Smith. L. 1876. Zum Gfeddchniss von G. 1885. SCHUSTER. 0. &quot. VOIGT. E. E. A. Carl Gf-iistav Jacob 85. TUCKER. &quot. Tableau de sa vie et de son action scientifique. 77. 26: 17. PAUL DU.97. Vol.BOOKS OF REFERENCE. Janvier. xiii SYLVESTER 1869. Monthly Notices GLAISUISH. Niels-HenriTc Abel. Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques. 79. of the Eoyal Astronomical Society.. 104. O. 1886. Nos. 93. ARTHUR. &quot. XIV. 82. Gfedachnissrede auf G-ustav Peter Lejeune-Dirichlet. HERMITB. 1884.&quot. 105. Gottingen...&quot. . YALSON. ARNOLD.&quot. C. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Henri Poincare.On the Present State and Prospects of Some Branches of Pure Mathematics. 95.Sophie de KowalevsM. April. FRANTZ. schichte. Gfedachnissrede auf Nature. 89. . Mine JBntgegnung. . HENRI.The 1890. 84. of Planetary Motions. Paris. Tome I. ENNEPER. SACHSE. Cn.Discours prononc6 devant le president de la R6pii- DZIOBEK. H. 96. 91. Jacobi. 1868. La Vie et les travaux du Baron Cauchy. of Functions. Friedrich Gauss. 1860. 78.Theory 86. J.

c. ARTHUR. MAXIME. 1857.. 08) Bdci-iER. . ROSENBERGER. Geschichte tier Physik. If. Bulletin of Vol.. 100. Report on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dynamics. 99. the T. No. 1887-1890. Report on Optical Theories. II. Math. /SV&amp.xiv BOOKS O:F BEFBBBNCE. T. 101. U. 2V&quot. 1885. CAY:LEY. u A Bit of Mathematical History.&quot. 5. GLAZEBROOK.

inay * The early history of the mind of men with regard to mathe matics leads us to point out our own errors. The chemist smiles at the childish. He is pleased to notice that though. INTEODUCTION. but agreeable also teach us how to increase our store. more than any other. and in this it * aspect matics. Says De Morgan. and that hardly anything ever done in has proved to be useless. is an exact science. but the mathematician jnatheBiati. 1 . mathematics has had periods of slow growth. yet in the main it has been pre-eminently a progressive science. THE contemplation of the various steps by which mankind has come into possession of the vast stock of mathematical knowledge can hardly fail to interest the mathematician.A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. the importance of a good notation upon the progress of the science it discourages excessive specialisation on the part of . The history of mathematics 5 may be instructive as well as may not only remind us of what we finds the geometry of the Greeks and the arithmetic of the Hindoos as useful and admirable as any research of to-day. in course of its develop ment. He takes pride in the fact that his science. efforts of alchemists. it is It well to pay attention to the history of mathe warns us against hasty conclusions it points out .

is . 1 by which the apparently unconquerable position The importance of this strategic rule may be emphasised by citing a case in which it has been violated. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. meiisurable. after thou sands of complete failures. (An untold amount of intellectual energy has been expended on the quadrature of the circle. and that the quadrature by means of the ruler and compass only. We cannot remember an instance tyx &quot.&quot. with the old allowance of means: Euclid s postulates and nothing more. it saves the student from wasting time and energy upon prob lems which were. After innumerable fail ures to solve the problem at a it from a a different direction and by Lambert proved circle to its in 1761 that ratio of the circumference of diametot is iad0. this ratio is also transcendental the circle. Linclomaim demonstrated that &amp. persons versed in mathematics dropped the circle a question to be solved by a definite method was tried by\$k6 best heads.2 Some years ago. when investigators possessed that most powerful tool. it discourages him from attacking an unsolved problem by the same method which has led other mathematicians to fortifications can be taken in other failure . by that method. But progress was made on this problem by approaching newly discovered paths.Our &quot.^ to square the problem. wMlo those who still persisted were completely ignorant of its Mstory and generally misunderstood the conditions of the prob lem. yet no conquest has been made by direct assault.&quot. and answered at last. repulsed from a direct assault it is well to recon noitre and occupy the surrounding ground and to discover the that secret paths when can be taken. The circle-squarers have existed in crowds ever since the period of Archimedes. says De Morgan. the differential calculus. solved long since. it teaches that ways than by direct attack.&amp. perhaps. even. by showing how apparently distinct brandies have been found to possess unexpected connecting links.

INTBODUCTION. for is two thousand years. When the value of mathematical training is discoverer in question. 3 He thus showed by actual proof that which keenminded mathematicians had long suspected namely. great army of circle-squarers have. bo greatly increased logic if the solution of problems and the cold historical arc interspersed with remarks and anecdotes. After the pupils have learned how to j they will find it bisect a given angle. surprise futile them by which have been made to attempts telling of the solve. After the class have exhausted their ener gies on the theorem of the right its triangle. that the . Arabic notation &quot. many trisec- by elementary geometry. A class in arithmetic will be pleased to hear about the Hindoos and their invention of of geometrical demonstrations the &quot. sible. they will marvel at the thousands of which elapsed before people had even thought introducing into the numeral notation that Coluni bus-egg of years the zero astounding that it should have taken so long to invent a notation which they themselves can now learn in a month. the philosopher &quot. quote the inscription over the entrance into i about how academy of Plato. the apparently very simple problem of the tion of an angle. and how mathematicians long wrestled with this problem. : Let no one who is . When they know how to construct a square whose area is double the area of a given square. . him. jubilant over his great sacrificed a hecatomb to the Muses who inaccomplishment. tell them how the wrath of ^Apollo about the duplication of the cube could be appeased only by the construction of a cubical altar double the given altar. been assaulting a fortification which the firmament of heaven. as indestructible as Another reason for the desirability of historical study is the value of historical knowledge to the teacher of mathe The interest which pupils take in their studies may matics. tell them something Pythagoras.

into past . In his historical possible for the teacher to make it plain to the that mathematics is not a dead science. 2 The history of mathematics is important also as a valuable contribution to the history of civilisation. Mathematical and physical researches are a reliable record of intellectual The history of mathematics is one of the large progress.4 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. after taking up the differential and integral calculus.&quot. they should ical become familiar with the parts that Kewton. is Human progress thought. unacquainted with geometry enter here. but a living student talk it is one in which steady progress is made. and Lagrange played in creating that science. Leibniz. scientific closely identified with windows through which the philosophic eye looks ages and traces the line of intellectual development. and. Students in analyt^ geometry should know something of Descartes.

In the Babylonian notation two ptincjiiples btiTOhe thumbs thrust out. on the other hand. In writing the hundreds. ^^ for 30 &amp. the fingers close to each other. I notation the signified 10 and 100 respec G-rotefend believes the character for 10 originally to tively.*. | |or 3. in fjase. and was. of a united kingdom out of tho previously disunited tribes. to be added. of higher order appear always to the left of those of I the characters&quot. THE BABYLONIANS.* respt-Mctive values |f )f ^ Thus. In the study of Babylonian mathematics we begin with the A vertical wedge If stood for 1. y stood for 2. by 100. as held in prayer. Much light has been thrown on their history by the discovery of the art of reading the cuneiform or wedge-shaped system of writing. XJJ1 for 23. Thus. s y ^^ signified the eaf 5 . ^ and palniis being pressed together. the peoples inhabiting this region begins only with the foun dation. in Chaldaoa and while of numbers. y&amp. &amp. were employed the ^ditive) and multiplica |i Numbers below 100 were expressed by symbols whose had for 4. been the picture of two hands. a Ir J Here the symbol was placed to the to be multiplied left of the 100. THE fertile valley of the the primeval seats of human Euphrates and Tigris was one of Authentic history of society.

But this symbol for 1000 was itself taken for a new unit. 1. From the series becomes an arithmetical progression. Of the largest numbers written in cuneiform which have hitherto been found. in this connection. but cates the acquaintance of the Babylonians with .24. 2.12. also familiar with the notation of numbers. The i tablet records the moon s magnitude of the illuminated portion of disc for every day from new to full moon. in all probability. .62.reinLfta = unintelligible. numbers up to given asv the The numbers first 16. which could take smaller coefficients to its left. 9.28.20! This only exhibits the use of the sexagesimal system. Its which exhibit 2300 and 1600 601 its use.1 11*.21 =9 2 . It is consequential development. probably written between contains a table of square 1. 2.8. day being respectively 1.40 = 10 2. 4. is the fact that Sumerian inscriptions disclose the use. One of them. 36. none go as high as symbols. 3 If.4 =8 s . Thus. seven integers respectively.1 = 2. are squares of the 1. a million.21 = 60 + 21.25. . ^^ f &amp.*&quot. then they were. 1. 3. denoted. 3. The latter was used chiefly in constructing tables for weights full of and measures. We have next This&quot. or 1000. not 20 times 100. but Most surprising.44. B. 2. 10/ 20. 10 times 1000. 3. 10 times 100. taxless we assume the sexagesimal scale. the from the fifth to the fifteenth 1.4 = 60 + 4. 2 1. 4.6 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. 49.40. We possess two Babylonian tablets historical interest.66. the wlxol being assumed to consist of 240 parts.60 + 1. as is believed by most specialists. the early Sumerians were the inventors of the cuneiform writing. 2. not only of the above decimal system. The illuminated during the first five days are the series 5. which is a geometrical progression. 2. both for integers and fractions. (=80). reveals a high degree of mathematical insight.C. 40. biit also of a sexagesimal one. wl xioh makes 1.

familiar with the .4 (=64). | and | are designated by 30 and 20. in 1. it Ten was chosen. was employed. his mind. The sexagesimal system was used also Thus. Now they were. The Greek geom and the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemaeus &quot. in occasion to use a zero. because reckoned the year at 360 days. in the Babylonian inscriptions. happen to contain no number in which there was in fractions. What mal system ? this Why led to the invention of the sexagesi was it that 60 parts were selected ? To we have no positive answer.principle of position&quot. each degree representing the daily amount of the supposed yearly revolution of the sun around the earth. the 1 is made to stand for 60. From that time sexagesimal fractions held almost full sway in astronomical and mathematical calculations until the sixteenth century. in the represents the number of fingers. may be asked. Christ. requires a symbol for zero. very probably. This led to the division of the circle into 360 degrees. in or sixth century after its general and syste matic application. tion of integers the &quot. when they It finally yielded their place to the decimal fractions.&quot. was not introduced till about the fifth The principle of position. But nothing of the human body could have suggested 60.THE BABYLONIANS. the reader being expected. 7 Not to be overlooked is the fact that in the sexagesimal nota-. sixtieths. The introduction of this principle at so early a date is the more because in the decimal notation it remarkable. Did the Babylonians possess one? Had taken the they already gigantic step of representing by a symbol the absence of units? for they Neither of the above tables answers this question. Cantor offers the following theory At first the Babylonians : decimal system. Thus. to supply the eter Hypsicles word borrowed the sexagesimal notation of fractions from the Babylonians and introduced it into Greece. the unit of the second order. by virtue of its position with respect to the 4. We ask.

it was partitioned into 60 minutes. when greater precision necessitated a subdivision of the degree.As a rule. after . the -metropolis of many and it is. They worshipped the heavenly bodies from tie earliest historic times. Babylon. and of the hour into minutes and seconds on the scale of 60. the division into 60 parts may have suggested itself tp Thus. we have nevertheless reason to believe that in practical calculation they used the abacus.8 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. Besides the division of the circumference into 6 parts by its radius. Now. in the Oriental mind the intui course. the abacus is as old as fable. Fixing their attention upon these degrees. and even the invention of the so-called musical proportion.&quot. &quot. they took w Of geometrical demonstrations there is^ of no trace. a fact that the radius can be applied to its cir%umference as chord 6 times. which they used in their auguries. 7 23). such as the triangle and quadrangle. In this way the sexagesimal notation may have originated. her merchants employed this most improved aid to calculation. was once a great commercial centre. is due to the Babylonians. them. and into 360 degrees. When Alexander the Great. not unreasonable to suppose that nations. Though we possess. even as far as China. Among the races of middle Asia. they had some knowledge of : geometrical figures. The division of the day into 24 hours. therefore. = 3. The astronomy of the Babylonians has attracted much attention. It appears that the people in the Tigro-Exiphrates basin had made very Their knowledge of arithmetical and geometrical progressions has already been alluded to. tive powers eclipse the severely rational and logical. creditable advance in conclusive proof. In geometry the Babylonians accomplished almost nothing. Like the Hebrews (1 Kin. and that each of these chords subtends an arc measuring exactly 60 degrees. lamblichus attributes to them also a knowledge of proportion.

possessed a Babylonian record of eclipses going back to 747 B. I erred not. Menes.C.&quot.To : the King. We append part of an Assyrian astronomical report. as translated by Oppert &quot.C. makes a great reservoir.&quot.. took possession of Babylon. as the new moon s day of the month Tham- muz I declined. changes &quot. . the moon was had already predicted to my again visible over the planet Mercury. Ptolemy. the first king. 9 the battle of Arbela (331 B.C. however far back they go. . Mar-Istar. . from an old observatory. taken ing from cuneiform tablets coining. These scholars have succeeded in giving an account of the Babylonian calculation of the new and full moon.C. the course of the Wile. and have identified by calculations the Babylonian names of the planets. as master the King. they find no uncivilised state of society. Porphyrius says that these were sent to Aristotle. and 111 B.THE EGYPTIANS. &quot. thy faithful servant.C. my lord. and builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis.). Surely a people engaging in . The Egyptians built the pyramids at a very early period.&quot. On the first day. the Alexandrian astrono mer. and of the twelve zodiacal signs and twenty-eight normal stars which correspond to some extent with the twenty-eight naksJiatras of the Hindoos. Eecently Epping and Strassmaier 4 threw considera ble light on Babylonian chronology and astronomy by explain two calendars of the years 123 B. presumably. Though there antiquity of great difference of opinion regarding the Egyptian civilisation. yet all authorities agree in is the statement that. Callisthenes found there on burned brick astronomical records reaching back as far as 2234 B. THE EGYPTIANS.

was deciphered by Eisenlohr in 1877. the bird which is called the Ibis was sacred to him. by imposing a tax to be levied yearly. &quot. included in the Rhine! collection of tha British Museum. in/ Iti this wny/ifc appears to me. have known something of enterprises of such magnitude must at least of practical mathematics. without Egypt the priority of invention in the mathematical At the Egyptian city Plato in Pho&drus says sciences. mathematics All Greek writers are unanimous envy. and other ancient 5 writers to have originated in Egypt. Diogenes Laertius. such as arithmetic and calculation and geometry and astronomy and draughts and but his great discovery was the use of letters/ Aristotle says that mathematics had its birth in Egypt. dice. which passed thence to &quot.. Diodorus. from introducing additional Greek opinion regarding Egyptian mathematics. lxad&amp. abstain We A hieratic papyrus. had to go to hh^i and notify what had happened. lie then sent the overseers. In Herodotus wo find They said also that this king [Sesostjris] 109) divided the land among all Egyptians so as to give each 0110 a this (II. lamblichus. in particular.&quot.-y proportion to the entire tax imposed. to in ascribing. who had to measure out by how much th0 land become in order that the owner might pay on what was left. and found to be a mathematical manual containing problems in It was written by Ataw arithmetic and geometry. and he was the inventor of many arts. smaller. . conjectures. But every one from whose part the river tore away anything. c. is said by or from indulging in wild We rest our account on documentary evidottc^. 15 because there the priestly class had the leisure needful for the study of Geometry. : Theuth.10 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. geometry originated. Naucratis there was a famous old god whoso name was of &quot. it. Hellas. : quadrangle of equal size and to draw from each Ms revenues.

We under the name of Eudemian Summary.).THE GREEKS. has been lost. left 17 behind no written records of their discoveries. ? cording to Diogenes Laertius.&quot. the bisec tion of a circle by any diameter. and to have studied the physical sciences and mathematics with the tian priests. the pyramids were measured by Thales in. Ac of the pyramid. According to Plutarch. It was well known to Proclus. in Euclid.C. Egyp Plutarch declares that Thales soon excelled his and amazed King Amasis by measuring the heights of the pyramids from their shadows. one of the &quot. During middle life he engaged in commercial pursuits. the equality the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle. A full jdstory of Greek geometry and astronomy during this period. The JSud&mian Summary ascribes to Thales the invention of the af theorems on the equality of vertical angles. this was dono by considering that the shadow cast by a verti cal staff of known length bears the same ratio to the shadow masters. gives a brief account of it. having introduced the study of geometry into Greece. staff was 0(jual to its own length. which took him to Egypt. wise and the founder of the Ionic school. by finding the length of the shadow of the pyramid at the moment when the shadow of a . a different way viz. and the congruence of two . a pupil of Aristotle. his commentaries on This abstract constitutes shall quote it frequently our most reliable information. of the pyramid as the height of the staff bears to the height This solution presupposes a knowledge of and the Ahmes papyrus actually shows that the proportion rudiments of proportion were known to the Egyptians. falls the honour of men. He is said to have resided there. The Ionic School To Thales of Miletus (640-546 B. written by Eudenus.

) and Anaximenes pupils of Thales were Anaximander They studied (b.How canst thou know what is doing in the heavens. the or With Thales year. B. simply while contemplating the stars during an evening walk. 570 B. and the sides of equi 8 The Egyptians must angular triangles to be proportional. when thou seest not what 611 is at thy feet ? &quot. The two most prominent (b. astronomy and physical philosophy.C.). which others saw. guage and subject to proof that which others merely felt to be true. It has been inferred that he knew the sum of the three angles of a tri angle to be equal to two right angles. Egyp tians studied only the geometry of surfaces and the rudiments 8 of solid geometry. into a ditch. he fell The good old woman attending him exclaimed. in it some of their constructions found in the Ahmes papyrus.a the last philosopher of the Ionic pupil of Anaximenes. Of Anaxagoras. Thus Thales was of the distances of ships from the shore. It is told of him that is not known. have made use of the above theorems on the straight line. not recorded by the ancients. and chiefly .C.18 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. empirical in their character. abstract expression. in 585 B. He acquired great celebrity by the prediction of a solar eclipse Whether he predicted the day of the occurrence.C. an and to put into scientific lan explicit. other theorems. but did not formulate into words. Thales may be said to have created the geometry of lines. . while the. triangles having a side and the two adjacent angles equal re theorem he applied to the measurement spectively. The last the apply theoretical geometry to practical uses. essentially abstract in its character. but was left for the Greek philosopher to give these truths. The theorem that all angles inscribed in a semicircle are right first to angles is attributed by some ancient writers to Thales. &quot. by Thales was doubtless familiar with others to Pythagoras. begins also the study of scientific astronomy.

THE GREEKS. while in prison. TJie School of Pythagoras. in the history of mathematics. draw a perpendicular to a given line. and to draw an angle a line equal to a given augle. school. indieates that geometry was still in its infancy. which Pyrthagoras (580 ?-500? B. The jtello^dng account of Pythagoras excludes the most doubtful . flourished (Enopides of Chios. that we find mention of the famous problem of the quadrature of the circle. but isolated from the Ionic Proclus ascribes to him school. Anaxagoras did not ofer any solution of und seems to have luckily escaped paralogisms. the solution of the following problems From a point without. A new impetus to its progress was given by Pythagoras.d&a| med through the mythical haze that envelops them. and Egyptians. But the invention of a method to value. 19 we know little.C. About the time of Anaxagoras. except that. Babylonians. and that the Greeks had not yet gotten far beyond the Egyptian con structions. : to on. The pt ogress of mathematics during that period was slow. find its exact had been made by the Chinese. his time attempting to square the circle. it. That a man could gain a reputation by solving problems so elementary as these.) was one of those figures /ffmes to such an impressed the imagination of succeeding eitenlt that their real histories have become difficult to be . The Ionic school lasted over one hundred years. It turns upon the determination of the exact value of IT. he passed This is the first time. as compared with its growth in a later epoch of Greek history. is the knotty problem which has engaged the attention of many minds from the time of Anaxagoras down to our own. that rock upon which so many reputations have been destroyed. Approx imations to TT Hebrews.

intro ascendency. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.20 statements. he found it under the Babylon. Hence we are obliged to speak of the Pythagoreans as a body. the members of which were united for l|ad observances &quot. following the current school there. back This school grew rapidly and gained considerable political But the mystic and secret obseivaaptcfe. The Pythagoreans discovep&quot. is to be ascribed. murdered. and our sources of information are rather scanty. ras fled to destroyed the buildings of the Pythagorean school* Tarentum and thence to Metapontum. settled at Croton. and find it difficult to determine to whom each particular discovery themselves were in the habit of referring every to the great founder of the sect. He was who incited him to stndy in Egypt. arithmetic is the foundation of his philosophic . Failing in an attempt to found a tyranny of Polycrates. and the a*|stooratic tendencies of the school. caused it to becoiae ai* object. Certain it is that. and was drawn by He then the fame of Pherecydes to the island of Syros. icipal iencc. and may have. Pythagoras has left behind no mathematical tventtees. home again and. removed to Magna Grsecia in South Italy. a native of Samos. and natural science. visited On his return to Samos. He and founded the famous Pythagorean school. duced in imitation of Egyptian usages. he quitted He of civilisation. Pythagoras raised mathematics to the taak of a so Arithmetic was courted by him as fervently ft&*geo$tetYj fact. of The democratic party in Lower Itely revolted and suspicion. sojourned in Egypt many years. but it was a brotherhood. mathematics was the study. This was not merely an academy for the teaching of philosophy. This brotherhood masonic peculiarity.approaching life. in the Pythagorean school. Thejr wore forbidden to divulge the discoveries and doctrines of their school. visited the ancient Thales. mathematics.

presumably known to Thales. that Pythagoras was so hecatomb. In the later traditions of the !N&quot. of proof was has been a favourite topic for The theorem on the sum of the three angles of a triangle.THE GrKEEKS.eo-Pythago-&quot.Pythagoras changed the study of geometry into the form of a liberal education. . Its jubilant over this discovery that he sacrificed a is doubted. and investigated its theorems in an immaterial and intellectual manner. and not to the Pythagoreans. The story goes.&quot. namely These solids were. the shedding of blood. From the . They demonstrated also that the filled by six equilateral plane about a point is completely so that it triangles.of three squares. is due to the What Py thagorean method conjecture. in all probability. To Pythagoras is ascribed the important theorem that the square on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other . and the cube. therefore. He was especially fond of those geometrical relations which admitted of arithmetical expression. known to the Egyptians. because the Pythagoreans believed in authenticity the transmigration of the soul and opposed. I. given in Euclid s Elements. two sides/ He had probably learned from the Egyptians the truth of the theorem in the special case when the sides are 3. is Like Egyptian geometry. or three regular hexagons. is possible to divide up a plane into figures of either kind. icosaedron. Euclid himself. ! . was proved bythe Pythagoreans after the manner of Euclid. His geometry was connected closely with his arithmetic. 4. equilateral triangle and the tetraedron. for he examined its principles to the bottom. octaedron. the geometry of the Pythagoreans much concerned with areas. the square arise the solids. 47. reans this objection is removed by replacing this bloody sacri The proof of the law an ox made of flour fice by that of &quot. 21 The Eudemiart Summary says that &quot. four squares. 6. respectively.

jhe t Pythagoreans made no mean progress in geometry. perhaps. fire. f 1 shaped pentagram was used as a symbol of recognition by the Pythagoreans. They were iqual with the construction of a polygon in area to a given polygon and similar to another given also familiar This problem depends upon several important and somewhat advanced theorems. It is worth noticing that on the circle no theorem of any importance *wa$ discovered by this school. 29. Of the theorems generally ascribed to the Italian school. the Pythagoreans invented the prob-* lerns concerning the application of areas. air. the icosaedron. Philolaus wrote a book on the Pythago* Among . have been slow. yet the school continued to exist at least two centuries longer* . Pythagoras called the sphere the most beautiful of all solids. &quot. was made to represent the universe itself. lamblichus states that Hippasus. of necessity. VI.because he boasted that he first The stardivulged the sphere with the twelve pentagons. Later excepting. as in Euclid. According to Eudemus. including the cases ~f defect and excess. water. which.&quot. another regular solid was/ discovered. solutions must. and testifies to the fact that )olygon. the later Pythagoreans. namely. plane figures. a Pythagorean. and was called by them Health. some cannot be attributed to Pythagoras himself. Though politics broke up the Pythagorean fraternity. Philolaus and Arckytas aw the most prominent. &quot. In Pythagorean philos the four elements of the ophy. namely the dodecaedron. no* to his The progress from empirical to reasoned earliest successors. in absence of a/fifth element. The the subjects of proportion and of irrational treatment of under the quantities by him and his school will be taken up and the circle the most beautifttl of all head of arithmetic. perished in the sea. and earth.A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. they represent respectively physical world. 28.

tggrandisement. Plato bought the works of Philolaus. This problem reduces itself to finding two mean proportionals between two given lines. The . rean doctrines. to be merged into that of separate treasury of the league then spent the money of her allies for her own Athens. which had been kept secret The brilliant Archytas of Tarentum for a whole century. He also found a very ingeni ous mechanical solution to the problem of the duplication of the cube. These mean proportionals were obtained by Archytas from the section of a half-cylinder. tion of cones His solution involves clear notions on the genera and cylinders. and universally admired for his virtues. first By him were (428-347 B. 480 B.THE GREEKS. 23 given to tlie world tlie teachings of the Italian school. The Sophists acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. was advanced through him. All menial work was performed by slaves.. known as a great statesman and general. a league was formed among the Greeks fco liberated Greek cities on preserve the freedom of the now Of this league bhe islands and coast of the JEgsean Sea.C. The Sophist School After the defeat of the Persians under Xerxes at^the battle of Salamis. She caused the Athens soon became leader and dictator. was the only great geome ter among the Greeks when Plato opened his school. Phus she became the richest and most beautiful city of aniquity.). Archytas was the first to apply geometry to mechanics and to treat the latter subject methodically. and had a warm friend in Archytas.C. and Athens was also a great commercial centre. The doctrine of proportion There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens.

they accepted pay for their teaching. every To make his influence felt among politician. was taken up by the Sophists.wise men. other hand. they also taught geometry. m matics.e. Athens was well-to-do and enjoyed a large amount citizen of The government being purely democratic.e. then in Italy. to find a cube whose volume i.square the circle.&quot. Thus there arose a demand for teachers. Among the firfit . (3) To &quot. These of leisure. which had been entirely neglected by the Pythagoreans.24 * A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. an arc or an angle. be educated. and during the time now under consideration. Greeks was first in the Ionian Islands. and of mathematicians in particular. though easy in appearanee^ tran scended the power. of at Athens. citizen was a teachers were called Sophists. double the i. Nearly all their discoveries were made in connection with their innumerable attempts to solve the following three famous problems (1) : (2) is To To trisect &quot. and philosophy. The supply came principally from Sicily. his fellow-men he must. Athens soon became the headquarters of Grecian men of letters. But the general problem. of elementary geometry. where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. cube. astronomy. The home of mathematics among Lower \ the. or &quot. to find a square or some other rectilinear figure exactly equal in area to a given circle* These problems have probably been the subject of more discussion and research than any other problems mathe double that of a given cube. an angle was one of the easiest The trisection of an angle. on the difficulties. first of all. Unlike the Pythagoreans. presented unexpected A right iwagle had been divided into three equal parts by the Pythagoreans. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction.&quot. The geometry the circle.&quot. The bisection of problems in geometry.

contributed much to the geometry of the circle.e. Eratosthenes ascribes to problem a different origin. sulted on the matter. and y2 = 2 ax and ce* = a2/. ters.). .C. in the proportion a: a? =x : y a. we But he failed to find the two pircl& mean proportionals. that the diagonal of a square the side of another square having double the area of the This probably suggested the problem of the original one. The Delians were once suf fering from a pestilence and were ordered double a certain cubical altar. but this did not The error being discovered. This same curve was used later by Deinostratus and others for the quadrature of the circle. was the first to show that the problem could be line reduced to finding two mean proportionals between a given and another twice as long. have 4 = y 2 a. he committed an error in attempting to apply this result to the squaring of the circle. His attempt to square the though lie was also a failure. For.THE GREEKS. On is this account it is called the quadratrix. Thoughtless by the oracle to workmen simply constructed a cube with edges twice as long. Hippocrates of Chios (about 430 B. but otherwise slow and stupid. as the inventor of a transcendental curve which served to divide an angle not only into three.Delian Problem. a talented mathematician. Plato was con pacify the gods. but into any number of equal parts. of the cube. Prockts mentions a man. fco 25 it was Hippias of Blis. presum wrestle with ably Hippias of Elis. lujhis study of the quadrature and duplication-problems. Hippias. Like all the later geome Socrates. = 2 cfx : since 2 a? 3 and a? = ay =2a 8 .&quot. i. to find the edge of a cube duplication having The Pythagoreans had shown this double the volume of a given cube. for made himself celebrated by squaring a kine. he failed in effecting the trisection by means of a ruler and compass only. a contemporary of and born about 460 B. for a solution to this He and his disciples searched eagerly &quot.C.

o&f until the circle is finally exhausted. secrecy was contrary to the spirit of Athenian life. and oa its remarking sides erecting isosceles triangles with their vertices itt the circumference. In Euclid Elements we find the theory of proportion of magnitudes developed and treated independent of that of numbers. The term &quot. bers were conceived as discontinuous. The chasm between them is exposed to full view in the statement of Euclid that &quot. The subject of similar figures was studied and partly This involved the theory of developed by Hippocrates. The Sophist Antiphon. and on the sides of these triangles erecting new triangles. Greeks only They never succeeded in uniting the notions of numbers and magnitudes. Thais is obtained an iTD0 ^e . Proportion had. What we call &quot. a contemporary of Hippocrates. approaches nearer to the circle than the pxeviot^. irrational numbers was not included under this notion.number was used by them in a restricted sense.&quot. Not even rational fractions were called numbers. therefore. Hippocrates added to his fame by writing a geometrical This publication shows that text-book. 16. The transfer of the theory of proportion from numbers to mag nitudes (and to lengths in particular) was a difficult and important step.&quot. 32. intro duced the process of exhaustion for the purpose of solving the problem of the quadrature. Ho did himself credit by that by inscribing in a circle a square. They used the Hence num word in the same sense as wo use &quot. one could obtain a succession of . 64 sides.26 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.regular polygons of 8. entirely continuous. and so on. thus far. the Pythagorean habit of secrecy was being abandoned.. proportion. of &quot. distinct.incommensurable magni s tudes do not have the same ratio as numbers. etc. called the Elements. while magnitudes were The two notions appeared.which eneh.integers. been used by the in numbers.

the tortoise again Thus the tortoise was moved forward a little. If circle. by continually doubling the sides of an inscribed polygon.THE GREEKS* 27 polygon whose sides coincide with the circumference. the Stoic. there also can be found a square equal to the last polygon inscribed.olverons. Unlike Bryson and the seems to have believed Greek geometers. then. Brys0n of Heraclea. a polygon can coincide with the we must put aside the notion that magnitudes are divisible ad infinitum. by such paradoxes from introducing the idea of their geometry. and then bv infyrAfl. and therefore equal to the circle itself. Antiphon it possible. motion is impossible.He erred. Since there can be found squares equal in area to any polygon. Aristotle always supported the theory of tihe infinite divisibility. for while he hastened to the place where the tortoise had been when he started. the tortoise crept some distance ahead. always in advance of Achilles. attempted to show if its absurdity by proving that magnitudes are infinitely divisible. The cum In determining the ratio of the areas between two curvilinear plane i|jp.method of exhaustion. geometers first inscribed or Similar t&amp. Such arguments greatly con No wonder they were deterred founded Greek geometers. and while Achilles reached that second spot.ainar i .&quot..|% s&y/two circles. says Simplicius. infinity into It did not suit the rigour of their proofs. process of Antiphon and Bryson gave rise to the brous but perfectly rigorous &quot. rest of disputes in Athens. Zeno argues that Achilles could not overtake a tortoise. and so advanced the prob lem of the quadrature considerably by circumscribing poly gons at the same time that he inscribed polygons. however. while Zeno. to obtain a polygon coin This question gave rise to lively ciding with the circle. a contemporary of Antiphon. in assuming that the area of a circle was the arith metical mean between circumscribed and inscribed polygons.

We Abdera (about 460-370 of nearly exhausted the spaces between the polygons and circumferences. IProm the theo rem that similar polygons inscribed in circles are to each othsr as the squares on their diameters. geometers may have divined the theorem attributed to Hippocrates of Chios that the circles. j&amp. He visited Egypt and perhaps even Persia. Though progress in geometry at this period is traceable only Athens. But in order to exclude all vagueness and possibility of doubt. 2 . seem insufficient. and c. as follows : circles Then if the proportion 2 If d c not D and d be respectively the Let Hone of these works are He used to boast that in the construction of plane extant. Since can be neither to and on perspective. polygon in C.D. Sicily. d2 P =G : c . and Gyrene produced mathematicians who made creditable contribution B at to the science. Hankel refers this Method of Exhaustion back to Hippo crates of Chios. a friend and an admirer of the Pythagoreans. yet Ionia. f . and P O=p : : c . on geometry. on numbers.C. that c &amp. later XII. a pupil of Anaxagoras. Abdera in Thrace. must be to each other as the squares on their diameters. proved by this same method of reductio f falsity of the supposition. larger nor smaller than. then Since &amp. c f. c. Greek geometers applied reasoning like that in Euclid.- can mention here only Bemociitus of B. suppose that c. figures with proof no one had yet surpassed him. rather than to Eudoxus.). &amp. Ho was a successful geometer and wrote on incommensurable lines.A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. which differ but little from the last drawn poly gons. in the circle c which conies then a polygon p can be inscribed If be the corresponding nearer to it in area than does c and diameters in question. the number of sides. not even . it must be equal it QJE. : D 2 : d2 =C c is D $= : : . we have which is but the reasons for assigning to this early writer. P : p=D P&amp. Next they ad absurdum the c c.C.

Plato travelled extensively. Plato placed the inscrip is unacquainted with a successor of Plato as geometry enter here.) the progress was checked. Xenocrates. &quot. is a necessary preparation for the study of philosophy.C. Plato acquired his taste for mathematics. 29* &quot. TJie Platonic School. When questioned about He geomthe occupation of the Deity. Athens sank into the background as a minor political power. On his return to Athens^ about 389 B. of geometry During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B. After the death of Soc mathematics under Theodoras. literature. Ms porch. (&quot.&quot. the year He was a pupil and of the great plague. near friend of Socrates. Archytas of Tarentum and Timaeus of Locri became his intimate friends.Let no one who . teacher in the Academy. Plato answered that etrises continually.THE GREEKS. but it was not from him that he science. Plato s physical philosophy is partly based on that of the Like them..) of Egypt. and devoted the remainder of his life to teaching and writing.C. After the war. by declining to admit a pupil who had no mathematical training. where he came in contact with the Pythagoreans. then to Lower Italy and Sicily. Accordingly. He went In Cyrene he studied to Egypt. and died in 348. he founded his school in the groves of the Academia. To show how great a value he put on mathematics and how it is necessary tion over for higher speculation.. geometry the key to the universe. By the so-called harpedonaptae rope-stretchers this assertion he pays a flattering compliment to the skill and ability of the Egyptians. he sought in arithmetic and Pythagoreans. and was born at Athens in 429 B. followed in his master s footsteps. rates. but advanced more and more to the front as the leader in philosophy. a knowledge of geometry &quot.C.&quot.

others The terms in a synthesis more special sense than in logic. Many of the definitions in Euclid are to solid. without assigning this is a thagoreans called a point &quot. line. we need not wonder that the Platonic school produced so large a number of mathemati Plato did little real original work. but as a rule previous century were rigorous in their proofs. like a true philosopher^ turned the instinc tive logic into a conscious. The Py to them formal definitions. nature of their methods. surface. matical indivis &quot. true of Euclid s axioms. &quot. the boundaries of the line. He filled his writings with mathe &quot. With Plato as the head-master. or as &quot. of the greatest achievements of Plato and his school is the invention of analysis as a method of proof. Hence it was that the for correct and vigorous thinking. length without breadth. with the remark.unity in position/ but rather than a definition. He defined a point as the &quot. and a line as &quot. Eudemian Summary says.Depart. 1 for thou hast not the grip of Plato observed that geometry trained the mind philosophy. and the geometrical concepts. surface. statement of a philosophical theory 7 Plato objected to calling a point a geometrical fiction.. To be sure.30 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. He called the point. and exhibited on every occasion the re markable connection between mathematics and philosophy.equals The same is probably Aristotle refers to Plato the axiom 7 One this subtracted from equals leave equals. valuable improvements in the logic and methods employed It is true that the Sophist geometers of the in geometry.&quot. method had been used unconsciously by Hippocrates and . line. ible line. such as the point. be ascribed to the Platonic school. but Plato. legitimate method.&quot.beginning of a line&quot. but he made cians. and analysis are used in mathematics In ancient mathematics .&quot. they did not reflect on the inward They used the axioms without giving them explicit expression.&quot.&quot. that &quot. etc. respectively. surface.

31 they had a different meaning from what they now have. which in all probability was framed by Eudoxus &quot.&quot. doubt. . even as it is employed by God. The sphere and the regular solids had been studied to some extent. the Greeks. He said that thereby the good of geometry is set aside and destroyed. instead of elevating and imbuing it with the eternal and incorporeal images of thought. as well as the trisection and quadrature problems. Eudoxus. cylinder. It is now generally admitted that the duplication problem. Plato is said to have solved the problem of the duplication of the cube. Thus the aim of analysis was to aid in the discovery of synthetic proofs or solutions. but mechanical. He called their solutions not geometrical. XIII. cannot be solved by means of the ruler and compass only. pyramid.THE GREEKS. for which reason He always is God. and Menaeclmius. but the prism. for they required the use of other instruments than the ruler and compass. added to the analytic process a synthetic one. for we again reduce it &quot. tion But the solution is open to the very same objec which he made to the solutions by Archytas. Plato gave a healthful stimulus to the study of stereometry. as a rule. and cone were hardly known to . The oldest definition of mathematical analysis as opposed to syn thesis is that given in Euclid. 5. reasoning up to an obtaining of the thing to the inference and proof of sought by reasoning up The analytic method is not conclusive. to the world of sense. unless all operations To remove all involved in it are known to be reversible. These objections indicate either that the solution is wrongly attrib uted to Plato or that he wished to show how easily non-geo metric solutions of that character can be found.&quot. so is and the it. consisting of a reversion of all operations occurring in the analysis. which until his time had been entirely neglected. : Analysis it is the obtaining of the thing sought by assuming admitted truth synthesis .

studied under Archytas. Diogenes Laertius describes Eudoxus as astronomer. went with his pupils to Athens. legislator. by means of the quadratri of Hippias. and thus obtained the three sections which we now call the parabola. Athensaus. the brother of Menaechmus and pupil of Plato. ellipse. where ho died 355 B. three kinds of cones. Judging from the two very elegant solutions of the &quot. under Plato. physician. found in later writers. Problem&quot.. and has beea called the father of scientific astronomical observation. Celebrated is his mechanical solution of the quadrature of the circle.C. He was born at Cniclus about 408 B. as well as geometer. for two months. by the Platonic One result of these inquiries was epoch-making. an associate of Plato and pupil of Eudoxus. Ideler and Schiaparolli succeeded in recon structing the system of Eudoxus with its celebrated representa by &quot. The Eudemimi Summary . visit ing Plato.Delian. and later. which. From the fragmentary notices of his astronomical researches. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. the right-angled/ acute-angled/ and obtuse-angled/ by planes at right angles to a side of the cones. raised geometry to the loftiest height which Mensechmus cut it was destined to reach during antiquity. by means of intersections of these curves.O.concentric spheres*&quot. Dinostratus. Perhaps the most brilliant mathematician of this period was Eudoxus. The fame of the academy of Plato is to a large extent tion of planetary motions due to Eudoxtts s pupils of the school at Cyzicua. and Helicon. Another great geometer was Dinostratus. Eudoxus had a school at Cyzicus. He was imbued with a true spirit of scientific inquiry. Mensechimis must have succeeded well in investigating their properties. aiaong whom are Meneeclnnus. Menaechmus. and hyperbola. invented the conic sections. in course of only a century.32 exist. All these solids became the subjects of investigation school. and then returned to Cyzicxis.

exactly having equal base and altitude.THE GREEKS. which cuts a meant. the Theaetetus Eudemian Summary men of Athens. very good which had been confined to particular cases Hermotimus of . thought to be Proclus. relate to lines cut by this section. to which he applied the analyt first increased the ical method. the names of Amyclas Colophon. Theudius of Magnesia. aixd raised to a considerable quantity the learning. a tions the following: man of great natural whom. who composed a book of Elements and generalised propositions. given lines.&quot. both in number and work utility of its proofs. . added to the three proportions three more. scholiast on Euclid.golden section&quot. for Leon wrote an Elements carefully designed. and a cone one-third of a cylinder. and are generally attributed Eudoxus added much to the knowledge of solid to Eudoxus. Cyzicenus of Athens. no doubt. who discovered many of Heraclea. finally. says that Eudoxus &quot. says further that A Eudoxus Eudoxus practically invented the whole of Euclid also s fifth book. By this c section is &quot. to each other as the cubes of their radii is probably due to him. on the subject of the section. the pupils found two mean proportionals between two but the method of solution is not known. first five and mean The He proved. begun by Plato. (sectio aurea). no\loubt. ratio. that a pyramid is one-third of a prism. to . Besides already named. He made frequent and skilful use of the method of exhaustion. Feocleides and his pupil Leon. 33 number of general theorems. who added much of their predecessors. Euclid was greatly indebted 8 in the composition of the 10th book treating of incommensugifts. The proof that spheres are geometry. and Philippus of Mende. Leodamas of Thasos to the . says Archimedes. the line in extreme propositions in Euclid XIII. of which he was in all probability the inventor. Plato has been called a maker of mathematicians. propositions of the Elements and composed some on loci. rables . and.

up a great empire which broke to pieep ia a day* . at the battle of OUf&ronea. 8 Aristotle (384-322 B. Athens produced the greatest scientists and philosophers of antiquity. though not a professed mathematician. In the previous pages we have seen the birth of geometry in Egypt. The First Alexandrian School. Aristous wrote also on regular solids and cultivated the analytic method. and Wo now we derive shall see it return to the land of its birth and there new vigour. its transference to the Ionian Islands.). was forever. It was the timo of Plato and Aristotle. About his time there appeared a work called Mechanic. la eleven years he built beaten. in Greece from feeble childhood to vigorous manhood. A skilful no details life and works we have is rary of Euclid. thence to Lower have witnessed its growth Italy and to Athens. started out to conquer the world. promoted the science of geometry by improving some of the most difficult defini tions. Mechanics was totally neglected by the Platonic school.C. His works contained probably a summary of the researches of the Platonic school.. mathematician of whose Aristaelis. the systematise! of deductive logic. Alexander the Great.34 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. sections tends to The show that much progress had been made in the elder. and her power was broken Soon after. During her declining years.C. probably a senior contempo fact that he wrote a work on conic their study during the time of Menaechmus. In 338 B. His Physics contains passages with suggestive hints of the principle of virtual velocities. Athens by Philip of Macedon. of which he is regarded by some as the author. the son of Philip. immediately following the Feloponnesian War.

much When Ptolemy once asked him if geometry could not be mastered by an easier process than by studying the Elements. baeus: &quot. a zoological garden.A 6 . that open the mathematical school. put Eudoxus had prepared. &quot. inquired. added by Proclus to was younger than Plato and older than . Ptolemy created the university He founded the great Library and built labo of Alexandria. says Proclus. says Gow. Pappus states that Euclid was distin guished by the fairness and kindness of his disposition. Euclid. Alex andria soon became the great centre of learning. who. and were diligently cultivated. fell to 35 the lot of Ptolemy Soter.&quot. the imperfect attempts of his prede cessors. Literature. Euclid s greatest activity was during the time of the first Ptolemy.THE GREEKS. completed many things of Theaetetus. philosophy. Euclid. Euclid returned the answer.C. Demetrius Phalereus was invited from Athens to take charge of the Library. is The art history of Egypt during the next three centuries mainly the history of Alexandria.There is no royal road to geometry.Eratosthenes and Archimedes. and well read in in order its doctrines. Alexander had founded &quot. ratories.reigned from 306 to 283 B. He was of the Platonic sect. the latter of whom mentions him. and promenades. which soon became of all cities. Of the life of to was invited with him Euclid.&quot. contrast to Apollonius. He collected the Elements. except what is the Eudemian Summary. and Euclid it is probable. noblest Ptolemy made Alexandria the capital. Pappus is evidently making a whom he more than insinuates the little A pretty story is related by Sto- youth who had begun to read geometry with when h had learnt the first proposition. museums.the the seaport of Alexandria. and was the first who reduced to unob that jectionable demonstration. little is known. of 9 opposite character. par ticularly toward those who could do anything to advance the mathematical sciences.

The fame of Euclid has at all times rested mainly upon his book on geometry. the proof of tlie Theorem of Pythagoras is the only one directly ascribed to him. that Thesetetus contributed much toward Books X. and XIII. but they are unre At one time Euclid of Alexandria was universally liable. Comparatively few of the propositions and proofs in the Elements are his own discoveries. however. It is a remarkable fact in thei of Euclid. written two xistory of geometry. that the latter works soon perished in the straggle The Greeks gave Euclid the special title of c the author of the . This book was so far superior to the Elements written by Hippocrates. ~ Theudius. &quot. who lived a century earlier. been inclined schools. that tlie substance of Book VI.36 &amp. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. .Elements&quot. is due to the Pythagoreans and Exidoatufy tlto latter con &quot. and for existence. IV. Allman conjectures that the substance of Books I.&quot. II. from the head of Jupiter. In England they xre used at the present time extensively as a text-book in Some editors of Euclid have.. tributing the doctrine of proportion as applicable to ineommensurables and also the Method of Exhaustions (Book comes from the Pythagoreans. bo credit him with more than is his due. They fail to mention the earlier eminent mathematicians from whom Euclid got his material. Syrian and personal details preserved by Greek Arabian writers claim to know much more. They would have us believe that a finished and unassailable system of geometry sprang at once from the brain of Euclid.). since he must said. an armed Minerva &quot. Loon. What ? So Euclid called his slave and Give him threepence. called the Elements. In fact. that the Elements are still regarded by many as the best thousand years ago. These are about all the what he learns/ make gain out of writers. confounded with Euclid of Megara. do I get by learning these tilings &quot. ntroduction to the mathematical sciences.

version were noticed therein. under the head of definitions. but they were not at all important. 37 that the principal part of the original work of Euclid himself 8 Euclid was the greatest systemais to be found in Book X. Peirce to be riddled with only because the writer s At the beginning of our editions of the Elements. it It certainly true that in point of rigour its with strict modern &quot. compares favourably but when examined in the light of it mathematical logic. Many variations from Theon s Elements for which Theon was blamed must. made Theon the scape goat for all the defects which they thought they could discover in the text as they knew I. about 700 years after Euclid. It would be erroneous to believe that he incorporated into his Elements all the elementary theorems known at. edition. Apollonius. But among the manuscripts sent from the Vatican to Paris was found a copy of the Elements believed to be anterior to Theon s recension. and even he himself refer to theorems not included in his Ele ments. tiser of his time. therefore. a proud and lofty structure.THE GREEKS. The Elements has been considered as offering is models of scrupulously rigoroxis demonstrations. rivals . who laboured under the idea that Euclid must be absolutely perfect. from a few definitions and axioms. later commentators. and by logical arrangement of the propositions selected. . as being well-known truths. brought out an edition. especially Robert Simson. be due to Euclid himself. By careful selection from the material before him. are given the assumptions of such The results are correct fallacies. and showed that Theon The defects in the generally made only verbal changes. S. he built up. the father of Hypatia. tions in the text. The text of the Elements now commonly used is Theon s Theon of Alexandria. has been pronounced by C. his time. with some altera As a consequence.&quot. Archimedes. by Napoleon it. experience keeps him on his guard.

according to which figures and parallels can. about parallels plays an important role in the history of non* Euclidean geometry. ninth geometry of similar figures. The Moments contains thirteen books by Euclid. solids were studied so extensively by the. the metrical relations of the pyramid. The to book treats of the theory of proportion as applied The sixth book develops the magnitudes in general. and not common notions or axioms. The regular octaedron. found the proof to the theorem that tha number infinite. more elementary theorems the .. instead. Then follow three postulates or demands. eighth. cone. . In the is of primes is incommensurables. and then uses polygons. versy among ancient and modern critics on the postulates and axioms. icosaedron. and some verbal explanations. line.Platonists fhfrjfe they . An immense preponderance of manuscripts and the ? testimony of Proclus place the axioms about right angles 9 10 (Axioms 11 and 12) among tho postulates. of which it is the authors. The only postulate which Kxiolid missed was the one of superposition. He common either speaks. notions as the point. but not by Euclid. or on arithmetic. for they arc really assump Tho postulate tions. The tenth book treats of the theory of contains its The eleventh cylinder. Tho thirteenth treats of the regular of the triangle and pentagon. cube. and dodecaedron. fifth booksy^re ninth book The seventh. the totraedron. twelfth. and twelve axioms. and two. The stipposed that Hypsicles and Damasoms are first four books are on plane geometry. of common notions There has been much contro to all men or to all sciences. etc. be moved about in space without any alteration in form or magnitude. prism.38 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The next three books are on stereometry. This is indeed their proper place. The term axiom 7 was used by Proclus. on the theory of numbers. and sphere. especially them as faces of the five regular solids namely.

Optics. wish to acquire the power of solving new problems proposed to them. His treatise on Porisms is lost . nor to effect a construction. a work having . treat ing of solid geometry.Platonic figures. but learning has been expended by Eobert Sims on and M. The term porism is vague in meaningl The aim of a porism is not to state some property or truth. received the 39 name of &quot. are apocryphal. on musical intervals. The Data is It contains little or nothing that a course of practice in analy an intelligent student itself. The fourteenth and fifteenth books. is obviously wrong. Greek geometry Thus the theorem that the area of a triangle equals half the product of its base and its altitude is foreign to Euclid. 6 His other lost works are Fallacies. a work on spherical geometry and astronomy. into parts ftus.D. con taining propositions on reflections from mirrors De Divisioni. or to find the G. to find the centre of a given circle. Catoptrica. a treatise on the division of plane figures to one another a given ratio Sectio Canonis. of two given numbers. and not from the object seen. much but to find and bring to view a thing which necessarily exists with given numbers or a given construction.THE GEBEKS. could not pick up from the Elements utes little to the stock of scientific knowledge. sis. It seems to have been written for those who. The statement of Proclns that the whole aim of Euclid in writing the Elements was to arrive at the construction of the regular solids. Another extant book of Euclid is the Data. A remarkable feature of Euclid is s. like a problem.&quot. having completed the Ele ments. Ohasles in restoring it from numerous notes found in the writings of Pappus. containing . as. like a theorem. and of all before Archimedes that it eschews mensuration. which develops the hypothesis that light proceeds from the eye. Hence it contrib The following are the other extant works generally attributed to Euclid: Phenomena.C.

the greatest mathematician of antiquity. by applying his extraordinary inventive genius to the construction of various war-engines. Heiberg believes it to mean &quot. books.C. since he was a great friend of Conon and it is Eratosthenes. the meaning of which title is not understood. returned.). who admired his and raised in his honour a tomb bearing the figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder. when they came within bow-shot of the city walls. he was. The immediate Zeuxippus. Jf No -blame attaches to [the genius.Don t spoil my circles. feeling insulted. As a Roman soldier approached him. 1 The story that. was born in Syracuse. Ac cording to tradition. and known of them. Diodorus says he Egypt. Plutarch calls him a rela tion of Oicero. by wjbdch he inflicted much loss on the Romans during the siege of patron. The soldier. and Loci on a Surface. and Archimedes length perished in the indiscriminate slaughter which followed. dria. by the use of mirrors reflecting bhe sun s rays. Alexan is strengthened by the fact that he had bhe most thorough acquaintance with all the work previously done in mathematics. and.&quot. at the time. is probably a fiction. rushed upon him and killed him.40 A HISTORY OF bo some problem drawn in the sand. he called out.loci which are surfaces. school at Alexandria were probably little is Dositheus. &quot. to Syracuse. Conic Sections. This belief highly probable that he studied in. where he made himself useful to his admiring friend He King Hieron. in four exercises in detection of fallacies. however. Archimedes (287?~212 B. which are the foundation of a ject work on the same sub by Apollonius. studying the diagram was taken ait &quot. but \ successors of Euclid in the mathematical Conon. tJTIxe the Romans. When .&quot. he set on fire the Roman ships. Marcellus. visited King Hieronj but more reliable is the statement of who tells us he was of low birth. Roman general Marcelltts.

The Sand-Counter. Two books on Floating on the ground that it is not evident that a straight line can equal a curved one. 4. The Measurement of the Circle . The following vulgar-^&quot. 12. by comparing ratios. 3.&quot. On Spirals. lie found the tomb buried under rubbish. The finding of suct^ a line was the next prob lem. Thus he finally concludes that &quot. 48. Next he finds a lower by inscribing in the circle regular polygons of 6. the Quadrature of the Parabola. and by taking the irrational square roots always a little too small. 6. which is. ratio of the circum ference to the diameter. his Archimedes was admired by his fellow-citizens chiefly mechanical inventions he himself prized far more highly . 7. Two books on the Sphere order : 1. his discoveries in pure science. 8. for&quot. or equilateral triangle of To do this. proves first that the area of a circle is there exists a straight line equal in length to the circumference an assumption objected to by some ancient critics. 24. of art He declared that &quot. Two books on and Cylinder.3^.every kind which was connected with daily needs was ignoble and Some of his works have been lost. Fifteen Lemmas. are the extant books. and the radius for its altitude. arranged approximately in chronological Equiponderance of Planes or Centres of Plane Gravities. He fir^t finds an upper limit to the TT. 96 sides. Conoids and Spheroids. Cicero 41 was in Syracuse.the circumference of a circle ex- . he finally arrived at the conclusion that limit ?r&amp. Archimedes equal to that of a right triangle having the length of the circumference for its In this he assumes that b~se. a tangent and the vertex is the centre of the By successively bisecting the angle at the centre. finding for each successive polygon its perimeter. 2. between which is inserted his treatise or. always less than the circumference. j In the book on the Measurement of the Circle. 5. of course. is he starts with an which the base circle.&quot.THE GREEKS.

Archimedes studied J~-Of all his discoveries Archimedes prized most highly those In it are proved the new Sphere and Cylinder. that the surface of a sphere is equal to four times a great circle that the surface of a segment of a sphere is in his .spiral of Archimedes. his genius this Nowhere stead the aBteients. . Spirals. as treatise thereon is. The Quadrature of the Parabola contains two solutions to the problem one mechanical. the other geometrical. and medes.CThe spiral now called the described in the book &quot. This approximation is exact enough for most purposes. was discovered by Archi some believe. the most wonderful of. 8 His On . In its used the method of exhaustion. ceeds three times its diameter by a part which. tention. } &amp. of the cylinder circum scribed about the sphere. respectively. more grandly displayed than in his masterly use of With Euclid and his predecessors the method : means of proving propositions which must have been seen anf b&litved before they were proved. is less than $ but more than f& of the diameter. subjects of this kind are made easy by . Nowadays. the use of the infinitesimal calculus.&quot. of exhaustion was only the ment of discovery. This was ordered done by Marcellus.42 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the volume and surface. and not. method of exhaustion is used in both.all his works. by his friend Conon. equal to a circle whose radius is the straight line drawn from the vertex of the segment to the circumference of its basal circle that the volume and the surface of a sphere are of. 9 .lt. It is believed that he wrote a book on conic sections. The also the ellipse and accomplished its but to the hyperbola he seems to have paid less at quadrature. Archimedes desired that the figure to the last proposition be inscribed on his tomb.&quot. theorems. perhaps. is the fertility of method. But in the hands of Arehtoete it lecame art instru .

he says. Aris the author of the totle its knew true mathematical theory. given in his Equi- ponderance of Planes. of a parabola or are produced or or flat. By the 43 Spheroids. treatise Archimedes first sound knowledge on this and others attempted to form Archytas. but could -not establish The radical and fatal defect in the speculations of the Greeks. is word conoid/ in his book on Conoids and meant thQ solid produced by the revolution a hyperbola about its axis. latter contrary 5 to nature. but failed.&quot. Aristotle. made the per grounds of mechanical properties impos seems strange that even after Archimedes had entered upon the right path. We is and problems will be consid shall now notice his works on mechanics. We Rave now reviewed briefly all etry. it may be considered as having two motions .that and ideas. The proof of the property of the lever. his extant works on geom His arithmetical ered later. minor / The book leads up to the cubature of these solids. one in the direction of the tangent and one in the direction of the radius the former motion is. the . These inappropriate notions of natural and unnatural motions.THE GKEEKS. the ideas 93 For instance. this science should have remained a period of absolutely stationary till the time of Galileo ception. Spheroids the revolution of an ellipse. holds its place in text-books to this day. subject. and are long by according as the ellipse revolves around the major axis. the property of the lever. of the true sible. says though they had in their possession facts Whewell. the known mechanical truths into a science. Aristotle asserted that when a body at the end of a lever is moving. together with the habits of ^thought which dictated these speculations. were not distinct and appropriate to the facts. was &quot. His estimate of the efficiency of the lever is expressed in the . according to nature. It nearly two thousand years.

! cording to one author. Constel- . &quot. He immediately ran home. professed by the maker to be pure gold. According to another writer. He was educated amount of gold and silver in the weighed separately and crown. was a native of Cyrene. each weighing the same as the crown. me a fulcrum on which to saying attributed to him.] The story goes that in a bath when the true method of solution flashed &quot. in ancient times. and crown respectively. one can well understand how. whom he succeeded as custodian of the Alexandrian Library. Geography. and calculated from that the crown. an Archimedean problem came to mean a problem too deep for ordinary minds to solve. he determined the volume of water displaced by the gold. the gold. inferred from his works. Chronology. He i is the Newton of antiquity/] Eratosthenes. His many-sided activity may be He wrote on Cfood and Evil. thereby determining their loss of weight in water.&quot. specific gravity when King Hieron asked him to test whether a crown. It is possible that Archimedes solved the problem by both methods.&quot. shouting. eleven years younger than Archimedes.While s the JSquiponderance treats of solids. &amp. and I will move the earth. Ac &quot.Give rest. or the equilib rium of solids. naked. ? and how an Archimedean proof came to be the synonym for unquestionable certainty. the book 011 Floating Bodies treats of hydro His attention was first drawn to the subject of statics. Archimedes wrote on a very wide range of subjects. on his mind. I have found it llo solve the problem. he silver. was not our philosopher was alloyed with silver. Prom these data he easily found the solution. Meas urement of the Earthy Comedy.44 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Alexandria under Callimachus the poet. After examining the writings of Archimedes. silver. he took a piece of gold and a piece of silver. while immersed in water. and displayed great profundity in each. / &quot.

Apollonius was born in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes and died under cessor. when an Arabic translation. The first four books contain little more than the substance geometers had done. 45 and the Duplication of the Cube. and on that account is said to have committed suicide great prede incontestably occupies the second place in dis tinction among ancient mathematicians. giving a history of the duplication prob lem and also the description of a very ingenious mechanical In his old age he lost contrivance of his own to solve it. of the first four books In 1710 Halley of Oxford published the Greek text and a Latin translation of the remain the ing three. lotions. Great Geometer. Eutocius tells us that of Heraclides. The eighth book has never been century. ecliptic Of his geometrical writings we possess only a letter to Ptolemy Euergetes. together with his conjectural restoration of eighth book. His Conic Sections were in eight books. Alexandria under the successors of Euclid.C. and also. his eyesight. who leigned 222-205 B. About forty years after Archimedes flourished Perga. found. The next three books were unknown in Europe till the middle of the seventeenth about 1250. by voluntary starvation. at He for studied at some time/ Perganmm. of which the first four only have come down to us in the original Greek. This is all that is known of his life.THE GREEKS. made was discovered. whose genius nearly equalled that of his Apollonius of He Ptolemy Philopator. accused Apollonius of what earlier . The brilliancy of his great work brought him the title of the &quot. He measured the obliquity of the philologian and and invented a device for finding prime numbers. He was also a a poet. founded on the introductory lemmas. where he made the acquaintance of that Eudemus to whom he dedicated the first three books of his Conic Sections.&quot. in his life of Archimedes. of Pappus.

the remaining Euclid. parabola. of cone. ones consisted almost entirely of new matter. in his Conic unpublished It is difficult to discoveries of that great mathematician. If Philonides. and all his suc cessors down to Apollonius. mode in which : It reads thus second book cate it my son Apollonius to bring you (Eudemus) the of my Conies. 12 to such others as are whom The first tains the con book. cones Apollonius introduced an important generalisation. the^ acute-angled/ right-angled/ and obtuse-angled he called them ellipse. He pro duced all the sections from one and the same cone. While the first three or four books were founded on the Aristseus. the other books The preface of the (after Eudemus s death) to one Attalus. but that Apollonius had introduced a real improvement. says Apollonius in his preface to it. and by sections perpendicular to sections its sides. the I introduced to you at Ephesus. of producing the three sections and the conju mode &quot. works of and Archimedes. Menaechmus. interesting as showing the ? ( published at this time. more fully and generally worked out than in the writings of other authors. gate hyperbolas and their principal characteristics. second book I have sent is Greek books were &quot.46 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. believe that this charge rests upon good foundation. Eutocius quotes Geminus as replying that neither Archimedes nor Apollonius claimed to have invented the conic sections. We remember that Mensechmus. and . the neighbourhood of Pergamum.&quot. comes into geometer.&quot. The first three books were sent to Eudemus at intervals. Bead it carefully and communi worthy of it. give it to him also. Sections. the having appropriated. whether right or scalene. considered only sections of right by a plane perpendicular to their sides. curves. and that the three sections were obtained each from a different cone. which may or may not be The old names for the three curves Instead of calling the three * were now no longer applicable.

parab Archimedes. the triangle through the axis. To be sure. is called to* its base. but they are The word ellipse was applied we words &amp. and the straight line which joins these two points is a diameter of it.px. 2 because y &amp. At one of the two vertices of the curve erect a perpendicular (latus rectum) . will be equal to the rectangle constructed on the portion of the ordinate comprised between the diameter and the straight . comprehended between the diameter and the curve. because y*&amp. How this conic sections. and from the extremity the curve. draw at right angles an ordinate : the square of this ordinate. Apollonius called this diameter latus transversum. In the formation of his conic sections. exit . the word parabola was introduced because y 2 =px. Apollonius supposed the cutting plane to be perpen dicular to the plane of the triangle through the axis. for its sides. Chasles. of a certain length.& &amp. 13 the axis of the cone. to be determined of this per pendicular draw a straight line to the other vertex of the curve now. jpassing through the axis.THE GREEKS. and ellipse ? in the works of 47 find the ola probably only interpolations.px. hyperbola. way by M. oblique cone on a circular base. The points in which this plane meets the two sides of this triangle are the vertices of the curve . on a unique property of which is derived directly from the nature of the cone in which these sections are found. The plane s& through any point whatever of the diameter of . as we shall specify mas says The treatise of Apollonius rests property forms the key to the system of the ancients terly is told in a & the cone along two lines and perpendicular determines in the circle a diameter the triangle having this diameter for its base and the two lines. and the term hyperbola &amp. the straight line drawn from its summit to the centre of the circle forming its base is called &quot. respectively.p being the the plane of the triangle through the axis.

which are frequently subject to a It also touches the subject of great number of conditions. The perpendicular in question was called by them latus erectum. or squares. He also examines a system of two and shows that they cannot cut each other in more conies. He investigates the various relative possible positions of or two conies. for instance. line. &quot. rectangles.It will be observed from this that the diameter of the curve and the perpendicular erected at one of its extremities These are the two elements suffice to construct the curvj|r which the ancients used.4:8 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. the moderns changed this name first to that of latus rectum. they have one two The points of contact with each other. and The third book treats of the equality or proportionality of triangles. Apollonius discusses the harmonic divis ion of straight lines. when. fifth book reveals better than any other the giant . almost the same rdle as the equation of the second degree with two variables (abscissa and ordinate) in the system of analytic geometry of Descartes. book of the Conic Sections of Apollonius is almost devoted to the generation of the three principal conic wholly first The sections. by adroit transformations and deductions. as we shall see.&quot. vertex and the foot of the ordinate. asymptotes. treats mainly* of asymptotes. foci of the ellipse and hyperbola. nearly all the rest. or tangents. and the part of the diameter comprised between the first Such is the characteristic property which Apollonius recognises in his conic sections and which he uses for the purpose of inferring from it. and afterwards to that of parameter. In the fourth book. The second book diameters. of which the component parts are determined by portions of transversals. axes. with which to establish their theory of conies. in his hands. than four points. It plays. as. chords.

Pappus ascribes to Apollonius the following works: On Contacts. Besides the Conic Sections. as restored by Halley. which was the prelude to the theory of geometrical curves of all degrees. The second is the theory of conic sections. to find the longest and shortest lines that can he drawn from a given point to a conic. Section of an Area. Geometry of Archimedes and of Apollonius.THE GREEKS. Determinate Section. Two questions which have occupied geometers of all periods 13 The discoveries of Archimedes may be of these regarded as having originated with them. marked the most brilliant epoch of ancient geometry. is on conjugate diameters. says M. Difficult questions of maxima and minima. continues the sub ject of conjugate diameters. ratios and the of rectilineal distances. of which. Plane Loci. though he inciden tally discovered the focus of an ellipse and hyperbola. intellect of its 49 author. Inclinations. is The first the quadrature of curvilinear figures. and uses only the intersection of lines and surfaces These two great divisions of geometry may be designated by the names of Geometry of Measurements and Geometry of Forms and Situa tions. and gives lemmas . few examples are found in earlier works. It is worthy of notice that Apollonius nowhere introduces the notion of directrix for a conic. The seventh book The eighth book. which gave birth to the infinitesimal calculus. 6 in his and Apollonius. Chasles. or. The subject investigated is. Here are also found the germs of the subject ofevolutes and centres of osculation. Conspicuous geometry is also the absence of technical terms and symbols. he did not discover the focus of a parabola. and that. which renders the proofs long and cumbrous. The sixth book is on the similarity of conies. are here treated most exhaustively. and to that portion of geometry which considers only the forms and situations of figures.

except that he invented the mussel-like&quot. 3 observe. contains the so-called &quot.C. &quot.50 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. on the other hand. life of Perseus we know lived as little as about that of Nicomedes and Diocles. on the part of later Among the Nothing conchoid (&quot. were needed. flourished (&quot. A briefer sym bolism. Euclid. also Diodes. the inventor of the cissoid This curve he used for straight mean proportionals between two given About the 100 B. during around for details which had been passed by in the hasty ascent. About the time finding two lines. earliest successors of Apollonius was Mcomedes. to find a fourth which shall touch the three.). found in the Arabic. . an infinitesimal calculus.). The book on Contacts. : three circles. Archimedes. from which attempts have been made to restore the lost Two books on De Sectione Rationis have been originals.high a state of perfection as it perhaps could be brought without first introducing some more general and more powerful method than the old method of exhaustion.and Apollonius brought geometry to as. claims The conchoid was used by Newton in con of structing curves of the third degree. With conchoid he duplicated the cube.ivy-like&quot. The Greek mind was not adapted to the invention of general methods. He devised a little which the curve could be easily described. Mcomedes. Instead of a climb to still loftier heights we Greek geometers. as restored by Given Apollonian Problem Vieta. The curve can also be used for trisecting angles in a way much resembling that* in the eighth it lemma of Archimedes. machine by aid of the definite is known of him. a which they paused here and there to look descent. therefore. a Cartesian geometry. but Pappus. as his own. some time between 200 and Prom Heron and Geminus we learn that he wjtote a He . Proclus ascribes this mode of trisection to Nicomedes.

51 work omthe spire. Probably somewhat later than Perseus lived Zenodorus. These curves . and that he calcu lated a table of chords in twelve books. Fourteen propositions are preserved by to yield peculiar curves called spiral sections. A treatise of Hypsicles on Risings Greek work giving the division of the circumference into 360 degrees after the fash is it is of interest because the first ion of the Babylonians. The sections of this surface appear be the same as the Hippopede of Eudoxus. . namely. which. the sphere has TfieT^eatest** volume. Hypsicles (between 200 and 100 B. he was interested in mathematics. Pappus and Theon. Here are a few of them : Of isoperimet- rical.) was supposed to be the author of both the fourteenth and fifteenth books of Euclid. . not per se.THE GREEKS. omer of Hipparchus of Nicsea in Bithynia was the greatest astron He established inductively the famous antiquity. theory of epicycles and eccentrics. the regular is the greatest of all solids having surfaces equal in area.C. according to G-eminus. isoperimetncal figures. As might be expected. a sort of anchor-ring surface described by Heron as being produced by the revolution of a circle around one of its chords as an axis. &quot. but &quot. No mathematical writings of his Theon of Alexandria informs us that Hipparchus originated the science of trigonometry. The fourteenth book contains seven elegant theorems on regular solids. were thought out by Perseus. the one having the largest number of angles has the greatest area. . He wrote an interesting treatise on a new subject. Such calculations are extant. regular polygons. but only as an aid to astronomical inquiry. but recent critics are of opinion that the fifteenth book was written by an author who lived several centuries after Christ. the circle has a greater area than any regular polygon of equal periphery of all isoperimetrical polygons of n sides.

He was the pupil of Ctesibius. contains the important formula for finding the area of a triangle expressed in terms of its sides . Marie lays great geometer should have thought to cite stress on this . its derivation &quot.&quot. &quot. with aid of these ^instruments. is only a corrupt and defective copy of the former work. and catapult. another book supposed to be by Heron. But no reli evidence has been found that there actually existed a much more recent than second mathematician by the name of Herory &quot. and argues from it that the true author writer able must be Heron the Younger or some Heron the Elder.&quot.Heron s fountain. says Venturi. such as the hydraulic organ. of which there exist three manuscript copies. without that some Greek it. u thinks that the Dioptra is quite dissimilar. } must have required a ready knowledge of arithm algebraical operations. of which one only . But M. It is believed by some that Heron was a son of Ctesibius.Dioptra. so beautiful a theorem should be found in a work so ancient as that of Heron the Elder.52 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. such as to find the distance between two points. He exhibited talent of the same order as did his master by the invention of the eolipile and a curious mechanism known as &quot. flourished Heron the Elder of Alexandria. ingenious. the water-clock. is quite laborious and yet exceedingly says Chasles. Marie the work of Heron the Younger. who was celebrated for his ingenious mechanical inventions. were instramejrfs which had great resemblance to our modern theodolites.that It seems to me difficult to believe. Dioptra.&quot.C. and that Geodesy. Sal and About 155 B. Great uncertainty exists concerning his writings.silence of the ancient writers. Most au thorities believe him to be the author of an important Treatise on the Dioptra. of a large number of questions in geometry. who lived in the seventh or eighth century after Christ.&quot. ( The book Dioptra is a treatise on geodesy containing solutions.

tian origin. but decidedly Egyptian. he shows.C. found in the Edfu inscriptions. Like Ahmes . Heron gives the for a* a* &quot. in the Occident during the Middle We Ages. which bears a striking likeness 2 to the for- i 2 x -^_ jU for finding the area of a quadrangle. the more surprising when we consider that Heron demonstrated his familiarity with Euclid by writing a commentary on the Elements. or . throughout. B. The writings of Heron satisfied a practical wan^ and for that reason were borrowed extensively by other peoples. besides the above exact formula for the area of a triangle in terms of its sides. Thus Ahmes used unit-fractions exclusively Heron uses them ^oftener than other fractions. is 53 accessible.THE GEBEKS. points of resemblance between Heron s writings and the ancient Ahmes papyrus. inaccessible line between two points which are visible but both from a given point to draw a perpendicular to a . mula mula of Heron s formulas point to an old Egyp Thus.) published an astronomi wrote also a book. now lost. 21 Some x -. on the Arrangement of Mathematics. and even in India. The character of his geom This fact is etry is not Grecian. and the priests at Edfu. level which cannot be approached.i&quot. moreover. who considered it degrading the science apply geometry to surveying. Heron divides complicated figures simpler ones by drawing auxiliary lines. He . like them. out entering Heron was a the to practical surveyor. to find the difference of between two points to measure the area of a field with it. a special fondness for the isosceles into trapezoid. find traces of them in Rome. which contained many valuable Geminus of Khodes (about 70 cal work still extant. This may account for the fact that his writings bear so little resemblance to those of Greek authors. There are.

however. lecturehalls. ff notices of the early history of Greek mathematics. Theodosius of Tripolis is the author of a book of little merit on the geometry of the Dionysodorus of Amisus in Pontus applied the inter sphere. The :or close of the of dynasty of the Lagides which ruled Egypt from the time 300 years . scholars from the East mingled with those of the intellectual West. The names of quite a number of geometers have been mentioned. Greeks began to study older literatures and to com pare them with their own. We have now sketched the progress of geometry down to the time of Christ. influence on the progress of the sciences. which then had their home in Alexandria. . the builder of Alexandria. In consequence of this interchange of ideas the Greek philosophy became fused with Oriental . It is certain.54 . their The Second Alexandrian School. but very few of works are now extant. that there were no mathematicians of real genius from Apollonius to Ptolemy. The problem is &quot. section of a parabola and hyperbola to the solution of a prob lem which Archimedes. the absorption of Egypt into the Roman Em the closer commercial relations between peoples of the pire East and of the West the gradual decline of paganism and .to cut a sphere so that its seg ments shall be in a given ratio. these events were of far-reaching spread of Christianity.&quot. Ptolemy Soter. Alexandria became a commercial and emporium. had left incomplete. in his Sphere and Cylinder. the history of Unfortunately. very little is known of geometry between the time of Apollonius and the beginning of the Christian era. museums. Traders of all nations met in her busy streets. excepting Hipparchus and perhaps Heron. and in her magnificent Library. Froclus and Eutocius quote it frequently. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

(D). The proofs of these theorems are very pretty. The fundamental theorem of plane trigonome try. minutes and seconds. lation of his tables of chords. Another chapter of the first book in the Almagest is devoted and to spherical trigonometry in particular. to trigonometry. that &quot. regula Upon these propositions he built up his trigonometry. The foundation Hipparchus. The fact that trigonometry was cultivated not for its own sake. by More complete angles opposite the two him. were called partes minutes primce and paries mmutce Hence our names. and from the chord of any These theorems he applied to the calcu arc that of its half. but was contained are the proposi tions in spherical trigonometry. The Almagest of this science 57 laid was by the illustrious is in 13 books. explains the rather . which In Latin.original with Ptolemy s him.the rectangle contained by the diag onals of a quadrilateral figure inscribed in a circle is equal He to both the rectangles contained by its opposite sides. The circle is divided The diameter is into 360 degrees. these are again subdivided into 60 smaller parts.&quot. and was known to Geminus and Hipparchus. now appended to Euclid VI. . 73 The is sexagesimal method of dividing the circle of Babylonian But origin. then shows chords of how to find from the chords of two arcs the their sum and difference. divided into 120 divisions each of these into 60 parts.THE GKEEKS. that two sides of a triangle are to each other as the chords of double the arcs measuring the sides. each of which is halved. biit to aid astronomical inquiry. also the c Ptolemy proved the lemma of Menelaus/ and sex quantitatum. Chapter 9 of the first book shows how to calculate tables of chords. parts secundcB. He first proved the proposition. was not stated explicitly implicitly in other theorems. method of calculating chords seems &quot.

Pappus still extant itself is his Mathematical firsi This was originally in eight books. says that mentary on the Almagest. probably quoting from the Commentary on EiicUd. probably bora about 340 A. Extracts from this book. The remaining books of the Almagest are on astronomy. mathematicians of this time were Nicoma- chus and Theon of Smyrna. His genius was inferior to that of Archimedes. The only occupant of this long gap was Sextus Julius Africanus. angle equal to a always of The only work Collections. as he did..D. All these works are lost. Euclid. But no important geom Ptolemy for 150 years. Apollonius. a writer of whom nothing is known. eter appeared after entitled Cestes. who wrote an unimportant work on geometry applied to the art of war. came to exist in a startling fact that spherical trigonometry developed state earlier than plane trigonometry. Proclus. he towered above his contemporaries Atlantic. and that first of the long line of geometers from down to our own who toiled in the vain attempt Two prominent of numbers. &quot. made by Proelus. regard the parallel-axiom of Euclid as self-evident.&quot. a right angle. was the last great mathematician of the Alexandrian the peak of Teneriffa above the He is the author of a Com Commentary on JSucli& s JSlernents. a Pappus objected right angle is to the statement that an. but the . a Commentary on the Analemma of Diodorm. and But living. indicate that Ptolemy did not Ptolemy was the ancient time to prove it.58 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. -who flourished over 500 years earlier. in Alexandria. Ptolemy has written other works which have little or no bear ing on mathematics. Pappus. Their favourite study was theory The investigations in this science culminated later in the algebra of Diophantus. at a period when interest in geometry was declin ing. except one on geometry.

the orthogonal projection of which upon A. making any con venient angle with the base of the cylinder. the fourth book are trix new and brilliant proposition^ on the which indicate *&& intimate -acqnafitai!K^. passed through one of these perpendiculars. of the works of which he treats. 59 and portions of the second are now missing. over 1000 years later. equals the area of the curve multiplied by the circumference described by Pappus proved the first its centre of gravity. cuts the screwthe base surface in a curve. which are now lost. The Mathemat ical Collections seems to have been written by Pappus to supply the geometers of his time with a succinct analysis of the most difficult mathematical works and to facilitate the study of them by explanatory lemmas.Wifeii quac|ra- curvs^i : Let a generates the quadratrix as follows surfaces. But these lemmas are selected very freely. A . also that the centre of gravity of a triangle is lie that of another triangle whose vertices and divide its three sides in the upon the same ratio. second mode of generation is is the quadratrix. First of all ranks the elegant theorem re-dis covered by Guldin.THE GBEBKS. that pie volume the revolution of a plane curve which lies wholly generated by on one side of the axis.^ line be drawn upon a right circular cylinder then the spiral perpendiculars to the axis of the cylinder drawn from each . We shall now cite the more important of those theorems in the Mathematical Collections which are supposed to be original with Pappus. and frequently have little or no connection with the However. sides of In. he gives very accurate summaries subject on hand. considered it possible to restore lost works from the resume by Pappus alone. He plane point of* the spiral line form the surface of a screw. The Mathematical Collections is invaluable to us on account of the rich information it gives on various treatises by the foremost Greek mathemati Mathematicians of the last century cians.

* Prom the Mathematical Collections . which claims the more lively admiration. He solved the problem to draw through three points lying in the same straight line. less admirable : the spiral of Archimedes the base of a right cylinder. to find the unsolved 8 problem. Pappus considers curves of double curvature still further. A plane passed through one of the perpendiculars at any con venient angle cuts that surface in a curve whose orthogonal projection upon the plane of the spiral is the required quadratrix. and imagine a cone of revolution having for its axis the side of the cylinder passing through If we make the initial point of the spiral.problem of prominence jby Pappus.! and pro pounded the theory of the involution of points. if we consider that. the product of certain ones of them shall be in a given ratio to the product of the remaining ones.&quot. three straig% lines wiiich shaft form a triangle inscribed in a given circle. then finds the area of that portion of the surface of the complanation sphere determined by the spherical spiral. to measure portions thereof. It is worth noticing that it was Pappus who first found the focus of the parabola. A locus of a point such that when perpendiculars (or? more generally. such as spher ical triangles. He produces a spherical spiral by a point moving uniformly along the circumference of a great circle of a sphere. was then and for a long time afterwards an question which was brought into Descartes and Hewton is the &quot. straight lines at given angles) are drawn from it to the given lines.a He although the entire surface of the sphere was known since Archimedes time.60 no A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. &quot. while the great circle itself revolves uniformly around its diameter. ijGriven several straight lines in a plane.&quot. then this cone cuts the cylinder in a curve of double curvature. suggested the iise of the directrix. The perpendiculars to the axis drawn through every point in this curve form the surface of a screw which Pappus here calls the plectoidal surface.

disapproving heathen learning. was the last Alexandrian teacher of reputation. Her tragic death contains. which he probably used as a text-book in his classes. and that he may have done the same thing in other cases in which we have no data by which to ascertain the real discoverer. Her notes on the works of Diophantus and Apollonius have been lost. It ought to be remarked. He brought out an edition of Euclid s Elements with notes.D. in From now Alexandria. About the time of Pappus lived Theon of Alexandria. is now Damascius of Damascus. the pupil of believed to be the author of the fifteenth book of Euclid. however. . Another pupil of Isidorus was Eutocius of Ascalon. and others kept up the golden chain of Platonic succession.THE GREEKS. of Syrianus. the year 529.&quot. a woman celebrated for her beauty and modesty. and is said to have been an abler philosopher and mathematician than her father. Isidorus. wrote a commentary on Euclid s Elements. Proclus. and especially for the specimens of Greek arithmetic which it Theon s daughter Hypatia. is vividly described in Kingsley s Hypatia. Tsidorus. mathematics ceased to be cultivated s The leading subject of men thoughts was Christian theology. We which is valuable for the information it contains on the history of geometry. at the Athenian school. Proclus. Paganism disappeared. Justinian. finally closed by imperial edict the schools at Athens. on. His commen tary on the Almagest is valuable for the many historical notices. the commentator of Apollonius and Archimedes. possess only that on the first book. century longer. many more equally difficult 61 theorems might be quoted which are original with Pappus as far as we know. the successor &quot. that he is known in three instances to have copied theorems without giving due credit. in 415 A. In Simplicius wrote a commentary on Aristotle s De Oodo. and with it pagan The Neo-Platonic school at Athens struggled on a learning.

showed They were commentators rather are : principal characteristics of ancient geometry wonderful clearness and defmiteness of its concepts (1) and an almost perfect logical rigour of its conclusions. into the interior of which we desire to penetrate. wlio first bores 5 through the rock some few passages. from which he then bursts it into pieces with one powerful blast. geometers considered it necessary to treat all possible cases Independently of each other. determination of the tangents to the three conic sections did not furnish any rational assistance for drawing the tangent to 35 any other new curve. In the demonstration of a theorem. (2) A complete want of general principles Thus the Greeks Ancient geometry is decidedly special &quot. then the work of the Greek mathematicians appears to us like that of a vigorous stonecutter who. etc. with chisel and hammer. from without. As a the geometries of the last 500 years a lack of creative power. the cissoid. begins with indefatigable perseverance. rule. and to prove each with equal To devise methods by which the various eases could fulness. and brings to light the treasures within. such as the conchoid. I6 .&quot. than discoverers.If huge rock. as many different cases requiring separate proof The greatest as there were different positions for the lines. The A and methods.&quot. all ancients. for the ancient geometers. there wore. to crumble the rock slowly into fragments the modern mathe matician appears like an excellent minor. be disposed of by one stroke.The possessed no general method of drawing tangents. was beyond the power of the we compare a mathematical problem with a &quot.62 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

those on the third hundreds. frames came into use/ in which According to tra strings or wires took the place of lines. and so on. which resembled in form the nine Arabic numerals.. G-reek mathematicians were in the habit of discriminating between the science of numbers and the art The former they called arithmetical. The drawing of this distinction between the two was very natural and proper. a Byzantine grammarian of about 200 A. India. in various stages of perfection. we shall first give a brief account of the Greek mode of counting and of writing numbers. These signs occur fre- . dition. Among the Sophists -the art of calculation was a favourite study. who travelled in Egypt and. the latter of calculation. In case of large numbers.were probably ar Pebbles on the first line ranged in parallel vertical lines. In sketching the history of Greek calculation. logistica. 63 GREEK ARITHMETIC. But the correctness of this assertion subject to grave doubts. ais The abacus. the earliest Greeks counted on their fingers or with pebbles. who describes them). represented units. Plato. it is called.&quot. those on the second tens. Later. The difference between them is as marked as that between theory and practice. possess no specific information as to how the Greek abacus looked or how it was used. goreans used with the abacus certain nine signs called apices. is still An abacus We employe! by the Chinese under the name of Sivan-pan. Boethius says that the Pytha &quot. Like the Egyptians and Eastern nations. gave considerable attention to philosophical arithmetic. on the other hand.THE GREEKS. oldest Grecian numerical symbols were the so-called is The Herodianic signs (after Herodianus. existed among different peoples and at different tim$s. in introduced this valuable instrument into Greece. first Pythagoras.D. the pebbles. but pronounced calculation a vulgar and childish art. perhaps.

for the old Attic numerals were less burdensome on the memory.64 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. are. bols were afterwards replaced by the alphabetic numerals. . 200 300 400 v 500 600 700 800 1000 M 10. This change was decidedly for the worse.000 ft M 30. It will be noticed that at 1000.xVrcw 100 ^/a 900 J 2000 /y 3000 etc. In case |^|. but. now For some unknown reason these sym quently in Athenian inscriptions and generally called Attic. inas . to prevent confusion. horizontal line drawn over a number served to distinguish it more readily from words.TTV&amp. together with three strange and antique letters & 9 and 5). and the symbol M. much as they contained fewer symbols and were to better adapted show forth analogies in numerical operations.000 M 20. the alphabet is begun over placed before the letter and generally somewhat bolow The follow ing table shows the Greek alphabetic numerals and their respective values : 1 2 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 p&amp. Thus. in which the letters of the Greek alphabet were used.678 was observed that the Greeks had no Fractions were denoted by first writing the numerator marked with an accent. Thus 43. The coefficient for was sometimes placed is again. the a and the denominator was written only once. of fractions having unity for the numerator. was omitted = -$%* Thus /x8&quot.000 on that account. ^ *s * *)e M. a stroke now A M before or behind instead of over the written SM^yx07?zero. then the denominator marked with two accents and written twice. ly tO^nO&quot.

17 ject of conjecture on the part of numerous Of interest. the Circle gives a for instance. V3 &amp. is the Sand-Counter (Arenarius). an essay addressed by Archifractions . It is not im by found the probable that the earlier Greek mathematicians Eutocius say^ that the method of square root by trial only. Theon s is the only ancient method known to us. the process was Divis still more except that sexagesimal fractions are employed of our decimals. gives a great 6 cations of which the following is a specimen : many multipli 265 265 The operation is ex plained sufficiently MM 8 a 40000. ions are found in Theon of M Alexandria s cr/c e 70225 tary on the Almagest. 1000 12000. subtraction. 300 25 by the modern numerals append In case of mixed ed. Thus Archimedes in his Mensuration of He states. that f -f-f. What the mode of procedure actually was when sexagesimal were not used. 300. 3600. given by Heron. of the sixth century after Christ. 1000. lias been the sub modern writers. Greek writers seldom 65 refer to calculation with alphabetic Addition. large number of square roots. a commentator may numerals. in connection with arithmetical symbolism. It is the same as the one used nowa extracting it wsts in place days. and other commentators on the Almagest.and VS which he obtained these approximations. Thus Eutocius. and even multiplication were Expert mathematicians probably performed on the commen As might be expected. &amp.THE GBEBKS. Pappus. We have seen in geometry that the more advanced mathe maticians frequently had occasion to extract the square root. but he gives no clue to the method l^y. 12000. Theon. the process is long and tedious. have used the symbols. numbers.

. king of Syracuse. and that the diameter not smaller than part of a finger s ^ breadth. In it Archimedes shows that people are in error who think the sand cannot be counted. once for all. can be arithmetically expressed. In our notation. the number cannot be expressed He shows that the number of grains in a heap of sand not only as large as the whole earth. and we. Assuming that 10. having the distance from the centre to the fixed stars for its radius. but its nature wo do not know. earth a s he finds that the sphere. this number would be 10 or It can hardly be cioubtod that one it. Thus we boon of a clear. or that if it by arithmetical symbols.000 stadia. prehensive symbolism.Pappus that Apollonius proposed an improvement in the Greek method o writing numbers. in the second We judge from fragments book of &quot. assuming further. which Archimedes had in view in making this calcula object tion was the improvement of the Greek symbolism. but as large as the entire universe. medes to Gelon. would contain of grains of sancl less than 1000 myriads of tho (I3 eighth octad. and that the latter be less than 1. even further. Archimedes finds a number which would exceed the number He goes on of grains of sancl in the sphere of the universe. was reserved by tho irony of fate for a namdcBB Indian of an unknown time. It is not known whether he invented some short notation by which to number 1 with 63 ciphers after represent the above number or not.66 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.000. com The honour of giving suoli to the world.000 grains solid of the of sand suffice to make a little of a poppy-seed be magnitude of a poppy-seed. know not whom to thank see that the Greeks never possessed tho for an invention of such importance to the general progress of 6 intelligence. Supposing the universe to reach out to the fixed stars.000 diameters of the earth. can be counted. that the diameter of the universe (supposed to extend to the sun) be less than 10. He is. of negative remarked. state that &quot. suggestions of equations. that satisfy only one or two of the conditions.roblem. This is applied to the multi It must be plication of differences. Diophantus used but few sym bols. 2 2 a2 2 ab 6 . algebraic notation. that Diophantus had no notion whatever numbers standing by themselves. as far as we know. which with Euclid appear in the ele 6) = + + vated rank of geometric theorems. most commonly. such as (2 x 10). and sometimes ignored even these by describing an oper ation in words when the symbol would have answered just sign for subtraction quantities he i. He appears to be the first x(x (a + who could perform such operations as (x 1) Such identities as 2) without reference to geometry. such as (x l)(x 2). and is 75 of the solution of then his Arithmetica extant. in which 2 x could not be smaller than 10 without leading to an absurdity. as well. the earliest treatise on is algebra now In this work introduced the idea of an algebraic equation expressed in algebraic symbols. by the method of tentative assumption. ?. These values lead to expressions palpably wrong. .&quot. but which generally suggest some stratagem by which can be secured satisfying all the conditions of the r^lues &amp. are with Diophantus the simplest consequences of the algebraic laws of operation. His was ^/. the first to a negative number multiplied by a negative num ber gives a positive number.THE GREEKS. managed with only one symbol In the solution of simultaneous equations Diophantus adroitly for the unknown quantities and arrived at answers. for equality For unknown had only one symbol. All he knew were differences. which consists in assigning to some of the unknown quantities preliminary values. His treatment is purely analytical and completely divorced from geometrical methods. He had no sign for addition except juxtaposition.

2 The extraordinary ability of Diophantus lies rather in another direction.76 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. even when both roots are positive. occur only under specially favourable B% + C = 2 ?/ .&quot. rather surprises us. he solves is not general. The remaining. for he nowhere goes through with the whole process of solution. which may arise in these equations. ever. in his wonderful ingenuity to re duce all sorts of equations to particular forms which ho Jiow to solve. &quot. that this It same inability to perceive must be remembered. The opinion of Nesselmann on the method of Diophantus.books extant treat mainly of indeterminate quadratic equations of the form J. is that he never accepts as an answer a quantity which is negative or irrational. Thus. (2) Eor the double equation of the second degree he has a definite rule only when the quadratic term is wanting in both expressions : even then his solution Thus. B$s + d = y*.&2 +JS& 4-0=?/2 or of two simultaneous equations of the same form.&quot. how more than one out of the several solutions to which a problem may point is common Another point to be observed to all Greek mathematicians. Diophantus also solved determinate equations of the second degree. Very great is knoW The the variety of problems considered! 130 problems found in the great work of Diophantus COB/- . . He considers several but not all the possible . but merely states 84 x2 + 7 x = 7. More com plicated expressions circumstances. as stated by Gow. : Ax*-\- (7= f and Ax2 +Bx+ (7= 2 . cases (1) Indeterminate equations of the second degree are treated completely only when the quadratic or the absolute term is wanting: his solution of the equations is as follows &quot. We are ignorant of Ms method. His failure to observe that a quadratic equatioti has two roots.?/ is in many respects cramped. namely. whence x is found = the result. Notice he gives only one root. Diophantus devotes only the first book of his Arithmetica to the solution of determinate equations.

But in mathematics he did not even rise to the desire for imitation. It is still an open question and one of great difficulty whether Diophantus derived portions of his algebra from Hindoo sources or not. though may admit is of an indefinite number of values. La Grange. but that of the Eoman of sterility. which. In him a science . to solve the 101st. Another great defect the absence of general methods. But multifarious than the problems are the solutions. after studying 100 Diophantine solutions. In philosophy.&quot.It therefore. still more its General methods are unknown to Diophantus.THE ROMANS* 77 tain over 50 different classes of problems. for a modern. poetry. The mathematical fruits of Greek which had genius lay before him untasted. 7 &quot. Nowhere is the contrast . Gauss. is Each problem has difficult own distinct method.between the Greek and Eoman mind shown forth more distinctly than in their attitude toward the mathematical science. closely related problems. are strung together without any attempt at classification. That which robs his work of much his equation of its scientific value is the fact that he always feels satisfied with one solution. The sway of the Greek was a a flowering time for mathematics. Mod ern mathematicians. which often useless for the most is. In spite of these defects we cannot fail to admire the work for the wonderful ingenuity exhibited therein in the solution of particular equations. THE BOMANS. such as Euler. and art the Eoman period was an imitator. had to begin the study of indeterminate analysis anew and received no direct aid from Diophantus in the formulation of methods.

but even the Elements of Euclid. came from is doubt. not only the higher geometry of Archimedes and Apollonius. but subtracted from. it more ancient a matter of originated Exactly where and how seems most probable that the Roman notation. that of the greater. of which the a^ year. for he had erected. fingers indicated 305 (355?). a statue of the double-faced Janus. the principle of subtraction. says Pliny. the Romans cm ploy od fingers. was a notation resembling the Roman notation. by driving yearly a nail into the sanctuary of Minerva. at the earliest period to which our knowledge of them extends. but from sources. a consequence. the number of days in Many other passages from Roman authors point out the use of the fingers as aids to calculation. What little mathematics the Romans pos sessed did not come from the Greeks. the old Etruscans. &quot. In the designation of large numbers a horizontal bar placed over a letter was made to increase its value one thousand fold. who. presumably of Etruscan origin. as well as the practical geometry of the Romans.&quot. and that the Romans continued this practice. were en tirely neglected. not to be added to. In fractions the Romans used the duodecimal system. a fingersymbolism of practically the same form was in use not only in . no As direct bearing on practical life could awake no interest. A less primitive mode of designating numbers. It &quot.&quot. Of arithmetical different kinds : calculations.78 A HISTOJEtY OF MATHEMATICS. In fact. three Reckoning on the upon the abacus. 8 Finger-symbolism was known as early as the time of King Nuina. and by tables prepared for the purpose. inhabited the district between the Arno and Livy Tiber. its value is . This system is noteworthy from present the fact that a principle is involved in it which is not met letter with in any other namely. tells us that the Etruscans were in the habit of repre senting the number of years elapsed. If a be placed before another of greater value.

: Especially unique is the following A dying man wills that. covered with mode dust and then divided into columns by drawing straight lines. of son shall receive f and she but if a daughter is born. 79 Bonie. from which the desired arithmetician. Payments of interest and problems in interest were very old among the Bomans. a rtiterftrr finding the correct date for Easter. a boy and a girl. was a subject of elemen instruction in Borne.THE KOMANS. His tables contain a peculiar notation for fractions. Victorius is best known for his canon pascJialis. if his wife. the arithmetical tables mentioned above were used. being with -j- child. Doubtless at this point recourse was made tiplication table. To products could be copied at once. Tables of this kind were prepared by Victorius of Aquitania. either method. which continued in use through out the Middle Ages. But the multiplication of large numbers must. by have been beyond the power of the ordinary obviate this difficulty. Each column was supplied with pebbles (calculi. . but also in Greece and throughout the East. Passages in Eoman writers indicate tary that the kind of abacus most commonlyuseiTwas&quot.D. which he published in 457 A. possess no knowledge as to where or when it was invented. certainly as early as the beginning of the Christian era. by the abacus. gives birth to a son. mental operations and to the mul Possibly finger-multiplication may also have to been used. The second We of calculation. the his estates . Addi tions and subtractions could be performed on the abacus quite 3 3 easily. she shall receive $ and It happens that twins are born. but in multiplication the abacus could be used only for adding the particular products^ and in division for performing the subtractions occurring in the process. and continued to be used in Europe during the Middle Ages. his wife -|. The Roman laws of inheritance gave rise to numerous arithmetical examples. whence calculare and calculate ) which served for calculation.

will be disap The only geometry known was a practical geometry. but of any quadrilaterals whatever.&quot. We next consider Eoman geometry. Treatises thereon have come down to us. -|-| a 2 for the area of equilateral triangles (a being one of the sides) But the latter area was also calculated . laid circumferences. { Among the latter is that &quot. the wife two. the first of which was unknown to Heron. One would naturally But no they are left to be abstracted by the reader from a mass of numerical exam &quot. pointed. This practical geometry was employed in surveying. but others are identical with those of Heron. expect rules to be clearly formulated. were thousands of years older than Greek geometry.The total impression is as though the Eoman gromatic ples. He who expects to find in Koine a science of geometry. Indeed.. which. Some of their rules were probably inherited from the Etruscans. Salvianus Julianus. not only of rec tangles. |a was derived from the Egyptian formula ii-r. 2 tion of the surface of a quadrilateral. by the formulas 2 -J-(a +a) and 2 -|a . son receives four. theorems. i2t for the determina- This Egyptian formula was used by the Romans for finding the area. the gromatici considered it eveii sufficiently accurate to determine the areas of cities. called agrimensores or gromatici. the daughter one. axioms. and as . like the old Egyptian. . with definitions. simply by measuring their Whatever Egyptian geometry the Romans possessed was transplanted across th Mediterranean at the . 2 Probably the expression. and proofs arranged in logical order.80 A celebrated HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. consisted only of empirical rules. How The shall the estates be divided so as to satisfy the will? Eoman jurist. compiled by the Roman sur veyors. of which the. though a deluge were lying between the two. decided that the estates shall be divided into seven equal p&its. for finding the area of a triangle from its sides and the approx imate formula. 7 out irregularly.

drew from Egyptian learning. Elements. Gaul. he was a great favourite of King being charged by envious courtiers with first At he was imprisoned. the Western E/oman Empire was fast who ordered a survey of the whole an equitable mode of taxation. and the Visigothic falling to pieces.the twelfth century.reformed Hh e calendar. He secured the services of the Alexan drian astronomer. and. which is essentially a transla tion of the arithmetic of ISTicomachus. and broke off from the decaying trunk. the Western Empire passed away. but later. Theodoric. are of absorbing interest. and a Geometry in several books. While in prison he wrote On the Consolations of Philosophy. s The first an extract from Euclid tains. Sosigenes. without proofs. Italy was conquered by the Ostrogoths under Theodoric. the theorems in the first this omission of proofs be accounted for ? three books. but of Greek authors. from the fact that. These compilations are very deficient. Ceesar also Three great branches Spain. time of Julius Ccesar. in addition to definitions. which con postulates. As a mathematician. treason. and at last decapitated. 81 empire iso secure . Boethius was a Brobdingnagian among Eoman He scholars. and axioms. How can It has been argued by some that Boethius possessed an incomplete Greek copy of . the province of Africa In 476. Some of the most beautiful results of Mcobook machus are omitted on geometry is in Boethius arithmetic. became king. . for that purpose. It is remarkable that this very period of political humiliation should be the one during which Greek science was studied in Italy most zeal School-books began to be compiled from the elements ously.THE KOMANS. chief. Odoacer. wrote an In stitutis Arithmetica. In the fifth century. Soon after. Eoremost among these writers is BoetMus (died 524). they were the only sources of mathematical knowledge in the Occident. down to . but a Liliputian by the side of Greek masters.

where the Pythagoreans used them have given rise to that Pythagoras was in secretly. teaches. from numerical examples. The second book. The names of these numerals are pure Arabic. or possibly the ninth. by others. A is a forgery that it is not older than the tenth. that the apices were known to the Greeks. or that numeral It is signs of any sort were used by them with the abacus. celebrated portion in the geometry of Boethius is that pertaining to an abacus. Some contended India. numerals. that the Indian signs. the Elements. or nearly so. second theory is that the Geometry attributed to Boethius . moreover. considerable improvement on the old abacus is Pebbles are discarded. by a later hand. A A there introduced. Upon each of these apices is drawn a numeral giving it some value below 10. it is This hypothesis has been generally abandoned. century. are so old as the time of Pythagoras. These facts an endless controversy. The mentioned by Boethius in the text. and that the apices are derived from the Arabs. But . for not certain that Pythagoras or any disciple of his ever was in India.Arabic&quot. that he had Theon s edition before him. nor is there any evidence in any Greek author. improbable. and believed that only the theorems came from Euclid. the mensuration of plane figures after the fashion of the agriniensores. while the proofs were supplied by Theon.82 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. apparently. which are admittedly of Indian origin. This theory is based on contradictions between pas sages in the AritJimetica and others in the Geometry. These figures are obviously the is not parents of our modern &quot. as also other books on geometry attributed to Boethius. These numerals bear striking resemblance to the Gubar-numerals of the WestArabs. from which the apices are derived. and apices (probably small cones) are used. but are added. which he attributes to the Pythago reans. and from there brought the nine numerals to Greece.

. there is 83 570) in are an Encyclopaedia written by Gassiodorius (died about which both the arithmetic and geometry of Boethius mentioned. is that the Alexandrians either {L third theory (Woepcke s) directly or indirectly obtained the nine numerals from the Hindoos.THE ROMANS. and gave them to the Romans on the one hand. There appears to be no good reason for doubt ing the trustworthiness of this passage in the Encyclopaedia. / This explanation is the most plausible. and to the Western Arabs on the other. .D. about the second century A.

sake. and of clothing them in 84 obscure and mystic language. for in Greece for its it attained an independent existence. while own and was studied Hindoo mathematics always remained Furthermore. it was in the hands chiefly of the priests. and the IZshatriyas. Of the development of Hindoo mathematics we know but little. THE HINDOOS. Indian society was fixed into castes. free to be cultivated by all who had a liking for it . and had its seat in far-off India. Unlike the Greek. however. It would seem that Greek mathematics grew up under more favourable conditions than the Hindoo. pean. THE first people who distinguished themselves in mathe matical research. in India. A few manuscripts bear testimony that the Indians to a lofty height. not a Euro like them. to the Aryan race. after the time of the ancient Greeks. the Indians were in the habit of putting into verse all mathematical results they obtained. but their had climbed path of ascent is no longer traceable. belonged. The only castes enjoying the privilege and leisure for advanced study and thinking were the Brahmins. whose prime business was religion and philosophy. mathematics was a science of the people.MIDDLE AGES. Again. in Greece merely a servant to astronomy. It was. who attended to war and government. . as in Egypt. but an Asiatic nation.

yet they were not in the habit of preserving the proofs. the Indian was first of all arithmetical The Hindoo dealt with Numerical symbolism. the other hand. certain philosophic Teo-Platomsts. An tion the tracing of the rela between Hindoo and Greek mathematics. we believe that thei^e was little or no geom etry in India of Greece. Very different in these respects Obscurity of language was generally and proofs belonged to ihe stock of knowledge avoided. though &quot. was often unintelligible to the uninitiated. Gnostics. the Greek with form. After Egypt had become a l Eoman it province.well adapted to aid the memory of him who already understood the subject. that with the traffic of merchan dise there should also be an That interchange of ideas. difference in the bent of mind while the Greek science of numbers. a more lively commercial intercourse sprang up between Rome and India. Although the great Hindoo mathematicians doubtless reasoned out most or all of their discoveries. 85 which. by way of Alexandria. BuT it rested on arithmetic more than on interesting but difficult task is geometry. quite as much as/fthe theorems themselves. communications of thought from the Hindoos to the Alexan drians actually did take place. as which the source may not be traced back to Hindoo trigonometry might possibly be mentioned an exception. so that the naked theorems and processes of operation are all that have come down to our time. is evident from the fact that . does not seem improbable. were the Greeks. show unmistakable likeness to . It is well known that more or less trade was carried on be veen Greece and India from early times. and theologic teachings of the Manicheans.THE HINDOOS. . the number. Very striking was the of the Hindoo and Greek for. A priori. and algebra attained in India far greater On perfection than they had previously reached in Greece. mind was pre-eminently geometrical.

for our data are not sufficient to trace the We Of the great Indian history of the development of methods. Most of the geo omy metrical knowledge which they possessed is traceable to Alexandria.86 Indian tenets.The Revised Sys of Brahma&quot. to India. born 476 A.. The earliest knowledge of algebra in India may possibly have been of Babylonian origin.. and to the writings of Heron in particular. to collect facts. We shall consider the science only in its complete state. In tem 628 he wrote his Brahma-sphutOrSiddhanta (&quot. In algebra there was. of which the twelfth and eighteenth chapters belong to mathematics. This We suspect that Diophantus got the first glimpses of algebraic knowledge from India. His celebrity rests the third chapter on a work entitled mathematics in India reached the highest mark. astronomers. To the fourth or fifth century belongs . at Pataliputra. Scientific facts is passed also from Alexandria shown plainly by the Greek origin of some Hindoo astron of the technical terms used by the Hindoos. mathematicians proper. of which is devoted to mathematics.r&amp. At that time flourished Brahraagupta (born 598). for India had no mathematicians. On the other hand. a mutual giving and receiving. while in their pet science of astronomy they displayed an inaptitude to observe. ones in which they shall now proceed to enumerate the names of the leading Hindoo mathematicians. About one hundred years later. or rather. evidences have been found of Greek algebra among the Brahmins. there appears deep irony in the fact that these secondary branches were after all the only won real distinction. was influenced by Greek astronomy. Aryabhatta is the earliest.). A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He was on the upper Ganges. and to make inductive investigations. probably. and then to review briefly Indian mathematics. tists When we consider that Hindoo scien looked upon arithmetic and algebra merely as tools useful in astronomical research.

and annotated by W. London. of all mathematical inventions. The . Whitney. lated Colebrooke. in the From now Brahmin schools seemed to Hindoos content themselves with on. the studying the masterpieces of their predecessors. science seems to have made but little progress at this time of an entitled Siddhantaciromani (&quot. the author of an 3 algebra.. That the invention of this notation was . New Haven. be called the &quot. The two most important mathematical ( chapters in this work are the Lilavati the noble science) and Viga-ganita (= = &quot. de voted to arithmetic and algebra. who wrote a Ganita-sam (&quot. r The grandest achievement of the Hindoos and the one which. called from the Sun&quot. i. 1817. but it should speak &quot. for a work 1150.THE HINDOOS.Diadem Astronomical System written by Bhaskara Acarya in &quot. The following centuries produced only two names of impor tance. The Surya-siddhanta was trans by E. for the Arabs borrowed it \rom the Hindoos. but of in merely as furnishing evidence that Greek science influenced Indian science even before the time of Aryabhatta. Generally we of our notation as the Arabic notation. written over 500 years earlier.Knowledge 87 Surya-siddhanta authorities is astronomical work. has contributed most to the general progress of intelligence. namely.Hindoo&quot.e.). Scientific intelligence decreases continually. 1860. &quot.the beautiful. and in modern times a very deficient Arabic work of the sixteenth century has been held in great authority/ The mathematical chapters of the BraJima-siddhanta and Siddhantaciromani were translated into English by H. T.Quintes sence of Calculation ). which by native was ranked second only terest to us to -the Brahma-siddJianta. an anonymous (&quot. Burgess. Conn.&quot. notation.root-extraction&quot. is the invention of the principle of position in writing numbers. D. &quot. stands little higher than that of Brahmagupta.). and Padmanabha.). Cridhara. it. These 20 characters enabled them to write all the numbers up Thus. in the second chapter. and also one for 1000. We inquire. 1000. of other nations. while it made progress on the continent. to have been introduced earliest. like the old Hindoo numerals. they were probably known to Aryabhatta. It seems highly probable. of India. . he gives directions for extracting the square and cube roots. 7. From the evolution of ideas in general we may safely infer that our notation did not spring into existence a completely armed Minerva from the head of The nine figures for writing the units are supposed Jupiter. not even the keen-minded Greeks possessed one. 8725 would have been written with six signs. then. and there only. for. -who invented this ideal symbolism. 8. nine others for the tens. imperfect numerals In Ceylon. but without the zero has been pre served. may be inferred from the fact that. and the sign of zero and the principle of position to be of later origin. 100. representing the following numbers These Singhalesian signs. We know that Buddhism and Indian culture were transplanted to Ceylon about the third century after Christ. Although the and the principle of position were unknown to the scholars of Ceylon. which seem to indicate a knowledge of them. and when? But we know neither the inventor nor the time of invention. That our system of notation is of Indian origin is the only point of which we are certain. not so easy as we might suppose at first thought.88 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. to 9999. are supposed originally to have been the initial letters of the corre : sponding numeral adjectives. nine figures were used for the units. This view receives support from the fact that on the island of Ceylon a notation resembling the Hindoo. that the numerals of Ceylon are the old. one for 100. and that this culture remained stationary there. 5. There is a marked resemblance between the notation of Ceylon and the one used by Aryabhatta in the zero first chapter of his work.

Buddha found the would form a line one mile in length.THE HINDOOS. after having astonished his examiners by naming all the periods of numbers up to the 53d. Thus. Creator. but merely in the forms of the signs employed. etc. not in principle. Brahma. or form. an examination to which Buddha. 7 primary atoms make a very required answer in this way minute grain of dust. At an early period the Hindoos exhibited great skill in even with large numbers. when placed one against the other. The se are the inventions which give the Hindoo system its its admirable perfection. The following example. which differed. they tell us of calculating. the words Feda. a number in several different made it possible to represent ways. to have been several notations There appear in use in different parts of India. The number 1. 7 of these make a minute grain of dust. taken from the Suryaor ocean. divided into four parts) for 4. Thus. (because it is follows: Vasu (a class of 8 expressed from right to left as two -f mountains (the 7 mountain-chains) eight gods) 9 digits) + seven + mountains + lunar form digits + + + + (the The use of such notations days (half of which equal 15). It 89 would appear that the zero and the accompanying principle of position were introduced about the time of Aryabhatta. In arithmetic. illustrates the idea.577. had to submit. This greatly facilitated the framing of verses con which could taining arithmetical rules or scientific constants. he was asked whether he could determine the number of primary atoms which. : . great superiority. but by generally were not expressed by the particular numbers in question.828 is siddJianta.917. Of interest is also a symbolical system of position^ in which the figures numerical adjectives. thus be more easily remembered. maiden he loved. the reformer of the Indian when a youth. in order to win the religion. objects suggesting for 1 were used the words moon.

90 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. by erasing. was made much After the numerical symbolism had been perfected. In Thus in 821 348 they subtraction they had two methods. as in writing. figuring easier. 5-9 = 45. The product is 2845. which was written above the multiplicand. . Thus he proceeded. But the Indians wrote &quot. as the process continued.3 = 7. 4 from 11 = 7. 5-6 = 30. 7 of tJiese a grain of dust whirled up by the wind. step by step. Hence the sum 917. would not be likely to fall in love with this Hindoo method. the product was not placed in a new row. they would have added 254 and 663 thus 2 + 6 = 8. until finally the whole product was obtained. : first. hence the 4. On multiplying with the next digit of the multiplier. Many of the Indian modes of The Hindoos were generally operation differ from ours. they added the left-hand columns necessary corrections as they proceeded. 5 + 6 = 11. 3 from 7 = 4. but the first product obtained was corrected. 5-5 = 25. they generally said. which must be increased by changes 25 into 28. in the just indicated. 8 from 11 = 3. they first multiplied. whenever necessary. In multiplication of a number by another of only one digit. 5 from 12 = 7. In the multiplication with each manner other of many-figured numbers. inclined to follow the motion from left to right. would say. The multiplication of all the factors gave for the multitude of primary atoms in a mile a number con sisting of 15 digits. as with us. 8 from 11*= 3. say 569 by 5. the old digits. Thus. which changes 8 into 9. with a cane-pen upon a small blackboard with a white. and replacing them by new ones. until he finally reached the length of a mile. and so on. and made the 3?or instance. 4 4. 4 from 8=4. Or they would say. 7 This problem reminds one of the Sand- Counter of Archimedes. and placed the product above the multiplier. with the left-hand digit of the multi plier. who possess Wo the modern luxuries of pencil and paper.

but not x= 5 for the roots of x2 is . or green unknown. says he. For instance. The rest were by distinct distinguished by names of colours. before the quantity. . constituted the symbol for the respective unknown quantity.45 x = 250. we shall first take up the symbols Addition was indicated simply by juxtaposition as in Diophantine algebra subtraction. was not foreign to them. from the word Tcarana (irrational). now bha. Passing 93 to algebra. . to each a . that the Hindoos never confined their arithmetical operations to rational numbers. (from Tea 15 Tea 103 Ted &quot. the abbreviation of the word bhavita. meant yj yd &quot. admitted. by writing Tea. The initial syllable of each word red. blue. . &quot. for it is inadequate people do not approve of negative roots.. The first unknown was designated the general term &quot.the product&quot.&quot. was this. as an + and quantities. &quot.unknown quantity. he gave. Jed Thus &quot. division. by putting after the factors of operation. x times y . Vl5 The Indians were the first to recognise the existence of absolutely negative quantities. yellow. Thus Bhaskara gives x = 50 and &quot.THE HINDOOS. as the black. Another important generalisation. .&quot. name and symbol. Bhaskara showed how. They advanced beyond Diophantus in observing that a quad ratic has always two roots. bha.kdla ka^ black) VlO. by placing a dot over the subtrahend multiplication. me^nt x.&quot. yd.&quot.the second value . &quot. in this case not to be taken. says Hankel. by placing the divisor beneath the dividend squareroot. The unknown quantity was called by BrahmaWhen several unknown gupta ydvattdvat (quantum tantum) quantities occurred. unlike Diophantus. Com mentators speak of this as if negative roots were seen.But. They brought out the differ ence between positive and negative quantities by attaching to the one the idea of possession/ to the other that of debts/ The conception interpretation of also of opposite directions on a line.

. yet in other places he jifakes a complete failure in figuring with fractions of zero denominator. mathematics. . The Hindoos never discerned the dividing line between numbers and magnitudes. evinces clear mathematical notions.94 . though much be added or subtracted. They passed from mag nitudes to numbers and from numbers to magnitudes without anticipating that gap exists which to a sharply discriminating between the continuous and discontinuous. /a - Va (--y the square root of the sum of rational and irrational numbers could be found. Though in this he apparently taEes&quot. In figuring with zeros. up or brought forth. no change place &quot.. a state ment nator of Bhaskara is zero. In the Hindoo solutions of determinate equations. mind Yet by doing so the Indians greatly aided the general progress of.motile Infinite and immutable Deity when worlds are destroyed or created. admits^of. though the product of a scientific spirit. is interesting. in the same way. . whether rational or irrational numbers or space- magnitudes. set up by the Greeks.) = a + 2 ab + 5 2 2 and (a + &)*= ^ + 3 a 6 + 3 ab + W. A fraction whose denomi says Let us now examine more closely the Indian algebra. i by the formula T V a + V5 ==^--1-. then the learned Brahmins of Hindostan are the real inventors of 7 algebra. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. the principle of position and the zero in the numeral notation were already known to him. - 2 c& -2&amp. . if one understands by algebra the & even though numerous orders of beings be taken.^. greatly re tarded the progress of mathematics.. Cantor .&quot. which. Indeed. application of arithmetical operations to complex magnitudes of all sorts. s 2 In this connection Aryabhatta speaks of dividing a number From this we infer that into periods of two and three digits.. In extracting the square and cube roots they used the formulas (a + 2 Z&amp. Indeed. alteration.

Bhaskara advances far beyond the Greeks and even beyond Brahmagupta when he says that &quot. Even if it be true that the Indians borrowed from the Greeks. 95 thinks he can see traces of Diophantine methods. Some technical terms betray their Greek origin. . but simply rational answers. Incomparably greater progress than in the solution of deter minate equations was made by the Hindoos in the treatment of indeterminate equations.&quot. Of equa of higher degrees. it is There not a is no square root of a negative tions number. 6. invented general methods in this most subtle branch having of mathematics belongs to the Indians. and that his ingenuity was almost inexhaustible in subject to But the glory of devising solutions for particular cases. that the square root of a positive number is positive twofold. Indeterminate analysis was a which the Hindoo mind showed a happy adaptation. Diophantus was content with a single solution the Hindoos possible integral solutions. We have seen that this very subject was a favourite with Diophantus. the Indians succeeded in solving some special cases in which both sides of the equation only could be made perfect powers by the addition of certain terms to each. no proof. as also of a negative number. The object of the former was to find all Greek analysis. positive. they deserve great credit for improving and generalising the solutions of linear and quadratic equations. on the other hand. as for most other rules. where a.the is square of a positive. c are* integers. Their solution or this. for square. and negative. The rule employed is called the pulveriser. from the Greek not only in method. endeavoured to find all solutions possible.THE HINDOOS. The Hindoo indeter minate analysis differs but also in aim. the Indians give is essentially the same as the one of . Aryabhatta gives solutions in integers to linear equations of the form ax by=c. demanded not necessarily integral.

96 Euler A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. solution of t/ = ay? + b give a solution of y* ace It = 1 + amounts to the following theorem If p and q be one set of values of x and y in y 2 = ax2 + b and p and q the same or : 1 another in 2 2/ 2 set. for instance. but did not even aim at solutions These equations probably grew out of prob lems in astronomy. on the ground that Diophantus not only never knew the method. Remarkable tion cy 2 2 is = ace + the Hindoo solution of the quadratic equa b. = + given or found. consists. 2 2 taking b at pleasure. It &quot. ~ process of reducing . in a rule for an indefinite number of solutions of y2 ay? 1 (a be finding ing an integer which is not a square). &quot.&quot. They were applied. In the solution of xy the method re-invented later by Euler. They solved it by the problem = + says De Morgan. + pq and app* it is + qq are values of a? and y be made to give any number. s a continued fraction- amounts to the same as the Hindoo process of finding the This is fre greatest common divisor of a and b by division. we come to indeterminate quadratic ax c. to determine the time when a certain constellation of the planets purely integral. of decomposing (ab c) n and of placing a. 2 then qp 2 . they applied equations. by means of one solution cyclic method. Passing by the subject of linear equations with more than two unknown quantities. Hankel protests called the Diophantine method. With great keenness of intellect they 2 l a fundamental a&2 recognised in the special case 2/ in indeterminate = + + m - + =m+ and y = n + a. and that if. t/ == aa? + b can be solved so that x and y are divisible by b. then one preliminary solution of y* ax* + 1 = ace + 6 = ay? + 1 may 2/ JYom this obvious that one solution of = . 7 would occur in the heavens. and of feeling for one solution by making a 2 2 W. b into the product of two integers &quot. quently against this name.

and Greece in the West.THE ARABS. the most distinguished Saracen ruler. and during afterwards to pass it over to the Europeans. the Euphrates. still more so was the ease with which they put aside their former nomadic life. The Arabs were destined Greek and Indian to be the custodians science. irre of nationality or religious belief. lay half-way between two old situated on centres of scientific thought. The capital. which the Hellenes and Hindoos delighted to wander namely. but they were quite incapable of Even the more elevated regions in discovering new fields. and more of a practical turn of mind. drew Indian In the year 772 there came to the physicians to Bagdad. Arabic was made the written language throughout the conquered With the rule of the Abbasides in the East began a lands. the Greek conic sections and the Indian indeterminate were seldom entered upon by the Arabs. These tables. and then back again of the torch of to the Aryan. to keep it ablaze the period of confusion and chaos in the Occident. 3ourt of Caliph ical tables Almansur a Hindoo astronomer with astronom which were ordered to be translated into Arabic. in Spain. known by the Arabs as the SindMnd. India in the East. The Mohammedans have added but little to the knowledge in mathematics which they received. analysis They were less of a speculative. They now and then explored a small region to which the path had been previously pointed out. Medicine and spective were their favourite sciences. 101 Astounding as was the grand march of conquest by the Arabs. Thus Haroun-alastronomy by Baschid. new period in the history of learning. Thus science passed from Aryan to Semitic races. and assumed the sovereignty over cultivated peoples. and . adopted a higher civilisation. The Abbasides the sciences at Bagdad encouraged the introduction of inviting able specialists to their court. Bagdad.

since in the sexagesimal arithmetic. In some cases. as also of the letters in India. and also by writers on arithmetic. were introduced among the Later. stood in great authority. numbers of generally only one or two places had to be written. may have been abbreviated in writing. 7 As regards the form of the so-called Arabic numerals. the Hindoo numerals. which quite early was adopted by merchants. Before the time of Mohammed the Arabs had no numerals. Here the alphabetic notation offered no great disadvantage.102 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. who spent many years in India. where the alphabetic notation continued to be used. Doubtless at this time. tlie statement of the Arabic writer Albiruni (died 1039). is of interest. with the zero and the principle of position. Gradually it became the practice to adjectives employ the 28 Arabic letters of the alphabet for numerals. and along with these astronomical tables. In some locali ties. numerals. the numeral retained. Numbers were written out in words. This notation was in turn superseded by the Hindoo notation. numerous computations connected with the financial administration over the conquered lands made a short symbolism indispensable. that it Its rival. probably taken from the Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta of Brahmagupta. They contained the important Hindoo table of sines. in analogy to the Greek system. the numerals of the more civilised conquered nations Thus in Syria. were used for a time. superiority was so universally recognised. The Diwanifound in an Arabic-Persian dictionary. taken from the Almagest. differed and that the Arabs selected from the various forms the most suitable. are supposed numeralSj to be such abbreviations. the Saracens. says there was An Arabian astronomer among people much difference in the use of . He says that tlie shape of tlie in different localities. the Coptic. the Greek notation was in Egypt. had no except in astronomy.

THE AEABS. This is rather a bold theory. especially of those for 5. after the notation in India . (5) that. of This strange similarity on the one hand. 103 symbols. from those in the East. the Indian numerals were brought to Alexan dria. the numerals in India underwent further changes. simply to be contrary to their political enemies of the East. the relations apices. the zero. whether true or not. had been already much modified and perfected by the invention of the zero. the East-Arabic. but. We find material differences between those used by the But most surprising is the fact that the symbols of both the East and of the West Arabs deviate so extraordinarily from the Hindoo Devanagari numerals (= divine numerals) of to-day. since the eighth century. is difficult to explain. 7. There . and Devana It has been gari numerals. the Arabs at Bagdad got it from the Hindoos (3) that . and dissimilarity on the other. and that they resemble much more the closely the apices Saracens in the East and those used in the West. 6. it between the explains better than any other yet propounded. and assumed 1 the greatly modified forms of the modern Devanagari-numer3 als. in mem ory of the Brahmin practice of reckoning on tablets strewn with dust or sand. (4) that the old forms were remembered by the West-Arabs to be of Indian origin. if for no other reason. and 8. The most plausible theory is the one of Woepcke: (1) that Eoman writer Boethius. brought to mentioned that in 772 the Indian SiddJianta was Bagdad and there translated into Arabic. the Arabs of the West borrowed the Columbus-egg. but retained the old forms of the nine numerals. and were hence called Ghtbar-nuwierdls ( = dust-numerals. about the second century after Christ. the Gubar. whence they spread to Eome and also to West Africa (2) that in the eighth century. The symbols used by the Arabs can be traced back to the tenth century. before the zero had been invented.

A large number of Greek manuscripts were secured by Caliph Al Mamun (813-883) from the emperor in Constantinople and were turned over to Syria. * A As this reyision still contained numerous errors. at the beginning of the tenth century. and scholars were called to Bagdad. The translations had to be revised again and again before they were satisfactory.104 is A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. schools at Antioch and Emesa. and as tronomical works of the Greeks could all be read in the Arabic works must have was evidently difficult to first. first of all. soil. But it remained for Tabit . the flourishing Erom Syria. written by Hypsicles. the more important philosophic. Celebrated were the cine. But we should be very slow to deny the probability that more extended communications actually did take place. mathematical. translations of mathematical as it The been very deficient at Arabic were Euclid and Ptolemasus. in successive waves. Greek physicians E&quot. To the thirteen books of the Elements were added the fourteenth. a new trans lation by the learned Honein ben Ishak. and. ex cepting the travels of Albiruni. until. medical. This was accomplished the reign of the famous Haroun-al-Easchid. Translations of works from the Greek began to be made.estorian school at Edessa. either was made. The successors of Al Mamun continued the work so auspic iously begun. The first Greek authors made to speak in tongue. Ishak ben Honein. secure translators who were masters of both the Greek and Arabic and at the same time proficient in mathematics. especially philosophy and medi were cultivated by Greek Christians. and the fifteenth by Damascius. Better informed are we regarding the science. or by his son. revised during translation of Euclid s Elements was ordered by Al Mamun. way in which Greek dashed upon and penetrated Arabic In Syria the sciences. no evidence that any intercourse existed between Arabic and Indian astronomers either before or after this time.

As in India. we need not marvel if. This whole Arabic intense love for astronomy and astrology continued during the scientific period. This led to more accurate determina tions of time. so here. we hardly ever find a man exclusively devoted to pure mathematics. to bring forth 105 Still greater difficulty an Arabic Euclid satisfying every was experienced in securing an intelligible translation of the Almagest. . great activity research existed as early as the ninth century. Heron. observatories erected. The religious observances demanded by Mohammedanism presented to as tronomers several practical problems. Having been little accustomed to abstract thought. during the ninth cen tury. ben Korra need. The Moslem dominions being of such enormous extent. Among other impor tant translations into Arabic were the works of Apollonius. on the other hand.THE ABABS. The prayers and ablutions had to take place at definite hours dur ing the day and night. the old Oriental supersti tion that extraordinary occurrences in the heavens in some mysterious way affect the progress of human affairs added of the moon. Thus we see that in the course of one century the Arabs gained access to the vast treasures of Greek science.Believer&quot. all their energy was exhausted merely in appropriating No attempts were made at original the foreign material. Archimedes. must turn during prayer that he may be facing Mecca. it remained in some localities for the astronomer to determine which way the &quot. feasts it To fix the exact date for the Mohammedan became necessary to observe more closely the motions In addition to all this. and a connected series of observations instituted. Astro nomical tables and instruments were perfected. and Diophantus. Most of the so-called mathematicians were first of all astronomers. work in mathematics until the next century. For these reasons considerable progress was made. in original In astronomy. 7 increased interest to the prediction of eclipses.

modern word algorithm. The first notable author of mathematical books was Moham med ben Musa Hovarezmi.&quot.Hindoo proof. Diopliantus used a by method almost identical with this. which dif fered from the earlier ones chiefly in the greater variety of methods. Important to us is his work on algebra and arithmetic. has passed into Algoritmi.106 A HISTORY Otf MATHEMATICS. being based on the principle of position and the Hindoo method of calculation. ing extracts from the SindMnd.all others in 7 The arithmetic of Hovarezmi. was corrected some process like the &quot. This book was followed by a large number of arithmetics by later authors. which was sometimes called the &quot. brevity and easiness. and in measuring a degree of the earth s meridian. if wrong. two values for x . and exhibits the Hindoo intellect and sagacity in the grandest inventions.&quot. Hovarezmi. .&quot. The regula falsa or falsa positio was the assigning of an assumed value to the unknown quantity. Both these methods were known to the Indians. by which algebraical examples could be solved without algebra. &quot. &quot. which value. modelled after the Indian processes. The portion on arith metic-is not extant in the original. signifying the art of computing in any particular way. Let us give deserved praise to God. Arabian arithmetics generally contained the four operations with integers and fractions.&quot. from which comes our &quot. They explained the operation of casting out the 9 s. The regula duorum falsorum was as follows 7 To solve an equation. /(a?) = F.excels/ says an Arabic writer. who lived during the reign of Caliph He was engaged by the caliph in mak Al Mamun (814-833) . They contained also the regula falsa and the regula duorum falsorum.rule of three. and it was not till 1857 that a Latin translation of it was found. namely. our leader and defender. : for the moment. It begins thus: Spoken has Algoritmi. in taking observations at Bagdad and Damascus. x =a and $ = 6. in revising the tablets of Ptolemaeus. assume. Here the name of the author.

an able geometer. was a close student of Archimedes and Apollonius.. p The Arabs had already discovered the theorem that the sum of two cubes can never be a cube. He solved the problem. Abu Mohammed Al Hogendi of Chorassan thought he had proved this.. in theory of numbers and algebra was done by Fahri des Al Karhi.THE ARABS. He was the first Arabic author to give and prove the theorems on the summation of the series : 33 + . +n 3 Al Karhi also busied himself skill in with indeterminate analysis. As a subject for original research. the second astronomer at the observatory of the emir at Bagdad. His treatise on algebra is the greatest algebraic work of the Arabs. indeterminate He showed minds. handling the methods of Diophantus. to construct a segment of a sphere equal in volume to a given segment and having surface equal in area to that of another given seg a curved ment. who lived at the beginning of the eleventh century. but whatever to the stock of knowledge already added nothing on hand. Abul Gud. solved the by the intersection of a parabola with an equilateral problem hyperbola. and Al Biruni made a study of the trisection of angles. He was the first to operate with higher roots and to solve equa tions of the form x2n + axn = b. but we are Creditable work told that the demonstration was defective. For the solution of quadratic equations he gives both arithmetical and geometric proofs. Al Ill KuM. In it he appears as a disciple of Diophantus. analysis . Al Sagani. He. was too subtle for even the most gifted of Arabian Bather surprising is the fact that Al Karhi s algebra shows no traces whatever of Hindoo indeterminate analysis.

about 1079 A. find is Hindoo numerals certainly a puzzle. Attempts at bi-quadratic equations . required the construction of the side from the equation a8 cc2 2 x 1 0. and each class into families and species. Al Kuhi. Each species is treated separately but according to a general plan.D. nor bi-quadratics by geom etry.and quaclrinomial. to determine the side of a regular hepta gon. the other Indian. con structed wholly after Greek pattern. was Omar al Hayyami of Chorassan. This practice is the very The question. and others. in the second half of the tenth century. The Arabs were familiar with geometric solutions of ing the section of a sphere by a plane so that the two seg ments shall be in a prescribed ratio. wrote an arithmetic in which no place. why the Hindoo numerals were ignored by so eminent authors. They were led to such solutions by the study of questions like the Archimedean problem. It was attempted by many and at last difficult _ _ + = solved by Abul Cud. the trinomial. Al Hasan ben Al Haitam. opposite to that of other Arabian authors. of which one followed almost exclusively Greek mathematics. The one who did most to elevate to a method the solution of algebraic equations by intersecting conies. demand ratic equations. Cantor suggests that at one time there may have been rival schools.112 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The first to state this problem in form of a cubic equation was Al Mahani of Bagdad. Abul Wefa also. it is. He divides cubics into two classes. 20 Another problem. all He rejected negative roots and often failed to discover the positive ones. quad Attempts were now made to solve cubic equations geometrically. while Abu Gafar Al Hazin was the first Arab to solve the Solutions were given also by equation by conic sections. He believed that cubics could not be solved by calculation. But most astonishing that an arithmetic by the same It is author completely excludes the Hindoo numerals.

The Arabs. Descartes and Thomas Baker invented these constructions anew. With Al Karhi and Omar Al Hayyami. The Arabs. It was not his aim to find the number corre sponding to x. then far superior to their own but the Arabs got no science from the Christians . they had to encounter the wild Mongolian hordes. in 1256. many of which the Arabs now rejected. crusaders were not the only adversaries of the During the first half of the thirteenth century. At the close of the fourteenth century another empire was formed by Timur .%%? 113 Wefa. In this themselves. the Arabic solutions of cubics remained unknown until quite recently. mathematics among the Arabs of the East reached flood-mark. of a cube double another cube of side a. come the crusades with ebb. but simply to determine the side a. show how the Arabs departed further and further -from the Indian methods. war and bloodshed. were made by Abul 4 =& land x + &amp. way they barred the road of progress against The Greeks had advanced to a point where . and placed themselves more immediately under Greek influ ences. and now it begins to Between 1100 and 1300 A. during which European Christians profited much by their contact with Arabian culture. on the other hand. caliphate at The Bagdad now ceased still to exist. had another object in view to find the roots of given : numerical equations. In the Occident. 20 who solved geometrically #4 =a The solution of cubic equations by intersecting conies was the greatest achievement of the Arabs in algebra. The foun dation to this work had been laid by the Greeks. were in return. conquered by them under the leadership of Hulagu. Al Abul Gud. material progress became difficult with their methods but the Hindoos furnished new ideas. and. for it was or Mensechmus who first constructed the roots of cc3 a = or 3 2a 3 = 0.D.THE ABABS. The works of Al Hayyami.

astronomy and mathematics in the Orient greatly excel these sciences in the Occident Thus far we have spoken only of the Arabs in the East. During these centuries.114 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in less than two generations. and a translation of Euclid Elements. which were under separate governments. or Tamerlane. He persuaded Htilagu to build him and his asso ciates a large observatory at Maraga. lived Nasir Eddin (1201-1274). Thus the . a grandson of Tamerlane. with which upon the wings of the wind they conquer half the world. they raise themselves from the lowest stages of cultivation to scientific all efforts. Ulug Beg group (1393-1449).&quot. there was less scientific intercourse among them than might be expected to exist between peoples having the same religion and written language. s geometry. written Eddin (1547about the same nearly 800 years before. were prepared by him. during intervals of peace. there generally existed consider able political animosity. arithmetic. &quot. the sciences were by no means neglected. During such sweeping turmoil.Wonderful is the expansive power of Oriental peoples. Treatises on algebra. it is not surprising that science declined. the author of an arithmetic. science continued to be cultivated in the. Bagdad and Cordova. but more wonderful the energy with which. Even at the court of Tamerlane in A Samarkand. During the supremacy of Hulagu. His Essence of Arithmetic stands 011 level as the work of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. Most prominent at this time was Al Kaschi. and of the enormous distance between the two great centres of learning. . In consequence of this. Between the Arabs of the East and of the West. Indeed. Thus.East for centuries. was himself an astronomer. it is a marvel that it existed at all. a man of broad culture and an able astronomer. several The last Oriental writer was Bella- 1622). of astronomers was drawn to this court. the Tartar.



course of science in Spain was quite independent of that in

While wending our way westward to Cordova, we must stop in Egypt long enough to observe that there, too,
scientific activity



was rekindled. ISTot Alexandria, but Cairo and observatory, was now the home of learn

scientists ranked Ben Junus (died a contemporary of Abul Wefa. He solved some difficult 1008), problems in spherical trigonometry. Another Egyptian astron

Foremost among her


omer was Ibn Al Haitam (died 1038), who wrote on geometric Travelling westward, we meet in Morocco Abul Hasan whose treatise on astronomical instruments discloses a All,
thorough knowledge of the Conies of Apollonius. Arriving finally in Spain at the capital, Cordova, we are struck by the
magnificent splendour of her architecture* At this renowned seat of learning, schools and libraries were founded during the tenth century.

known of the progress of mathematics The earliest name that has come down to us is Al
Little is

in Spain.


(died 1007), the author of a mystic paper on amicable num 5 His pupils founded schools at Cordova, Dania, and


But the only great astronomer among the Saracens


Gabir ben Aflah of Sevilla, frequently called Geber.


lived in the second half of the eleventh century.


formerly believed that he was the inventor of algebra, and that He ranks the word algebra came from Gabir or Geber.

among the most eminent astronomers

of this time, but, like so


of his contemporaries,


of mysticism.

His chief work

writings contain a great deal an astronomy in nine books, of

which the

In his treatment devoted to trigonometry. of spherical trigonometry, he exercises great independence of thought. He makes war against the time-honoured procedure
first is

adopted by Ptolemy of applying "the rule of six quantities," and gives a new way of his own, based on the rule of four


and QQi be two arcs of great be arcs of great PQ and drawn perpendicular to QQ^ then we have the propor




circles intersecting in

A, and






PQ = sin APi


iFrom this he derives the formulas for spherical right triangles. To the four fundamental formulas already given by Ptolemy,

he added a


discovered by himself.

If a,

b, c,

be the sides,

JB, 0, the angles of a spherical triangle, right-angled at cos b sin 0. This is frequently called Geber s then cos .4,.

and A,




Eadical and bold

as were


innovations in

spherical trigonometry, in plane trigonometry he followed Not even did he slavishly the old beaten path of the Greeks.

adopt the Indian sine and cosine/ but still used the Greek So painful was the departure chord of double the angle. After the time from old ideas, even to an independent Arab

of Gabir ben Aflah there was no mathematician among the Spanish Saracens of any reputation. In the year in which Columbus discovered America, the Moors lost their last foot hold on Spanish, soil.


the Arabs.

have witnessed a laudable intellectual activity among They had the good fortune to possess rulers

who, by their munificence, furthered scientific research. At the courts of the caliphs, scientists were supplied with libra

and observatories.




of astronomical and

mathematical works were written by Arabic authors. Yet we fail to find a single important principle in mathematics
brought forth by the Arabic mind. Whatever discoveries they made, were iix fields previously traversed by the Greeks
or the Indians, and consisted of objects which tho latter had overlooked in their rapid march. The Arabic mind did not

possess that penetrative insight and invention by which mathe maticians in Europe afterwards revolutionised the science.

The Arabs were


Their chief service learned, but not original. to science consists in this, that they adopted the learning of

Greece and India, and kept what they received with scrupu
lous care.


the love for science began to grow in the

Occident, they transmitted to the Europeans the valuable treasures of antiquity. Thus a Semitic race was, during the Dark Ages, the custodian of the Aryan intellectual possessions.



the third century after Christ begins an era of migra

tion of nations in Europe. The powerful G-oths quit their swamps and forests in the North and sweep onward in steady southwestern current, dislodging the Vandals, Sueves, and

Burgundians, crossing the


only when reaching

territory, and stopping and the shores of the Mediterranean.


the Ural Mountains wild hordes sweep

down on the
and the Dark


The Roman Empire

falls to pieces,

Ages begin. But dark though they seem, they are the germi nating season of the institutions and nations of modern Europe. The Teutonic element, partly pure, partly intermixed with the Celtic and Latin, produces that strong and luxuriant growth,


civilisation of Europe.



the various

nations of Europe

belong to the


As the Greeks

were the great thinkers both Aryan races of antiquity, so the nations north of the Alps became the great

and the Hindoos

intellectual leaders of



Introduction of





the North

these as yet barbaric nations of gradually came in possession of the intellectual






treasures of antiquity.

Witli the spread of Christianity the Latin language was introduced not only in ecclesiastical but

and all important worldly transactions. Nat the science of the Middle Ages was drawn largely from urally Latin sources. In fact, during the earlier of these ages Eoman authors were the only ones read in the Occident. Though
also in scientific

Greek was not wholly unknown, yet before the thirteenth century not a single Greek scientific work had been read or translated into Latin. Meagre indeed was the science which
could be gotten from

Eoman writers, and we must

wait several

centuries before any substantial progress



After the time of Boethins and Cassiodorius mathematical
activity in Italy died out.
tribes that



slender blossom of science

came from the North was an encyclopaedia among entitled Origines, written by Isidorus (died 636 as bishop of This work is modelled after the Eoman encyclopae Seville).
Part of
dias of Martianus Capella of Carthage and of Cassiodorius. it is devoted to the quadrivium, arithmetic, music,

geometry, and astronomy.


gives definitions

and grammat

ical explications of technical terms,

but does not describe the

of computation then, in vogue. After Isidorus there follows a century of darkness which is at last dissipated by the appearance of Bede the Venerable (672-785), the most learned man of his time. He was a native of Ireland, then




of learning in the Occident.

His works contain

treatises on the Computus, or the

computation of Easter-time,

and on finger-reckoning. It appears that a finger-symbolism was then widely used for calculation. The correct determina
tion of the time of Easter

was a problem which in those days greatly agitated the Church. It became desirable to have at

least one


at each

day of religious festivals

monastery who could determine the and could compute the calendar.

school at


and became distinguished for his profound scholarship. By King Otto I. and his successors Gerbert was held in highest esteem. He was elected bishop of Rheims, then of Ravenna, and finally was made Pope under
for ten years




He died

of Sylvester II. by his former pupil Emperor Otho in 1003, after a life intricately involved in many
ecclesiastical quarrels.


Such was the career of

the greatest mathematician of the tenth century in Europe. By his contemporaries his mathematical knowledge was con
sidered wonderful.

Many even


Mm of criminal inter

course with evil


Gerbert enlarged the stock of his knowledge by procuring Thus in Mantua he found the geometr^ copies of rare books.

Though this is of small scientific value, yet it of -great importance in history. It was at that time the only book from which European scholars could learn the ele
of Boethius.

ments of geometry.

Gerbert studied






generally believed himself to be the author of a geometry. H. Weissenborn denies his authorship, and claims that the book in question consists of three parts which cannot come,

This geometry contains from one and the same author. 21 more than the one of Boethius, but the fact that nothing
occasional errors in the latter are herein corrected shows that

the author had mastered the subject. "The first mathemat ical paper of the Middle Ages which deserves this name,"
a letter of Gerbert to Adalbold, bishop of says Hankel, in which is explained the reason why the area of a Utrecht,"

triangle, obtained




by taking the product


the base by half

from the area calculated to the formula ^a (a + 1), used "arithmetically," according by surveyors, where a stands for a side of an equilateral tri
its altitude, differs




gives the correct explanation that in the latter the small squares, in which the triangle is sup-



posed to be divided, are counted in wholly, even though parts


project beyond


Gerbert made a careful study of the arithmetical works of Rule of Com Boethius. He himself published two works, Small Book on the Division of on the Abacus, and putation



They give an insight into the methods of calcu

lation practised

Hindoo numerals.

Europe before the introduction of the Gerbert used the abacus, which was prob
Beraelinus, a pupil

it as





consisting of a

were accustomed to

smooth board upon which geome strew blue sand, and then to draw

For arithmetical purposes the board was divided into 30 columns, of which 3 were reserved for frac tions, while the remaining 27 were divided into groups with
their diagrams.

3 columns in each.

In every group the columns were marked

by the letters C (centum), I) (decem), and Bernelinus gives the nine S (singularis) or (monas). numerals used, which are the apices of Boethius, and then remarks that the Greek letters may bo used in their place. 8



the use of these columns any number can be written

without introducing a zero, and all operations in arithmetic can be performed in the same way as we execute ours without
the columns, but wiJx the symbol for zero.

Indeed, the

methods of adding, subtracting, and multiplying in vogue


the abacists agree substantially with those of to-day.

The early rules is very great difference. for division appear to have been framed to satisfy the following three conditions : (1) The use of tho multiplication table shall
in a division there

be restricted

as far

as possible;

at least, it shall

never be

required to multiply mentally a figure of two digits by another of one digit. (2) Subtractions shall be avoided as much as

and replaced by additions. (3) The operation shall 7 proceed in a purely mechanical way, without requiring trials.




strange to us

should be necessary to make such conditions seems but it must be remembered that the monks of

the Middle

Ages did not attend school during childhood and learn xfche multiplication table while the memory was fresh. Gerbert s rules for division are the oldest extant. They are so brief as to be very obscure to the uninitiated. They were intended simply to aid the memory by calling to probably mind the successive steps in the work. In later manuscripts they are stated more fully. In dividing any number by another of one digit say 668 by 6, the divisor was first increased to 10

by adding








exhibited in the adjoining figure. 8 must imagine the digits

which are crossed

out, to be erased

and then

replaced by the ones beneath. It is as follows 600 -*- 10 60, but, to rectify the error, 4 x 60, or 240, must be added 200 -*- 10 = 20, but 4 x 20,



or 80,

must be added.

We now

write for


+ 40 + 80,



= 10 =

and continue thus the correction necessary is 4 x 10,




which, added to 80, gives 120. 10 10, and the correction 4 x
20, gives


gether with the
before, 60



60. Proceeding as 24. the correction is 4


Now 20 -5- 10 = 2,
or 20.

the correction being 4x2 = In the column of units we have now 8 + 4


+ 8,




= 8,

before, 20-5-10 2; the correction which, is not divisible by 10, but


giving the quotient 1 and the re All the partial quotients taken mainder 2.
only by
together give 60 the remainder 2. Similar but

+ 20 + 10 + 10 +\6+ 2 + 2 + 1 = 111,


divisor contains

more complicated, is two or more digits.

the process when the Were the divisor 27,

tlien tlie

next higher multiple of
10, or 30, would be taken would be required for the 3.

for the divisor, but corrections

He who

to the end, will understand

has the patience to carry such a division through why it has been said of Gerbert
dedit, quse a sudantibus abacistis vix intelli-



will also perceive


the Arabic method of

introduced, was called the dwisio aurea, but the one on the abacus, the divisio ferrea.

book 011 the abacus, Bernelinus devotes a chapter to These are, of course, the duodecimals, first used the Eomans. For want of a suitable notation, calculation by with them was exceedingly difficult. It would be so even to us, were we accustomed, like the early abacists, to express them, not by a numerator or denominator, but by the appli


cation of names, such as uncia for -^, quincunx for




In the tenth century, Gerbert was the central figure among the learned. In his time the Occident came into secure posses
sion of all mathematical knowledge of the Eomans. During it was studied assiduously. Though numerous works were written on arithmetic and geometry,

the eleventh century

mathematical knowledge in the Occident was still very insig nificant. Scanty indeed were the mathematical treasures
obtained from



Translation of Arabic Manuscripts.


his great erudition

and phenomenal





life into

the study not only of mathematics, but

Pupils from France, Germany, and Italy When they gathered at Eheims to enjoy his instruction. themselves became teachers, they taught of course not only
also of philosophy.

the use of the abacus and geometry, but also

what they had

Mohammedan treasures of knowledge excelled even that of the Arabs themselves. and that they possessed translations of Aristotle s works and commentaries thereon. of Euclid Elements and of the astronomical tables of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. About the middle of the twelfth century there was a group of Christian scholars busily at work at Toledo. But the growing enthusiasm for it created a demand for his com plete works. translations. at first. and Spain.EUROPE BTTEING THE MIDDLE AGES. the term sinus was introduced into trigonometry. Egypt. under the . flourished Plato of Tivoli or Plato He effected a translation of the astronomy of Al Battani and of the SpJicerica of Theodosius. a manuscript was which proved to be the arithmetic by Mohammed ben Musa in Latin. But the Latins heard that the Arabs. In 1857. 125 learned of the philosophy of Aristotle. the earliest scholars engaged in translating manu The period of his into Latin was Athelard of Bath. He made s the earliest from the Arabic. Greek texts were wanting. they plundered the rich coffers of Greek and Hindoo science. mathe matical works also came to their notice. and were translated into Latin. and braved a thousand perils. At about the same time Tiburtinus. Though some few unimportant works may have been translated earlier. too. in the eighth century. This translation also is very probably due to found in the library at Cambridge. yet the period of greatest activity The zeal displayed in acquiring the began about 1100. Through the former. that he might acquire the language and science of the Mohammedans. Athelard. activity is the first quarter of Among travelled extensively in Asia Minor. when. scripts He the twelfth century. This led them finally to search for and translate Arabic manuscripts. only through the writings of Boethius. were great admirers of Peripatetism. His philosophy was known. During this search.

8 A little later than John of Seville flourished Gerard of Cremona in Lombardy. Gerbert could not have learned from the Arabs the use of the abacus. we notice at once the most striking difference. as do those of John of Seville. and the abacists. unlike the latter. argued by some that Ger- bert got his apices and his arithmetical knowledge. John of Seville was most prominent. Hence it seems probable that the abacus and apices were borrowed from the example in it same source. then the writings betray Arabic sources. dating from the time of Gerbert. Being desirous to gain possession of . while the abacists employ the duo by decimals of the Romans. doos. all it. The contrast between authors like John of Seville. the abacists drawing from Arabic works. use the term algorism. and do not employ the abacus. and that part or the whole of the geometry of Boethius is a forgery. because except on the abacus. in Roman numerals. consists that. which shows that the two parties drew It is from.126 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. leadership of Raymond. in this. But no points of resemblance are found. Among those who worked under his direction. He translated works chiefly on Aristotelian philosophy. The former teach the extraction of roots. this with those of the abacists. they teach the sexagesimal frac the Arabs. com On comparing works like piled by him from Arabic authors. but from the Arabs in Spain. then archbishop of Toledo. not from BoethiuS. of Gerbert would If this were the case. calculate with the zero. the former mention the Hin tions used do not. then draw an abacus and insert the necessary numbers with the apices. because evidence ISTor we have employ Arabs the is it goes to show that they did not probable that he borrowed from the apices. Of importance to us is a liber algorLwii. mathematicians of the tenth and eleventh centuries state an they were never used in Europe In illustrating an example in division. independent sources.

the algebra of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi.THE MIDDLE AGES. He employed a number of scholars in translating Arabic manuscripts.ETJKOPE DURING. and which formed the basis of the printed editions. in 1175. there Of mathematical were among these. But we mention only one mbre. most prominent among them. and there. he became familiar with Arabic science. Through frequent contact with Mo scholars. Inspired by the richness of Mohammedan literature. who and compiled astronomical works from Arabic Rabbi Zag and lehuda ben Mose Cohen were the sources. which drove the earlier ones from the field. and others less important* In the thirteenth century. a work of Menelaus. the astronomy of Dshabir ben AfLah. transplanting Arabic science upon Christian soil was large. treatises. he went to Toledo. Another royal head deserving mention as a zealous promoter of Arabic He gathered science was Alfonso X. 7 At the close of the twelfth century. was in Hindoo The methods of calculation began to supersede the cumbrous meth- . the Occident possession of the so-called Arabic notation. translated this great work of Ptolemy. of Hohen- hammedan staufen (died 1250). he gave himself up to its study. Giovanni Campano of Novara The number of who aided in (about 1260) brought out a new translation of Euclid. 127 the Almagest. Astronomical tables prepared by these two Jews spread rapidly in the Occident. Foremost among the patrons of science at this time ranked Emperor Frederick II. He translated into Latin over 70 Arabic works. and con stituted the basis 7 of all astronomical calculation till the scholars sixteenth century. the zeal for the acquisition of Arabic learning continued. around Mm translated a number of Jewish and Christian scholars. besides the Almagest. of Castile (died 1284). the Sphcerica of Theodosius. the 15 books of Euclid. and it was through him that we came in posses sion of a new translation of the Almagest.

and. linear rules for solving and quadratic equations. when a boy. son of Bonaccio. He is also called Fibonacci. in later years. learn the use of the abacus. This Alcuin. during his extensive business travels in Egypt. who in the midst of business pursuits found time for scientific study.e. Of all the methods of calculation. . The First Awakening and its Sequel* Thus far. Greece. made Leonardo. a merchant. Syria. soil.128 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and from the various peoples all the knowl edge he could get on this subject. with. its ods inherited from Borne. no work either on mathematics was translated directly from the Greek previous or astronomy It is important to notice that to the fifteenth century. but mathematics on Christian i. and other works were now Thus a great amount of new accessible in the Latin tongue. He The boy acquired a strong taste for mathematics. The figure of Leonardo of Pisa scientific material adorns the vestibule of the thirteenth century. had been made accessible to the Latins. The geometry of Euclid. he found the Hindoo to be unquestionably the Sicily. collected . talent and activity beginning of the thirteenth century the of one man was sufficient to assign the mathematical science man was not a monk. or Gerbert. by the enterprising merchants of Pisa. had come into the hands of the Christians. Algebra. like Bede. factories numerous His father was secretary at one of the erected on the south and east coast of the Mediterranean. Leonardo of Pisa is the man to whom we owe the first renaissance of a new home in Italy. the Sphwrica of Theodosius the astronomy of Ptolemy. France and the British Isles have been the head But at the quarters of mathematics in Christian Europe. The talent necessary to digest this heterogeneous mass of knowledge was not wanting.

at first. of Arabic mathematics earliest adopted by The nilnds of men had been prepared for the reception of this by the use of the abacus and the apices. 3). it as early as the thirteenth century. The reckoning with columns was gradually abandoned. in the Winter s Tale (iv. his great revised edition of this appeared in work. best. accepted readily by the enlightened masses. In France it was used later. and it did not disappear in England and Germany before full.EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. the Liber Abaci. but. This work contains about all the knowledge the Arabs 1228. The calculation with the zero was the portion the Christians. This. but that he was an original worker of exceptional or. the Florentine merchants were forbidden the use of the Arabic numerals in book-keeping. For the zero. while the monks in the monasteries adhered to the old forms. first Arabic great mathematician to advocate the adop notation. The new notation was the name zepliirum. in 1202. The merchants of Italy used rejected by the learned circles. he published. shows that he was not merely a compiler. the middle of the seventeenth century. the Latins adopted from the Arabic sifr (sifra = empty ). a slavish imitator form in which the subject had been previously pre of the sented. and the very word abacus changed its meaning and became a synonym for algorism. hence our English word cipher. and ordered either to employ the Roman numerals or to write the numeral adjectives out in In the fifteenth century the abacus with its counters ceased to be used in Spain and Italy. 22 Thus. Shakespeare lets the clown be embarrassed by . like power. and treats the subject in a free and independent way.&quot. other writers of the Middle Ages. He was tion of the the &quot. nearly 100 Leonardo s Liber Abaci. A possessed in arithmetic and algebra. together with the other books of Leonardo. years after the publication of In 1299. 129 Eeturning to Pisa.

Leonardo of Pisa published his l^ractica Geometries.256. 3000 : each woman has 7 old women go to Home years earlier 7 mules. either from Arabic . &quot. calculation with integers and known double position/ and also by real algebra. then B 7 s sum : . a great mathematician. contains another problem.130 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS.forsooth. i. then A s sum is five-fold B s if B gets from A 5 denare. as a difficult problem If A gets from B 7 denare. How much has each ? is The Liber Abaci historical interest. the storehouse from which authors got material for works on arithmetic and algebra. .&quot. lago expresses his contempt for Michael Casso. The real fact seems to be that the old methods were used long after the Hindoo numerals were in common and general use. with each loaf are 7 knives. that its rules and principles form an essential part of the arithmetical treatises of that day. 137. 1) been the practice of this species of arithmetic. The book con The following was pro posed to Leonardo of Pisa by a magister in Constantinople. each mule carries 7 sacks. are solved by the methods of c single or fractions.counterSo general. tains a large number of problems. for centuries. What is the sum total of all named? Ans. (in Othello. all the knowledge of geometry and trigonom etry transmitted to him. could not do without counters. 8 which contains In 1220. each knife is put up in 7 sheaths. either determinate or indeterminate. lie a problem which. In it are set forth the most perfect methods of at that time. which of because it was given with some variations by Ahmes. by calling him a &quot. says Peacock.&quot. . appears to have caster. indeed. each sack contains 7 loaves. the square and cube root are explained equations of the first and second degree leading to problems. With such dogged persistency does man cling to the old ! The Liber Abaci was. is seven-fold A s. other Greek masters were The writings of Euclid and of some known to him.

were celebrated and book-keeping. under . not few writers on mathematics during this period were in number. loss and gain. There was also a slow improvement in the algebraic nota tion. completely ignored by the Mo hammedans. Indistinctness and confusion of ideas characterised the reasoning during this period. which was.&quot. 133 physics and theology. and the Florentines in particular. however. exchange. not borrowed from Euclid.ETJBOPE DURING THI MIDDLE AGES. is a simplification of numerical operations and a more extended application of them. which . whose city was the cradle of the literature and : arts of the thirteenth for their knowledge of arithmetic and fourteenth centuries. were dis cussed with great interest. Arabic algebra approached much more closely to that of Diophantus. such as &quot. were so necessary for their extensive commerce the Italians were in familiar possession of commercial arithmetic long before the other nations of Europe to them we are indebted for the formal introduction into books of arithmetic. that Hankel believes it no exaggeration to say that since Fibonacci. Among the mathematical productions of the Middle Ages. simple and double rule of and com pound interest. which fulfils all The only noticeable advance necessary conditions. distinct heads. which can scarcely . fellowship. Among the Italians are evidences of an early maturity of arithmetic. but their scientific efforts were vitiated The by the method of scholastic thinking. of these ages. The Hindoo algebra possessed a tolerable symbolic notation. and so on. discount. Peacock 22 says The Tuscans generally. can be found in the whole literature &quot. the works of Leonardo of Pisa appear to us like jewels among quarryrubbish. not a single proof. In this respect. of questions in the single three. Though they possessed the Elements of Euclid. yet the true nature of a mathematical proof was so little understood. Frivol6us questions.How many angels can stand on the point of a needle?&quot.

. modelled after the arithmetic of Boethius. extract was for nearly 400 years a work of great popularity and standard authority. afterwards re-dis covered by Stevinus. Thus. They consisted merely in abbreviations of for piu (more). Like the Arabs. such as p m for meno (less-). and Roger Bacon in England.D. who wrote a once famous work on the properties of numbers (1496). About the time of Leonardo of Pisa (1200 lived the German monk Jordanus Wemorarius. A practical arithmetic based on the Hindoo notation was also written by him. died 1256) taught in Paris and made an extract from the Almagest con This taining only the most elementary parts of that work. a bishop in Normandy (died 1382). Other prominent writers are Albertus Magnus and George Purbach in Germany. John Halifax (Sacro Boseo. the most complicated relations of quantity. first con ceived a notation of fractional powers.). Italian words. notation has arisen by almost insensible degrees as conven for cosa ience suggested different marks of abbreviation to different authors itself and that perfect symbolic language which addresses solely to the eye. and enables us to take in at a glance . co &quot. be said to employ symbols in a systematic way. It appears that here and there some of our modern ideas were anticipated by writers of the Middle Ages. began to appear. ^ is the result of a We shall now centuries.&quot. Leonardo of Pisa possessed no algebraic symbolism. and gave rules for operating with them. lie expressed the relations of magnitudes to each other by lines But in the mathematical writings of the monk Luca Pacioli (also called Lucas de Eurgo sepulchri) symbols or in words.Our present (the thing or unknown quantity).134 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. mention a few authors who lived during the first thirteenth and fourteenth and the half of the fifteenth A. small series of small improvements. Nicole Oresme. The most trifling numeral properties are treated with nauseating pedantry and prolixity.

are of interest only as showing that the Hindoo numerals were then known in Greece. Proportione et Proportionalita. and perhaps to the Hindoos. In 1494 was printed the Summa. due the introduction into Europe of magic squares. He wrote a treatise on this subject. Magic squares were known to the Mediaeval astrologers Arabs. who lived in Constantinople in the To him appears to be early part of the fifteenth century. A writer belonging.EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. subject which has recently received renewed attention. when engraved on silver plate. de Arithmetica. Bichard of Wallingford. and John Maudith. Bradwardine s philosophic writings contain discussions on the infinite and the infini tesimal falls subjects never since lost sight of. and of Simon Bredon of Wincheeombe. To England the honour of having produced the earliest European The writings of Bradwardine. appearance of such polygons was with Pythagoras and We next meet with such polygons in the geom etry of Boethius and also in the translation of Euclid from the &quot. as we remarked. written by the Tuscan monk in algebra. It contains little of importance which cannot be . archbishop of Canterbury. Gfeometria. His notation was totally different 135 from ours. algebra. and physicians believed them to possess mystical properties and to be a charm against plague. and is the first com prehensive work which appeared after the Liber Abaci of Fibonacci. like Planudes. Thomas Brada wardine. The works of the Greek monk Maximus Planudes. studied star-polygons.Arabic by Athelard of Bath. first The his school. to the Byzantine was Moschopulus. and trigonometry. both professors at Oxford. contain trigonometry drawn from Arabic sources. who. first introduced symbols This contains all the knowledge of his day on arithmetic. Lucas Pacioli. who lived in the first half of the fourteenth century. of writers on trigonometry. school.

For the Baccalaureate degree. the first two books of Euclid were read. students were required to take lectures on Sacro Boseo s famous work on astronomy. in the middle of the fifteenth century. published three centuries Perhaps the greatest result of the influx of Arabic learn ing was the establishment of universities. At the University of Leipzig. Of candidates for the A.&quot. but an additional knowledge of applied mathematics. so the beginning of the twelfth century under the at teachings of Abelard. Padua. the daughter of Prague.M. were sity required not only the six books of Euclid. they had attended lectures on these books. probably did not extend beyond the first shown by the nickname &quot. when held book. Pisa. had to give an oath that 7 Examinations. Lectures were given on the Almagest. s found in Fibonacci earlier. the last in the first book. and. and at Cologne^ less work was required.M. as is all. and from a commentary appears that candidates for the degree of A. founded 1384. the same requirements were made at these as at Prague in the fourteenth. only that purely astrological lectures were given in place of lectures on the Almagest At Oxford. paid but little attention to this science famous totle s logic during the Middle Ages. Geometry was neglected.magister matheseos. applied to the Theorem of Pythagoras. occupied similar positions to the ones in Germany.136 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. and Aris was the favourite study. The universities of Bologna. as late as the sixteenth century. 1 great work. 6 Thus it will be seen that the study of mathematics was . first six it on the books of Euclid. What was their attitude toward mathematics ? The University of Paris. More^ attention was paid to mathematics at the Univer at of Prague. dated 1536. a rule was introduced that no student should take a degree without attending lectures on mathematics. In 1336.

o upon the stupid subtleties of their philosophy. The genius of Leonardo of Pisa left no permanent impress upon the age. !N&quot. and another ^Renaissance of mathematics was wanted. the great mathematician and teacher appeared. 137 maintained at the universities only in a half-hearted manner. to inspire The best energies of the schoolmen were expended students. .EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES.

assisted by John Dee. soon after. it acted favourably upon the progress of learning in the West. and finally captured the city $ the Byzantine Empire fell. Up Greek masters were known only through the often very corrupt Arabic manuscripts. America was discovered. but now they began to be studied from original sources and in their own language. learning. Men s minds became less servile. literature. . bringing A with them precious manuscripts of Greek to this time. WE find it convenient to choose the time of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks as the date at which the Middle Ages ended and Modern Times began. began to be remedied chiefly by the steady cultiva. to rise no more. Calamitous as was this event to the East. 138 . the Turks battered the walls of this celebrated metropolis with cannon. the earth was circumnavigated. The indistinctness of they became clearer and stronger. The pulse and pace of the wrld began to quicken. printing was in vented books became cheap and plentiful the printing-press transformed Europe into an audience-room. and. In 1453. Near the close of the fifteenth century. 29 About the middle of the fifteenth century.MODERN EUKOPE. The first English translation of Euclid was made in 1570 from the Greek by Sir Henry Billing sley. great number of learned Greeks fled into Italy. which was the characteristic feature of mediaeval thought. This contributed vastly to the reviving of classic learning.

The and independently in matters of religion was preceded and accompanied by a growing spirit Thus it was that. &quot. to the commer cial prosperity of Germany. Dogmatism was attacked. there time. and resulted in the victory of the new system. As long as every individual is obliged to collect the necessaries for his subsist ence. can be no leisure for higher pursuits. as great scientific thinkers. for a time. led the van in science. new made in Germany. Thus. At this Germany had accumulated considerable wealth. With achieve intellectual activity. to discover and sent forth on the wide sea of scientific new islands and continents of truth.THE RENAISSANCE. Germany of scientific inquiry. at a period when yet. the minds of men were cut adrift from their old scholastic moorings inquiry. by slow degrees. THE RENAISSANCE. there arose a long struggle with the authority of the Church and the established schools of philosophy. to a great extent. ITepler. The Copernican System was set up in opposition to the time-hon oured Ptolemaic System. Material prosperity is an essential condition for the progress of knowledge. tiveness was no doubt due. its the sixteenth century began a period of increased The human mind made a vast effort to Attempts at its emancipation from had been made before. The . against ecclesiastical authority was desire for judging freely nicus. brought forth hardly any This remarkable scientific produc Prance and England had. The long and eager contest between the two culminated in a crisis at the time of Galileo. She produced Itegiomontanus. 189 tion of Pure Mathematics and Astronomy. The first great and successful revolt freedom. but they were stifled Church authority and rendered abortive. Coper and Tyclio Brake. JRhceticus.

On new era we meet in Germany with the figure of John Mueller. commercial relations existed between Germany and Italy. and each of these again . whom he followed to Italy. The Greeks and afterwards the Arabs divided the radius into 60 equal parts. produced men in art. These two cities became great intellectual Thus.140 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. For the first great contributions to the mathematical sciences we brilliant must. In Italy accessions were made to algebr a. literature. &quot. who shone forth in fullest splendour. and Florence. Eegiomontanus and Purbach adopted the Hindoo sine in place of the Greek chord of double the arc. But he did not live to it. with her bankers and her manufacturers of silk and wool. Italy science. Eegiomontanus learned the Greek language from Cardinal Bessarion. too. Hanseatic League commanded the trade of the IsTorth. Close Italy. The latter perceived that the existing Latin translations of the Almagest were full of errors. He studied astronomy and trigonometry at Vienna under the celebrated George Purbach. too. His work was continued by Eegiomontanus. therefore. in Germany to the threshold of this astronomy and trigonometry. Italy. Purbach therefore began to make a translation directly from the Greek. who went beyond his master. finish where he remained eight years collecting manuscripts from Greeks who had fled thither from the Turks. centres. was the fatherland of what is termed the Eenaissance. In addition to the translation of and the commentary on the Almagest. and that Arabic authors had not remained true to the Greek original. he prepared translations of the Conies of Apollonius.We excelled in commercial activity and enterprise. and In fact. whose glory began with the cru sades. Chiefly to him we owe the revival of trigonometry. of Archi medes. and of the mechanical works of Heron. need only mention Venice. look to Italy and Germany. more generally called Regiomontanus (1436-1476).

saying that of the 21.000 and from to 10&quot. it took 3438 to measure the radius. Begiomontanus left his beloved city of JSTurnberg for Borne. German mathematicians were not the divisions. Begioniontanus. that Pope Sixtus IV. which gave observations of greater precision but these would have been useless without trigonometrical tables of cor Of the several tables calculated. by Georg Joachim of Feldkirch in Tyrol.000. He calculated a table of 10&quot. were of farhas ever produced.000 emphasised the use of the tangent in trigonom Following out some ideas of his master. 141 The Hindoos expressed the length of into 60 smaller ones. After the time of Purbach and Begiomontanus. and another on a radius divided decimally into 10. first He Europeans to use this function. called him to Italy to reputation. a century earlier to Bradwardine. So great was his reaching influence throughout Germany. improve the calendar. a table of tangents. containing solutions of both plane and spherical triangles. made. con structed one table of sines on a radius divided into 600. . where he died in the following year. to the present day.600 equal divisions of the latter. Begiomontanus was the author of an arithmetic and also of a complete treatise on trigonometry. The form which he gave to trigonometry has been retained. that responding accuracy.000.THE RENAISSANCE. and to John Maudith. generally called Rhaeticus. trigonome try German and especially the calculation of tables continued to occupy scholars. Begiomontanus ranks among the greatest men that Germany His complete mastery of astronomy and mathematics. More refined astronomical instruments were .000. deserves special mention.. sines with the radius =10.000 parts. he calculated etry. the radius by parts of the circumference. in its main features. to secure greater precision. and his enthusiasm for them. recta) In England it was known who speaks of tangent (umbra and cotangent (umbra versa).

another with the = 1. completed by his pupil. later on.000. The work Otho. wa*s ment of German diligence and indefatigable It was the practice in those mathematics at Bologna. For twelve years he had htfd in continual employment several and proceeding from 10&quot. The first step in the algebraic solution of x? + = cubics was taken by Scipio Ferro (died 1526). We now we must quit Germany for Italy. a professor of mx n. Floridas. Hindoos. but he died before finishing them. who spared no pains to free them of errors. he was the first to plan a table of secants. leave the subject of trigonometry to witness the progress in the solution of algebraical equations. Good work in trigo nometry was done also by Vieta and Komanus.000. o&amp. began also the con struction of tables of tangents and secants. i.e. That Ehseticus was not a ready calculator only. Valentine a monu This was: indeed a gigantic work. radius and. To do shall so.142 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.000. is indicated by his views on trignoraetrical lines. had been considered always with relation first to he was the construct the right triangle directly upon its angles. in 1505. in 1596. He closes his book by saying that the solution of the equations 3 mx n. Astronomical tables of so great a degree of accuracy had never been dreamed of by the Greeks. the trigonometric functions to the arc . or Arabs. Up to his time. to 10&quot. He calculators. It and to make them depend was from the right triangle that Ehseticus go this idea of calculating the hypotenuse .. who + = days and for two centuries afterwards to keep discoveries . to be carried to the same degree of accuracy. solved the equation o? Nothing more is known of his discovery than that he imparted it to his pupil. The tables were republished in 1613 by Pitiscus. The first comprehensive algebra printed was that of Lucas Pacioli. This remark doubtless stimu lated thought. + = n mx is as impossible at the present state of science as the quadrature of the circle.000.

boy of six. Tartaglia put in all the zeal. Tartaglia perceived irrationals. His widowed mother being too poor to i. n. one leading to the 2 = q. that from a deceased master. mx*=n. the he learned to read and picked up a pay his tuition in school. Nicolo was he never again gained Hence he was called Tartaglia. the passing from The most difficult step was. gives at . cut by a French soldier that so badly the free use of his tongue. and fearing that lie would be beaten and in the contest. Tartaglia found an imperfect method equation &+px but kept it secret.THE RENAISSANCE. as he 7 no doubt. of mathematics at an early age. knowledge of Latin. This prac rise to gave inventions. Floridas. his rival had gotten the method Hearing. last = making 3 n=t u. meanwhile. that the irrationals disappeared from the equation of to = ^-~^. in order rivals tice 143 by that means an advantage over by proposing problems beyond their reach. solving to proclaim in public and thus caused Ferro s pupil. In 1530. Tartaglia. used in operating from time quadratic irrationals. believ form a? his own knowledge of the him to be a mediocrist and braggart. 1535.e. xule for the equations. and mathematics by he was able to Possessing a mind of extraordinary power. industry. stammerer. A numberless disputes regarding the priority of second solution of eubics was given by Nicolo When a of Brescia (1506(?)-1557). appear as teacher one Colla proposed him several problems. But this equality. public discussion. challenged him to a + ing to take place on the 22d of February. Placing # cubic 3 re 4. together with (-|m) = once tu. He spoke about his secret for this. to secure secret. says. himself. and he succeeded in it skill to find the himself modestly ten days before the appointed date. old.

At this time Cardan was writing his Ars Magna. and after giving the most solemn and sacred promises of secrecy. Tartaglia was entreated to make known his method. Tartaglia solved most questions in seven days. he would publish a large algebra containing his method. but the other party did not send in their solution before the expiration . and published in 1545 in his Ars Magna Tartaglia s solution of cubics. cubic equations with a will. Thus Cardan broke most solemn he found a similar solution for cc3 February. fifty = mx + n. not solve any of Tartaglia s. named Eieronimo Cardano (1501-1576). Tartaglia became desperate. away. for the crown intended for his work had been snatched. was -suddenly destroyed. But a scholar from Milan. of giving to the world an immortal his much sought work which should be the monument of his deep learning and power for original research. This = On the 13th of The Each contestant proposed thirty problems. and he knew no better way to crown his work than by inserting the for rules for solving cubics. Tartaglia solved the thirty problems proposed by Floridas in two hours Floridas could . n. His first step was to write a history of his invention but. His most cherished hope. The one who could solve the greatest number within contest began on the 22d. saying that after his completion of the translation from the Greek of Euclid and Archimedes. days should be the victor.14:4 A H13TOBY is OJF MATHEMATICS. Tartaglia s solution of a? 4. solution for the cubic 3 cc From now 2 on. after many solicitations. The news of Tartaglia s victory spread all over Italy. by transforming it into the form a? mx=n. to com . but he declined to do so. succeeded in obtaining from Tartaglia a knowledge of his rules. Tartaglia studied In 1541 he discovered a general px = q. pletely annihilate his enemies. he challenged Cardan and his pupil Lodovico Ferrari to a contest each party should propose thirty-one questions to be solved by the other within fifteen : days.

the right member be a complete square is expressed by the . but he died before he reached the consideration of cubic equations. Thus the fondest wish of his life remained unfulfilled the man to whom we owe the . and to Tartaglia especially. greatest contribution to algebra made in the sixteenth century dis was forgotten. the great interest that the solution of cubics It is but natural that after this tions. Endless were the problems proposed and solved on both sides. Remarkable is excited throughout Italy. Thus he solved the equation x4 2 x* 1 by a process similar to that em 2x 13 of = + + + &quot. it But Cardan failed to find a general solu remained for his pupil Ferrari to prop the reputa tion. To be sure. 2 2 equation to the form (o. particular cases as early as 1539.THE ployed by Diophantus and the Hindoos namely. The dispute produced much chagrin and heart-burnings to the par ties. containing a new unknown quantity y. so here. who. the first impulse was given by Colla. A replication and a rejoinder followed. in 1540. who met with many other disappointments. moreover. all their solutions except one were wrong. This gave him (a? + 6 + y)* = (6 + 2 y) 01? + 60 x + (12 y + y2) The condition that . of the fifth 145 month. In order to give also the right member the form of a complete square he added to both members the expression 2 (y? -f 6) y + y 2. complete squares. and his method came to be regarded as the covery of Cardan and to be called Cardan s solution. proposed for solution the equa 36 60 x. the publication of the work which he had had in his mind for so long. Tar taglia began. Cardan had studied tion #* 6 v? + + = . by adding both sides 3 of and thereby rendering both numbers . tion of his master by the brilliant discovery of the general solution of bi-quadratic equations. in 1556. -f 6) Perrari reduced Colla s = 60^ + 6^. After having recovered himself again. great conquest mathematicians should attack bi-quadratic equa As in the case of cubics.

but he is no more the dis coverer of it than Cardan is of the solution called by his name. has since &quot. and thus to lay the foundation of a more intimate knowledge of imagi mathematicians. In his ATS Magna he takes notice of negative roots of an equation. calling them the positive roots are called real. algebra is much indebted. Ferrari pursued a similar method with other numerical bi 7 Cardan had the pleasure of publishing quadratic equations. But he did not understand its nature. cases where they appear he calls impossible. It re mained for Raphael Bombelli of Bologna. cubic equation (2y y ) 6) (12 y 2 6 square root of the bi-quadratic. that with aid of irrationals of higher degrees. the solution of equations of any degree whatever could be found. this discovery in his is Ars Magna in 1545. Abel demonstrated that all hopes of finding alge braic solutions to equations of higher than the fourth degree were purely Utopian. Cardan also observed the difficulty in the irre ducible case in the cubics. like the quadrature of the so much tormented the perverse ingenuity of circle. to point out the reality of the appar ently imaginary expression which the root assumes. But all attempts at the algebraic solution of the quintic were fruitless. while To Cardan roots he does not consider. Imaginary fictitious.&quot. to mained only determine x from the resulting quadratic. there was probably no one who doubted. which. he got x + + 2 = Extracting the + + y = x V5~y+~6 it re- + V2 2/4-6 Solving the cubic for y and substituting.146 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Since no solution by radicals of equations of higher degrees . and. nary quantities. 900. finally. After this brilliant success in solving equations of the third and fourth degrees. Ferrari s solution sometimes ascribed to BombelH. who published in 1572 an algebra of great merit.

He was educated in the monastery of his native became universal. There is another short-hand the &quot. by slow degrees. the writer of the first text-book on algebra in the German language (printed in 1525). The sign -* for division was equal than two parallel lines used by Johann Heinrich Rahn. and published in 1544. &amp. and died in Jena. and algebra. The study of the numbers in Eevelation and in Daniel significance of mystic drew him to mathematics.&quot. the greatest German algebraist of the sixteenth century. who brought out a second edition of HudolfFs their adoption of Goss in 1553. Micliael Stifel (1486?-1567). for brevity. Christoff Rudolff.radif guadrata is. remarks that &quot. designated as y^. Christoff Rudolff. was introduced in England by John and afterwards became Protestant minister. employs these symbols also. to the Germans.THE RENAISSANCE. which is the first English treatise on algebra. Here the dot in his algorithm with the character This same has grown into a symbol much like our own. root symbol for the square root. was born in Esslingen. irrational the nu numbers. So did Stifel. Its Arithmetica Integra. in his algebra. the author of The WJietstone of to Robert Witte (1557). which we owe the origin Thus. He selected this symbol because no two things could be more symbol was used by Micliael first =. a teacher at the University of Yienna. a dot manuscript published is made to signify the extraction of a placed before a number This dot is the embryo of our present of that number. in 1659. His pupil. Our sign of equality is due Stifel. a book Melanchthon wrote a preface to it. a Swiss. Recorde (1510-1558). 151 metic of Grammateus. three parts treat respectively of rational numbers. and Pell in 1668./. Stifel gives a table containing merical values of the binomial coefficients for powers below the 18th. He studied German and Italian entitled works. in Latin. He observes an advantage in letting a geometric progres- . In a symbol sometime in the fifteenth century.

says Hankel. below &quot.remained &quot.152 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. above zero are subtracted from zero.minus the significance even of Pacioli negative quantities. We remarked above that Vieta discarded negative roots of Indeed. Yet even they mentioned these so-called false or fictitious roots only in passing. difficult process in the development of .&quot.&quot.Cossist&quot. is of the Eenaissance. Cardan. The generalisation of the con ception of quantity so as to include the negative. and arrives at the designation of integral powers by numbers. sion correspond to an arithmetical progression. at last. (algebraist).pure minus &quot. including Vieta. Stifel. &quot. Cardan and Bombelli were far in advance of all writers occasionally places a purely on one side of an equation. fictitious &quot. derived from the the writings of Cardan. and tities. . mathematicians dealt exclusively with absolute positive quan sparsely. but applies it really only to the development of the product of purely negative quantities do not appear in (a &) (c d) his work. until the beginning of the seventeenth century. Michael . speaks as early as 1544 of numbers which are or &quot. On and Bombelli had advanced to about the same point as had the Hindoo Bhaskara. Here are the germs of the theory of exponents. In 1545 Stifel published an arithmetic in German. times minus gives plus. absurd and which arise when real numbers zero. who saw negative roots. and this subject Cardan without grasping their real significance and importance. &quot. we find few algebraists before and during equations. The great German &quot. but did not approve of them. tains rules for solving cubic His edition of Kudolffs Goss con equations. &quot. was an exceedingly slow and algebra.&quot. The first algebraist itself who negative quantity by Harriot in England.&quot. speaks of a &quot. the Renaissance who understood &quot.but these ideas. As regards the recognition of negative roots. states the rule that Fibonacci seldom uses them.

and others. made translations of geometrical works from the Greek. to point out more easily how the construction of abled him the roots of cubics depended upon the celebrated ancient prob lems of the duplication of the cube and the trisection of an with ancient geometry. consider the history of geometry during the Unlike algebra. The greatest gain was a more intimate knowledge of G-reek No essential progress was made before the time of shall We now geometry. John first Werner of Eurnberg published in 1522 the conies work on Unlike the which appeared in Christian Europe. it made hardly any progress.THE RENAISSANCE. Commandinus of Urbino in Italy. wherein he dis and asymptotes more fully than Apollonius cusses tangents had done. Descartes. 158 Renaissance. before Yieta. Bartholomew. Vieta possessed great famil to algebra. he studied the sections in relation with the geometers and derived their properties directly from it. fifth book of Apollonius attempted to restore the missing of the on maxima and minima. The problem of the quadrature of the circle was revived in . of who perished in the Prance. Maurolycus. The foremost geometrician of Portugal was Nonius. His chief work is his masterly and original treatment of the conic sections. Tartaglia. and applies them to various physical and astronomi cal problems. This mode cone. of old. The Prom the notes of Pappus. doubtless. massacre of iarity St. The new form which he gave en by representing general quantities by letters. he sixteenth century. Begiomontanus. but that the latter problem cal in He Tartaglia includes only those leading to the irreducible case. the greatest geometer (1494-1575). Xylander of Augsburg. of Messina of studying the conies was followed by Maurolyctis latter is. was Peter Ramus. angle. reached the interesting conclusion that the former of all cubics in which the radi problem includes the solutions s formula is real.

possess the rigour of the ancient geometry. in his turn. that the num bers were cut on his tomb-stone in St. The army of circle-squarers became most formidable during the seventeenth century. every quadrator of : note raised up an opposing mathematician Orontius was met by Buteo and Nonius. Adrianus Two Eomanus.Ludolph s number. Julian calendar. and Clavius A. by the intersection of two hyperbolas but this solution did not posed to &quot. to draw a circle touching Adrianus Eomanus solved the problem three given circles. who had the reputation of being a great full His fallacies were exposed to view by Eegio- montanus. As in this case . mathematicians of Netherlands. and was zealously studied even by men of eminence and mathematical ability. feasts Mention must here be made of the improvements of the The yearly determination of the movable had for a long time been connected with an untold . Eomanus was the one who prppounded for solution that equation of the forty-fifth degree solved by Yieta. 25 Eomanus did much toward simplifying spherical trigonometry by reducing. Quercu by Peter Metius.&quot. performance was considered so extraordinary. Peter s church-yard. Vieta pro him the Apollonian problem. so in others. by means of certain projections. . he at once departed for Paris. Joseph Scaliger by Vieta. to make his acquaintance with so great a master. presented a solution which had all the rigour desirable.&quot. the latter to 35 . A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. On receiving Vieta s solution. . Adrianus Romanus and Ludolph van Ceulen. Yieta caused him to see this. logician. at Leyden. The His value of therefore often named &quot. mer carried the value TT is TT to 15. occupied themselves with approximating to the The for ratio between the circumference and the diameter. and then.154 this age. places. the 28 cases in triangles then considered to only six. Among the first to revive this problem was the German Cardinal Mcolaus Cusanus (died 1464).

which is the number of the beast in Revelation (xiii. and many other eminent scientists who lived at a period even later than . the ( = 2. for his friend. = 20. and among Protestants.E (SO ) A (1) These attacks on the great reformer were not unprovoked. astronomers. 155 of astronomy led and many new calendars were proposed. the most acute and original of the early mathematicians of constitutes the number required.* it To rectify the errors of the Julian calendar was agreed to write in the new calendar the 15th of October immediately after the 4th of October of the year The Gregorian calendar met with a great deal of oppo 1582. Maurolycus. Placing a = 1.. after misspelling the name. I (30 ) etc. who decided to the consideration of this subject. and prelates. It is well known that Cardan. among who ranked high sition botji scientists as a geometer. express this Jc symbol of Antichrist. Regiomontanus. Much was written on numerical mysticism even by such eminent men The Numerorum Hysteria of Peter as Pacioli and Stifel.THE BBKAISSANCB. Pope Gregory XIII. which gave Stifel 22 unspeakable comfort.. The rapid progress upon the adoption of the calendar proposed by the Jesuit Lilius Clavius. Bungus covered 700 quarto pages. The passion for the study of mystical properties of numbers descended from the ancients to the moderns. convoked a large number of mathematicians. met the objections of the former most ably and effectively the prejudices of the latter passed away with time. Michael Stifel. He worked with great industry and satisfaction on 666. He impious Martin Luther to a form formidable number. Astrology also was still a favourite study. (100 ) he finds. 18). Clavius. amount of confusion. that M A^) K^ T I (9 ) Is (40 ) L (20) v (2 oo) T (100 ) E (5) . = 10.. Germany) exercised an equal ingenuity in showing that the a demonstration above number referred to Pope Leo X. reduced the name of the which & may etc. .

. no religious wars were waged. on the other hand..156 this.oi.. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. while deep psychological interest to see on the next page. in France. down to the time of IV.&quot.a or weakness too great to be united to high intellectual attain 26 ments. speaking of Cardan as an astrol oger.. The period under consideration is too near the Middle Ages to admit of complete emancipation from mysticism even among scientists. In England. which in the ignorant ages was an unmixed benefit. while in the van of progress and planting one foot upon the firm ground of truly scientific inquiry..The people were comparatively indifferent about . Thus. VIETA TO DESCABTES. the theological spirit predominated. erally men engaged in the mystic study of star-polygons and magic &quot. perhaps. but it is not so gen that besides the occult sciences already named. people had no leisure for science and for secular literature. demonstrate on one page a theorem on star-polygons. like the great Kepler.&quot.ould now be a loss to Henry Europe. during the reigns preceding that of Henry IV. scientists. he explains their use as amulets or in conjurations. the destruction of which^.. The pentagranima It is of gives you pain. with strict geometric rigour.forth a single work. in more enlightened ages became a serious evil. Xapier.&quot. engaged in deep astrological study .. the ^rench_llhad n. This is pain fully shown by the massacres of Vassy and of St. known squares. says Faust to Mephistopheles. 1 Playfair. . Let our judgment not be too harsh. were still resting with the other foot upon the scholastic ideas of preceding ages. The ecclesiastical power. Scholars like Kepler. puF &quot. Albrecht Duerer. Bartholo mew. Being engaged in religious disputes. Hence. calls him melancholy proof that there is no folly &quot.

Com- . Descartes. tury was made ticians. during the reign of Louis XIII. Theologic disputes and The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) religious strife ensued. and which is acquired. Fermat. the shackles of ecclesiastical authority were thrown off by France. The first effects of the Eeformation there were the close of the fifteenth and during the six teenth century. in a more advanced state there than elsewhere. Cardinal Richelieu. of proved ruinous. but His age was re of promoting the interests of the nation. by the great French mathema Eoberval. trigonometry. was. 157 they concentrated their ability upon secular matters.France. granting freedom of worship to the Huguenots. and which led England to national greatness. Germany had been conspicuous for her scien salutary. pursued the broad policy of not favouring the opinions of any sect. At the close of the sixteenth cen tury. and Pascal. the counterpart of which was found great The seventeenth cen in England in the sixteenth century. excepting for the discoveries in cubic equations. and became a mere lax confederation of petty despotisms.set in Germany. The ascension of Henry IV. religious strifes . The great changes which revolutionised the world in the sixteenth century. a literature immortalised by the genius of Shakespeare and This great literary age in England was followed Spenser* by a great scientific age. it. and thereby terminating religious wars. when the sun of science began to rise in &quot. in the sixteenth century. It produced that secular literature. led Germany to degradation. tific At pursuits. The German empire was shattered. illustrious also More gloomy is the picture in Germany.VIETA TO DESCARTES. The genius of the French nation now began to blossom.. But at the beginning the seventeenth century. markable for the progress of knowledge. to the throne was followed in 1598 by the Edict of Nantes. Desargues. She had been the leader in astronomy and Algebra also. before the time of Vieta.

and Padua. He had studied at Oxford. the English became conspicuous for numerical skill. improvements made in the art The nations of antiquity experimented thou- . and in literature there was only a slavish imitation of French artificiality. The foundations were for the theory 0f by Permat and Pascal numbers and the theory of probability. ISTor did Germany recover from this low state for 200 years for in 1756 began another struggle. Permat. Later. the inventor of logarithms. in Germany excepting Leibniz. The first important irithmetical work of English authorship was published in Latin in 1522 by Cuthbert Tonstall (1474-1559). laid We shall first consider the of calculating. Scotland brought forth Napier. . After Recorde the higher branches of mathematics began to be studied. The instantaneous appreciation of their value is doubtless the result of In Italy. Descartes. Theoretical mechanics began to be studied. Eeprints of arithmetic appeared in England and Prance. Cambridge. and that in the interval of 200 years between Kepler and Gauss. there arose no great mathematician inerce . and the English Wallis are the great revolutioners of this science. Thus it followed that at the beginning of the seven teenth century.158 - A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. mathematics was cultivated little in Great Britain. Stifel. which tnrned Prussia into a wasted land. began to be studied with Success. she brought forth no mathematician comparable with Yieta. superiority in calculation. and especially in France. and drew freely his from the works of Pacioli and Eegiomontanus. Up but to the seventeenth century. which for a long time had been an almost stationary science. Pascal. Galileo. the great Kepler was the only German mathe matician of eminence. Eoberval. or Tartaglia. Art disap peared. But with the time of Eecorde. Desargues. Torricelli. geometry. was destroyed national feeling died out. the Seven Years War. During the sixteenth century.

of it. s. 159 to strike sands of years upon numeral notations before they happened upon the so-called Arabic notation. The same method was followed by Cardan. which was introduced by the Hindoos about the fifth or sixth century after Christ. and failed to invent a suitable notation.&quot. .&quot. It would seem that was once thoroughly understood. degrees. adds 2n ciphers to the as the number. Cardan square rootfin the same way as Cardan and John of Seville. then finds the square root. the invention of even of one age. Cataldi finds . them is not the result of one mind or They came into use by almost imperceptible mathematicians identified with their his The first tory did not perceive their true nature and importance. after the &quot. but it failed to be generally adopted even by his Italian contemporaries for otherwise it would certainly have been at least mentioned by Oataldi (died 1626) in a work devoted exclusively to the extraction of roots. The idea of decimal fractions makes its first appearance in methods for approxi mating to the square roots of is curious to think attempted in physical research how much science had and how deeply numbers had been pondered. and Wil liam Buckley (died about 1550) in England extracted the&quot.Arabic notation decimal fractions would occur at once as an obvious extension ceived one of the &quot.VIETA TO DESCARTES. before it was perceived that the all-powerful 5 simplicity of the Arabic notation was as valuable and as manageable in an infinitely descending as in an infinitely ^ ascending progression. But &quot. but for practical purposes ingenious the square root a method inferior to Orontius Finaeus (died 1555) in--France. and takes this numerator of a fraction whose denominator is 1 fol lowed by n ciphers. Thus John of Seville. In the simple &quot. mathematics re most powerful impulses. expedient of the cipher. by means of continued fractions and novel. Simple as decimal fractions appear to us. presumably in imitation of Hindoo rules.

a man who did a great deal of work in most diverse fields of science. but. of decimals is frequently attributed to The invention Regio montanus. and not in fractions. Thus. we owe the his first systematic treatment of decimal fractions. decimals were used by Joost Biirgi. In La Disme (1585) he describes in very express terms the advantages. In &quot. To Stevin belongs the honour of inventing our present mode of These indices. in 0123 his notation. a Swiss by birth. In 1603.912 would be 5912 or 59(i)l@2. but also of the decimal division in systems of weights and measures.trigonometry. unlike Oresme s. he put it = 100. . Though he adopted a decimal division of the radius. though cumbrous in practice. place of our decimal point. like the But here the trigonometrical Greeks. and by Joliann Hartmann Beyer.000. who assumes the invention as his own. the number 5.&quot. who pre pared a manuscript on arHlmrotic soon after 1592. j$imon_Jtevin of Bruges in Belgium (1548-1620). this had been done much earlier by Oresme. designating powers and also of introducing fractional expo nents into algebra. had no notion whatever of decimal fractions. equal to a multiple of 60. but s it remained wholly unnoticed. are of interest. lines were expressed in integers. he used a cipher to each place in the fraction was attached the corresponding index. they remained a secure posses sion. $To improvement was made in the notation of decimals Stevin till the beginning of the seventeenth century. Stevin applied the . he published at Frankfurt on the Main a Logistica . he and his suc cessors did not apply the idea outside of trigonometry and. After Stevin. not only of decimal fractions.arithmetic. -Not even innovations were immediately appreciated or at once accepted. Strictly speaking. because they are the germ of an important innovation. on the ground that instead of placing the sinus totus7*nT&quot. To indeed.160 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. new 25 fractions What he to all the operations of ordinary lacked was a suitable notation.

perhaps. at his innovation remained unrecognised. Adrian Vlacq in 1628 a table of logarithms from 1 to 100. leaving his work unfinished.&quot. a colleague of Briggs. 1619). if not earlier. .of The first publication functions was made of Briggian logarithms trigonometric in 1620 by Gunter. He Napier and Briggs.000. tables constructed on the old sexagesimal division. Gunter was the inventor of the words cosine and cotangent.&quot. but conceived the idea and constructed that table as early. of his life to calculating more Briggs devoted the last years of trigonometric functions. six years after the published a rude table of logarithms it appears that he appearance of the Canon Mirificus. of published which 70. &quot.000 were calculated by himself. Briggs Vlacq. Briggs divided a degree into 100 but owing to the publication by Vlacq of trigonometrical parts. superseded by any subsequent calculations. The only possible rival of John Napier in the invention of He logarithms was the Swiss Justus Byrgius (Joost Burgi). The first logarithms upon the natural base e were published by John Speidell in his New Logarithmes (London. who found the loga rithmic sines and tangents for every minute to seven places. and then published by own expense.YIETA TO DESCABTES. tangents.circular the various inventions Napier to is assist the of the student or calculator.Napier s rule of for the solution of spherical right triangles. results published until Napier s logarithms But he neglected to have the were known and of admired throughout Europe. . which contains the natural logarithms of sines. but extensive Briggian logarithms he died in 1631. It was carried on by the English Henry Gellibrand. &quot. 165 of Gouda in Holland. happiest example of artificial memory that is known.the It is. Briggs and Vlacq published four fundamental works. than Napier did his. the results of which have never been &quot. arid secants. parts&quot. Among memory .

After having surveyed that country he returned As a mathematician. he was the boast of his brought the theory of equations under one comprehensive point of view by grasping that truth in its full extent to which Yieta and Girard only approximated viz. had observed as early as 1558. and was the first who understood the use of negative roots in the solution of geometric problems.166 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS The most brilliant conquest in algebra during the sixteenth. a [Frenchman. to England.We and their roots this ingenious author applied algebra to geometry. was Albert Girard (1590-1634). a new line of inquiry was gradually opened up. century had been the solution of cubic and bi-quadratic equa tions. failed also to prove that every equation could be thus he decomposed. Another algebraist of considerable He power was the English Thomas Harriot (1560-1621). Like Vieta. . inferred and first showed how to express the sums of their powers in terms of the coefficients. that the root of an equation is a divisor. He that in an equation in its simplest form. erties of equations &quot. had attained a partial knowledge of have seen that Yieta the relations between roots and coefficients. Harriot made some changes in algebraic nota- . the coefficient of the second term with its sign changed is equal to the sum of the roots the coefficient of the third is equal to the sum . All attempts at solving algebraically equations of higher the prop degrees remaining fruitless. accompanied the first colony sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh to Yirginia. He was the first to decompose equations into their simple factors but. .of the last term. of the products of every two of the roots . by induction that every equation has as many roots as there are units in the number expressing its degree . One who extended the theory of equations somewhat further than Vieta. since he failed to recognise imaginary and even negative roots. etc. a Flemish mathematician. Peletarius. tities He spoke of imaginary quan . country.

&amp. rediscovered the following and him ratio was expressed by only one dot. Algebra was now in a state of sufficient perfection to enable Descartes to take that important step which forms one of the the application grand epochs in the history of mathematics. gation of which were long used in the universities. a Swiss mathematician of considerable note. ten years after his death. We shall see that this method excels that of Kepler and Cavalieri in following a more exact and natural course but it has the disadvantage of necessitating the deter mination of the centre of gravity. 167 adopting small letters of the alphabet in place of the capitals used by Vieta. of algebraic analysis to define the nature and investigate the properties of algebraic curves. left him but little time for the pursuit of mathematics during daytime. and evenings his economical wife denied him the use of a light. multiplied by of gravity. which in itself may be a . and the sign for ratio was Oughtred s ministerial duties thereupon changed to two dots. as : : He introduced x as that of proportion. tion. published in his Centrobaryca. (1577-1643). was published in 1631. though first found in the Mathematical Collections of solid of revolution is Pappus : The volume of a equal to the area -of the generating the circumference described by the centre figure. William Oughtred (1574-1660) contributed vastly to the propa mathematical knowledge in England by his treatises.VIETA TO DESCARTES. which has been named after him. praxis. By symbol of multiplication. the determination of the areas of curvilinear Paul Guldin figures was diligently studied at this period. The symbols Harriot s were introduced by him. more difficult the problem than the original one of finding . In the eighteenth century Christian Wolf secured the general adoption of the dot as a symbol of multiplication. Artis Analytical &amp. In of inequality and work.

Guldin made some attempts to prove his theorem. His pursuit of science was repeatedly interrupted by war.if which had done him so much the Greeks had not cultivated conic sections. and family troubles. could not have superseded Ptolemy.&quot. .168 volume. pecuniary embarrassments. when he thought he had discovered a curious relation between the five regular solids and the number and distance of the planets. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Tycho Brahe. This led him to the study of the volumes of solids of revolution and to the publication of the Stereometric Doliorum in 1615. results more worthy of as well as astronomy.Kepler s laws. of this pseudo-discovery brought him much publication fame. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a native of Wurtemberg and imbibed Copernican principles while at the University of Tubingen. march of the planets in extended use of loga Kepler made also rithms and decimal fractions. In 1600 he quent became for one year assistant to the Danish astronomer. His first attempt to explain the solar system was made in 1596. religious persecution. Kepler s publications are voluminous. It is enriched pure mathematics not strange that he was interested He in the mathematical science service. fre changes of residence.&quot. 11 The Greeks Kepler never dreamed that these curves would ever be of practical use . he was struck by the inaccuracy of the ordinary modes of deter mining the contents of kegs. Maturer reflection and intercourse with Tycho Brahe The and Galileo led him to investigations and his genius &quot. but Cavalieri pointed out the weakness of his demonstration. Aristseus their intellectual and Apollonius studied them merely to satisfy cravings after the ideal. for &quot. The relation between the two great astronomers was not always of an agreeable character. yet the conic sections assisted Kepler in tracing the their elliptic while purchasing wine. At one time. In it he deals first with the &amp. and was enthusiastic in diffusing a knowledge of them. in the observatory near Prague.

and called one of its sides produced a tangent. The subject of tangents received special attention also from Permat. Plane curves. areas. and in 1631 was made . Descartes. This idea Hoberval extended to all curves. whose two points of Barrow considered a curve a polygon. as for instance the conic sections. may be generated by a point acted upon by two forces. and are the resultant of two motions. volumes. profound scholar in all branches of learning and a mathe A matician of exceptional powers was Pierre de Fennat (16011665). He effected the quad ~~ rature of a parabola of any degree y m am lx. and reached its highest development after the invention of the differential calculus. Permat and Descartes defined tangents as secants intersection with the curve coincide. Eoberval is best known for his method = = . If at any point of the curve the resultant be resolved into its components. He studied law at Toulouse. nor apt even in curves of the second degree to bring out the properties of tangents and the parts they may be made to play in the generation of the curves.then the diagonal of the par allelogram determined by them is the tangent to the curve at that point. Archimedes con ceived his spiral to be generated by a double motion.oberval did not always succeed in doing this. He broke off from the ancient in definition of a tangent as a straight line having only one point common with a curve. .VIETA TO DESCARTES. yet his new idea was a great step in advance. and also of a m m ~ nxn a have already mentioned his quadra parabola y ture of the cycloid. allied to He was the first to apply motion to the resolution of this important problem. E. 173 and centres of gravity. His method is Newton s principle of fluxions. The greatest difficulty connected with this ingenious method consisted in resolving the resultant into components having the proper lengths and directions. a definition not valid for curves of higher degrees. We of drawing tangents. and Barrow.

Unlike Descartes and Pascal. calculus is that Owing to a want of explicitness in statement. that Fermat may be regarded as the first inventor of the differ it rived at the principle for finding the ential calculus. as will be seen . Fermat was in possession of this rule in 1629. he studied with irresistible passion. Fermat found two zealous defenders in Eoberval and Pascal. was maintained by Lagrange. Developing this idea. which. the father. He substituted e for x in the given function of x and then equated to each other the two consecutive values of the function and divided the equation by e. A great contribution to geometry was his De maximis et minimis. His leisure time was mostly devoted to mathematics. who could never be brought to render due justice to his merit. If e be taken 0. and of tangents. Kepler had first observed that the increment of a variable. In the ensuing dispute. Desargues. Laplace. Hardy supported Descartes. as. the ordinate of a curve. Descartes. differences while Midorge. This point is not well taken. Fermat has left the impress of quiet his genius upon all branches of mathematics then known. is evanescent for values very near a maximum or a minimum x+ value of the variable. he led a and unaggressive life. then the roots of this equation are the values of x.174 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. and Fourier. making the function a maximum or a minimum. Fermat s method of maxima and minima. The main difference it between it and the rule of the differential introduces the indefinite quantity e instead of the infinitely small dx. for instance. Fermat made it the basis for his method of drawing tangents. and Since Fermat introduced the conception of infinitely small between consecutive values of a function and ar maxima and minima. was severely attacked by his great contemporary. Fermat obtained his rule for maxima and minima. About twenty years earlier. councillor for the parliament of Toulouse.

and of finding out what proportions they relatively had to one another. &quot. who rightly rules says that the differential calculus &quot. was Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). for example. rem that the sum . His father caught him in the act of study ing this theorem. He was at the same time forbidden to talk any more about it.YIETA TO DESCABTES. contemporary mathematician. A where he devoted himself to teaching his son. he employed his thoughts about it and with a piece of charcoal drew figures upon the tiles of the pavement. an exact circle or equi lateral triangle. In 1626 his father retired to Paris. 175 from the words of Poisson. in short. but did not old. All mathematical books were hidden out of The boy once asked his father what mathematics his sight. in general. and was so astonished at the sublimity and The father now gave force of his genius as to weep for joy. He gave names of his own to these figures and then formed axioms. In this way he arrived unaided at the theo of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. Blaise Pascal s genius for geometry showed itself when he was but twelve years His father was well skilled in mathematics. and. treated of. wish his son to study it until he was perfectly acquainted with Latin and Greek. himself a Frenchman. whose genius excelled even that of the great Fermat.&quot. Starting with the bare fact that mathematics taught the means of making figures infalli bly exact. or ever to think of it. came to make perfect demonstrations.consists in a system of proper for finding the differentials of all functions. for he would not trust his education to others. trying the methods of drawing.that it was the method of making figures with exactness. and was answered. But his genius could not submit to be confined within these bounds. rather than in the use which may be made of these infinitely small variations in the solution of one or two isolated prob 3 lems. He was born at Clermont in Auvergne.

At the age of twenty-four he resolved to lay aside the study of the human sciences and to consecrate his talents to religion. The precocious youth made vast progress in the sciences. which. and he would sometimes say that from the* time he was eighteen. that it was said nothing equal to it in strength had been produced since the time of Archimedes. This continued strain from overwork resulted in a k permanent indisposition. This treatise it now of all lost. and he died at Paris at the early age of thirty-nine 30 years. Boberval. he never passed a day free from pain. Yet he continued working. without assistance. Pascal greatly advanced . &quot. Descartes refused to believe that it was written by one so young as Pascal. at the age of six teen. but the constant application at so tender an age greatly impaired his health. Like &quot. he explained sum of infinitely small the sum of right lines &quot. s Elements. Being kept awake one night by a toothache. Pascal s illness increased.was its contents. . mastered His regular studies being languages. to mean. By him Method of Indivisibles the answer to the objection to Cavalieri s was put in the clearest form. he. Mm Euclid easily. he wrote a treatise upon conies. yet he had so ready and lively a penetration that. and is in Paris and reported on a portion &quot. But at times he returned to the favourite study of his youth. some thoughts undesignedly came into his head concerning the roulette or and he thus discovered cycloid one idea followed another .176 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. A corre spondence between him and Fermat on certain problems was the beginning of the theory of probability. Leibniz saw never published. the rectangles. which passed for such a surprising effort of genius. His Pro vincial Letters against the Jesuits are celebrated. and at nineteen invented his famous machine for performing arithmetical operations mechanically. the boy employed only his hours of amusement on the study of geometry.&quot. properties of this curve even to demonstration.

section produced it 177 He determined the area of a . with the errors corrected. and also of half these volumes cut by planes of symmetry. the centres of gravity of these volumes.&quot. published his. But it remained for Girard Desargues (1593-1662) of Lyons. Before publishing his results. and Fermat solved some of the questions. to all mathematicians that famous challenge offering prizes for the first two solu tions of these problems. but who succeeded in greatly simplifying many prolix proofs of Apollonius. Huygens. Fermat found the area generated by an arc of the cycloid. All conies on a cone with circular base appear circular to an eye at the apex. The beginning of the seventeenth century witnessed also a revival of synthetic geometry. the celebrated architect of Si. Though not competing for the prizes. revolving around base or around the axis peted for them. by any line parallel to the base its the volume . finally. and for Pascal. the knowledge of the cycloid. made numerous mistakes neither got a prize. Huygens invented the cycloidal pendulum. Hence Desargues and Pascal conceived the treatment of the conic sections as projections of circles. Pascal then published his own solutions. La Louere com was quite unequal to the task. The latter Only Wallis and A. being pressed for time. Wal too. were the rectification of a cycloidal arc and the determination of its centre of gravity. which produced a great sensation among lis. in 1658. They intro duced the important method of Perspective. scientific men. was Claude Mydorge in Paris (1585-1647).YIETA TO DESCARTES. One who treated conies still by ancient methods. in which a transversal . Two important and beautiful theorems were given by Desargues The one is on : the &quot. he sent. : the former. Wren. The chief discoveries of Christopher Wren (1632-1723). a friend of Descartes. Paul s Cathedral in London.involution of the six points. generated by and. to leave the beaten track and cut out fresh paths.

several of the rich treasures of modern synthetic geometry. first found in Pappus. meets a conic and an inscribed quadrangle the other is that. and that paral lels differ having their points admired Desargues of intersection at infinity. laries.&quot. from other pairs of lines only in results. He linear.I acknowledge that I owe the this subject. and conversely. at the age of sixteen and PascaTsTnd Desargues writ writings. . then their sides a and Poncelet. saying (in &quot. extending from the . Gergonne. the fundamental ideas of modern synthetic contained In Pascal s wonderful work on conies. and also that on the mystic hexagon. . the subject was almost entirely neglected until the present In the theory of numbers no new results of scientific value had been reached for over 1000 years. geometry century. written now lost.&quot.178 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. viz. last theorem has been employed Sturm. lie on three lines meeting in a point. known as that the opposite sides of a hexagon in a conic intersect in three points which are colinscribed This theorem formed the keystone to his theory. to his little that I have discovered on 3 ings geometry. This meet in three points lying. embracing the conies of Apollonius &nd many other Thus the genius of Desargues and Pascal uncovered results. either in space or in situated if the vertices of two triangles. on Hnej &amp. also the beautiful conception that the two extremities of a straight line may be considered as meeting at infinity. but owing to the absorbing interest taken in the analytical of Descartes and later in the differential calculus. himself said that from this alone he deduced over 400 corol proposition s theorem. were given the theorem on the anharmonic celebrated &quot. Pascal greatly wish to his Essais pour les Coniques). in recent times Poncelet of his beautiful theory of hoinoligical and of transversals Desargues the theory of involution by Branchion. made it the basis We owe to figures.Pascal ratio.

in faith all his life. which we see constantly and of which the true explanation escaped all earlier philosophers. heavier . yet he did not fully recognise its scope. was able to prove that projectiles it move in parabolic curves. who employed their mental powers toward the destruction of old ideas and the up-building of new ones. the founder of the science of dynamics. while it took an extraordinary genius to dis cover laws from phenomena. DESCABTES TO NEWTOK Among the earliest thinkers of the seventeenth and eigh teenth centuries. ranks Rene Descartes (1596-1650). and afterwards more fully by Galileo. was believed that a cannon-ball moved Up forward at first in a straight line and then suddenly Galileo had an understanding of vertically to the ground.DESCARTES TO NEWTOH. The principle of virtual velocities was partly conceived by Guido Ubaldo (died 1607). yet they had discovered nothing . centrifugal forces. Among his contemporaries it was chiefly the novelties he detected in Galileo is the sky that made him celebrated. he established the . but Lagrange claims that his astronomical discoveries required only a telescope and perseverance. The first contributor to the science of mechanics after Galileo was Descartes. to his time &quot. having obtained a clear notion of acceleration and of the independence of different motions.fell known as the parallelogram of forces. first law of motion determined the laws of falling bodies and. and gave a correct definition of momentum. Though he professed orthodoxy He yet in science he was a profound sceptic. Though he formulated the fundamental principle of statics. 183 . found that the world s brightest thinkers had been long exercised in metaphysics.

This led him to the gigantic resolution of taking nothing whatever on authority. Hamilton is in error when he states that Descartes considered mathematical studies absolutely pernicious as a means of internal culture. At the age of twenty-one. in that he shows that he is sorry that I do not wish to study more in geom &quot. that to say. . Great as was Descartes celebrity as a metaphysician. but the ana lytical geometry of Descartes will remain a valuable possession by posterity forever. it may be fairly questioned whether his claim to be remembered &quot. &quot. in His years of soldiering to pursue his science. the consideration of questions which serve only to mind. in order to study another kind of geometry. which he had time At that time mathematics was his favourite But in 1625 he ceased to devote himself to pure mathematics.built as a mathematician is not greater.object the explanation of the exercise the phenomena of nature. of the conclusions in geometry and arithmetic brought out in his mind the contrast between the true and false ways of seeking the truth. . He thereupon attempted to apply mathe-* matical reasoning to all sciences. according to new methods of inquiry. be unlocked with the same key. Descartes enlisted in the army of Prince Maurice of Orange. which has for its . leisure. is but I have resolved to quit only abstract geometry.&quot. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. but of subjecting everything to scrutinous exam The certainty ination. Comparing the mysteries of nature with the laws of mathematics. 77 nothing else than geometry. You know that all my physics is The years between 1629 and . Thus he up a system of philosophy called Cartesianism. Sir William.184 certain. nay. His philosophy has long since been superseded by other systems. Desargues puts me under obligations on account of says the pains that it has pleased him to have in me. and this. had even flatly contradicted each other. In a letter to Mersenne. he dared to hope that the secrets of both could. : etry. . were years of studies. Descartes M.

but with Descartes it became a very fruitful conception. It is frequently stated that Descartes was the first to apply algebra to geometry. first time in a Latin work of 1659.DESCARTES TO NEWTON&quot. This statement this before him. The Latin term for from the expression linece &quot. By him a point on a plane was determined in position by its distances from two fixed right lines or axes. 185 1649 were passed by him in Holland in the study. These distances varied with every change of position in This geometric idea of co-ordinate representation. a professor of mathematics in Rome.analytical geometry/ partly . His residence in Holland was of physics and metaphysics. In 1637 he published his Discours de la Methode&amp.. fur nished a method for the study of the generality of of Apollonius is its solutions. The new step that Descartes did take was the introduction into geom and others had done etry of an analytical method based on the notion of variables and constants. veyors for parallel lines. used by Descartes comes ordinatce. together with the algebraic idea of two variables in one equa tion having an indefinite number of simultaneous values. containing among others His Geometry is not easy An edition appeared subsequently with notes by his reading. which enabled him to represent curves by alge In the Greek geometry. the idea of motion braic Descartes geometry was called 3 employed by Eoman sur The term abscissa occurs for the &quot. was wanting. for Yieta Even the Arabs some times used algebra in connection with geometry. which were intended to remove the dif an essay of 106 pages on geometry. the point. friend De Beaune. principally.&quot. ficulties. which is admirable for Thus the entire conic sections wrapped up and contained in a single equa tion of the second degree. written by Stefano degli 3 Angeli (1623-1697). is inaccurate. during the most brilliant days of the Dutch state.

shall satisfy the condition that the product of certain of them shall be in a given ratio to the product of the rest. who wrote objections to the his own treatise on maxima and minima . . in the sense that the word is used in logic . The essays of Descartes on dioptrics and geometry were &quot. Fermat s. to find the locus of a point such that the perpendiculars. drawn from the point to the given lines.&quot. or more generally. Descartes gave a third method. straight lines at given angles. viz. none gave him as great pleasure as his mode of constructing tangents. general quantities. and sent to show that there were omissions in the geometry. because. His solution rests on the method of Indeterminate coefficients were employed by him Indeterminate Coefficients. of designating and partly because the practice had then already by the term analysis the calculus with important example solved by Descartes in his the &quot. unlike the synthetic geometry of tie ancients. Given several straight lines in a plane. arisen. sharply criticised former. By Descartes it was solved completely. Of this celebrated number problem. Another solution was given later by Newton in the Principia. on that account. &quot. of which he bears the honour of invention. the Greeks solved only the special case when the of given lines is four. in which case the locus of the point turns out to be a conic section. it is actually analytical. inferior to It is profound but operose. also in solving bi-quadratic equations. The first is geometry problem of Pappus &quot. Of all the problems which he solved by his geometry. and. and it afforded an excellent example of the use which can be made of his analytical method in the study of loci. &quot. by Fermat. Descartes thereupon made an attack on Fermat s method of tangents. The methods of drawing tangents invented by Boberval and Fermat were noticed earlier.186 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

Celebrated is his &quot. ITermat accomplished but Eoberval never succeeded in solving this problem. struction of converging lenses. an equation may have as many as + roots as there are variations of signs.DESCARTES TO NEWTON. He of practical value. &quot. without acknowl theory of equations. Its quadrature by Eoberval was generally considered a brill iant achievement. 187 Descartes was in the wrong in tins attack. cycloid. This curve has been called Helen of geometers. new curves. s intimating that he had been assisted by a of the solution. on account of its beautiful proper ties and the controversies which their discovery occasioned. yet he continued the controversy with obstinacy. the number of positive and negative roots . He had a controversy also with B-oberval on the the &quot. same. Descartes improved it by the systematic use of exponents and by the full interpretation and construction of negative quanti ties. and challenged Roberval and Fermat to do the it. Descartes constructed the tangent knowledge On Boberval to the curve. As an abstract science. availing himself.&quot. He then sent a short demonstration of his own. but which yielded no results studied some &quot. Des which were intended by him to serve in the con cartes. viz. but Descartes commented on it by saying that any one moderately well versed in geometry might have done this. and many roots as there are permanencies of signs. Wallis also claimed that Descartes failed to observe that the above rule of signs is not true whenever the . of Harriot s . The reacted application of algebra to the doctrine of curved lines favourably upon algebra. now called ovals of. Descartes also established some theorems on the theory of for determining rule of signs equations.&quot. which had cost the genius of Des cartes but a moderate degree of attention. Descartes was charged by Wallis with edgment. particularly his mode of generating equations but there seems to be no good ground for the charge.

understood by Galileo. and Huygens. . than by foreigners. the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus. evidence being able to Geometry he gives handle this case In mechanics. She urged upon Des After much hesitation cartes to come to the Swedish court. . he accepted the invitation in 1649. analytical geometry to the solution of the &quot. . and first by Wren.188 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Pascal. &quot. Descartes can hardly be said to have advanced beyond Galileo.Wallis. upon the enemy His statement of the first and second laws of motion was an improvement in form but his third law is false in substance.&quot. correctly stated of the One new Apollonian His second royal follower was Queen Christina. It is most remarkable that the mathematics and philosophy of Descartes should at first have been appreciated less countrymen. &quot. daughter of Frederick Y. and Descartes simply threw himself that had already been put to the rout. &quot. but that it may have so many roots. erroneously given by Descartes. He died at Stockholm one year later. The motions of bodies in their direct impact was imperfectly &quot. most devoted pupils of Descartes was the learned She applied the Princess Elizabeth. It is true that Descartes does not consider the case of irnaginaries directly. It was in the youthful universities of gations of their own. problem. They continued in investi and on some points strongly opposed Descartes. The indiscreet by his temper of Descartes alienated the great contemporary French mathema ticians. but further on in of * his incontestable also. equation has imaginary roots but Descartes does not say that the equation always has. The latter had overthrown the ideas of Aristotle on this subject. Ferrnat. Roberval. The universities of France were under strict ecclesiastical control and did nothing to introduce his mathe matics and philosophy. His life had been one long warfare against the prejudices of men.&quot.

contributed to the theory of equations by considering for the first time the upper and lower limits of the roots of He numerical equations. y Witt van Heuraet. He conceived a is new and ingenious way of generating conies. which essentially the same as -that by protective pencils of He treated the subject rays in modern synthetic geometry. Sluze. He was one of the first to point out that the properties of a in the footsteps of the great master mode curve can be deduced from the properties of its tangent. for finding cc 3 . In the Netherlands a large number of distinguished mathema ticians were at once struck with admiration for the Cartesian geometry. and on the theory of maxima and With Hudde.Witt.ardent geometrician. brought out an edition of Descartes geometry. 12 Taking an arithmetical progression 0. 0. This of inquiry has been called the inverse method of tangents. of which the highest term is equal to the degree of . not synthetically. Holland that the effect 189 most of Cartesian teachings was immediate and strongest. Foremost among these are van Schooten. 1. grand-pensioner of Holland.^ = 3. professor of mathematics at Leyden. The noble-hearted in De Beaune. we find the first use of three variables in analytical geometry. which he applies the analytical geometry to the solution of many interesting and difficult problems. celebrated as a statesman and for his tragical end. equal roots. 2. Rene Francois de Sluze (1622-1685) and Johann Hudde (16331704) made some improvements on Descartes and Fermat s methods of drawing tangents. as 2 8# -}- We illustrate it by the equation. but with aid of the Cartesian analysis. He is the author of an ingenious rule minima. John de and Hudde.DESCARTES TO NEWTON. Van Schooten (died 1660). His Johann de &quot. was an. The only prominent Frenchman who immediately followed was De Beaune (1601-1652). together with the notes thereon by chief work is his Hxercitationes Mathematics.

He The studied at Ley den under the younger Van some of his earliest ScJwoten. is 2x 8 0. member of the French . was Christian a native of the Hague. This is x or . 8 2 ao? was the first curve that was ever rectified absolutely. 3a2 = equal roots. He observed in a general way that the two problems of quadrature and of rectification are identical. after. and convenient approximation to the length of a circular In 1660 and 1663 he went to Paris and to London. prince of philosophers in Holland. the cycloid According to Wallis the priority belongs to ISfeil. Soon The and one of the seventeenth century. Eminent as a Huygens (1629-1695). the equation. as well as mathematician. Had there been no common divisor. really Thus he carried the rectification of the hyperbola back to the The semi-cubical parabola quadrature of the hyperbola. was rectified by &quot. [Find the G. he was greatest scientists of the a worthy predecessor of Sir Isaac Newton. we get 3^-2^-8^ = 0. In 1666 he was appointed by Louis XIV. close arc. rectification of carves. He himself gave a remarkably future greatness. and multiplying each term of the equation respec tively by the corresponding term of the progression. and that the one can be reduced to the other. perusal of theorems led Descartes to predict his In 1651 Huygens wrote a treatise in which he pointed out the fallacies of Gregory St.C.D. y = This appears to have been accomplished independently by Van Heuraet in Holland and by William Neil (1637-1670) in Eng land. Hudde 24 gave a demonstration for this rule.Wren and Fermat. physicist and astronomer. then the original equation would not have possessed equal roots. Vincent (1584-1667) on the subject of quadratures. This last equation one degree lower than the original one.190 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. by 2 hence 2 is one of the two of the two equations. Heinrich van Heuraet must be mentioned as one of the earli est geometers who occupied themselves with success in the.

determined the surface of and discovered the proper ties of the logarithmic curve and the solids generated by it. culminating in the brilliant discovery that the cycloid is the tautochronous curve. Newton always speaks of him as the &quot.&quot. of and cycloid) previously the cissoid. of After explaining that the tangent of the eyolute is normal to the involute. conoid. and showed by simple reasoning that the evolute of this curve is an equal Then comes the complete general discussion of the cycloid. He solved the the problem the catenary. partly for consideration of his health and partly on Academy of Sciences. &quot. Sir Isaac Newton. investigation by Mersenne and discussed by Descartes and Eoberval. or on given curves. he always showed Greek geometry. he applied the theory to the cycloid. parabolic and hyperbolic with a description of pendulum clocks. and had the greatest admiration for each partiality for the other. 191 He induced to remain in Paris from that time until 1681.was account of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.Summus Hugenius.evolutes. Thus. motion of bodies falling free. To the two curves rectified (cubical parabola he added a third. In Huygens assumption that the common centre . of which Huygens Then follows a treatment of accelerated is the inventor. when he returned to his native city. or sliding on inclined planes.&quot. Newton and Huygens were kindred minds. This subject had been proposed for centre of oscillation. Huygens De Jwrologio osdllatorio (Paris. though at times he used the geometry of Descartes or of Cavalieri and Fermat. curves he added the important theory of To the theory &quot. 1673) is a work that ranks second only to the Principia of Newton and constitutes 13 The book opens historically a necessary introduction to it. like his illustrious friend. The majority of his profound discoveries were made with aid of the ancient geometry.DESCARTES TO NEWTON.

but in his Algebra he. for the first time one of the most beautiful principles of the principle of the conservation dynamics. With more efficient the nature of Saturn s appendage and solved other astro way of grinding and polish instruments he determined nomical questions. Huygens and his brother improved the telescope by devising a better ing lenses. and work in are treated analytically dinates. which was founded in 1663. is expressed axis. rises to its original height. oscillating about a horizontal but no higher. afterwards called 2 The thirteen theorems at the close of the work of vis viva* relate to the theory of This theory aided tion. in 1703. Huygens Opuscula posthuma appeared Passing now from Holland to England. but as curves of the second degree.without good reason. . Newton first centrifugal force in circular motion. by the Cartesian method of co-or In this work Wallis speaks of Descartes in the terms. His Conic Sections is the which these curves are no longer considered earliest as sections of a cone.192 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. highest We have accuses Descartes of plagiarising from Harriot. In 1649 Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford. But his genius was employed chiefly in the study of mathematics. in discovering the law of gravita formal treatise on probability. and entered Holy Orders. Wallis thoroughly grasped the mathematical methods both of Cavalieri and Descartes. . we meet there one of the most original mathematicians of his day John Wallis He was educated for the Church at Cambridge (1616-1703). of gravity of a group of bodies. to its development. geometry Huygens wrote the but was revived and successfully worked out by Young and Fresnel a century later. He and with great skill applied proposed the wave-theory of light This theory was long neglected. he was appointed He was one of the original members of the Eoyal Society.

and Louis XIII. it . Louis XIV. They were in possession of a brilliant reputation before going to Paris. the sub-tangent. sur Bonier from Den rounded himself by eminent foreigners. Fermat. which marked the policy of Louis XIV. was due to the paternalism. and to the lack the spirit of toleration. The bold intellectual conquests of Descartes. to of dependence and subordination. was accompanied by intense intellectual Extraordinary confidence came to be placed in the activity. 2 Vpx = Vp# sub-tangent. NEWTON TO EULEE. according to Buckle.^this method dif giving 2 x for the value of 31 fers from that of the differential calculus only in notation. lack of great scientific thinkers during the reign of Louis XIV. Huygens from Holland. This period. In the absence of great French thinkers. The toleration which marked the reign of Henry IV. mark. and Pascal enriched mathematics with of the reign imperishable treasures. that work belongs no more to France coveries of Descartes belong to Holland.KEWTOK TO But a : ETJLER. to Germany. It has been seen that in France prodigious scientific progress was made during the beginning and middle of the seventeenth century. During the early part the sunset splendour of this glorious of Louis XIV. may be due to the simple fact that no great minds were born but. or those of Lagrange or those of Euler and Poncelet to Eussia. We . Simply because they performed scientific work in than the dis Paris. power of the human mind. from Italy. Dominic Cassini were the mathematicians and astronomers adorning Ms court. we behold Then followed a night of mental effeminacy. 199 hence / e = the ordinate p : : the sub-tangent : .

that both by discovery as the grand result of a succession of discoveries different minds. Des cartes. no great discovery ever flashed at once. In two successive centuries England produced Shakespeare and Newton ! Germany still continued in a state of national degradation. Indeed. Wallis. 5 history produced Leibniz. was unwittingly supported by the king. Fermat. The dif ferential calculus. was not so much an individual analysis. therefore. to be the true inventor of it. which perity. and so near geometry. During fifty years preceding this era several of the brightest and acutest mathematicians bent the force of their genius in a direction which finally led to the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus by Newton and Leibniz. Such was the age of Newton and Leibniz in the history of mathematics. assumed the direction of the French government Charles II. Fermat. Roberval. The age of poetry was soon followed by an age of science and philosophy. and navigation. Cavalieri. The Thirty Years War had dismembered the empire and Yet this darkest period of Germany s brutalised the people. &quot. one of the greatest geniuses of modern times.France must look to other countries than tific for the great scien men of the latter part of the seventeenth century. upon the mind and though those of Newton will .200 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and others had each contributed to the new So great was the advance made. There are certain focal points in history toward which the lines of past progress converge. became king of Eng At this time England was extending her commerce land. and from which radiate the advances of the future. was their approach toward the invention of the infinitesimal Lagrange and Laplace pronounced their countryman. and advancing considerably in material pros A strong intellectual movement took place. About the time when Louis XIV.

and all was light.&quot. induced her to send him back to Grantham. and other toys.he had applied himself to the works of Descartes and other algebraic writers before he had . the same year in which Galileo died. and that. lines are only a poetic fancy Nature and Nature s laws lay hid in night . in his twelfth year to the public school at G-rantham.HEWTON TO EULBR. yet &quot. influence 201 it &quot. 33 At Grantham. first and At he seems to have been very inattentive to his studies and very low in the school. to rise until he was the head boy. Cambridge was the real birthplace of Newton s Some drawn from the idea of his strong intuitive powers may be fact that he regarded the theorems of ancient geometry as self-evident truths. Isaac His mother sent him at an early age to a village school. a carriage moved by the person who sat in it. when he entered Trinity College. he laboured hard till he ranked higher From that time he continued in school than his antagonist. without any prelimi nary study. must be : admitted that Pope &quot. c Newton (1642-1727) was born at Woolsthorpe. he made himself master of Descartes Geometry. and he expressed to Dr. a wind-mill. genius. When he had attained his fifteenth year his mother took him home to assist her in the management of the farm. one day. birth he was so small and weak that his life was despaired of. God said. Pemberton his regret that &quot. but when. He afterwards regarded this neglect of elementary geometry a mistake in his mathematical studies. but his great dislike for farmwork and his irresistible passion for study. He con structed a water-clock. the little Isaac received a severe kick &quot.upon Ms stomach from a boy who was above him. Let Newton be. Cambridge (1660). in At his Lincolnshire. where he remained till his eighteenth year. mankind to the s end of the world. Isaac showed a decided taste for mechanical inventions.

to another and most profound invention. when lie placed in the hands of Barrow a tract. with a higher power than his masters matics 3 . that attention which so excellent a writer deserves. Wallis had effected the quadrature of curves whose ordinates are expressed by any #2 ). the areas of other curves. Barrow. who had been elected professor of Greek in 1660. the binomial could at once of curves than did the be expanded into a series. s Optics. which afforded a much easier and direct access to the quadrature the circle. he studied Oughtred Vieta. particularly delighted with Wallis a treatise fraught with rich and varied Newton had the good fortune of having for a teacher and fast friend the celebrated Dr. moved onward into wider fields. considered the Elements of Euclid with. Barrow Lectures. such as that of attacked the problem. which was sent . He was Arithmetic of Infinites. Newton did not com municate the invention to any of his friends till 1669. s Clams. He himself says that in 1665 and 1666 he conceived the method of fluxions and applied them to the quadrature of curves. how Newton method of interpolation. effected the interpolation. entitled De Analyst per ^Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. and the quadrature of each separate term of that series could be effected by the method. Kepler Besides Descartes Geometry. Newton s study of quadratures soon led him &quot. and was made The mathe Lucasian professor of mathematics in 1663. We have seen how integral and positive power of (1 Wallis attempted but failed to interpolate between the areas thus calculated. suggestions. and discovered the Binomial Theorem. the works of s Schooten s Miscellanies.202 A HISTOBY O^ MATHEMATICS.&quot. of Wallis.&quot. of Barrow and of Wallis were the starting-points from which Newton. for even the binomial expression for the ordinate be raised though to a fractional or negative power. Newton introduced the system of literal indices. and the works of Wallis.

itself. In a letter to Collins. if not but the modesty of the author. to publish this treatise 5 which the excess. of a general method. curves. prevented his compliance. 203 In this treatise who greatly admired the principle of fluxions. of cxilpable.&quot. he looked upon the area of a curve as a nascent quantity increasing by continued fluxion in the proportion of the length of the ordinate. there would probably have been no occasion for that long and deplorable controversy between Newton and Leibniz. not lines. 26 Had this tract been published then. kinds of problems about the crookedness. without any troublesome calculation. 1672. instance very unfortunate. it centres of gravity of curves. This method I have inter of woven with that other them to infinite series. ETJLER.NEWTON TO by Barrow to Collins. by reducing treatise words relate to a he composed in the year 1671. or or other whether anyhow respecting r right lines lengths. ex cept to his friends and their correspondents. but also to the resolving other abstruser areas. instead of forty-two years later. : is which extends one particular. and then says This &quot. dated December 10th. or rather corollary. only to the drawing of tangents to any curve geometrical or mechanical. is only Supposing the abscissa partially developed and explained. it. in which he aimed to represent Ms method as an independent calculus and as . was certainly in the present &quot.&quot.. though distinctly pointed out. Newton states the fact of his invention with one example. etc. ITor a long time Newton s method remained unknown. The expression which was obtained for the fluxion he expanded into a finite or infinite series of monomial terms. These last working in equations. nor is (as Hudden s method are free of Maximis and Minimis) limited to equations which from surd quantities. Barrow urged Newton to which Wallis rule was applicable. to increase uniformly in proportion to the time. entitled Method of Fluxions.

which (time) another space x. Colson from New s Latin. by increasing with an uniform celerity x. all of his works appear to have been published only after the most pressing solicita tions of his friends and against his own wishes. Excepting two papers on optics. first years of study. or perhaps the wish to render it more complete. received the most careful then proceeds to the solution of the two fol mechanical problems. : = then 2 xx will represent the celerity by which the space y. a stibject ton which.I theory of light that I blamed my own imprudence for parting with so substantial a blessing as my quiet to run after a shadow. so lowing to speak. and he wrote in was so persecuted with discussions arising out of 1675: &quot.e. or to have the sole advantage of employing it in his physical researches. in the x2. a complete system. which constitute the pillars.&quot. translated by J. in his attention. first the expansion into series of fractional and irrational quantities. The length any time proposed. measures and exhibits as described: &quot. disputes about this new discovery. of the space described being continually at all times) given to find the velocity of the motion at .I. &quot. if y represents the length of the space at any equation y time described. which he had But the fear of being involved in undertaken to publish. Newton says Thus.&quot. induced him to aban don this design. This tract was intended as an introduc tion to an edition of Kinckhuysen s Algebra. In it he explains. of the abstract calculus &quot.&quot. He : (i. The velocity of the motion being continually given to find the length of the space described at any time proposed. 34 His re searches on light were severely criticised. Preparatory to the solution. II. or sixty-five years after it was written. .204 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. &quot. . was first published in 1736. my The Method of Fluxions.

and shall represent them by the and the veloci and z . and &quot. De Morgan points out that no small amount of confusion has arisen from the use of the word fluxion and the .NEWTON TO at the EtJLEB. y. and so for the celerities of the other quantities x. being of the same kind. These &quot. a term introduced further on. v. contrarywise. kind can be compared together. by which every fluent is increased call fluxions. I shall hereafter call final letters of the alphabet. . It must here be observed that New ton does not take the fluxions themselves infinitely small. by way of analogy. That is. are infinitely small quantities. but I shall suppose some one of the quantities proposed. no regard to time formally considered. to be described 205 and same moment of time. or celerities). as defined and used in the Method of Fluxions. But whereas we need not consider the time here. ther than . x. for the celerity of the quantity v I shall put v. in what follows I shall have &quot. are substantially the differen tials of Leibniz. proceeds . v. A call Newton fluents. therefore. and. is what we now an independent variable.&quot. moments.&quot. y. ties flowing quantities. The moments of fluxions. or by its generating motion (which I may simply velocities. z. whereas only quantities of the same motion.&quot.&quot. y. as it it were to time . introduces into analysis the foreign idea of motion. . I shall represent by the same letters pointed. y. respectively. I shall put x. and z. x. to which the rest may be referred. 57 z. quantity thus increasing by uniform fluxion. continues &quot. to be increased by an equable fluxion. any far it is expounded and measured by an equable local and besides. may not improperly receive the name of time. . or : Now those quantities which I consider as gradually and indefinitely increasing. thus. In this statement of Newton there is contained a satisfactory answer that to the objection it which has been raised against his method. and also their velocities of increase and decrease therefore.

a? 3 there will arise + 3a. 35 Strange to say. Thus let any equation Xs ax2 + axy yB = and substitute x + xO for x.The the velocities of their flowing or increasing. after xO and y any indefinitely small interval of time. by the accession of which. become + 2/0. and y. will be repre (i.e. After showing by examples how to solve the first problem Newton proceeds to the demonstration of his solution . x. even in the Gommercium Eplstolicum the words moment and fluent appear to be used as synonymous. it follows that those quantities. as xQ and the indefinitely little accessions of the flowing quantities x and y. as between x and y so that x y be substituted in the same equation for those quantities. their indefi small parts. and y + yQ for y. 0. they are continually increased) are as &quot. which at all times indifferently expresses the relation of the flowing quan tities. by which those quantities are increased through the several indefinitely little intervals of time. except ing Newton and Cheyne. will as well express the relation between x + xO and xO and y -j. + + stead of x and be given. and therefore the equation.0 + SxxQxQ + 2 3 3 ax* 2 axxO axOxO + axy + ayxQ + a0#0 = 0. sented by as v. &quot. by xty. zO-j because i)0. are and z. : moments of flowing quantities (that is. $0. Wherefore. in infinitely nitely small portions of time.206 notation x A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Now since the moments. in the sense of an infinitely small in crement. V. and zO are to each other $0. y. if the moment of any one (as x) be represented by the product of its celerity x into an infinitely small quantity the moments of the others. in . a. by all the English writers previous to 1704. x and x -4- y.$0 may $0. &quot. 0. z. y. xQ. .

by supposition. greater than in the first problem were the difficulties encountered in the solution of the second problem. when the equation involves both the fluents as well as both the flux ions (3) when the equation contains the fluents and the flux . 3x2x as above in + axy 3y y = 0.NEWTON TO &quot. that it quantities. The second case de than the general solution of a dif Those who know what ferential equation of the first order. will not depreciate Newton s work . efforts were afterwards needed for the complete exploration less manded nothing of this field in analysis. $ ax? + axy = 0. EtJLEJB. and there remains 2 axx + ayx I. there will remain fore. there fore I reject them.). ions of three or since his it more quantities. 3x2x 2 axx 3 yyyQ + ayx -f axy 3y*y + 3 #&cO + 3()0 ^00 = 0. which there being expunged and the remaining terms being divided by 0. 2 Example Newton here uses infinitesimals. involving. as it does. The first case is the easiest requires simply the integration of -^=/(a.special solution&quot. inverse operations which have been taxing the skill Much of the best analysts since his time. is applicable. to which ax &quot.multiplied by it supposed to be infinitely little. In the general solution of his second problem. 207 y 5 Now. the terms that are will be nothing in respect of the rest (termini moments of in earn ducti pro niliilo possunt liaberi cum aliis collati) . Newton gives first a solution to the second problem in which he resorts special to a rule for which he has given no proof. Newton assumed homogeneity with respect to the fluxions and then considered three cases : (1) when the equation contains two (2) fluxions of quantities and but one of the fluents.&quot. is axdto + a&#0 But whereas zero may represent the .

208 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. but in the second (1713) the foundation is somewhat altered. He took the equation 2 a* it. Finiri enim repugned aliquatenus perpetuo eorum incremento vel decremento. moments are infinitely small quantities. 85 In the . Through the difficulty of sentences which we print in &quot.&quot. Lemma II. it In the first edition of the Principia rests on infinitesimals. Thus. Newton even though. as well as on the Continent. and other geometrical applications of his fluxionary calculus. In the second edition the two italics are replaced by the non sunt momenta sed quantifollowing: tates ipsse ex momentis genitse.founded on infinitesimals. and in substance It like that of Leibniz. of the first edition we read &quot. that in the first. The exposition given in the Algebra was substantially a contribution of Newton. All this was done previous to the year 1672. the devoted to the determination of radius of curvature of curves. In Book II. Intelligenda sunt principia jamjam nascentia finitorum magnitudinum.Wallis Algebra in 1693.Particulae finitse the phrases in both extracts. he resorted to solutions in form of infinite series. as in his must be observed that in the Method of Fluxions (as well De Analysi and all earlier papers) the method employed by Newton is strictly infinitesimal. (1687) the description of fluxions is likewise &quot. What else they are in the second is not clear. s third case comes now under the solution of partial differential equations. but its peculiar notation did not appear until published in the second volume of &quot. The fundamental principles of the fluxionary calculus were first given to the world in the Principia. z -f xy = and succeeded in finding a particular integral of is The rest of the treatise maxima and minima.&quot. calculus in England. this much distinctly appears. the original conception of the was based on infinitesimals. Momenta quam primum sunt magnitudiniSj desinunt esse momenta. : Cave tamen intellexeris particulas finitce finitas.

for in the Quadrature of Curves he remarked that &quot. and thereby generated. because they are infinitely small compared with other terms.NEWTON TO EULEB. This reasoning for as long as is a evidently erroneous ever so small. and to speak accurately. in math .Eluxions are. is . It lias been shown that in the Method of Fluxions Newton rejected terms involving the quantity 0. that Newton. ematics the minutest errors are not to be neglected&quot. but as described by a continued Lines are described.I mode of generating quantities. daily seen in the motion of bodies. 35 give Newton s statement of the method of fluxions or rates. These geneses really take place in the nature of things. Newton seems to have felt this. consisting of very small parts. and are superficies . while with Leibniz the relation of the infinitely small increments is itself the object of determination. the apposition of parts. the infinitely small quantity is completely abandoned. &quot. yet they can be expressed them. this rejection cannot be made quantity. equal and as small as possible. : (quam proxime). as given in the introduction to his Quadrature of Curves. not by . holding to the conception of velocity or fluxion. but by the continued motion of points the motion of superficies by the motion of lines. which are proportional to . The difference between the two rests mainly upon a difference in the We &quot. (errores quam minimi in rebus mathematicis non sunt contemnendi) The early distinction between the system of Newton and Leibniz lies in this. solids by angles by the rotation of the sides portions of time by continual flux and so on in other quantities. though without affecting the result. . consider mathematical quantities in this place not as motion.&quot. . by any lines whatever. as near as we please . used the infinitely small increment as a means of determining it. they are in the prime ratio of nascent increments . 209 Quadrature of Curves of 1704. . as the increments of fluents generated in times.

EC. cG reach their ultimate ratios. Newton then adds that are not to be postulates of Leibniz. or. As long as from each other by an interval. the line similar thereunto. is coincident with the OH. and CT. being all one. are follows that the fluxions of the lines AB. so that the T X* 3 incides point c exactly co with the point (7. BG. Cc will be sides of the triangle GET. EC the increment of the ordinate.into the place BO. and the rectilinear GET. which pro duced meets FjETat T.210 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. AO. and therefore the curve Cc. in the last form. exemplifies this last assertion Newton tangency : by the problem of be the abscissa. and the last the greatest. to the sides of the triangle GET. ET. the mixtilinear CEc. Of these. Let AB VCH The right line Oc being produced to K. Hence and proportional to CE. BO the ordinate. of proportional the triangle in the last ratio of their evanescent increments. the tangent. and Oc the increment of the curve. Now suppose the ordinate be to move. which ia VBO OJt&quot. the rectilinear GEc. the points G and c are distant however small. But when CK coincides with GH. then the points G and c accurately coincide and are one and the same. there are formed three small triangles.&quot. similar to the } GET. This The is plainly a rejection of the doctrine of infinitely small quan- . will stand apart by a small angle from the tangent CH. the it evanescent sides GE. EC is tangent abso lutely equal to E T. et in mathematics the minutest errors neglected. and the mixtilinear evanescent triangle triangle CEc its is. OK. EC. and the lines GE. the first is evidently the smallest.

straight or curved. the by the method of infinite series 2 xn + nQ 1 x&quot.NEWTON TO EULER. and other &quot. is in harmony with the geometry of the ancients . the analysis of infinite and ultimate ratios of finite quantities. nascent or evanescent. and the increments and nQ xn ~ l + are to one another as O 2 xn ~2 + etc. and their last proportion hence the fluxion of the quantity x is to the fluxion of the quantity xn as 1 nxn ~~l &quot.e. + ^-^ O n~ ~~ n 2 o xn ~* + etc. and to investigate prime endeavoured to show that. the Charybdis of us in the face. Newton s doctrine was different in different Though. In the introduction to the Quadrature of Curves the fluxion n of x &quot. that three dissimilar triangles become similar . Thus it appears that periods. becomes x + 0. and I have same manner by the method But to establish in this way quantities. n powers becomes (#+0) i. in the method of fluxions.- + ^=2 xn ~ 2 the increments vanish. fluxion of lines. as also the fluxions of superficies. is determined as follows x. can be obtained in the of prime and ultimate ratios. The quantities.Let now will be 1 to nxn ~ l : : . would lead one Newton had never held it himself. by flowing. and equal when they have reached their ultimate form in one and the same point.. 1 to 1 nx&quot. the dangers of a Scylla stare are required to believe that a We point may be considered a triangle.. angles. infinitesimals is safely avoided. 71 : In the same time that .&quot. + etc. titles is 211 to suppose that here renounced in a manner which. in the above reasoning. or that a triangle can be inscribed in a point nay. it is not . in all cases what ever.

Quantities and the ratios of quantities.&quot. Newton appears to teach that a variable quantity and its limit will ultimately coincide and be But it is now generally agreed that in the clearest equal. which in any finite time converge continually to equality. as well as in the lemmas following this. All he by The so-called to Mm did was to establish in his Principia certain principles which are applicable to that method. ties. elucidation. become ultimately equal. is Newton. is Philosophic NaturaMathematica. The first lemma of the first book has been foundation of the method of limits : made the &quot. himself. there have been obstinate dis putes respecting his explanation of his method of ultimate ratios. as delivered by encumbered with difficulties and objections. second edition was brought out in 1713 with many altera The full title of Newton s Principia A tions and improvements. prime and &quot. then we get the ratio difficulties = . though the variable may lis approach it as near as we please.&quot. Among of &quot. When becomes ~l nxn which needs further nothing. the subject. and before the end of that time approach nearer the one to the other than by any given difference. and at the expense. but which he used for a different purpose. the method the ablest admirers of Newton. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. is frequently attributed but the pure method of limits was never adopted Newton. statements which have been made of the theory of limits. there are obscurities and difficulties.method of limits&quot. Edmund Halley.212. necessary to introduce into geometry infinitely small quanti This mode of differentiating does not remove all the connected with. of Dr. and accompanied by a preface from . as his method of constructing the calculus. Indeed. the variable does not actually reach its limit.&quot. It was printed in 1687 under Principia the direction. In this.

Halley. and others. T the time of lunar revolution. : was conjectured by Hooke. if Kepler s third law was true (its absolute accuracy was doubted at that time). Wren. The first book 28. constituting the great bulk of the work. Mr. But the proof of the truth or falsity of the guess was wanting. on the surface of the earth. then. In 1666 Newton reasoned. r be the earth s the earth.NEWTON TO EULEB. the second book was finished. treat of the mathe matical principles of natural philosophy. in substance. Cotes. In the third book is drawn up the constitution of the universe as deduced from the fore able The great principle underlying this memor going principles. that if g represent the acceler ation of gravity radius. then the attraction between the earth and other members of the solar system varied inversely as the square of the distance. and a a degree at the equator. . The law of gravitation enunciated in the first book. that. The Principia consists of three books. if thethe distance of the R moon from law is true. The third book is the result of the next nine or ten months labours. the laws and conditions of motions and forces. but a pirated edition published in Amsterdam supplied the demand. Huygens. 34 The third and last edition which appeared in England during Newton s lifetime was published in 1726 by Henry Pemberton. was completed on April After the remarkably short period of three months. Its discovery envelops the name of Newton in a halo of perpetual The current version of the discovery is as follows it glory. namely. of which the first two. but which was never is brought to completion. work is that of universal gravitation. It is only a sketch of a tion of the subject much more extended elabora which he had planned. 1686. It 218 was sold out in a few months. Newton.

According to fairly Adams. but looked as though the law of inverse squares were not the true law. he requested Newton to deter mine what the orbit of a planet would be if the law of attrac it Newton tion were that of inverse squares. miles. when its owner placed it in the hands of the University of Cambridge) seems to indicate that the difficul ties encountered by Newton in the above calculation were of a numerical different nature. that the assumed law of gravity was verified by the figures. The perusal by the astronomer Adams of a great mass letters of and manuscripts of Newton forming the unpublished Portsmouth collection (which -remained private property until 1872. and obtained a more accurate value for the earth s radius. and Newton laid the calculation aside: In 1684 he casu ally ascertained at a meeting of the Royal Society that Jean Picard had measured an arc of the meridian. though for long distances he might have claimed that Halley visited When yielded close approximations.4 T = 2. Newton acknowl edged his indebtedness to Huygens for the laws on centrifugal force employed in his calculation. This value of a rendered the calculated value of g smaller wrong than its true value. Taking the cor rected value for a.360.628 r. as known from actual measurement. He could not have asserted. but Newton had not been able to determine what the attraction of a spherical shell upon an external point would be. verified. and replied at once that it . s The data Newton command gave E = 60. a only 60 instead of 69 J English. His letters to Halley show that he did not suppose the earth to attract as though all its mass were concentrated into a point at the centre. therefore. It seconds. Newton had solved a similar problem for Hooke in 1679. in 1684.214 A at HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. In a scholium in the Prmcipm. he found a figure for g which corresponded Thus the law of inverse squares was to the known value. Newton s verification was complete in 1666.

Prop. upon the Principia that the fame calls it &quot. which . by means of fluxions and Newton s fluents. the foremost among those followers of Newton who of planets grappled with the subtle problems of the motions under the influence of gravitation &quot. his lunar calculations to a tion than that given in the Principiay but that he to interpret his results geometrically. It is chiefly rests.. of Oxford. but the development of its consequences and advantages has been the work of the successors of this great mathematician. and he was oftentimes forced to give mere hints. 25.the of Newton Brewster reason. for a moment. then their motions were in accordance with the assumed law of gravitation. the famous construction in Book II. did resolve the difficult problems which the theory of the universe offers . Newton.NEWTON TO EULER. higher degree of approxima was unable The papers in that col lection throw light upon the mode by which Newton arrived at some of the results in the Principia. 34 unpublished manuscripts in the Portsmouth col lection show that he had worked out. when first discovered. but is demonstrated by him twice in a draft 34 of a letter to David Gregory. his discovery In 1685 he completed by showing that a sphere whose density at any attracts point depends only on the distance from the centre an external point as though its whole mass were concentrated at the centre.&quot. was an ellipse. for the earth s radius. for instance. which is unproved in the Principia. human brightest page in the records of Let us listen. to the comments of Laplace. 215 After Halley to s visit.Newton has well estab lished the existence of the principle which he had the merit : of discovering. with Picard s new value tion. reviewed his early calcula and was able show that if the distances between the bodies in the solar system were so great that the bodies might be considered as points. as. The imperfection of the infinitesimal calcu not allow him completely to lus.

will insure to the Principia a last ing pre-eminence over all other productions of the human mind. which have been the origin of the most brilliant discoveries of the mathematicians of the last century. His inventive genius is grandly displayed in his rule for determining the inferior limit of the number of imaginary roots. Arithmetica Uhiversalis. His theorem on the sums of powers of roots is well known. Newton s rule always gives as close. the importance and the generality of his discoveries respecting the system of the universe. or more than This work was pub thirty years after they were written. Notwithstanding these unavoidable defects.216 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Thoxigh less expeditious than Descartes 7 . and the most interesting points of natural phi losophy. The results AritJimetica Uhiversalis contains new and important on the theory of equations. s Newton lectures delivered lished by Mr. The treatise on Method of Fluxions contains Newton s method . which were all pre sented with much elegance. and the superior limits for the number of positive and negative roots. Newton showed that in equations with real coefficients.&quot. limits to the number of positive It and generally and negative roots. awaited demonstration for a century and a half. imaginary roots always occur in pairs. but according to some authorities its publication was a breach of confidence on his part. were always uncertain till confirmed by rigorous analysis. Whiston. We are not accurately informed how Mr. consisting of algebraical by him during the first nine years he was professor at Cambridge. Newton did not prove his rule. until. were published in 1707. Whiston came in possession of it. closer. at last. Sylvester established a remarkable general theorem which includes Newton s rule as a special case. the great number of profound and original views.

The same treatise is simply which enabled Mm. pp. for &quot. in an Newton s contains 5 &quot.divergent parabolas&quot. as soon as the in the series vary. then the the method of indeterminate expansion could be effected by The rule is still used in determining the infinite coefficients. and Cramer.&quot. in the Transactions of (vol. London Mathematical Society xx. and a few additional theorems have been discovered among the Portsmouth papers. equation. Murdoch. arranged in larger groups. Newton as to how he discovered it. f(x y) the variable y. five species He enunciates the remarkable theorem that the &quot. and afterwards added by Stirling. branches to curves. 104-143). since deduced his much Eecently we have of the analysis used by Newton results. gave no proof for it. which contains theorems on the theory of curves. independently. the tertii ordinis. give by cubic curve whatever. It is Newton begins Ms research on interesting to observe how the classification of cubic .NEWTON TO EULER. as an appendix to the OpticTcs. of classification. great utility of this rule lay in its deter law was of the series for. the their projection every It has been the subject of frequent tract contains no proofs. The parallelogram/ to find a series in powers of x equal to mining the form known by which the exponents .. W. An account of the four holograph man has been published by W. &quot. Enumeratio linearum In 1704 was published. by Kaestner and Cramer. nor any clue The proof was supplied half a century 37 later. the method of Vieta improved. &quot. which his com names genera and classes. or their figure at multiple points. Newton divides cubics into seventy- two species. } = 0. which he names conjecture how Newton gotten at the facts. mentators have supplied the former and seven (or four) of the recognising fourteen of the He overlooked six species demanded by his principles latter. As a rule. Eouse on this subject uscripts the Ball. 217 This of approximating to the roots of numerical equations.

He explained Society. which office he held until his death. the time of great discoveries was over he would study out questions propounded to him. His body was interred in &quot. of the mint. and in 1699 master. fits. and the law of cooling. He conducted a long series of experiments in optics and is the The last of a author of the corpuscular theory of light. Newton suffered from insomnia and nervous irritability. By him were invented the and by John Hadley) . gratulentur mortales tale tantumque exstitisse humani generis decus. reflecting telescope and the sextant (afterwards re-discovered by Thomas Godfrey He of Philadelphia 2 deduced a theoretical expression for the velocity of sound in air. gation after his sickness The most noted investi was the testing of his lunar theory by the observations of Flamsteed. and afterwards returns 36 again to analysis.218 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Space does not permit us to do more than merely mention Newton s prolonged researches in other departments of science. which he contributed to the Boyal &quot. In 1695 he was appointed warden. elaborates the theory of the decomposition of light and the theory of the rainbow. 1687. but. engaged in experiments on chemistry. and entered upon geological speculations. We pass to Leibniz. Some thought that he laboured under temporary mental aberration. where in 1731 a magnificent monument was erected. curves by the algebraic method. but no longer did he by his own accord . of papers number on optics.Westminster Abbey. During the two years following the close of 1692. magnetism. attacks the problem geometrically.&quot.&quot.Sibi also engraved on it. the second and independent inventor . the astronomer royal. Though he recovered his tranquillity and strength of mind. elasticity. It is not true that the Binomial Theorem is &quot. enter upon new fields of research. finding it laborious. bearing an inscription ending with.

to London. 219 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was of the calculus.NEWTON TO BULEB. In 1672 he was sent by Baron Boineburg on a political mission to Paris. bestow on the youthful genius an education hardly other wise obtainable during this darkest period of German history. Among these was Huygens. born in Leipzig. a philosopher and mathematician of local reputation.a method he had found on the summation of told series of numbers by their differences. Instruction in German universities was then very low. and remained there from January till March. We are told that a certain John Kuhn lectured on Euclid s Elements. to whom he explained. he applied himself with great diligence to every branch of knowledge. A distinguished men of the age. De Arte Combinatoria. but that his lectures were so obscure that none except Leibniz could understand them. He there formed the acquaintance of the most character. He was brought early in contact with the best of the culture then existing. In his fifteenth year he entered the University Though law was Ms principal study. Pell him that a similar formula had been published by Mouton . Erhard Weigel. and first led the gifted young German In 1673 Leibniz to the study of higher mathematics. in which he does not pass beyond the rudiments of mathematics. No period in the history of any civilised nation could have been less favourable for literary and scientific pursuits than the middle of the seventeenth century in Ger to Yet circumstances seem to have happily combined many. Other theses written by him at this time were metaphysical and juristical in fortunate circumstance led Leibniz abroad. for a half-year. the lectures of Later on. In 1666 Leibniz published a treatise. at Jena. Leibniz attended. who presented a copy of his work on the oscillation of the pendulum to Leibniz. of Leipzig. The higher mathematics was not taught at all. went He there became incidentally acquainted with the mathematician Pell.

Leibniz exhibited to the Koyal Society his arithmetical ma chine. the simplest curves only. as early as 1670. work on the rectification of the parabola.* which was similar to Pascal s. Leibniz investigated both problems for any curve he constructed what he called . Leibniz entered into a detailed study of the quadrature of curves and thereby became intimately acquainted with the higher mathematics. After his return to Paris. With indomitable energy set about removing his ignorance of higher mathematics. but more efficient and perfect. Huygens was highly pleased with it and urged him on to new investigations. he and Pascal. Gregory St. tne triangulum characteristicum an infinitely small triangle between the infinitely small part of the curve coinciding with the tangent. . and the differences of the ordinates and abscissas. In the study of Cartesian geometry the attention of Leibniz was drawn early to the direct and inverse problems of tan The direct problem had been solved by Descartes for gents. and then called his attention to Mercator s While in London. he had the leisure to study mathematics more systematically. Honorarius Fabri. Vincent. was his principal master. The more important parts of were embodied in articles published later in the Acta Eruditorum. written before This elegant series was found in the same he left Paris in 1676. but which was it never printed by him. He studied the geometric Huygens works of Descartes. while the inverse had completely transcended the power of his analysis. A careful study of infinite series led him to the discovery of the following expression for the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of the circle : way as Mercator s on the hyperbola. Among the papers of Leibniz is still found a manuscript on quadra tures.220 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

omn. also that the latter curves. All these results are contained in a manuscript of Leibniz. says: &quot.=*yL But the summation of these rectangles from zero on gives a right triangle equal to half the square of the ordinate. pa = omn. but appears to have been reinvented by Leibniz. infinitely small part of the abscissa) is : equal to the rectangle formed by the ordinate y and the ele ment I of that ordinate. using Cavalieri s notation. 2 Z This equation Leibniz first is especially interesting. hence I omn. the I. meaning omnia. written in as follows One mode used by him in effecting quadratures was The rectangle formed by a sub-tangent p and an element a (i. or in symbols. 221 A curve gent. But y = omn. he then writes the equation thus a.. all) . It was first employed by Barrow in Eng land. such as .2 Jj (omn. is liere characteristicum considered to be a polygon. The trianyulum is similar to the triangle formed by the tan the ordinate of the point of contact. yl = &7. this he deduced the simplest integrals. Erom. since it is here that introduces a \ new notation. I He be useful to write for omn.NEWTON TO EULER. I a = omn. I . he gets omn. : sum of the Z s &quot.e. [From it Leibniz observed the connection existing between the direct and inverse problems of tangents.It will that is. Thus. normal. as f for omn. as well as to that between the ordinate. and sub-normal. He saw could be carried back to the quadrature of 1673. and the subtangent. pa. .

Thus. or that of differences TO.222 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. 1675. id est. The calculus came to be. but years later. mously to the rapid a notation which contributed enor growth and perfect development of the calculus. of tangents In the solution of the third problem he changes his notation from d now usual notation dx. did he give further explanations of these sym bols. He found the cubical parabola to be the solution to the following: To find the curve in which the sub-normal is reciprocally proportional to the ordinate. if \ I = then I = ^. differentia inter duas x use the ten term differential. symbol because the lowering of the power of a term was brought about in ordinary calculation by division. Leibniz proceeded to apply his new calculus to the solution of certain problems then grouped together under the name of the Inverse Problems of Tangents. 39 giving the above is dated October 29th. was the memorable day on which the notation of the new would lower them. The correctness of his solution was tested by him by applying to the result Sluze s method and reasoning backwards to the to the original supposition. Leibniz nowhere significance of dx and dx dy. except at one place in a marginal et note: &quot. It may be a consolation to students wres tling with the elements of the differential calculus to know that it required Leibniz considerable thought and atten- . raises the Since tlie symbol of summation dimensions. The manuscript d. Eruditorum.Idem est E&quot. does d he -. J d d was at first placed by Leibniz in the denominator. always Not till in the Acta change an expression undergoes when the symbol f or d is placed before it. What he aimed at principally was to determine the difference. It is worthy of remark explains the that in these investigations. This. he J concluded that the opposite calculus.or proximas. then.&quot.

KEWTCXN&quot. too. TO ETJLEK. In course of a or. to Descartes Of these we mention only the celebrated problem proposed by De Beaune. who showed him . giving an expression for d(xy^). he concluded that the expressions were not the same. a most elegant &quot. y After considering these questions at the close of one of his manuscripts. yielded to the power of his new calculus. and the same as dy d~. He succeeded in solving all the special problems of this kind. Such was. In London he met Collins. the progress in the evolution of the new by Leibniz during his stay in Paris. and that thereby a more general solution than that of Descartes could be obtained. way by which the problems at least of the inverse methods of tangents are solved. or ! Thus he saw clearly that the are reduced to quadratures inverse problems of tangents could be solved by quadratures. a differential equation. he found the equation ydx^dHcy xdy. 1676. though he could not give the true value for each. so that it contained only dy. to find the curve whose sub-tangent as a given line is to that part of the ordinate which lies between the curve and a line drawn ordinate is to its from the vertex of the curve at a given inclination to the axis. in calculus made brief. half-year he discovered that the direct problem of tangents. &quot. in October. by the integral calculus. Leibniz returned to Hanover by way of London and Amsterdam. Before his depasture.Behold. in other words. in a manuscript dated November 21. and thereby led to the solution of the problem under considera tion. viz. Ten days later. 1675. which had been left unsolved by Descartes. From Paris. he found himself in possession of the most elementary rules and formulae of the infinitesimal calculus. which he observed to be true He succeeded also in eliminating dx from for all curves. dxdy is 223 tion 39 to determine whether the same as d(xy}.

and roots. Leibniz was a frequent contributor. but had made For d Vcc he had given the erroneous value : and in another place the value 4ar^ for d-z occurs in 2 one place the wrong value. who had studied mathematics in Paris with and who was familiar with the new analysis of Leibniz. V November. was a partial imitation of the French Journal des JSavans (founded in 1665). Ms scientific correspondence.224 a part of A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He had given the differentials of a few negative and fractional powers. . and the literary and scientific review published in Germany. and especially. or nine years after the new calculus first dawned upon the mind of Leibniz. and became satisfied that his own method of constructing tangents not only accomplished all that Sluze s did. as early as some mistakes. Fearing that Tschirnhaus might claim as his own and publish the notation and rules of the differential calculus. In 1684. Leibniz decided. to make public the fruits of his inventions. since it could be extended to three variables. and nineteen years after Newton first worked at fluxions. municated by Leibniz to Tschirnhaus during a controversy which they had had on this subject. products. but even more. since neither irrationals nor fractions prevented the immediate application of his method. a It journal usually known by the name of Leipzig Acts. 1677. at last. Leibniz gave correct rules for the differentiation of sums. Leibniz. which consists principally of subject-matter com Tschirnhaus. quotients. a few lines lower is -. In 1682 was founded in Berlin the Acta jEruditorum. its correct value. powers. later. In a paper of July 11. -r. published in the Acta Eroditorum a paper on quad ratures. while 3 given j ^ . by which tangent planes to surfaces could be found. Of this we shall speak In Amsterdam he discussed mathematics with Sluze. 1676.

is to the sub-tangent. The rules of calculation are briefly stated without been inferred from this that Leibniz himself infinitesimal quantities ? and the meaning of dx and dy is not made clear. the properties of curves could be fully expressed by equations. -all He paper on the was unwilling to give to the world first Ms his treasures.. made little impression upon the The mass of mathematicians. to have when he says We now call any line random dx. x* r &B + J V205 \ . then we designate the line which is to &quot. and then closes his article by giving his solution. Two years later (1686) Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorwm. differential calculus. 88 characterises the cycloid. in a few words. of De Beaune s problem. et singulars pro illis calculi genus. in what way a ray of light passing through two differently refracting media. He showed that by the use of his notation. but chose those parts of his least perspicuous. quae nee fraetas nee irra- tionales 5 quantitates moratur. now made public by his articles in the Leipzig Acts.&quot. in the Leipzig Acts. treated as infinitely small. In Germany no one comprehended . finite. It has had no definite on this subject. by his calculus. indeed. which is the difference of Leibniz then ascertains. Are dy and dx finite or and settled ideas been taken as selected at At first they appear. f( : work which were most abstruse and This epoch-making paper of only six pages bears the title et minimis. proof. : dx as y ?/. ISTova methodus pro maxiinis itemque tangentibus. and three years before the publication of Newton Leibniz published.HEWTON TO ETJLEB. great invention of Leibniz. by dy. Thus the equation y * = -V2x . can travel easiest from one point to another . a paper containing the rudiments of The quantities dx and dy are there the integral calculus. 225 s Principia.

new calculus except Tschirnhaus. He wrote on osculating curves. first instance of a &quot. The latter wrote Leibniz a the Swiss James Bernoulli. wishing to be initiated into the mysteries of the new analysis. singular solution. and anticipations of since prominent methods. Leibniz carried on an extensive correspondence with them.&quot. as well as with other mathematicians. introduced the first notion of determinants in his effort to simplify the expression arising in the elimination of the unknown the He quantities from a set of linear equations. Thus he made use of variable parameters. The first to recognise its importance and to take up the study of it the Scotchman TJiomas Craige. among other things. Leibniz was then travelling abroad. ferent to letter in 1687. one of which contains for the first time the terms co-ordinate and axes of co-ordinates. In a letter to John Bernoulli he suggests. it. who remained indif The author s statements were too short and suc cinct to make the calculus generally understood.226 the A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in un covering the secrets of the differential calculus without assist so that this letter remained unanswered ance. The writings of Leibniz contain many innovations. till 1^)0. science with a success declare that it was as John proved to be mathematicians They applied themselves to the new and to an extent which made Leibniz much theirs as his. meanwhile. and were two foreigners. and laid the foundation to the theory of envelopes in two papers. that the integral calculus be improved by reducing integrals back to certain fundamental irreducible forms. He and his brother of exceptional power. resorted to the device of breaking up certain fractions into he other fractions for the purpose of easier integration he gave the explicitly assumed the principle of continuity . laid the foundation of analysis in situ. The integration of logarithmic expressions was then studied. but his paper contained the . by close application. James Bernoulli succeeded. sum of .

metrica he says only this &quot. while those devoted to mathematics have very few notes. . Anatomica. contain extensive memoranda. etc. Figurarum geometricarum explicatio per motum puncti in moto lati. some are valuable. Botaniea. or was he a plagiarist ? We must begin with the early correspondence between the Fewfcon had begun using parties appearing in this dispute.&quot. Mechanica. Magnetica. Evidently Leibniz did not obtain a knowledge of fluxions during this visit to London.&quot. Observata Philoso1673. Newton is referred to only under Optica. The question was. 1673. Before tracing the further development of the calculus we shall sketch the history of that long and bitter controversy between English and Continental mathematicians on the inven tion of the calculus. Under G-eo- : Tangentes omnium figurarum. coefficient of the product of two functions of a Of his many papers on mechanics. Medica. nor is it claimed that he did by his opponents.NEWTON TO EULEB. while others contain grave errors. but not admitted by that an osculating circle will Mm) necessarily cut a curve in four consecutive points. his notation of fluxions in 1666. They are headed &quot. error (pointed out by 227 John Bernoulli. The first visit of Leibniz to London extended from the llth of January until March. 41 In 1669 Barrow sent Collins Newton s tract. He was in the habit of com mitting to writing important scientific communications received In 1890 Gerhardt discovered in the royal library at Hanover a sheet of manuscript with notes taken by Leibniz from others. Miscellanea. We suspect from this that Leibniz had read Barrow s lectures. The sheet The sections given to Chymica. phica in itinere Anglicano sub initium anni is divided by horizontal lines into sections. did Leibniz invent it independently of JSTewton. 40 during this journey. De Analysi per Equationes. Well known is his theorem on the nth differential variable.

which extended to the circle. that he possessed very general analytical methods.Having &quot.&quot. he explained the principle. and the use of the differential calculus. without any desire of concealment. by which he had found theorems of great importance on the quadrature of the In answer. Leibniz announced in 1674 to Oldenburg. The first contained the Binomial Theorem and a variety of other mat- and quadratures. Leibniz desired to have these methods communicated to him. wrote to the former the celebrated letters of June 13 and October 24. state that Newton invented a method by which tangents could be drawn without the necessity of freeing their equations from irrational terms. and vice versa. Oldenburg stated circle by means of series.Data sequatione quotcunque fluentes involvente fluxiones invenire. any given equation involving never so many flowing Surely this quantities. Newton and James Gregory had also discovered methods of quadratures. to find the fluxions. tioned explains the Newton in his second letter just men way in which he found the Binomial Theorem. but nothing on the method of fluxions. Collins. and Newton. 1676. -letters of Newton. and requests ters relating to infinite series further explanation.228 Various A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. in which. et vice versa.&quot. up to the beginning of 1676. and others. at the request of Oldenburg and Collins. and also communicates his method of fluxions and fluents in form of an anagram in which all the letters in the sentence communicated were placed in alphabetical order. Leibniz in reply speaks directly in the highest terms of what Newton had done. hint. anagram afforded no The death of Oldenburg brought this correspondence to a . Thus Newton says that his method of drawing tangents was Gaccdce IBejf 7i 31 9n 40 4qrr 4s 9t 12vx.) Leibniz wrote a reply to Collins. then secretary of the Eoyal Society. quantitates (&quot. notation. The sentence was.

the calculus of No rivalry or Leibniz was spreading over the Continent.NEWTO2ST TO EULEB. that most distinguished man wrote back that he had also fallen upon a method of the same kind. name of Leibniz s Calculus Differentialis. communicated only to a few friends. 1687. and secondly. great progress was made in the calculus by Leibniz and his coadjutors. so that while Newton s claim to the priority of invention must be admitted by all. in Holland with great applause by the &quot. etc. &quot. while Newton s invention remained a secret. hostility existed. and when I in transposed letters involving this sentence (Data concealed gequatione. G. Prop. : plain and obvious meaning. G-.&quot. the brothers James and John Bernoulli. except in his forms of words and symbols. Leibniz. when I signified that I was in the knowledge of a method of determining maxima and minima. first edition. 229 Nothing material happened till 1684. it must also be granted that Leibniz was the first to give the full benefit of the calcu lus to the world.. Accordingly Wallis stated in the preface to a volume of his works that the calculus differen- . when Leibniz published his first paper on the differential calculus in the Leipzig Acts. of drawing tangents. As regards this passage. close. In 1695 Wallis informed Newton by he had heard that his notions of fluxions passed &quot. Thus. yet. and the it like. 7. and letter that Marquis de PHospital. as De Morgan says First. to deny the &quot. we shall see that Newton was after wards weak enough. Newton expressed a very favourable opinion of Leibniz s inventions.^ On the Continent.. scholium) : In letters which went between me and that most excellent geometer. which hardly differed from mine. in the following celebrated scholium (Prmcipia. and communicated his method. above cited). to omit it entirely from the third edition of the Principia. ten years ago. as between the illustrious scientists. known to him through the above correspondence with Oldenburg. Book II.

reminded the reader of Newton s own admission in the scholium above cited. stated in a mathematical paper. adding that. was Newton s method of fluxions which letters. But in 1699 Fato For fifteen de Duillier.230 tialis A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. 40 The one bearing on our question is headed &quot. had been communicated of Wallis review works. A feeling had doubtless had seen the the letters first distinct insinuation of plagiarism. This was It would seem that the English mathematicians had for some time been cherishing suspicions unfavourable to Leibniz. he would leave to the judgment of those who viction that and manuscripts of Newton. him among the letters and papers of Collins. This part was evidently new to him. the second inventor.Excerpta ex tractatu Newtoni Msc. had or might have seen among the papers of Collins cequationes. which contained appli cations of the fluxionary method.. had borrowed anything from the other. a Swiss. of which there is an almost complete copy. the other parts did not particularly him. The note of whatever interested notes are very brief. Leibniz certainly did see at least he took part of this tract. etc. to Leibniz in the Oldenburg A years Leibniz had enjoyed unchallenged the honour of being the inventor of his calculus.&quot. who had settled in England. His memoranda discovered by Gerhardt in 1849 in the Hanover library fill two sheets. presented to the Royal Society. During the week spent in Newton s Analysis per London. If he examined Newton s entire tract. during his second visit to London in 1676. By the previous intro- . in the Leipzig Acts for 1696. long prevailed that Leibniz. whether Leibniz. de Analysi per sequationes numero terminorum infinitas. excepting those De Resolutions cequationum qffectarum. but no systematic develop ment or explanation of it. his con Newton was the first inventor. From it he seems to have impress gained nothing per taining to the infinitesimal calculus.

&quot. first inventor of fluxions and that the same calculus was afterward published by Leibniz. In the Quadrature of Curves. Here the affair rested for some time. he claimed that Newton was the &quot. on the contrary. the the name and mode of notation being changed. professor of astronomy at Oxford. Nothing mathematical that he had received engaged his thoughts in the immediate future. and who appeared to be quite satisfied with Newton s admis sion in his scholium. Keill was not made to retract his accusation. who had never contested the priority of Newton s discovery. This was considered by New ton s friends an imputation of plagiarism on the part of their chief. controversy. 231 duction of his own algorithm he had made greater progress than by what eaine to his knowledge in London. now appears for the first time in the He made an animated reply in the Leipzig Acts. Leibniz thereupon complained that the charge was now more open than . This he did in a long letter.HEWTON TO EULEB. ]by Leibniz. was authorised by Newton and the Eoyal Society to explain and defend his statement. In 1T05 appeared an unfavourable review of this in the Leipzig Acts. Leibniz complained to the secretary of the Royal Society of bad treat ment and requested the interference of that body to induce Keill to disavow the intention of imputing fraud. stating that Newton uses and always has used fluxions for the differences of Leibniz. Duillier s insinuations lighted up a name of discord which a whole century was hardly sufficient to extinguish. a formal exposition of the method and notation of fluxions was made public. for on his way back to Holland he com posed a lengthy dialogue on mechanical subjects. under took with more zeal than judgment the defence of Newton. In a paper inserted in the Philosophical Transactions of 1708. and complained to the Royal Society of the injustice done him. for the first time. Leibniz. published 1704. but this interpretation was always strenuously resisted ELeill.

A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Yet there runs throughout the document a desire of proving Leibniz guilty of more than Leibniz protested only in they meant positively to affirm. April 9. private letters against that he would not answer an argument so weak. In a letter to Conti. appeared in 1725. and additional notes by Keill. which was published later in an anonymous tract. The Eoyal Society. Collins. November 14. seeing accusations which he must have known to be false. Leibniz again reminded Newton of the admission he had made in the scholium. the proceeding of the Eoyal Society. and appealed for justice to the Eoyal Society and to Newton himself. Wallis. 1716. with a Eecensio prefixed. but that. appointed a large mass of documents mostly letters from and to upon This report. Newton did not reply to this letter. Keill replied. which he was now disavowing. friends of to the gives the following explanation pertaining scholium in question: &quot.232 before. Leibniz also states that he him connive at always believed Newton. called the etc. thus appealed to as a a committee which collected and reported judge. stolen the method. Newton. it was desirous of natural that he (Leibniz) should begin to doubt. The that final conclusion in the Commerdum Epistolicum was Newton was the first inventor. and then Newton and Leibniz appear as mutual accusers in several letters addressed to third parties. is as decidedly unfair towards John Newton as the friends of the latter had been towards Leibniz. in the year 1712 and again Commerdum Hpistolicum. declaring Bernoulli. But this was not to the The question was not whether Newton was the first point. but whether Leibniz had committee had not formally ventured to assert their belief that Leibniz was a plagiarist. 1716. but circulated some remarks among his which he published immediately after hearing This paper of the death of Leibniz. in a letter to Leibniz. Leibniz.He [Leibniz] pretends that in my Newton . The inventor.

233 book of principles I allowed him the invention of the calculus differentialis. in six volumes. But in the paragraph there referred unto I do not find one word to this purpose. to have furthered the progress of mathematics. Perhaps the most tell evidence to show that Leibniz was an independent inven ing tor is found in the study of his mathematical papers really (collected and edited by C. but now it is generally ad mitted by nearly all familiar with the matter. I. De Morgan. this invention to myself is contrary to in its place another. 1725. . &quot.&quot. which point out a gradual and natural evolution of the rules of the calculus in his There was through a confusion between dispute. my knowledge there avowpd. is through the challenge problems by which each side attempted to annoy its adversaries. The loss in point of scientific advantage was almost entirely on the side of Britain. until about 1820. . out the whole own mind. The only way in which this dispute may be said.&quot. Berlin.&quot. s The English adhered closely to Newton methods and. in most cases. This controversy is to be regretted it and all bitter alienation which on account of the long produced between English and It stopped almost completely Continental mathematicians. in a small measure. ignorant of the brilliant mathematical discoveries that were being made on the Continent. lus of fluxions or differentials that is. Newton omitted the scholium and substituted which the name of Leibniz does not appear. In the third edition of the .NEWTON TO BTJLBE. remained. independently of my own and that to attribute . in Principm. interchange of ideas on scientific subjects. that Leibniz was an independent inventor. National pride and party feeling long prevented the adoption of impartial opinions in England. 18491860). Gerhardt. says the knowledge of fluxions or differentials and that of a calcu &quot. a digested method with general rules.

problem pro it the same evening on which it was delivered to him. &quot. criticised by fessedly aimed at the English. and was. on that account. to feel the pulse of the English mathema ticians. although he was much fatigued by the day s work at the mint. not intended as defiances. and John Bernoulli. to describe a curve which shall cut them all at right angles) had leonein. find the curve along Such was the problem of the isochronous curve (to which a body falls with uniform velocity). Brook Taylor undertook the defence of it. as published. himself. His solution. been long proposed in the Acta Eruditorum.&quot. and himself. proposed by him to the Cartesians in 1687. and solved by James Bernoulli. Leibniz Newton. The recurring practice of issuing challenge problems was inaugurated at this time by Leibniz. but merely as exercises in the new cal culus.284 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. one point solved it to the day he received it. and Newton s appeared anony mously in the Philosophical Transactions. . This may be considered as the first defiance Newton solved Bernoulli as being of no value. was a general plan of an investigation rather than an actual solution. another in the shortest possible time. It was again proposed in 1716 by Leibniz. de PHospital. to find the curve (the cycloid) along which a body falls from suspended freely from its Leibniz. James Ber noulli proposed in the Leipzig Journal the question to find the curve (the catenary) formed by a chain of uniform weight It was resolved by ends. &quot. but failed at first to receive much attention.&quot. at first. ungne The problem of orthogonal trajectories (a system of curves described by a known law being given. They were. In 1697 John Bernoulli challenged the best mathematicians in Europe to solve the difficult problem. but ended by using very reprehensible language. but it John Bernoulli he says. the two Bernoullis gave solutions. Huygens.ex recognised in his powerful mind.tanquam.

The explanations of the fundamental principles of the cal culus. and made a Not long afterwards Taylor sent an open de bitter reply. The latter resolved the question in very short time. as given by Newton and Leibniz. peatedly offered to send his solution to a confidential person Keill never in London. fiance to Continental mathematicians of a problem on the integration of a fluxion of complicated form which was known to very few geometers in England and supposed to be beyond the power of their adversaries. . In 1694 Bernard Nieuwentyt of Holland denied These In his the existence of differentials of higher orders and objected to the practice of neglecting infinitely small quantities. The The a medium Keill boldly challenged Bernoulli to produce a solution. he re velocity. At interpretation of dx one time they appear in his In the writings as finite lines then they are called infinitely small . not only for a resistance proportional to the square. but to any power of the Suspecting the weakness of the adversary. Without first making sure that he himself could solve it. 235 Bernonlli was not to be outdone in incivility. and Bernoulli abused him and cruelly exulted 26 over him. and most unskilful challenge was by John Keill. It served only to display the skill last and augment the triumph of the followers of Leibniz. provided Keill would do the same. -^ in geometry could be expressed reply he said the value of as the ratio of finite quantities. quarters. lacked clearness and For that reason it met with opposition from several rigour.NEWTON TO ETJLEB. problem was to find the path of a projectile in which resists proportionally to the square of the velocity. made a reply. objections Leibniz was not able to meet satisfactorily. The selection was injudicious. and dy Leibniz vacillated. for Bernoulli had long before explained the method of this and similar integrations.

the eminent metaphysician. for &quot. 1695-1726 Daniel. 1687-1759 Johann. from quantitates assignabiles by the law of continuity. James and . last presentation Leibniz approached nearest to In England the principles of fluxions were boldly attacked by Bishop Berkeley. 1700-1782 Johann. The family of Bernoullis furnished in course of a century eight members who distinguished themselves in mathematics. and again. John. They and Euler made Basel Among in Switzerland famous as the cradle of great mathematicians.&quot. The reply made by Jurin failed to remove all the Berkeley was the first to point out what was objections. with great acuteness.&quot. 1667-1748 Nicolaus. again shown later by Lazare Garnet.the between terms absolutely evanescent ghosts of de was absurd and unin as he called them parted quantities. Berkeley s attack was the immediate cause of the work on fluxions by Maclaurin. that correct answers were telligible. contending. 1654-1705 Nicolaus Nicolaus. who argued which spring In this Newton. reached by a compensation of was not devoid of good results. 1744-1807 Jacob. that the fundamental idea of supposing a finite ratio to exist &quot. quantitates inassignabiles. following genealogical table : We subjoin the Nicolaus Bernoulli. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 1710-1790 Daniel Johann. the Father Jacob. the son of. it the most vigorous promoters of the calculus on the Continent were the Bernoullis.236 quantities. In France Michel Rolle rejected the differential calculus and had a controversy with Varignon on the subject. errors. among other things. and Daniel. 1758-1789 Most celebrated were the two brothers Jacob (James) and Johann (John).

we meet for the first time with the word Leibniz had called the integral calculus calculus integral.&quot. James ness of Leibniz proposed the problem of the catenary. He studied the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals. He was the first to give a solution to Leibniz s problem of the isochronous curve.&quot.numbers . in the last of which the ({ volaria. and solved the more complicated problems. interested in the calculus. at one end and bent by a weight applied to the other end of the &quot. is a development of the calculus of probabilities and contains the investigation now called &quot. James Bernoulli (1654-1705) was born in Basel. imetrical figures.Bernoulli s theorem and the so-called &quot.lintearia. Of these problems he John gave of the &quot. then proved the correct s construction of this curve. which &quot. formed by an elastic plate or rod fixed . He determined the shape elastic curve &quot. a flexible rectangular plate with two sides fixed horizontally at the same height. he took particular delight from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions.&quot. and in 1701 published his own solution. (3) acted upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre. Following the example of Archimedes. wrote a work on Ars Conjectandi. filled with a liquid . of a rectangular sail filled with wind. published in the Acta Eruditorum. Becoming without aid from a teacher. 237 John were staunch friends of Leibniz and worked hand in hand with him. he mastered it From 1687 until his death he occupied the mathematical chair at the University of Basel. while his brother in addition their theory. 1690. he willed that the curve be en graved upon his tombstone with the inscription eadem mutata In 1696 he proposed the famous problem of isoperresurgo. published answers without explanations. supposing the string to be (1) of variable density. (2) extensible. He &quot.NEWTON TO BULEB. summatoriuS) but in 1696 the term calculus integralis was agreed upon between Leibniz and John Bernoulli. In his solution.

one was printed in 1713. He immensely enriched the integral calculus by his labours. and de PHospital. After his brother death he attempted to substitute a disguised solution of the former for an incorrect one of his own. studied caustic curves prizes by the and trajectories. John admired the merits of Leibniz and Euler. Cassini. For ten years he occupied the mathematical chair at Groningen and then succeeded his brother at Basel. mathematical publi- . and violent toward all who incurred his dislike even his own brother and son. James convicted s him of several paralogisms. Several times he was given Academy of Science in Paris. where he met Malebranche. Yarignon. John Bernoulli (1667-1748) was initiated into mathematics by his brother. the other two in 1744. but was blind to those of Newton. De Lahire. He afterwards visited France. the line swiftest descent. in three volumes. He was one of the most enthusiastic teachers and most successful original inves tigators of his time. He was a member of almost every learned society in Europe.&quot. He had a bitter dispute with James on the isoperimetrical problem. Nicholas Petersburg. as his discoveries. the where he assumed the chair His first of experimental philosophy. He treated trigonometry by the analytical method.238 of Bernoulli. unfair. The former soon died in the prime of life. and its beautiful relation to the path described by a ray passing through strata of variable density. His controversies were almost as numerous He was ardent in his friendships. of his collected works. which are in fact (though not so considered by nl x in the expansion of (e Mm) the coefficients of I)- 1 . his sons. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Of of and Daniel were appointed professors mathematics at the same time in the Academy of St. Among of his discoveries are the exponential calculus. latter returned to Basel in 1733. but mean.

was appointed mathematical professor in the Academy Petersburg. results more in accordance with our ordinary notions than the theory of mathematical prob His moral expectation has become classic. to insurance one ever makes use of it. professorship the propagation of light. . Johami Bernoulli was appointed astronomer (born 1744) at the age of nineteen afterwards director .of the mathematical royal at Berlin. Micolaus magnet) in the Jofcann Bernoulli (born 1710) succeeded his father mathematics at Basel. previously performed by his uncle Jacob. Leibniz. His brother Jacob himself the duties of the chair of experimental physics at and later Basel. some other mathemati Newton. He which he thought would give &quot. He captured three of Bernoulli (born 1687) held for a time the mathematical chair at Padua which Galileo had once filled. and the of GuiUaume Francois Antoine 1 Hospital (1661-1704). He and Euler enjoyed the honour of having gained or shared no less than ten prizes from the Academy of Sciences in Paris. but no ability. now be made cians belonging to the period of elder Bernoullis. &quot. His investiga tions on probability are remarkable for their boldness and He proposed the theory of moral expectation. tlie was Baccati. and the prizes (on the capstan. from the Academy of Sciences at Paris. Brief mention will at St. to determine how much inoculation lengthens the average duration of life. a pupil . and took upon department of the Academy.TO EULEB. cation 239 solution of a differential equation proposed by wrote a work on hydrodynamics. He applies the theory of probability to determine the mortality caused by small-pox various stages of life to determine the number of survivors at . He showed how the differential calculus could be used in the theory of probability. at a given age from a given number of births . originality.

240 of A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the first systematic treatise on finite 1758) in 1717 issued differences. He shows how to find the tan all gents. the which was to show that most investigations on curves could be carried on with the analysis of Descartes quite as easily as with the calculus. De Moivre. interested in finite differences was Pierre Raymond de Montmort number of He (1678-1719). Bernoulli. asymptotes. His innovations stand in close relation with modern synthetic geometry. geometer wrote in 1740 a object of Jean Paul de Gua (1713-1785) gave the demonstration now given in books. He helped powerfully in making the calculus of Leibniz better John known to the treatise thereon in 1696. sums of a considerable wrote also on roulettes. A mathematician who clung to the methods of the ancients Desargues. of Descartes rule of signs. on . Also particularly spherical epicycloids. a pupil of His work on conic sections is purely synthetic. His chief writings. He wrote on roulettes. in which he finds the interesting series. but differs from ancient treatises in deducing the properties of conies from those of the circle in the same manner as did was Philippe de Lahire (1640-1718). mass of mathematicians by the publication of a This contains for the first time the method of finding the limiting value of a fraction . and their rectification. Desargues and Pascal. has already been mentioned as taking part in the challenges issued by Leibniz and the Bernoullis. delicate problem of how Joseph Saurin (1659-1737) solved the to determine the tangents at the Francois Nicole (1683multiple points of algebraic curves. on the theory of probabil ity. whose two terms tend toward zero at the same time Another zealous French advocate of the calculus was Pierre Varignon (1654-1722). and proved by perspective that several of these points can be at infinity. This skilful work on analytical geometry. and various singular points of curves of degrees. served to stimulate his more distinguished successor.

and gave us a method of transform named after him. His studies and hyperbola are the start ing-points of the theory of elliptic functions. called equation. experimented on metallic reflectors and large burning-glasses. In Germany the only noted contemporary of Leibniz is Ehrenfried Walter TscMrnhausen (1631-1708). Of Italian mathematicians. 1754) is Eiccati s ? Eiccati and Fagnano must not Jacopo Francesco. single mathematician of note. algebra. who discovered the caustic of reflection. that two arcs of an ellipse can be found in an in definite number of ways. pedantic scholasticism. graphical squares. professor at Halle. was ambitious to figure as successor of forced the ingenious ideas of Leibniz into a Leibniz. geometrician of remarkable power was Giulio Carlo. Count Riccati (1676best known in connection with his problem. He discovered the fol He A lowing formula. epicycloids. Believing that the most methods (like those of the ancients) are the most simple correct.NEWTON TO EULER. whose difference is expressible by a right line. published in the Acta Eruditorum in 1724. and on magic is the author of a theorem named after him. Count de Fagnano (1682-1766). succeeded in integrating this differential equation for some special cases. he concluded that in the researches relating to the ing equations properties of curves the calculus might as well be dispensed with. 7r =2nog^_^ 1 -j- in which he anticipated Euler on the in the use of imaginary exponents rectification of the ellipse and logarithms. 241 methods. and . but he &quot. After the death of Leibniz there was in Germany not a Christian Wolf (1679-1754). for instance. remain unmentioned. He showed. and had the unenviable reputation of having presented the elements of the arithmetic. Michel Rolle (1652-1719) conchoids.

&quot. London. 1715-1717. Brook Taylor (1685-1731) was interested in of learning. I6 spirit The contemporaries and immediate successors of Newton in Great Britain were men of no mean merit. we owe&quot. religious many branches and in the latter part of his and philosophic speculations. He made many important applications of it. added a new branch to mathematics. Taylor. We have refer ence to Cotes. Methodus incrementorum directa et inversa. Har- monia Mensumrum. and &quot. then the locus of In this OE OR be OEn . His mathematical papers were published after his fessorship at Trinity College. Newton exclaimed. Chief among the admirers of forming of factors of x Newton were Taylor and Maclaurin. If Cotes had lived.24-2 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. We are told that at the death of Roger Cotes (1682-1716). a theorem in trigonometry which depends on the work logarithms and the n 1. par ticularly to the study of the form of movement of vibrating . life engaged mainly in His principal work. Bentley that Cotes thing. there be taken a point It.&quot. for into the of them he was quite unable to penetrate. The quarrel between English and Continental mathematicians caused them to work quite independently of their great contemporaries across the Channel. now called finite differ ences. through a fixed point : 0. Maclaurin. death by Eobert Smith. such that the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of OE^ 2} will be a straight line. of course only in outward form. we might have known some It was at the request of Dr. &quot. undertook the publication of the second edition of Newton s Principia. his successor in the Plunibian pro The title of the work. Be Moivre. R progress was made in the application of To Cotes properties of the circle to the calculus of fluents. analysis developed since the time of the Renaissance in the form of Euclid. was suggested by the following theorem contained in it If on each radius vector.

FBWTON TO EULER. strings. etc.Taylor s theorem/ the importance of which was not recognised by analysts for over fifty years. Taylor s work contains the first correct explanation of astro He wrote also a work on linear per nomical refraction. cut the curve in JS13 R% etc. he published in 1719 his Geometria Organica. The first rigorous proof was given a century later by Cauchy. and at these points tangents be drawn. a line be drawn meeting the curve in n points. De Linearum geometricarum theorems : Proprietatibus. then S -=S OM OT theorem are generalisations of theorems of Newton. A second tract. Maclaurin uses these in his treatment of curves of the second and third degree. published in 1714. first 243 reduced to mechanical principles by Mm. the s : first is the theorem of Cotes based upon two the second is . until Lagrange pointed out its power. This work contains also &quot. known by his name. His proof of it does not consider the question of convergency. suffers for want of fulness and clearness of expression.. was elected professor of mathe matics at Aberdeen at the age of nineteen by competitive examination. like his other writings.. a treatise which. is remarkable It is for the elegance of its demonstrations. and is quite worthless. culminating in the remarkable theorem that if a quadrangle has its vertices and the two points of intersection of its opposite sides upon a curve of the . 1720. He s and. At the age of twenty-three he gave a remarkable solution of the problem of the centre of oscillation. discoveries. inspired by Newton enjoyed the friendship of Newton. and in 1725 succeeded James Gregory at the Uni priority Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746) versity of Edinburgh. His claim to was unjustly disputed by John Bernoulli. and if any other line through Maclaurin If through any point and the system of n tangents in r1? r2 This and Cotes . containing a new and remarkable mode of generating conies. spective.

move so and if all its summits except one describe curves of the degrees m. p. respectively. manded the liveliest admiration of Lagrange. contained for the first time the correct way of distinguishing between maxima and minima. third degree. by rigorous exposition. in which he employs ancient but a particular case Appended to the treatise on Fluxions is methods with such consummate skill as to induce Clairaut to abandon analytic methods and to attack the problem of the His solutions com figure of the earth by pure geometry. answer such attacks as Berke The Fluxions ley s that the doctrine rested on fals$ reasoning. Newton had given this theorem without proof. If a polygon tension of this theorem (Phil Trans.. Not withstanding the genius of Mac laurin. Pascal The following is his ex s theorem on the hexagram. then. n. Maclaurin wrote on an Algebra. and showed that a homogeneous liquid mass revolving uniformly around an axis under the action of gravity must assume the form of an ellipsoid of revolution. the solution of a number of beautiful geometric. he induced his countrymen to neglect analysis and to be indifferent to the . and thus.Maclaurin s theorem&quot.. The object of pedal curves.244 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Maclaurin in vestigated the attraction of the ellipsoid of revolution. the fixed points all lie on a straight line. and explained their use in the theory of multiple points. his influence on the progress of mathematics in Great Britain was unfortunate.&quot. He is the author of his treatise on Fluxions was to found the doctrine of fluxions on geometric demonstrations after the manner of the ancients. mechanical. was pre viously given by James Stirling. &quot. Taylor s theorem. by his example. for. the tangents drawn at two opposite vertices He deduced independently cut each other on the curve. 1735) that each of its sides passes through a fixed point. etc. and astronomical problems. and of is &quot. then the free summit moves on a : which reduces to mnp when curve of the degree 2 mnp .

where he gave lessons in mathematics. and his extension of the value of Bernoulli s theorem by the aid 42 His chief works are the Doctrine of of Stirling s theorem. 1730. the Miscellanea Analytica. 1716. but was compelled to leave France at the age of eighteen. Shortly before his death he was necessary for him to sleep ten or twenty minutes longer every day. in the Philosophical Transactions.NEWTON TO wonderful progress in tinent. and Ms papers . He settled in London. tlie 245 Mglier analysis made on Con who was speak of Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754). declared that it ematician lay in analytic rather than geometric investigation. his Theory of Recurring Series. De Moivre enjoyed the friendship of ISTewton and Halley. His power as a math St. His subsistence was latterly on the solution of questions on games of chance and dependent of giving problems on probabilities. The day after he had reached the total of over twenty-three hours. on the Revocation of the Edict of Kantes. His Chances. which he was in the habit at a tavern in Martin s Lane. tlie ETJLER. His work on the theory anything done by any other mathematician except Laplace. He revolutionised higher trigonometry by the discovery of the theorem known by his name and by extending the theorems on the multiplication and division of sectors from the circle to the of probability surpasses hyperbola. he slept exactly twenty-four hours and then passed away in his sleep. He lived to the advanced age of eighty-seven and sank into a It remains for us to of state of almost total lethargy. Erench descent. his investigations respecting principal contributions are the Duration of Play.

but. on the other hand. to some extent. and this they developed to a wonderful degree.246 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Euler. had been directed toward the solution of problems of clothed in geometric garb. analysis. Legendre. very brightest periods of all England and Germany. Laplace. Mathematical studies among the English and German people had sunk to the lowest ebb. her . from geometry and established it as an Lagrange and Laplace scrupulously Building on the broad fertility of foun dation laid for higher analysis and mechanics by jSTewton and Leibniz. during the unproductive period in France had their JSTewton and Leibniz. analytical calculus independent adhered to this separation. and Monge. ]STo previous period had shown such an array of illustrious names. At this time Switzerland had her Euler France. Lagrange. EULEB. AND LAPLACE. Lagrange. was ill-chosen. and the results were usually reduced to geometric form. even on the conti nent. The mediocrity of French mathematics which marked the time of Louis XIV. Euler. During the epoch of ninety years from 1730 to 1820 the French and Swiss cultivated mathematics with most brilliant success. the direction of original research The former adhered with excessive partiality Among them to ancient geometrical binatorial school. and Laplace lay in higher . During the preceding period the effort of mathematicians not only in England. was now followed by one of the. could now boast of no great mathematician. erected . calculation A change now took place. The them labours of methods the latter produced the com which brought forth nothing of value. By analysis came to be completely severed from geometry. which history. Euler brought about an emancipation of the science. France now waved the mathematical sceptre. with matchless mind. LAGKANGE.

and thus. During the former period we witness mainly a development with refer Placing almost implicit confidence in results of calculation. LAGRA3TG-E. and Elliptic Integrals by Legendre. But in recent times there has been added to the dexterity in the formal treatment of problems. . largely ex tending and supplementing the labours of ISTewton. and were thus led to general propositions. or of which he did not share the honour of invention. good example of this increased rigour is seen in A the present use of infinite series as compared to that of Euler. Comparing the growth of analysis at this time with the growth during the time of Gauss. AND LAPLACE. an elaborate structure. 247 There are few great ideas pursued by succeeding analysts which were not suggested by Euler. gave a full analytical discussion of the solar system. The ostracism minds of of geometry. ence to form. With. to be true in only special The Combinatorial School . brought about by the master Indeed. perhaps. could not last permanently. and of Lagrange in his earlier works. a much-needed rigour of demon stration. but with more comprehensive genius and profounder reasoning. and recent mathe maticians. some of which have since been found cases. mathematicians did not always pause to discover rigorous proofs.EULER. He also wrote an Among the analytical branches created during this period are the calculus of Varia tions by Euler and Lagrange. Cauchy. we observe an important difference. Spherical Harmonics by La place and Legendre. less exuberance of invention. a this period. La place applied the calculus and mechanics to the elaboration of the theory of universal gravitation. Lagrange developed the infinitesimal calculus and placed analytical mechanics into the form in which we now know it. epoch-marking work on Probability. in Germany carried this tendency to the greatest extreme they worshipped formalism and paid no attention to the actual contents of formulae.

Madam. where he became a In his nineteenth year he favourite pupil of John Bernoulli. Soon after his return to Eussia he became blind. in 1733. school sprang into existence in France before Lagrange would not permit a single new geometric diagram to the close of this period. Gr&ometrie descriptive. who received him kindly. in 1727. gave him his first instruction in mathematics and then sent him to the University of Basel.248 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. for which several eminent mathematicians had demanded some months time. it is is speaks. was assigned to the chair of mathematics. they induced Catharine I. to St. After his call to Berlin by Frederick the Great in 1747. Monge published his epoch-making Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was bom in Basel. a dissertation on the masting of ships. one Euler naively replied. With still superior methods this same problem was solved later by the 47 illustrious Gauss in one hour The despotism of Anne I. wondered how so distinguished a scholar should be so timid and reticent. the queen of Prussia. proposed by the Academy. Daniel and Nicolaus. went to Russia. which continued for seventeen years. because I come from a country where. when one In 1766 he with difficulty obtained hanged. But the effort threw him into a fever and deprived him of the use of his right eye. His father.&quot. Petersburg. but thirteen years before his death. which re composed ceived the second prize from the French Academy of Sciences. permission to depart from Berlin to accept a call by Catha rine II.. appear in his M&canique analytique. &quot. When John Bernoulli s two sons. where Daniel. caused the gentle Euler to shrink from public affairs and to ! devote all his time to science. was achieved in three days by Euler with aid of improved methods of his own. but this did not stop his wonderful literary productiveness. to invite their friend Euler to St. until the . In 1735 the solving of an astrono mical problem. Petersburg. a minister.

and contained not only a full summary of everything then . LAGRANGE. are the following : a work that caused a revolution in analytical mathematics. Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas maximi minimive proprietate gaudentes. and Institutiones calculi integraliSj 1768-1770. 45 basis. displaying an amount of mathematical genius seldom rivalled.ETJLER. though purely elementary. are his chief works on astronomy Ses de une princesse d Allemagne et sur quelques sujets Physique de Philosophic. 1753. known on this subject. 1755. lunce. C. and the theory of geodesies (subjects which had previously engaged the attention * of the elder Bernoullis and others) . mention the principal innovations and inven He treated trigonometry as a branch of analysis. 249 He dictated to Ms servant Ms Anleitung zur Algebra. and the . is meri torious as one of the earliest attempts to put the fundamental day of Ms death. which. a subject which had hitherto never been presented in so general and systematic manner Institutiones calculi differentialis. B. 1744. contained his researches on the calculus of variations to the invention (a subject afterwards improved by Lagrange). tarum lettres et cometarum. and simplified formulae by the simple expedient of designating the angles of a triangle by A. but also the Beta and Gamma Func tions and other original investigations . chief of which Introductio in analysin injtnitorum. which. of which Euler was led by the study of isoperimetrical curves. We proceed tions of Euler. TJieoria motuum ct 1772. was a to work which enjoyed great popularity. 1748. 1744. which were the most complete and accurate works on the calculus of that time. the brachistochrone in a resisting medium. TJieoria motus lunfje. introduced (simultaneously with Thomas Simpson in England) the now current abbreviations for trigonometric functions. AND LAPLACE. the Theoria motuum plane. 1770. 1770. processes on a sound Euler wrote an immense number of works.

250 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He pointed out tlie relation between trigonometric and exponential functions. &. He was the first to discuss the equation of the second degree in three variables. The rigid treatment to which infinite series are subjected now was then undreamed of. linear equations (invented independently = + + by Bezout) and the method of elimination by symmetric 20 functions. we have log( and finally 21og( = 2 log(+ a). He then explained how not (a) 2 might equal log(+a) and yet log (a) equal log (+a). when a = log(+a) and log ( a) = log (+ a). 21 Euler laid down the rules for the transformation of co-ordinates in space. researches on series we owe the creation of the theory of definite integrals integrals. a. c. gave a methodic analytic treatment of plane curves and of surfaces of the second order. all of which are imaginary when a is negative. In a paper of 1737 we first meet the symbol IT to denote 3. Leibniz and John Bernoulli once argued the question whether a negative number has a logarithm. but is nevertheless very careless himself. The To his subject of infinite series received new life from Mm.solving bi obtained five species. Neither Leibniz nor Jacob . since 2 Bernoulli claimed that ( a) a) = (+&) 2 . 2 . Vp V# Vr. and to classify the surfaces represented by it. Far reaching are Euler s researches on logarithms. with the quadratic equations by assuming x that it would lead him to a general solution of algebraic hope The method of elimination by solving a series of equations. and all except one log is positive. By criteria analogous to those used in the classification of conies he He devised a method of. No clear notions existed as to what constitutes a convergent series. 2 2 a) Euler proved that a has really an infinite number of loga rithms. are due to him. He by the development of the so-called Eulerian warns his readers occasionally against the use of divergent series. opposite sides by respectively. 14159 -.

Euler finally succeeded in converting Mcolaus Bernoulli to his own erroneous views. &amp. + 3 sin 3 Euler should have confidently 4 sin 4 -)---.n + n + n 2 . 5 7 -\---. Grandi went so far as to conclude from this that ^ = -}.. the binomial formula for negative and proof fractional exponents. + Strange to and no one objected to such results 3 1 excepting Nicolaus Bernoulli.EULER.j&amp. and even of Euler. A remarkable development. LAGEAISTGE. is what he named the hypergeometric series. AND LAPLACE. The looseness of treatment can best be seen The very paper in which Euler cautions divergent series contains the proof that against from examples.j&amp.f&amp.= 0.. the nephew of John and Jacob.+ 1 known. physical method of proof which held sway over the minds of the elder Bernoullis. this series represented nearly all functions then.. the summation of which he observed to be tion of the second order.-fIn the treatment of series Leibniz advanced a meta + . 251 and John Bernoulli had entertained any serious doubt of the correctness of the expression | = 1 1 + 1 Guido !-{-. At the present time it is difficult to believe that written sin & 1 of certain parts of analysis at that time. n2 + . 46 The tendency of that reasoning was to justify results which seem to us now highly Euler developed the calculus of finite differences in the first .lt.. but dependent upon the integration of a linear differential equa it remained for Gauss to point out that for special values of its letters.. due to such examples afford striking illustrations of the want. which has been reproduced in elemen scientific s basis Euler of tary text-books of even recent years. = n2 as follows : 1 % n n1 Euler has no hesitation to write these added give is faulty. but &amp. 2 sin 2 &amp.

as was supposed by states that every Fermat. which prime of the that xn form 4n +l is expressible as the sum of two squares in one and only one way. and Euler about the same time observed criteria of integrability. but Euler in addition showed how to employ The principles on the criteria rested involved some degree of obscurity. which. well-known theorem. and edges of certain polyhedra. 48 Euler enunciated and proved a of vertices. By giving the factors of established = &quot. He first supplied the proof to &quot. . and then deduced the differential calculus from it. + yn = zn 2. and contributed largely to the theory of differential equations.Fermat s theorem. giving the relation between the number faces. known by his the same solution of this equation was given substantially 1000 years earlier. chapters of his Institutiones calculi differentialis. which he employed in the solution of c. but was still undeveloped. and the Bernoullis.&quot. He established a theorem on homogeneous functions. which The celebrated addition-theorem for elliptic integrals was first them to determine integrating factors. He invented a new algorithm for by Euler. he pointed out that this ex pression did not always represent primes. by the Hindoos. . a law independently discovered by Legendre. The however.252 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. continued fractions. Clairaut. Leibniz. in which he solved difficult some problems. a subject which had received the attention of Newton. Fontaine. powers of Euler were directed also towards the fascinating subject of the theory of probability.1 the number 2 2 +1 when n = 5. We now know that the indeterminate equation ace 4. has no integral solution for values of n was proved by Euler to be correct when n = 3. Euler discovered four theorems which taken together make greater than out the great law of quadratic reciprocity. appears to have been known to Descartes. A third theorem of Fermat. and to a second theorem of Fermat.

and in those of Erom 1728 to 1783 a large portion at Berlin. the secular vari ations of eccentricities. s were carried on while he was and two of his his pupils. etc. to take He was one of the first up with success the theory of the moon s motion by &quot. to furnish the Petersburg Academy with twenty sufficient number to enrich its acts for a promise more than fulfilled. mean n He worked namics. Thus.The anchor drops.&quot. He had engaged memoirs years in. for down to 1818 the volumes usually contained one or more papers of his. giving approximate solutions to the problem of three bodies. explaining. was also the person who made mechanics analytical . By it he attacked the problem of per turbations. advanced by Maupertius. out the theory of the rotation of a body around a fixed point. AKB LAPLACE. which arose in his mind on all occasions.The s mechanics. motion. Petersburg.&quot. It has .EULER.least action.&quot. Says Whewell: person labours in analytical who did most to its give to analysis the generality and symmetry which are now pride. which captured two blind. &quot. About the same time as paniel Bernoulli he published the Principle of the Conservation of Areas and defended the principle of &quot. established the general equations of motion of a free body. LAGRANGE. He wrote also on tides and on sound. Of no little 253 importance are Eider &quot. in case of two planets. He laid a sound basis for the calculation of tables of the moon. of the Petropolitan transactions were filled by his writings. on reading Virgil s lines. nodes. ical He solved an immense number and variety of mechan problems. Astronomy owes to Euler the method of the variation of arbitrary constants. the rushing keel he could not help inquiring what would be the is staid/ 5 ship s motion in such a case. and the general equation of hydrody I Euler. These researches on the moon prizes. with the assistance in the transactions of of his sons Most of the memoirs are contained the Academy Academy of Sciences at St.

in the special and concrete. densed and give in a nutshell what Euler narrates at great length. and in some measure by John Bernoulli and !N&quot.254 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. step-mother. first to con centrate Ms powers upon a special problem. of a poor glazier. his great successor. It is easy to see that mathematicians could not long continue in Euler s habit of writing and publishing. near the Notre-Dame in Paris.000 quarto pages. The great French man delighted in the general and abstract. He was It is said that brought up by the wife when he began to show signs of great talent. 3 been said that an edition of Euler s complete works &quot. appeared his Traitt de dynamique. . excelled him in dexterity of accommodating methods to special problems. my D Alembert entered upon the love for mathematics.ewton. Jean-le-Rond. that law was soon abandoned.&quot. The material would soon grow to such enormous proportions as to be unmanageable. from which he Jean-le-Rond D derived his Christian name.would fill 16. but such was his At the age of twenty-four his reputation as a mathematician secured In 1743 for him admission to the Academy of Sciences.You mother sent for him. We are not surprised to see almost the opposite in Lagrange. then to solve ISTo one separately all problems growing out of the first. but received the are only my mother. the glazier s wife is His father provided him with a yearly income. by his mother in a market by the church of St. when an infant. rather than. : The impressed forces are D Alembert s principle seems to have been recognised before him by Fontaine. &quot. D Alembert gave it cations of a clear mathematical form and made numerous appli It enabled the laws of motion and the reasonit. founded upon the important general principle bearing his name equivalent to the effective forces. his reply. His mode of working was. Alembert (1717-1783) was exposed. like His writings are con Euler. study of law.

the doubtful conclusion would follow that the above series repre sents any arbitrary function of a variable. Daniel Bernoulli. 46 most beautiful result reached by Alembert. . a2 To the equation ^f = ^3 arising in the problem of vibrat ing chords. in 1746 D to a treatise on the general causes of winds. LAGRANGE. he gave as the general solution. in a treatise on the equilibrium and motion of fluids. 255 ings depending on them to be represented in the most general Alembert applied it in 1744 form. he was led to a leader among the He was partial differential equations. He sent to the French Academy in 1747. if y be and x = I. if true. which obtained a prize from the Berlin Academy. discussing the famous problem of vibrating chords. AND LAPLACE. equation is satisfied by the trigonometric series . and claimed this expression to be the its generality. which had baffled the talents of the best minds. most general Euler denied on the ground that. with aid ground that it D was the complete solution of the problem of the precession of the equinoxes.ETJLBB. but D Alembert rightly objected to his process. and showed that there is supposed to vanish for x= only one arbitrary function. on the same day with Clairaut.+ 0sin i If -cos V + --^ solution. starting with a particular integral given showed that this differential by Brook Taylor. These doubts were dispelled by Fourier. a solution of the problem of three bodies. in analytical language. Lagrange proceeded to find the sum of the above series. This had become a question of universal interof his principle. pioneers in the study of such equations. on the A involved divergent series. In both these treatises. as also in one of 1747.cos.

the moon around the earth. In 1754 he was made permanent secretary of the French Academy. vied to outdo all others. read PHospitaPs works on the infinitesimal calculus and on conic sections at the age of ten. each. The &quot. Thus far. differential equations of motion were but the dimculty arises in their integration. an invitation of Frederick II. and of the theory of Alembert paid some attention to the philosophy probability. Catharine D Alembert declined. but He Alexis Claude Clairaut (1713-1765) was a youthful prodigy. The problem their motion of when they two bodies. which was begun by Diderot of mathematics. versely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The problem of three bodies &quot. In the discussion of the meaning of negative quantities. D His criticisms were not always happy.256 A HISTORY OJF MATHEMATICS. est to disturbing the motion of. He made a visit. It was a work of remark able elegance and secured his admission to the Academy of Sciences when still under legal age. In 1731 he gave a proof of . or where a planet moves under the influence of the sun and another planet. by Laplace. of the fundamental processes of the calculus. in which. hitherto given are merely convenient methods The general stated of approximation in special cases when one body is the sun. the Great pressed him to go to Berlin. had been completely solved by Newton. and himself. asks for the motion of three bodies attracting each other according to the law of gravitation. which he had ready for the press when he was sixteen. In 1731 was published his Hecherches sur les courbes & double courbure. declined a permanent residence there. During the last years of his life he was mainly occupied with the great French encyclopaedia. in 1762. the complete solution of this has transcended the power of analysis. requiring the determination of attract each other with forces in &quot. to undertake the education of her son.

To decide between the conflicting opinions. substantially as he left it. which was based on the ellipsoids. the sum of the unit of force being represented equator.&quot. respect to the This theorem is by the force of gravity at the independent of any hypothesis with law of densities of the successive strata of the Todhunter It embodies most of Clairaut s researches. On his return. 1743.times the fraction expressing the centrifugal force at the equator. of the earth no other person has the figure says that so much as Clairaut. TMorie de la figure de la Terre. modern analysis . the title of &quot. and the subject remains at accomplished different. Glairaut formed the acquaintance of Maupertius. AND LAPLACE. Maclaurin on homogeneous It contains a remarkable theorem. though the form is &quot. In 1752 he gained a prize of the St. LAGRANGE. Maupertius earned by &quot. Petersburg Academy for his paper on Thforie de la Lune. his measurements were renewed. dition to whom he Lapland to measure the length of accompanied on an expe a degree of the that time the shape of the earth was a subject Newton and Huygens had concluded of serious disagreement. Clairaut published a work. named after results of present The splendid analysis which Laplace supplied. About meridian. earth. earth flattener in Lapland by disprov the Cassinian tenet that the earth was elongated at the ing and showing that Newton was right. At 1713 Dominico Cassini measured an arc extending from Dunkirk to is Perpignan and arrived at the startling result that the earth elongated at the poles. that the fractions expressing the ellipticity and the increase of gravity at the pole is equal to 2J. 257 jection the theorem enunciated by Newton. from theory that the earth was flattened at the poles. in which for the first time This contained is applied to lunar motion. that every cubic is a pro of one of five divergent parabolas. in work poles. adorned but did not really alter the theory which started from the creative hands of Clairaut.EULEB.

which were extended and overshadowed by His first research on pure mathe- . when. seemed to Mm inexplicable by Newton s law. and later became editor of the Berlin JSphem- em. he acquired through his own unaided efforts a knowledge of elementary mathematics. a date which tion. where he was a great favourite. While working at his father s trade. motion. was the son of a poor tailor. The grow ing ambition of Clairaut to shine in society. In his Oosmological Letters he made some remarkable prophe cies regarding the stellar system. often far from friendly. In mathematics he made several discoveries his great contemporaries.Halley its nearest point to the sun on April 13. would arrive at &quot. then expected to return. and he was on the point of advancing a new hypothesis regarding gravitation. 1759. where he became member of the Academy. He was the first to detect singular solutions in differential equations of the order but of higher degree than the first. His many-sided scholarship reminds one of Leibniz. s Comet. He received a small pension. tak to a higher degree ing the precaution to carry his calculation of approximation. At the age of thirty he became tutor iii a Swiss family and secured leisure to continue In his travels with his pupils through Europe he his studies. first In their scientific labours there was between Clairaut and D Alembert great of his rivalry. and enjoyed the society of Euler and Lagrange. became acquainted with the leading mathematicians.258 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. In 1764 he settled in Berlin.&quot. he reached results agreeing with observa The motion of the moon was studied about the same Clairaut predicted that time by Euler and D Alembert. left unexplained by Newton. turned out to be one month too late. hindered his scientific work in the latter part life. born at Muhlhausen in Alsace. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777). This at first the explanation of the motion of the lunar apsides.

This proof is given in Note IV. and honour of being the forerunner of Monge. which he of designated by sinli x. His Freye Perspective. was that every arc of the ery. m in two ways. Lagrange s Oalcul . he attempted to obviate the metaphysical difficulties of fluxions by adopting a purely des Fonctions is based algebraic method. and entitle him to the In his effort to simplify the calculation of &quot. and of particularly Lagrange. cometary in which he proves that TT is irrational. In 1761 Lambert communicated to the Berlin Academy a memoir. who found that a function of a root s results to give a value of x. 259 matics developed in an infinite series the root x of the equation 8 boo d Since each equation of the form aaf # j^px q. then the sectors formed in each ellipse by the arc and the two radii vectores are to each other as the square roots of the parameters of the B ellipses. he to some remarkable theorems on conies. John Landen (1719-1790) was an English mathematician whose writings served as the starting-point of investigations by Euler. where it is extended to ?r 2 . Landen s capital discov of 1755. cosh x.EULER. 1759 and 1773. Lagrange. contained in a memoir is immediately rectified by means of two arcs of an hyperbola LAGRANGE. etc. who extended the method to an equation of four terms. was led geometrically If in two ellipses having a common major for instance this axis we take two such arcs that their chords are equal.&quot. and Legendre. : that also the sums of the radii vectores. of Legendre s Gfeometrie. AND LAPLACE. contains researches on descriptive geometry. drawn respectively from the foci to the extremities of these arcs. (x) = can be expressed by the series bearing his name.residual analysis&quot. To the genius duction into trigonometry of Lambert we owe the intro hyperbolic functions. = + = + = and stimulated Euler. are equal to each other. one or the other of can be reduced to x px g the two resulting series was always found to be convergent. In his &quot. Lambert a_x + &amp.

260 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. from for the first time are the symbols of operation separated those of quantity. entering upon their theory.witch of Agnesi or versiera is a plane curve containing a straight line. Derivations^ 1800^ gives the method known by his name. The notation D y for ~ is due to x him. who hac . ) Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). &quot. Louis Arbogaste ^1759-1803) of Alsace was professor of His chief work. His father. without. A beautiful theorem his determinants. mathematician.) was a French writer of popular mathematical school-books. filled the mathe matical chair at the University of Bologna during her father s Sickness. in which he uses published by . was born at Turin and died a1 Paris. one of the greatesl mathematicians of all times. as to the degree of the resultant goes by name. De is differentiation coefficients of a Morgan has pointed out that the true nature of derivation In this book accompanied by distinguished as a linguist. He was of French extraction. by which the successive development are derived from one another when. which was translated into English in 1801. time of this suggestive writer was spent in the pursuits of active life. linear equations (invented also first he gave the method of elimination by This method was by Euler) him in a memoir of 1764. Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799) of Milan. and philosopher. Etienne Bezout (1730-1783. the expression is complicated. In 1748 she published her Instituzioni Analiticlie&amp. this idea. cc = 0. 1779. &quot. The &quot. the Calcul des mathematics at Strasburg. and a cubic f ^ +1=-. &quot. upon Landen showed how the algebraic expression for the roots of a cubic equation could be derived by applica Most of the tion of the differential and integral calculus. In his TMorie gn6rale des Equa tions Algflbriqu&s. however.

separated the principles of this calculus from geometric considerations by which his predecessor had derived them. Lagrange considered this loss his ematics the pursuit of his his genius did not at once good fortune. but lost all he had in speculation. appear most of his earlier papers. Cicero and Vir gil at first attracted him more than Archimedes and Newton. and in his seventeenth year he became professor of mathematics in the royal military academy at Turin. and he courteously withheld for a time from publication some researches of his own on this subject. Lagrange did quite as much as Euler towards the creation of the Calculus of Variations. LAGRANGE. Euler introduced in 1766 the curve to extremities of the curve to be vary . but the perusal of a tract of Halley roused his enthusiasm for the analytical method. was once wealthy. 261 charge of the Sardinian military chest.e. for otherwise he might not have made math life. Without assistance or guidance he entered upon a course of study which in two years placed him on a level with the With aid of his pupils he established a society which subsequently developed into the Turin Academy. and this Lagrange supplied. problems. isoperimetrical Variations. While at the college in Turin talfe its true bent.EULEK. so that the youthful Lagrange might complete his investigations and claim the invention.&quot. known now* s as the Calculus of This commanded Euler lively admiration. the determined. i. At the age of nineteen he communicated to Euler a general method of dealing with &quot. He soon came to admire the geometry of the ancients. Euler had assumed as fixed the limits of the integral. He now applied himself to mathematics. In the first five volumes of its transactions greatest of his contemporaries. but Lagrange removed this restriction and allowed all co-ordinates of the at tlie same time. AND LAPLACE. As it came from Euler it He lacked an analytic foundation. in the development of which he was des tined to reap undying glory.

By considering only the particles which are in a straight line. at the fame. The general integral of this was found by D Alembert to contain two arbitrary functions. an explanation. on the principle of universal gravitation. and though his physicians induced him to take rest and exercise. not permit difficult . this Another subject engaging the attention of Lagrange at Turin was the propagation of sound. the young mathemati cian appears as the critic of Newton. age of twenty-six. why the moon always turns. Lagrange overcame the him to difficulties. that in order to determine the position of a point of the ing chord at a time t. and Euler. and the arbiter between Euler and D Alembert. argu against Euler. of the four satellites of Jupiter. Lagrange. his nervous system never fully recovered its of melancholy. he reduced the problem to the same partial differential equation that represents the motions of vibrating strings. the same phase to the earth. name calculus of variations/ science along the lines and did much. Daniel Bernoulli. &quot. By Lagrange settled the question in the affirmative. the initial position of the chord must be continuous. and the ques tion now came to be discussed may be discontinuous. D whether an arbitrary function Alembert maintained the negative and finally Lagrange. with but slight variations.262 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. to improve marked out by Lagrange. This suc cess encouraged the Academy to propose as a prize the theory a problem of six bodies. tone. but the shortness of time did. In his papers on this subject in the Miscellanea Taurinensia. and he was thenceforth subject to fits In 1764 the Trench Academy proposed as the subject of It demanded a prize the theory of the libration of the moon. constant application during nine years. Lagrange secured the prize. D Alembert. stood at the summit of European But his intense studies had seriously weakened a constitution never robust. more than the one of three bodies previously solved by Clairaut.

He had planned a visit to London. Lagrange visited Paris. Being anxious to make the personal acquaintance D Condor cet. Later astronomical investigations of Lagrange are on coinetary perturbations (1778 and 1783).the greatest king of Europe to have the greatest mathemati cian at his court. He enriched algebra by researches on the solution of equations. Frederick the Great there upon sent a message to Turin. Kepler of leading mathematicians. exhaust the subject. tions. During the twenty years in Berlin he crowded the transac tions of the Berlin Academy with memoirs. Aleinbert. His wife he married. and others. LAGEANGE. Lagrange went to Berlin. &quot. expressing the wish of &quot. He worked no longer each day than experience taught habits. There are two methods of solving directly algebraic equa The that of substitution and that of combination. where he enjoyed the stimulating delight of conversing with Clairaut. and on a new method of solving the prob lem of three Bodies. and wrote called the also the epoch-making work M6canique Analytique.EULEE. AND LAPLACE. &quot. and being &quot. Frederick the Great held him in high esteem. and he pointed out Lagrange as Alembert recom the only man capable of filling the place. on s problem. Finding all his colleagues married. In 1766 Euler left Berlin for St. D mended him at the same time. and staid there twenty years. Petersburg. His papers were care and wfren he wrote he did so without a single correction. soon died. 263 Twenty-four years afterwards it was completed by Laplace. but he fell dangerously ill after a dinner in Paris. the Abbe Marie. fully thought out before he began writing. and frequently conversed with him on the advantages of per This led Lagrange to cultivate regular fect regularity of life. - assured by their wives that the marital state alone is happy. The union was not a happy one. him he could without breaking down. . and was compelled to return to Turin.

types&quot. and auxiliary equations (resolvents) are obtained for these quantities with aid of the coefficients of the given equa tion. He showed that the quintic cannot be reduced in this way.&quot. Lagrange traced all known algebraic solutions of equa tions to the uniform principle consisting in the formation and solution of equations of lower degree whose roots are linear functions of the required roots. Gauss. Other proofs of this were given by Argand. in 1771. John Wilson. &quot. In a note to the above work Lagrange uses Fermat s theorem and certain suggestions of Gauss in effecting a complete alge braic solution of any binomial equation. and Cauchy. Vieta. its resolvent being of the sixth degree. 20 Lagrange. Tchirnhausen. which resembles the Hindoo cyclic method he was the first to prove.) of the unknown roots of the equation. Algebraicce .264 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. former method was developed by Ferrari. and Lagrange the latter by Vandermonde and . In 1769 he gave a solution in integers of indeterminate equations of the second degree. and of the roots of unity. which appears before this to have been considered self-evident. Euler. are so transformed that the determination of the roots to In the method of substitution the original forms is made depend upon simpler functions (resolvents). Among other things. While in Berlin Lagrange published several papers on the theory of numbers. His researches on the theory of equations were continued after he left Berlin. enunciated by an Englishman. 2 and 5 he investigated in 1775 under what conditions and 3 having been discussed by Euler) (1 . In the Resolution des equations num6riques (1798) he gave a method of approximating to the real roots of numerical equa tions by continued fractions. Bezout. In the method of combination auxiliary quantities are substituted for certain simple combinations (&quot.Wilson s theorem. it contains a theorem also a proof that every equation must have a root. and first published by Waring in his Meditationes .

and Lagrange. proved Ferinat also s theorem on xn that. yet more than other branches of mathematics did they resist the sys tematic application of fixed methods and principles. which are. From the principle of virtual velocities he deduced. however. He generalised Euler s researches on total differential equa . Lagrange made consider able use of determinants of the third order. and demonstrated that the square of a determinant is itself a determinant. Though the subject of contemplation by the greatest mathematicians (Euler. with aid of the calculus of variations. He . the whole system of mechanics so elegantly and . has already been referred to in our account of D Alembert. however. Lagrange wrote much on differential equations. Lagrange. he simply obtained accidentally identities which are now recognised as relations between determinants. While in Berlin. Lagrange established criteria for singular solutions (Calcul des Fonctions. square. and of the ninth order he gave a solu tion of partial differential equations of the first order (Berlin Memoirs. Euler. 1773. tions of two variables. q he proved in 1770 Meziriac s theorem that every integer is equal to the sum of four. Fermat s theorem + yn = zn for the case n = 4. Laplace). of squares. He was the first to point out the geometrical significance of such solutions. 1772 and 1774). tions of extending their solution in Memoirs of 1779 and 1785 to equa any number of variables. Lessons 14-17). or non-residues of odd prime numbers. if a 5 = e then ab is not a . erroneous. AND LAPLACE. He never. 1788). Lagrange wrote the t M&cJianiqueAncdytique&quot. In his memoir on Pyramids. LAGRANGE. or a less number. carried on by D Alembert. the greatest of his works (Paris. and spoke of their singular solutions. 2 2 2 -j- . The discussion on partial differential equations of the second order. 265 are quadratic residues. Clairaut.EULER. dealt explicitly and directly with determi nants. D Alembert.

in 1786. . &quot. z. and then only with the condition that after a few years he would pur chase all the unsold copies.&quot. or A. but not till 1788 could he find a publisher. . with respect to then the form ^.lt. a kind of scientific It is a most consummate example of analytic generality... . determining the position of the point at the time. of the system. in Sir William poem. it harmoniously that may &quot. . and each prefaced by a historic sketch of principles. Geometrical On ne trouvera point de figures figures are nowhere allowed. dt __ dg . (Preface). least action. the equations of motion x. z. when H. Lagrange formulated the principle of In their original form. or dm &amp... A d d The latter is par excellence the tions of motion.266 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and Lagrange introduced in place of them any variables are in general not With Lagrange Lagrangian form of the equa originated the remark that mechanics may be To him falls regarded as a geometry of four dimensions. But x.. \l/. fitly be called. The two divisions of mechanics dans cet ouvrage&quot. statics and dynamics are in the first is four sections of each carried out analogously. are the partial differential coefficients of one and the same function V. y. the honour of the introduction of the potential into dynamics. The work was ready for print. &amp. The equations of motion may now assume the form ddT fa whatever. 49 Lagrange was anxious to have his Mfoanique Analytique published in Paris. . y.. &amp. involve the co-ordinates of the different particles m . The work was edited by Legendre. Kowan Hamilton s words. These may be taken to be independent.

as him again to activity. Her devotion to him constituted the one tie to life which at the approach of death he found it hard to break. But he was seized with a long attack of melancholy which destroyed his taste for mathematics. About this time the crisis of the French Kevolution aroused He was made one of the commissioners to establish weights and measures having units founded on nature. he was induced to accept a professorship. young and accomplished daughter of the astronomer Lemonnier took compassion on the sad. istry. fresh from the the work of a quarter of a press. Lagrange took alarm at the fate of Lavoisier. and lodging was procured for him in the Louvre. His additions to the In 1797 the algebra of Euler were prepared at this time. The earliest triumph of this institution was . LAGBANGE. Laplace. with Lagrange as one of the professors. For two years his printed copy of the Mtcanique. The French queen treated him with regard. and Lagrange accepted an invitation of Louis XVI. but at the establishment of the Ecole Normale in 1795 in Paris.. that he was retained as presi dent of the commission on. and others. to migrate to Paris. Such was the moderation of Lagrange s character. AND LAPLACE. and planned to return to Berlin. century. 267 After the death of Frederick the Great. The disastrous &quot. lay unopened on his desk. when the school was closed. and insisted upon marrying him. and such the universal respect for him. lonely Lagrange. Through Lavoisier he became interested in chem which he found easy as algebra. Ecole Polytechnique was founded. the general idea of which was obtained from a work of Thomas Williams. Scarcely had he time to elucidate the foundations of arithmetic and algebra to young pupils.EULEB. men of science were no longer respected in Germany. Lagrange strongly favoured the decimal subdivision.&quot. had been purified by the Jacobins by striking out the names of Lavoisier. London. weights and measures even after it 1788.

has the great inconvenience of con method. limiting ratio. said Lagrange. a thorough revision of his Mecanique analytique. the magnitudes of which it is the ratio cannot be found. and the In 1810 he Resolution des equations numeriques (1798). so to sidering quantities in the state in which they cease. D Alembert s method of limits was much the same as the D Alembert taught method of prime and ultimate ratios. professing a similar object. vanishing. the restoration of Lagrange to analysis. sur le calcul des fonctions. and then to develop the entire calculus from that theorem. there is neither arc nor chord. that ratio offers to the . The chord and arc were not taken by Newton as equal before In Newton s That vanish. Lagrange attempted to prove Taylor mind of the John Landen s was unknown to s theorem (the power of which he was the first to point out) by simple algebra. The principles of the calculus were in his day involved in The infinitesimals difficulties of a serious nature. The TJieorie memoir of his calculus difficult des fonctions. nor after vanishing. become both nothing at the same time. residual calculus. as long as they remain as soon as its terms mind no clear and precise idea. for at the moment when they should be caught and equated. ceive the ratios of finite. aimed to place the principles of the upon a sound foundation relieving the conception of a limit or infinitesimal.&quot. fonctions analytiques (1797). His mathematical He brought forth the Theorie des activity burst out anew. but when they &quot.&quot. Legons a treatise on the same lines as the preceding (1801).268 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. of Euler they were treated as absolute differential calculus zeros. for though &quot. but began he died before its completion. philosophic In the of Leibniz had no satisfactory metaphysical basis. to be quantities . well con we can always speak. two quantities. When Lagrange that a variable actually reached its limit. him. the germ by of which is found in a of 1772.

he avoided the whirlpool of Charybdis only to suffer wreck against the rocks of Scylla. as handed down to him by Euler. LAGRANGE. Lagrange s mathematical rigour. endeavoured to free the calculus of its 269 difficulties. ISTo correct theory of infinite series had then been established. as it was called. and thus to avoid all reference to limits. It was a purely it edition of his Mecanique. in which he used infinitesimals. and others. Lagrange proposed to define the differential coefficient of /(a?) with respect to x The algebra as the coefficient of h in the expansion of f(x + Ji) by Taylor s theorem. Though Lagrange s method of developing the calculus was at greatly applauded. and to-day his &quot. but first was inconvenient. and his proof that f(x h) can always be expanded in a series of ascending powers of h.method of derivatives. In the treatment of infinite series of higher analysis a function Lagrange displayed in his earlier writings that laxity common to all mathematicians of his time. in the Gakul de fonctions he gives his theorem on the limits of Taylor s theorem. D But his later articles mark the beginning of a period of greater Thus. of his day. excepting Mcolaus Bernoulli II. Eiemann. labours under serious + defects. has been gen abandoned. He introduced a notation of his erally own. abstract mode of regarding functions. its defects were fatal. Weierstrass. and Alembert. apart from geometrical or mechanical considerations. but its secondary results were far-reaching. and work may be regarded as the starting-point of the Lagrange theory of functions as developed by Cauchy.EULEB.&quot. and was abandoned by him in the second The primary object of the Theorie des fonctions was not attained. metaphysical by resorting to common algebra. researches extended to subjects which have not been men- . But he used infinite series without ascertaining that they were con vergent. AND LAPLACE. was founded on a false view of infinity. In the further development s became the leading idea.

&quot. surpassed him in practical sagacity. spent in poverty. You needed no . but his great contemporary. Lagrange was content to leave the application of and some of the most important researches of Laplace (particularly those on the velocity of sound and on the secular acceleration of the moon) are im plicitly contained in Lagrange s works. ascend Everywhere his ing continued fractions. which brought the following enthusiastic response: &quot. D Alembert secured him a position at the Ecole Militaire of Paris as professor of matheself my . Yery little known of his early fame he was loath to speak of his boyhood.Je ne sais pas. D Alembert. finite differences. &quot. eager to avoid Lagrange He spoke in controversy. he went to Paris. such as probabilities. undaunted. armed with letters of recommendation to letters who was then at the height of his fame. His father was a small farmer. by persons attending the meetings of the Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827) was born at Beaumontis en-Auge in Normandy. and the only ones that were secured were sketched without his knowledge Institute. elliptic integrals. his general results to others. wonderful powers of generalisation and abstraction are made manifest. and his first words generally were. but young Laplace. wrote the great geometer a letter on the principles of me chanics. you have recommended your support is your due.270 tioned liere A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. Some rich neighbours who recognised the boy s at the height of his When talent assisted him in securing an -education. introduction . He would never allow his portrait to be taken. The remained -unnoticed. was an extremely modest man. and even timid in conversation. tones of doubt. life. where at an At eighteen early age he became teacher of mathematics. As an extern he attended the military school in Beaumont. In that respect he stood without a peer. Laplace.

After the of Brumaire. LAGRANGE. but also after political honours. and the following year he became mem ber of the Academy of Sciences. but. as a most Laplace was justly admired throughout Europe for his repu sagacious and profound scientist. there arose a cry for the reform of everything. matics.&quot. and taught. With wonderful mastery of analysis. During the succeeding fifteen years appeared most of his original contri butions to astronomy. unhappily he strove not only after greatness in science. The of this political career eminent and suppleness.the Newton of France. j He was made president of the Bureau of Longitude he aided in the introduction of the decimal system. with Lagrange. and the zero meridian by 185. the day when Napoleon was made emperor. Napoleon rewarded this minister of the interior. and made the start of the new era coincide with the beginning of the glorious French 50 Eepublic. mathematics in the Ecole Normale. when. of the earth s orbit had been perpendicular to the equinoctial line. In 1784 he succeeded Bezout as examiner to the royal artillery. Laplace attacked the pending problems in the application of the law of gravitation to celestial motions.EULEB. His career was one of almost uninter rupted prosperity. scientist tation. 271 His future was now assured. When. 18th was stained by servility Laplace s ardour for republican principles suddenly gave way to a great devotion to the emperor. Laplace suggested the adoption of an era beginning with the the major axis year 1250. during the Bevolution.30 degrees of the centesimal division of the quadrant. But the to be located east of Paris revolutionists rejected this scheme. AND LAPLACE. according to his calculation. for by this meridian the beginning of his proposed era fell at midnight. even of the calendar. devotion by giving him the post of . and he entered those profound researches which brought him the title of upon &quot. The year was was to begin with the vernal equinox.

it must be said that in religion and science Laplace never misrepresented or con cealed his own convictions however distasteful they might be to others. . Nevertheless. Three great works did he give the Mecanique Celeste. il cherchait des subtilites veritable point de vue partout. This was the first . thereby earning the title of marquis. This pettiness of his The first edition of the character is seen in his writings. that most precious to the author was the declaration he thus made of this outburst of affection. Though supple and servile in politics. and the Theorie anatytique des probabili ties. Syst&me du monde was dedicated to the Council of Mve Hun dred. In mathematics and astronomy his genius shines with a lustre excelled by few. Mm n avait que des idees problematiques. Besides these he contributed important memoirs to the Prench Academy. After we are surprised to find in the editions of the Theorie analytique des probability which appeared after the Restoration. We first pass in brief review his astronomical researches. du systeme du monde. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the Exposition to the scientific world. et portait enfin Pesprit des infiniinent petits jusgue dans P administration.aucune question sous son Napoleon.272 but dismissed &quot. In 1773 he brought out a paper in which he proved that the mean motions or mean distances of planets are invariable or merely subject to small periodic changes. after six months for incapacity. he cheerfully gave his voice in 1814 to the dethronement of his patron and hastened to tender his services to the Bourbons. Desirous Napoleon elevated Mm to the Senate and bestowed various other honours upon him. To the third volume of the M6canique Celeste is prefixed a note that of all the truths contained in the book. to retain Ms allegiance. Said Laplace ne saisissait .&quot. gratitude and devotion to the peace-maker of Europe. that the original dedication to the emperor is suppressed.

273 and most important step in establishing the stability of the 51 To Newton and also to Euler it had seemed solar system. as well as the other papers here mentioned. Laplace was enabled to determine the masses of the moons. LAGRANGE.EULEJEt. AHD LAPLACE. while Jupiter would fall into the Laplace finally succeeded sun. leave the planetary system. Observation revealed the existence of a steady acceleration of the mean motions of our moon and of Jupiter and an equally strange diminution of the mean mo It looked as though Saturn might eventually tion of Saturn. that these variations inequality&quot. (called the &quot.) belonged to the class of ordi attrac nary periodic perturbations. simple relations between the movements Laws of Laplace. known as &quot. in a paper of 1784-1786. these bodies was completed in papers of 1788 and 1789. His theory of of those bodies. depending upon the law of was found in The cause of so influential a perturbation tion. lished in the Memoirs prfaentis par divers . Laplace s first paper really grew out of researches on the of Jupiter and Saturn. He also discovered cer tain very remarkable. doubtful whether forces so numerous.great the commensurability of the mean motion of the two planets. could be a capable of maintaining permanently condition of equilibrium. in which the two great mathema ticians alternately surpassed and supplemented each other. paper was the beginning of a series of profound researches by Lagrange and Laplace on the limits of variation of the various elements of planetary orbits. as those in the solar system. and the moon upon the earth. in showing. In the study of the Jovian system.and Lagrange without receiving satisfactory explanation. Newton was of the opinion that a powerful hand must inter vene from time to time to repair the derangements occa This sioned by the mutual action of the different bodies. The year savans. so different in intensity.&quot. so variable in position. were pub These. The behaviour of these planets theory had been studied by Euler &quot.

and of other satel lites. XV. of our moon. Books XI. which is a systematic presentation embrac ing all the discoveries of Newton. Books XIII. The first and second volumes of this work were published in 1799 fifth . The result was the Mtcaniq ue C&leste.. that Laplace s successors have . XIV. by Kant in 1755. and author s later researches. and XII. treating particu larly of motions of comets. In 1796 Laplace published his Exposition du syst&me du monde. and by Swedenborg but Laplace does not . In this for the first time his celebrated nebular similar theory had been previously proposed hypothesis. and so complete. a non-mathematical popular treatise on astronomy. was at last found to be a complete machine.274 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS.. This removed all doubt then existing as to the stability of the solar system. a then known. two volumes contain the general theory of the motions The third and fourth volumes give special theories of celestial motions. and Book XVI. D Alembert. and of Laplace himself. Lagrange. The first and figure of celestial bodies. s 1787 was made memorable by Laplace announcement that the lunar acceleration depended upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth s orbit. motion That system. Clairaut. volume opens with a brief history of celestial then gives in appendices the results of the mechanics. A appear to have been aware of this. The Mcanique C&leste was such a fifth The master-piece. the third appeared in 1802. Laplace conceived the idea of writing a work which should contain a complete analytical solution of the mechanical prob lem presented by the solar system. work he enunciates ending with a sketch of the history of the science. on celestial mechanics. in 1824. without deriving from observation any but indispensable data. were published in 1823. the fourth in 1805. in 1825. Euler. versal validity of the law of gravitation to explain in the solar system The uni all was established. Of the volume.

it naturally contains a great deal that is drawn from his pred ecessors. arising in the mechanics of the Creator. Karl Burkhardt.&quot. they tell me you have and have never even mentioned the system of the universe. in fact. who tells the reasoning which had been carelessly suppressed with the est facile de voir. LAGBANGE. and appeared in Berlin. taken literally. Notwithstanding the impor remark. work was translated into German by Joh. and that Laplace spent an hour endeavouring to recover ever. &quot. when Laplace presented Napoleon with a Mcamque Ctteste. is impious. questions solar system was stable. AND LAPLACE. a rule. 275 the The general part of been able to add comparatively little. . are told that We copy of the &quot. cated chain of reasoning receives often no explanation what The difficulties lie. its Laplace is said to have replied bluntly.ETJLEB. n avais pas besoin de cette hypothese-la. Nathaniel Bowditch brought out an edition in English. Thus. written this large book on Laplace.Je This assertion. the latter made the remark. 1800-1802. acknowledge the source from which he draws.&quot. not so much in the compli subject itself as in the want of verbal explanation. which are due to Laplace himself. Biot.M. and lets the reader infer that theorems and formulae due to a predecessor are really his own. with an extensive com The M6canique C6leste is not mentary. but may it not have been intended ? to convey a meaning somewhat different from its literal one was not able to explain by his law of gravitation all Newton heavens. &quot. easy reading. of a passage in the book which had been written not long before. the organised result of a century of But Laplace frequently neglects to properly patient toil. It is.&quot. in Boston. 1829-1839. as A assisted Laplace in revising the work for that he once asked Laplace some explanation the press. and being unable to show that the Newton expressed the suspecting in fact that it was unstable.II tant researches in the work.

3STow Laplace was able to prove by the law of gravitation that the solar system is stable.276 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. He advancing published a series of papers. the main results of which were collected in his TMorie anatytique des probabiliUs. of a powerful hand was necessary to preserve order. Gauss had used it still earlier. this subject third edition (1820) consists of an introduction and two books. and in that sense may be said to have no necessity for reference to the Almighty. The first appeared in print Analyst. The solu tion of linear differential equations was reduced by him to work One of the most important parts of the the application of probability to the method of least squares. without demonstration. The first book contains the theory of generating functions. Essai philosopliique sur les probability and is an admirable and masterly exposition without the aid of analytical formulee of the principles and applications of the science. but all proofs contain some . Ivory. deduction of the law of probability of error that was given in 1808 by Eobert Adrain in the 2 a journal published by himself in Philadelphia. which is shown to give the most probable as well as the most convenient results. The the theory of probability. Proofs of this law have since been given by G-auss. 1812. probability his Laplace gives in his work on method of approximation to the values of definite integrals. Herschel. The introduction was published separately under the title. opinion that tlie special intervention. but did not publish it until 1809. is The first printed statement of the principle of least squares was made in 1806 by Legendre. which belong more properly Of these the most conspicuous are on Laplace has done more towards than any one other investigator. which are applied. to the theory of probability. from time to time. Hagen. and others. in the second book. definite integrals. felt We now proceed to researches to pure mathematics.

point of difficulty. the most the one published in 1785. 5i dx? + + _. factory. and no one ever took error. Of Laplace important is papers on the attraction of ellipsoids.a in con than Laplace. existed.No from by no means clearly one was more sure established or so little care to point out the various small considerations on which correctness depends&quot. solving equations of the second. coldness.&quot. AND LAPLACE. The ticularly Laplace analytical processes are free of giving the result of analytical processes correctly. of potential was.EULER. &quot. Ms . The honour of that achievement belongs to La- grange. (Be Morgan). It gives an exhaustive treatment of the general problem of attraction of or any ellipsoid upon a particle situated outside upon its surface. Laplace failed to make due acknowledgment of this. &quot. 49 the minor discoveries of Laplace are his method of fourth degrees.= 0. and there sequence. Spherical harmonics.Laplace in the theory of attraction. and to a great extent s reprinted in the third volume of the M6canique Celeste. The theory of spherical harmonics for two dimensions had been previously given by Legendre. and magnetism. LAGRANOE. however. &quot. dz* This is known as Laplace s and was first given by him in the more complicated The notion form which it assumes in polar co-ordinates. 277 Laplace s proof is perhaps the most satis s work on probability is very difficult reading.&quot. V. in electricity. is shown by him to satisfy the partial dy -112 feeling more much used by differential equation equation. and Among his memoir on singular solutions of differential equations. not introduced into analysis by Laplace. third. between the two great men. or the so-called constitute a powerful analytic engine s coefficients. and is The potential function. par the part on the method of least squares.

He was the Abnit-TfceopMle t first to give a connected and logical exposition of the theory of determinants. He and Lagrange originated the method of combinations in solving equations. through which any one could become a composer with the aid of mathematics. s writings stand out in bold contrast to those of in their lack of elegance and symmetry. of functions in series s ment known as Laplace s theorem. Laplace We tion investigations in physics were quite extensive. his mathematical theory of capillarity . where he pursued his studies with his usual vigour until his death.&quot. his formulae for measuring heights by the barometer. 20 . &quot. and may. he spent cal problems. lisez Euler. Laplace Lagrange looked upon mathematics as the tool for the solution of physi Laplace little The true result being once reached. Adrien Marie Legendre (1752-1833) was educated at the . mention here his correction of Newton s formula on the velocity of sound in gases by taking into account the changes of elasticity due to the heat of compression and cold of rarefac . time in explaining the various steps of his analysis. and would often say. therefore. the determination of the complete integral of the linear differen tial In the Mecaniqite Celeste he made a generalisation of Lagrange s theorem on the develop equation of the second order. c est notre maitre a tous. Vandermonde (1735-1796) studied music his youth in Paris and advocated the theory that all during art rested upon one general law. the estab lishment of the expansion theorem in determinants which had been previously given by Vanderrnonde for a special case. his explanation of astronomical refrac tion . The last years of his life were spent mostly at Arcueil in peaceful retirement on a country-place.278 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. or in polishing his work. his researches on the theory of tides . almost be regarded as the founder of that theory. He was a great admirer of Euler. researches in finite differences and in determinants.Lisez Euler.

52 Legendre imparted to the subject that connection and arrangement which belongs to an independent science. In 1795 he was elected professor at the E& His mathematical genius secured for position of professor of mathematics at the mili school of Paris. . positions. and for forty years was the only one new branch of analysis. which supply the means of integrating a large number of differentials. As an analyst. In 1780 he resigned his position in order for the stiidy of higher mathematics. but few important public offices commensurate with his ability were tendered to him.ormal School and was appointed to some minor government&quot. Owing to his timidity and to Laplace s unfriendliness toward him. He also undertook the prodigious task of calculating tables of arcs of the ellipse for different degrees of amplitude and eccentricity. attraction of ellip soids. 279 College Mazarin in Paris. Starting with an of integral depending upon the square root of a polynomial the fourth degree in x.).EULEB. AND LAPLACE. second only to Laplace and Lagrange. to cultivate this He took up left it.F(&amp. While there he prepared an essay on tary the curve described by projectiles thrown into resisting media (ballistic curve) . Legendre enriched mathematics by important contributions. Landen. until at last Jacobi and Abel stepped in with admirable new him the Academy -of to reserve which captured a prize offered by the Eoyal Berlin. and Lagrange had the subject where Euler. issued in two volumes in 1825 and 1826.). more time He was later then made member of several public commissions. LAGRANGE. and is least squares. ^sin2 ^. designated by ). he showed that such integrals can be brought back to three canonical forms. The most important of Legendre s works his Fonctions elliptiques. theory of numbers. wliere lie began the study of mathe matics under Abbe Marie. mainly on elliptic integrals. . and =Vi the radical being expressed in the form !!(&amp.

and published in two large quarto volumes. Other memoirs upon it suffices on ellipsoids appeared later. contained part of his on was his Oalcul integral in three volumes elliptic functions in which he treats also at length of the (1811. 1830. 1816. by applying . Legendre calculated the tri This furnished the occasion of establishing angles in France. While acting as one of the commissioners to connect Green all 48 wich and Paris geodetically. He tabulated the values of log T(p) for values of p between 1 and 2. His memoir was presented to the Academy P of Sciences in 1783. the theorem of quadratic reciprocity. researches An earlier publication which. on the treatment of the spherical triangle as if it were a plane triangle. but Legendre showed that in order to determine the attraction of a spheroid on any external point to cause the surface of another spheroid described the same foci to pass through that point.280 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. One of the earliest subjects of research was the attraction of spheroids. formulae and theorems on geodesies. were arranged as far as possible into a systematic whole. The two household gods to which Legendre sacrificed with ever-renewed pleasure in the silence of his closet were the His researches elliptic functions and the theory of numbers. which suggested to Legendre the function n) named after him. entitled Before the publication of this TIi6orie des nombres. previously indistinctly given by Euler without proof. but for the crowning pinnacle is first time clearly enunciated and partly proved by Legendre. 1817). two classes of definite integrals named by him Eulerian. The suppose the point attracted researches of Maclaurin and Lagrange by a spheroid to be at the surface or within the spheroid. together with the numerous scattered fragments on the theory of numbers due to his predecessors in this line. on the latter subject. work Legendre had issued Its at divers times preliminary articles.

containing his last attempt at a solution of the problem. published for the first time by him without demon stration in 1806. -jr . being of low birth (the son of a tailor). This great modern rival of Euclid passed through numerous editions the later ones containing the elements of trigonom 2 Much etry and a proof of the irrationality of ir and .EULER. 281 certain corrections to the angles. He there prosecuted his studies. is cannot be less than two right angles. Mark. 1794. Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) was born at Auxerre. In Vol. then the same must be true But in the next step. then the theory of parallels could be strictly deduced. Assuming space to be infinite. AND LAPLACE. which enjoyed great popularity. of the proofs did not satisfy even himself. whose angles of all and that if there be any triangle the sum of two right angles. and on the method of least squares. but his &quot. angles always equal to two right angles. appeal He then attempted to demonstrate that &quot.axiom. LAGRANGE. He wished to enter the artillery. with surprising success. his application was answered thus: f Fourier. particularly mathematics. was given by Legendre to the subject of parallel In the earlier editions of the Elements. Legendre wrote an Elements de G-eometrie. He became an orphan in his eighth year. to show that this sum triangles. then conducted by the Benedictines of the Convent of St.&quot. Memoirs of the Institute is a paper by Legendre. but. being generally adopted on the Continent and in the United States as a substitute for Euclid. he made direct to the senses for the correctness of the parallel-axiom. attention lines. in central is France. Through the influence of friends he was admitted into the military school in his native place. his demonstration neces If it could be granted that the sum of the three sarily failed. he proved satisfactorily that it is impossible for the sum of the three angles of a triangle to exceed two right angles. not . XII.&quot.

His brilliant him a chair in the Polytechnic School. In Egypt he engaged not only in scientific After work. published in 1822 in his work entitled La Theorie Analytique de la Ohaleur. as 1807.282 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Under the French Eevolution the arts -and sciences seemed for a time to flourish. to his return to France he held for fourteen years the prefecture of Grenoble. could not enter the artillery. being noble. At the age of twentyone he went to Paris to read before the Academy of Sciences a memoir on the resolution of numerical equations. entitled Analyse des equationes determines (1831). but there is evidence to before Budan had published this result as early show that Fourier had estab Sudan s publication. of which Fourier became secretary. These brilliant results were eclipsed by the theorem of Sturm. Berthollet. although he were a second Newton. He lectured upon it in the Polytechnic School he developed it constituted a part of a work it on the banks of the Nile . Fourier became at success secured duties of first pupil. two chosen lished it limits. but discharged important political functions.&quot. published in 1835. the quitted. This investigation of his early youth he never lost sight of. Fourier took a prominent part at his home in promoting the Eevolution. which was This* work contained in press when death overtook him. along with which he afterwards Monge and accompany Napoleon on his campaign to Egypt. 53 He was soon appointed to the mathe matical chair in the military school. This work marks an epoch in the history of . Napoleon founded the Institute of Egypt. During this period he carried on his elaborate investigations on the propagation of heat in solid bodies. then lecturer. Fourier s theorem&quot. which was an improvement on Newton s method of approximation. . on the number of real roots between &quot. The reformation of the weights and measures was planned with grandeur of con The Normal School was created in 1795. of which ception.

j&amp. This was a small club in established bage. mathematical gem. Charles Baband a few other Cambridge students. Sir William Thomson. as it &quot. and some other&quot. to the exclusion of the fluxional notation y. LAGRANGE. if the coefficients an =- I /*7T \ &amp. the Leibniziau notation in the calculus against those or of the Newtonian notation. This struggle ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the notation &quot.EULER. In 1827 Fourier succeeded Laplace as president of the council of the Polytechnic can be represented by a trigonometric The first announcement of this great discovery was made by Fourier in 1807. &quot.&quot.Analytical Cambridge. modern writers find . constitutes By this research a long controversy was brought to a and the fact established that any arbitrary function series.&quot. before the French series ft=0 = eo S (an sin nx Academy. close. was humorously expressed. + b n cos nx) represents the function (#) for every value of x. superiority but because the adoption of the former opened up to English students the vast storehouses of continental discoveries. The trigonometric & tury.Fourier s series&quot. Before proceeding to the origin of modern geometry we shall speak briefly of the introduction of higher analysis into Great This took place during the first quarter of this cen Britain. to promote.(V) sinnxdx. This dx was a great step in Fourier s analysis lies in his failure to prove generally that series actually converges to the value of the and trigonometric the function. John Herschel. was formed at England as compared with its In 1813 the &quot. ^. the principles of pure that of is. to deplore the very small progress racing progress on the Continent. not on account of any great of the Leibnizian over the Newtonian notation.D-ism. AND LAPLACE. by George Peacock. 283 its physics. The British began that science was making Society&quot. 7T*x JT The weak point in &n be equal to a similar integral.

owing with the government. displayed his mastery over higher analysis in memoirs communicated to the Koyal Society on new applica tions of mathematical analysis. &quot.principle and to He of the advances. and in articles contributed to cyclopaedias on light. He was one of the first to study seriously the fundamental principles of algebra.284 it A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Lacroix s was one of the best and most extensive works on the calculus of that time. George Peacock (1791-1858) was educated at Trinity College. and on the history of mathematics. Babbage became famous for engine superior to his It invention of a calculating to a misunderstanding quent failure to finished. and a conse John Herschel. F. It was Servois who introduced the names commutative and distributive in 1813.&quot. became Lowndean professor there. Of the three founders of the &quot.&quot. fully recognise its purely symbolic character. Peacock. These laws had been noticed years before by the inventors of symbolic methods in the calculus. on meteorology. and his Report on Recent Progress in Analysis. notations. Cambridge. which brought out clearly the commutative and distributive laws. which was the first of several valuable summaries of scientific progress printed in the volumes of the British Association. Lacroix s treatise on the differential and integral calculus. Hersehel.&quot. the eminent secure funds. in 1816. and frequently convenient to use both.on the real nature of symbolical algebra. and later. His chief publications are his Algebra. dean of Ely. It assumes that the rules applying to the symbols of arithmetical algebra apply also in symbolical algebra. the permanence of equivalent forms. Pascal s. and Babbage translated.Analytical Society. About this time D. was never astronomer. added in 1820 two volumes of examples. 1830 and 1842. Peacock afterwards did most work in pure mathematics. though somewhat imperfectly. from the French. Gregory wrote a paper &quot. .

His wonderful descriptive marks the beginning of a modern geometry. the analytical culus. but they are far from being satisfactory. Trans. ISTewton. the analytical treatment of retained almost undisputed supremacy. LAG-BANGE. It was reserved for the genius of Monge to bring synthetic geometry in the foreground. and hurst). and gave three proofs s theorem. beginning in 1804. He criticised of the principle without recourse to probability . mathematician who for twelve years. development of Gom6trie Of the two leading problems of descriptive geometry. Of importance is his memoir (Phil.Ivory interior to it. Peacock 285 s investigations on the foundation of algebra were considerably advanced by De Morgan and Hankel. James Ivory (1765-1845) was a Scotch. and to open up new avenues of progress. De Lahire. 1809) in which the problem of the attraction of a homogeneous ellipsoid upon an external point is reduced to the simpler problem of the attraction of a related ellipsoid upon a corresponding point &quot.&quot. geometry was brought into Notwithstanding the great prominence methods made by Desargues. Pas efforts to revive synthetic method cal. and Maclaurin. almost the only one in Great Britain previous to the organisa tion of the Analytical Society who was well versed in conti He was nental mathematics.EULER. AND LAPLACE.. By the researches of Descartes and the invention of the cal for over a century. the was one to represent by drawings geometrical magnitudes of brought to a high degree of perfection before the time . The Origin of Modern Geometry. This is known as with undue severity Laplace s solution of the method of least squares. held the mathematical chair in the Eoyal Military College at Marlow (now at Sand essentially a self-trained mathematician.

tlie other to solve problems on figures in space had received considerable at by constructions in a plane tention before Ms time. was the time in which it it was received with Monge developed descriptive these methods further and thus created his Owing to the rivalry between the French military schools of that time. Lacroix to say. he could not receive a commission in the army. Monge. . ics at In 1768 he was made professor of mathemat Mezi&res. he sub stituted a geometrical method. and G-ayvernon in Paris. many advantages were 54 gained. geometry. In 1780. I could have . when conversing with two of his &quot. when once examined. Being of low birth. F. he was not permitted to divulge his new methods to any one outside of this institution. Monge (1746-1818) was born at Beaune. pupils. which the commandant at first refused even to look at. By revolving one plane into the other around this axis or ground-line. S. Observing that all the operations connected with the construction of plans of fortifi cation were conducted by long arithmetical processes. who procured for him an G-aspard struction of a plan of his native appointment in the college of engineers at Mezieres. The con town brought the boy under the notice of a colonel of engineers. but he was permitted to enter the annex of the school. His most noteworthy predecessor in descriptive geometry was the Frenchman Frezier (1682But it remained for Monge to create descriptive 1773). so short could be practised avidity. All problems previously treated in a special and uncertain manner were referred geometry as a - back to a few general principles. where surveying and drawing were taught.286 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. distinct branch of science by imparting to it geometric generality and elegance. he was obliged All that I have here done by calculation. He introduced the line of intersection of the horizontal and the vertical plane as the axis of projection.

and then again.EULER. Mongers numerous papers were by no means confined to de His analytical discoveries are hardly less He introduced into analytic geometry the me thodic use of the equation of a line. deprived of all partisan his honours by Louis XVIII. same year the Polytechnic School was opened.&quot. He taught there descriptive geometry until his departure from France to accom pany Napoleon on the Egyptian campaign. in the Journal des 6coles normdles. This and the destruction of the Polytechnic School preyed heavily upon his mind. Applica- . studied by Wren and Euler) and discovered between the theory of surfaces and the integration of partial differential equations. The method was published by Monge published himself in the same year. In the occurred in 1798-1799. impaired when imaginaries are involved among subsidiary Mxmge published the following books: Statics. done with. established a general theory of curvature. 1786 i Applications de I alg&bre a la g6om6trie. 287 to to reveal these secrets and compass. discovered the processes. The next edition After an ephemeral existence of only four months the Normal School was closed in 1795. Monge was a zealous of Napoleon and was. a hidden relation which threw new light upon both subjects. But Lacroix set himself be. He did scriptive geometry. in the estab lishing of which Monge took active part. 1805 . the ruler AND LAPLACE. not long survive this insult. in revised examine what the secret could form. where he had been elected professor. and applied it to the He found that the validity of solutions was not ellipsoid. quantities. He was the first president of the Institute of Egypt. LAGRANGE. for that reason. and them in 1795. but I am not allowed to you. He gave the differential of curves of curvature. first in the form in which the short hand writers took down his lessons given at the Normal School. He made important contributions to surfaces of the second degree (previously remarkable.

spread Monge s geometry in Germany by the publication of a work thereon in 1828-1829. once a pupil at the Polytechnic School in Paris. and Poncelet. the gigantic task of organising fourteen . ISTolay in Lazare Nicholas Marguerite Carnot (1753-1823) was born at Burgundy. in technical schools in France. Hachette.288 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. for many years professor of mechanics in the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris.Dupin s theorem. Charles Bupin puhlished in 1813 an important work on Developpements de gfometrie. and wrote in 1784 a work on machines. among which were Dupin. a la tion de Vanalyse g6omtrie. The last two contain most of his miscellaneous papers. launched against France a million soldiers. (1784-1873). in 1793. successfully studied Surfaces of the second degree and descriptive geometry were by Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette (1769- professor of descriptive geometry at the School after the departure of Monge for Rome and Polytechnic Egypt. He entered the army. who became Descriptive geometry. With the advent of the Eevolution he threw himself into politics. in which is introduced the conception of conjugate 55 It tangents of a point of a surface. Biot. professor in G. was the first to introduced in 1816 at the Military Academy in West Point by Claude Crozet. was transferred to Germany at the foundation of technical schools there. and when coalesced Europe. 54 In the United States descriptive geometry was Karlsruhe. which arose. Brianchion. Servois. Crozet wrote the first 2 English work on the subject. and he gathered around him a large circle of pupils. containing the earliest proof that kinetic energy is lost in collisions of bodies. contains also the theorem known as &quot. and of the indicatrix. and educated in his native province. Monge was an inspiring teacher. 1834). In 1822 he published his Traite de geometrie descriptive.&quot. as we have seen. Schreiber. but continued his mathematical studies.

though not for the empire. and reduced to the remembrance of what he had learned at the Lyceum at Metz and the Poly technic School. which. and his Essay on Transversals. He was banished in 1T96 for opposing Napoleon s coup d etat. While in prison he did for mathematics what Bunyan did for literature. The refugee went to Geneva.&quot. and taken prisoner to Saratoff. and Brianchion. a work still du Oalcul cilable frequently quoted. was abandoned as dead on the bloody field of Krasnoi. entitled. 1806. By his effort to explain s the meaning of the negative sign in geometry he established a geometry of position. On the restoration he was exiled. He died in Magdeburg. Carnot confined himself to that of two. De prived there of all books. Chasles. are important contributions to modern geometry. he began to study its elements. He invented a class &quot. and others. While Monge revelled mainly in three-dimensional geometry. of general theorems on projective properties of figures. After the Eussian campaign he offered to fight for France. AKD LAPLACE. and in 1822 published the entitled. His Geom6trie de position. which has remained mathematics from researches of great value down to the present time. Carnot.ETJLEB. where he had studied with predilection the works of Monge. enemy of kings. In it Traiti des Proprietes projectives des figures. a native of Metz. he investigated the properties of figures which remain un- . He entered upon original which afterwards made him illustrious. LAGBANGE. of to-day.&quot. Reflexions sur la Metaphysique He declared himself as an &quot.irrecon Infinitesimal. produced a much-read work. where he issued. 1803. Jean Victor Poncelet (1788-1867). Prance in 1814. 289 armies to meet the enemy was achieved by him. however. took part in the Eussian campaign. in 1797.Geometric der Lage&quot. which have since been pushed to great extent by Poncelet. is different from the &quot. He returned to work in question.

In 1838 the Faculty of Sciences was applied mechanics. During the eighteenth century he and Maclaurin were the only promi nent mathematicians in Great Britain. of which only five are accompanied by demonstrations.reciprocal To him we owe the Law as a consequence of reciprocal polars. his Propositions geo 1746. Pascal. Stewart extended some theorems on transversals due to Giovanni Ceva (1648-1737). and succeeded the latter in the chair at Edinburgh. . Servois. it is As an independent Poncelet wrote much on While in France the school of Monge was creating modern geometry. and in 1763. enlarged by Ms election to the chair of mechanics. who published in 1678 at Mediolani a work con taining the theorem now known by his name. Physical and Mathe higher analysis. principle due to G-ergonne. which on the Continent were ap proached analytically with greater success. in General Theorems. It gives many interesting new results on the circle and the straight line. and Lam bert. he applied geometry to the solution of difficult matical. used before him by Desargues.290 altered A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. He published. Thus perspective projec tion. Stewart was a pupil of Simson and Maclaurin. an Italian. but by central projection. by projection of the The projection is not with Monge. His genius was illdirected by the fashion then prevalent in England to ignore In his Four Tracts. metries more veterum demonstrator. as and Gergonne into a regular method polars. Newton. astronomical problems. The former work con tains sixty-nine theorems.&quot. was elevated by him into a fruitful geometric method. 1761. In the same way he elaborated some ideas of De Lahire. figures. effected here by parallel rays of prescribed direction. the method of Duality of &quot. efforts were made in England to revive Greek geometry by Robert Simson (1687-1768) and Matthew Stewart (1717-1785).

&quot. The productiveness of 56 It is difficult. Germany awoke from her lethargy by G-auss. as in no other science.RECENT TIMES. of modern mathematics. to give an idea of This word extent I mean extent crowded witjj.&quot. Norway with Abel. studied in every detail of hillside and valley. Dirichlet. Nor has progress. and flower. arena with her Lobatchewsky. It is pleasant to the mathematician to think that in his. wood. the achievements of 291 . bringing for . beautiful is not the right one not an extent of mere uniformity such as an object detail. who are still Boolq. the United States .&quot. Italy with Cremona Hungary with her two Bolyais . Jacobi. modern writers has been enormous. have continued to develop mathematics with great success. rock. ward and hosts of more recent men Great Britain produced her besides champions De Morgan. more zealously and successfully lias mathematics been cultivated than in this century. from other countries whole &quot. Hamilton. been confined to one or two countries. who alone during the preceding epoch carried the torch of progress.While armies of enthusiastic workers have wheeled into the front rank. as in previous periods. says Professor Cayley. the French and Swiss. with Benjamin Peirce. the vast extent &quot. stream. but which will bear to be rambled through and less plain. J : but of a tract of beautiful country seen at first in the distance. Eussia entered the living.

in For physical science. Who. like poetry sake.can in no case be discounted. new except as affording hints of an unsuspected sphere of thought. that math own ematics. Hamilton s principle of varying action&quot. . has its use in astronomy. If it be asked wherein the utility of some sions of mathematics lies. the whole subject of graphical statics. so useful to the practical engineer. to rest upon von Staudt s Geometrie der Lags. example. is this. we know neither the day nor the hour when these abstract developments will find application in the mechanic arts. even when there is n^ promise of practical application. researches/ says Spottiswoode. it at present difficult to see modern exten must be acknowledged that it is how they are ever to become appli life cable to questions of common or physical science. Nowadays weight is given to iso lated theorems. or even imagined beforehand. or that Abelian functions and hyperelliptic transcendents . deserves cultivation for its The great characteristic of modern mathematics little is its gln- eralising tendency. or in other branches of mathematics. &quot. was made &quot. In the first place.292 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and music. seldom is anything lost or wasted. would have told us anything about the properties of curves or that the calculus of operations would have helped us in second reason any way towards the figure of the earth ? &quot. complex quantities. svery age remai-i possessions forever . for instance. general inte and general theorems in integration offer advantages in the study of electricity and magnetism. 57 &quot. But our inability to do this should not be urged as an argument against the pursuit of such studies. A in favour of the pursuit of advanced mathematics. would have supposed that the calculus of forms or the theory of substitu tions would have thrown much light upon ordinary equations . The utility of such grals. like meteorites detached from some &quot. new discoveries seldom disprove older tenets .

and was finally developed . and in the recognition of the value of homogeneity and symmetry. The conflict between geometry and analysis which arose near the close of the last century and the beginning of the Neither side has come present has now come to an end. The development of the notion of continuity plays a leading part in modern research. and Poncelet in France. out victorious. not in the suppression of either. undiscovered planetary orb of as in all true sciences. of. but always as related to. but in the friendly rivalry between the two. and Switzerland.&quot. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. speculation. and in the stimulating influence of the one upon the Lagrange prided himself that in his Mecanique Anahe had succeeded in avoiding all figures but since his lytique time mechanics has received much help from geometry. It seemed to be the outgrowth gators of a desire for general^methods which should serve as threads of Ariadne to guide the student through the labyrinth of theo Modern Synthetic geometry rems. wa^ first cultivated by Monge. no subject is considered in itself alone. or an outgrowth. in the theory of linear transformations and invari expression ants. synthetic geometry was_created by several investi about the same time. other. In geometry the principle of con tinuity. 293 In mathematics. other things. Continuity asserts itself in a most striking way in relation to the circular In algebra the modern idea finds points at infinity in a plane. corollaries. porisms.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. it then bore rich fruits at the hands of Mobius and Steiner in to still Germany. and the theory of projec tion constitute the fundamental modern notions. The greatest strength is found to lie. the idea of correspondence. Carnot. and problems. .

also at Leipzig and Halle. By this algorithm he found by algebra many theorems expressing mainly invariantal properties. Leipzig. in their plane will become a centre of mass. the theorems on the anharmonic relation. this calculus is based upon 58 properties of the centre of gravity. The most important They appeared in Crelle Der of his researches s Journal. perfection Mgher by Chasles Italy. Similarly for triangles and tetrahedra. Mobius wrote also on angles exceed 180. and in 1844 ordinary professor. the next year extraordinary professor of astronomy. . are on geometry. This position he held till his death. c. S is the centre of gravity of weights d placed at the points A. He studied Gauss. led Mobius A M new system of co-ordinates in which the position of a point was indicated by an equation. privat-docent. /3. C 9 D respectively. yon Staudt in Ger many. that the point a. statics spherical trigonometry He generalised the sides or angles of tri by letting and astronomy. BA. in 1815. is expressed by the equation (a + & + c + d) S = aA + IB + cO + dD. The remark that it is always possible to give three points such weights a. geometric for example. at Gottingen under In Leipzig he became. the beginning of a quadruple\lgebra.294 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. In desig His calculus tains the is germs of Grassmann first nating segments of lines we find throughout this work for the time consistency in the distinction of positive and nega tive by the order of letters AB. and in his celebrated -work entitled BarycentriscJie Calcul. B. in France. y that any fourth point 9 J3. b. and con s marvellous system. As the name indicates. and Cremona in Augustus Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868) was a native of Schulpforta in Prussia. 1827. Thus. and that of a line by to a co-ordinates.

&quot. mathematical journal bearing his name. In 1832 Steiner published his Systematische Entwickelung der AWiangigkeit geometrischer He which is uncovered the organism which the most diverse phenomena (Erscheinungeri) in by the world of space are united to each other. article in Orelle^s Journal In an braischer Curven he gives without proof theorems on Allgemeine Eigenschaften Algewhich were declared by Hesse to be &quot. viz. This book and von Staudt s lay the foundation on which synthetic geometry in its present form rests. & his Systematische Entwickelung en. is the principle of duality introduced at the outset. which occurred after years of bad health. but he made great advances in the theory of those of higher degrees. 295 Jacob Steiner (1796-1863) . riddles to the present and future generations.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. Not only did he fairly complete the theory of curves and surfaces of the second degree. Later he studied eighteen When Orelle started.the greatest geometrician since 3 the time of Euclid/ was born in Utzendorf in the Canton of Bern. At he became a pupil of Fermat s theorems. the chair of geometry was founded for him Li. the at Heidelberg and* Berlin. did not -learn to write till he was fourteen. Through the influence of Jaeobi and others. covered synthetically the two prominent properties of a sur face of the third order.&quot. Analytical proofs of some of them have been given since by others. This position he occupied In until his death. Berlin in 1834. that it contains twenty-seven straight lines for its vertices and a pentahedron which has the double points and the lines of tlie Hessian of the given sur- . In his hands synthetic geometry made prodigious progress. New discoveries followed each other so rapidly that he often did not take time to record their demonstrations. Steiner and celebrated Abel became leading contributors. &quot. for the first time. in 1826. Qestalten von einander. but Cremona Steiner dis finally proved them all by a synthetic method.

The first face for its edges. theorem of elliptic functions. He hated analysis as thoroughly as Lagrange disliked geometry. This problem was reduced to another. proposed the problem. This general prob lem was solved analytically by C. in 1803. and R. which he later gave up that he might devote all his time to scientific pursuits. Steiner s Gesammelte WerTce were published in Berlin in 1881 and 1882. engaged afterwards in business. If. In 1841 he became professor of later. . Cremona. 59 Malfatti. generalised the problem by to the other circles. 60 Steiner s researches are confined to synthetic geometry.of the calculus of varia tions. H. geodesy and mechanics at the Polytechnic School. Schellbach (1809-1892) and Cayley.296 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Schroter. Steiner made investi on maxima and minima. Steiner s work on this subject was the starting-point of important researches by H.but Steiner gave without proof a construction. He generalised the Jiexagrammum mysticum and also MalfattPs problem. remarked that there were thirty-two solutions. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris in 1812. August^ L. and solved the analogous problem for three dimensions. two replacing the three lines by three circles. as Malfatti 7 now generally known problem: to inscribe three circles in a triangle that each circle will be tangent to two sides of a triangle and s Malfatti gave an analytical solution. Michel Chasles (1793-1880) was bom at Epernon. and gations by synthetic methods earlier in somewhat arrived at the solution of problems which at that time alto gether surpassed the analytic power . 55 lytically property was discovered ana England by Cayley and Salmon. Sturm. and by Clebsch with the aid of the addition. and -the second by Sylvester. to cut three cylindrical holes out of a three-sided prism in such a way that the cylinders and the prism have the same altitude and that the volume of the cylinders be a maximum.

A. for instance. In 1864 he began the pub in the Comptes rendus. as an appendix.sur deux principes generaux de la Science. . con a treatise taining a history of geometry and. He deter &quot. sur Vorigine et le the appendix historique is still a standard historical work. Chasles introduced the term corresponding to the German Doppelveraxih^^ of duality (Reciprocity). and others. Zeucorrespondence was extended by Cayley. in 1879. number of intersections of two curves The method of characteristics contains the basis of enumerative geometry. H.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. Mltniss and to Clifford s cross-ratio. viz. G. and the respondence&quot. then. different from Newton s in this.&quot. H. The of application of the principle A. discussion of the problem of enumer work contains a masterly ative geometry. Numerous original de VEcole Polytechnique. Schwarz. He was a voluminous writer on geometrical sub In 1837 lie published Ms admirable Apergu historique jects. that the others can be projected are sym metrical with respect to a centre. He gave lished later in the Journal a reduction of cubics. an immense number principle of cor of problems. of articles in which he solves five curves from which all lication. mined. 297 Professeur de Geometric suprieure & la Faculte des Sciences de Paris. by his &quot. G. the in a plane. extended Ms enumerative geometry to n-dimensional Schubert 55 space. of the Kalkul der AbzahlThis enden Geometrie by Hermann Schubert of Hamburg. method of characteristics &quot. H. to determine how many geometric figures of given definition satisfy a sufficient number of conditions.&quot. developpement des metliodes en geometric. The full value of these principles of Chasles was not brought out until the appearance. Chasles and Steiner elaborated independently the modern synthetic or projective memoirs of Chasles were pub geometry. The Apergu &quot. Halphen (1844-1889). Brill. contains the general theory of Homography (Collineation) and The name duality is due to Joseph Diaz Gergonne (1771-1859).

however. complete solution. independent of all measure ments. and planes in pro lished without jective geometry. von Staudt s method is intimately related to the problem of representing by actual points and This was sys lines the imaginaries of analytical geometry.298 A HISTOliY Olf MATHEMATICS. Eepresentation of an imaginary point is sought in the combination of an involution with a determi nate direction. by synthetic geometry. lines. To Chasles we owe the introduction into projective geometry of non-pro jective properties of figures by means of the infi 61 Eemarkable is his nitely distant imaginary sphere-circle. 1847. Karl Georg Christian von Staudt (1798-1867) was born in Eothenburg on the Tauber. While purely projective. This accomplished analytically by Poisson in difficult &quot. both on the real line through the point. Nurnberg. he even gives a geometrical definition of a number in its relation to geometry as determining the posi The Beitrdge contains the first complete and tion of a point. Maximilien Marie. and his Beitrdge zur Geometric der Lage. at his death. He shows that projective properties of figures have no dependence whatever on measurements. The labours of Chasles and Steiner raised synthetic geometry to an honoured and respected position by the side of analysis. In his theory of what he calls &quot. tematically undertaken by C.&quot. in 1846. Loud of Colorado . The author cut loose from algebraic formulae and from in Erlangen.Wurfe. and then created a geometry of position. and can be estab is any mention of them. H. was professor His great works are the Geometric der Lage. who worked. general theory of imaginary points. of the question of the attraction of an ellipsoid on an exter nal point. particularly the anharmonic ratio of Steiner and Chasles. An independent attempt lias been made recently (1893) by P.was 1835. and. on entirely different lines. metrical relations. which a complete science in itself. IT. 18561860.

professor at the gymnasium in Thorn. but he made use of perspective. published an epoch-making work on Die grapMsche Statik. 299 Yon time disregarded. and not of modern geometry. The theory of the transformation of curves and of the corre spondence of points on curves was extended by him to three dimensions. 62 Cul Zurich. these lines may be . German by M. surfaces of the second order. Gousinery had turned his attention to the graphical calculus. no doubt. 1864. Staudt s geometry of position was for a long mainly. rival of analytical statics. Synthetic geometry has been studied with much success by In Luigi Cremona. who rests his graphical statics upon the work of von Staudt. because Ms book is extremely condensed. Kuled surfaces. But if the polygons be regarded as pro treated as reciprojections of lines in space. College.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. He makes use of the polar theory of reciprocal figures as the relation between the force and the funicular expressing the plane polygons. mann is the first to undertake to present the graphical calculus as a symmetrical whole. his Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica dette curve plane he developed by a uniform method many new results and proved synthetically all important results reached before that His writings have been translated into time by analysis. He deduces this relation without leaving of the two figures. professor at the Polytechnicum in Zurich. An interpreter of von Staudt was at last found in Theodor Eeye of Strassburg. E. who wrote a Geometric der Lage in 1868. space-curves of the third order. which has rendered graphical statics a great Before Culmann. B. professor in the University of Borne. Curtze. Karl Culmann. An impulse to the study of this subject was given by Culmann. and the general theory of surfaces have received much attention at his hands. holding the same relation to the new geometry that analytical mechanics does to higher analysis.

line falling on two other straight lines make the alternate angles equal to one another. to the theory of surfaces the Germans and Swiss. gives graphical solutions of problems on the maximum stresses in bridges under concen trated loads. Hachette. and elaborated further by his successors. The try.&quot. 1874. by some . Henry T. This was done by Clerk Maxwell in 1S64. Eddy.reaction polygons. which reach to the very root of two of the of mathematics.300 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. standard work. and in Germany treated most 62 exhaustively by Burmester. MoTir of Dresden graphical to the elastic line for continuoiis spans. de la Gournerie) was soon studied also in other countries. Dupin. in geometry the axioms have been searched to the oldest branches bottom. 27) that if a straight &quot.* The calculus has been applied by 0.&quot. La Statique grapliique. &quot. was issued by A Maurice Levy of Paris. and the conclusion has been reached that the space defined by Euclid s axioms is not the only possible noncontradictory space. elementary algebra and In algebra the laws of operation have been ex geometry. he assumed this to be true in what is generally called the 12th axiom. J. with aid of what he calls &quot. and elaborated further by Cremona. Euclid proved (I. of the Eose Polytechnic Institute. cal elements of a Nullsystem. Descriptive geometry (reduced to a science by Monge in France. Pohlke. Olivier. the two straight lines shall be parallel to one another. Schlessinger. During the present century very remarkable generalisations have been made. other case the two lines are not parallel. and par ticularly Fiedler. Being unable to prove that in every &quot. and their curvature theory of shades and shadows was first investigated by the French writers just quoted. tended. The French directed their attention mainly . interwove projective and descriptive geome Bellavitis in Italy worked along the same line.&quot. through Schreiber.&quot.

&quot. Lobatchewsky constructed an &quot. But 301 this so-called axiom is far from After centuries of desperate but fruitless attempts to prove Euclid s assumption. Universitdt Jasan. the work remained unknown to &quot.quite simple. under the title.absolute geometry.&quot.SYNTHETIC GEOMETBY. and which was the first of a series of articles destined to clear up obscurities in the proof. in Mschni-lSFowgorod. but even at home it attracted no notice. of foreigners. merely Euclid without the vicious assumption. In 1840 he published a brief statement of his researches in Berlin. none of which cut a given line in the same plane. that through a point an indefinite number of lines can be drawn in a plane. fundamental concepts. A remarkable part of this geometry is this. as he called it. the bold idea dawned upon the minds of several mathematicians that a geometry might axiomatic. While Legendre still endeavoured to establish the axiom by rigid Lobatchewsky brought out a publication which assumed the contradictory of that axiom.&quot. who called it &quot. first made Tew Elements Geometry. field of Mcholaus Ivanovitch Lobatchewsky (1793-1856) was born at Makarief. he went to Land. . Being in the Baissian language. be built up without assuming the parallel-axiom. and first printed in the Kasan Messenger for 1829. A similar system of geometry was deduced independently by the Bolyais in Hungary.imaginary geometry. Transylvania. which has been described by Clifford as &quot. Kussia. and then in the Gelelirte Schriften der of Kasan. 1836-1838. Wolfgang Bolyai de Bolya (1775-1856) was born in SzeklerAfter studying at Jena.&quot. and from 1827 to 1846 was professor and rector of the University His views on the foundation of geometry were public in a discourse before the physical and mathe matical faculty at Kasan. studied at Kasan. and to greatly extend the geometry. with a complete theory of Parallels.

where lie became intimate with. called attention to the wonderful researches. as also Lobatchewsky remained in almost entire oblivion. Johann Bolyai s Science Absolute of . only an apple-tree. Finally Eichard Baltzer of the University of Giessen. which made hell out original in his private life as well as in his He was . Gauss. modest. 64 His son. where for forty-seven years he had lege for his pupils most of the present professors of Transylvania. Gottingen. is studiosam in elementa matJieseos puree introducendi. mathematics. and that of Newton. but he left behind one thousand pages of manuscript which have never been read by a competent mathematician His of ! name father seems to have been the only person in Hungary who For thirtyreally appreciated the merits of his son s work. five years this appendix.302 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. then nine teen years old. and he vanquished in them all. s researches. 1832-1833. entitled Tentamen juventutem . of thirteen officers on condition that after each duel he might play a piece on his violin. and distinguished himself as a profound mathematician. Its twenty-six pages make the . and an expert fencer. in memory of the three apples the two of Eve and Paris. which elevated the earth again into the circle of heavenly bodies. It followed by an appendix composed by his son Johann on The Science Absolute of /Space. of earth. was educated for the army. The first publications of this remarkable genius and poetry. Johann Bolyai (1802-1860). Gauss used to say that Bolyai was the only man who fully understood his views on the metaphysics of Bolyai became professor at the Reformed Col of Maros-V^sarhely. Johann Bolyai immortal. an impassioned violin- He once accepted the challenge player. The chief mathematical work of Wolfgang Bolyai appeared two volumes. . mode of thinking. Clad in old-time planter s were dramas he was truly garb. should extremely stand over his grave. in 1867. No monument. He published nothing else. said he.

2 right angles we need the aid a geometry with angle-sum of an &quot. there is &amp. in 1733 anticipated Lobatchewsky s doctrine of the parallel Moreover. (3) In a space with the angle-sum differing from 2 right angles. still number is merely a product of our and that firmer. &quot. (2) In order to make intuitive angle-sum &amp. It has recently been brought to notice that Geronimo Saccheri.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY.&quot. if possible. 1786. published in the Leipziger Magazin fur reine und angle. an absolute measure (Bolyai s natural unit for length).&quot. copy of the Tentamen reached stating that his &quot. G. In 1829 he wrote to show that in 1799 he was trying to the reality of Euclid s system but some time letters Bessel. in which: (1) The failure the parallel-axiom in surface-spherics gives a geometry with 2 right angles . of angewandte MathematiJc. prove a priori within the next thirty years he arrived at the conclusion reached by Lobatchewsky and Bolyai. Space 303 Geometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels (1840) were rendered easily accessible to American readers by translations into English made in 1891 by George Bruce Halsted of the University of Texas.imaginary sphere&quot. space has also a reality beyond our mind of which we cannot fully foreordain the laws a (pseudo-sphere).&quot. a Jesuit father of Milan. His . mind. . B. and Lobatchewsky s The Kussian and Hungarian mathematicians were not the only ones to whom pangeometry suggested itself.conviction that we cannot found geometry completely a priori has become. The term non&quot.if Euclidean geometry is due to Gauss. and this Nestor of German mathematicians A was surprised to discover in it worked out what he himself had begun long before. only to leave it after him in his as 1792 he had started on researches of that papers. the elder Bolyai s former room mate at Gottingen. As early character. Halsted has pointed out that in 1766 Lambert wrote a paper Zur Theorie der Parallellinien.

. 1868. a marvellous cussion one step further by developing the notion of n-ply extended magnitude. Biernann taught us to distinguish between unboundedness . applied his ideas to He every other. a notion of non-Euclidean space &quot. Grassmann. if not exactly. should be mentioned elsewhere &quot. Helmholtz popularised the subject in and in articles for various magazines. About the same time with Biemann s paper. These contributed pow of erfully to the victory of logic over excessive empiricism.&quot.infinite extent. Euclidean space.were we to adhere to a between synthesis and analysis).? and &quot. and H. Riemann. at least to high Biemann s pro degree of approximation. lectures. found dissertation was not published until 1867. According to him we have in our mind a more general notion of space. Italy. that our physical space is. which is analytical (and. for example were able to see in non-Euclidean geometry and n-dimensional space noth ing but huge caricatures. wrote the classical paper Saggio di interpretazione della geometria non-eudidea (Giorn. in 1835. Before this the idea n dimensions had suggested itself under various aspects to Lagrange. He strict separation reached the brilliant . Eugenio Beltrami. Some writers Bellavitis. and now professor at Borne. or diseased outgrowths of mathe matics. but we learn by experience i. Plucker. . welche der Geometrie m Grunde liegen. Helmholtz s article was entitled Tliatsacken. and the measure-relations of which a manifoldness of n dimensions is capable. when it appeared in the Gfottingen AbJiandlungen. born at Cremona.304 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. In 1854.e. This period marks the beginning of lively discussions upon this sub ject. G-auss heard from his dissertation carrying the dis pupil. 6). on the assumption that every line may be measured by space. like several other papers. and contained many of the ideas of Biemann. others were published from the pens of HelmJioltz and Beltrami. di Matem. nearly twenty years later.

Among these are his paper On Classification of Loci and his Theory of He wrote articles On the Canonical Form and lege. are The three geometries do not contradict each other. Aschieri. Graphs. Del C. being a was an introduction to the study general study of curves. and from 1871 until his death professor of applied mathematics in University Col His premature death left incomplete several brilliant researches which he had entered upon. Cambridge. and the Euclidean geometry on a surface of zero curva ture. and The incomplete work on the Elements of Dynamic. 1878. researches on non-Euclidean geometry were fol of Felix Klein. expounded and popularised in Clifford. London. 305 and surprising conclnsion that the theorems of non-Euclidean geometry rind their realisation upon surfaces of constant nega tive curvature. Bertini. These researches of Beltrami. surfaces of constant positive curvature.SYNTHETIC GBOMETEY. curvature. This study has been continued since chiefly by G. Veronese of Turin. but The ideas a geometrical trinity. F. surfaces was generalised by theory of polars of curves and him and by Eeye. members of a system. and ended with the interesting theorem that the space of constant positive curvature is contained in the space of constant negative curvature. the spherical on a surface of constant positive cur vature. His classification of loci. and Eiemann culminated in the conclusion that on surfaces of constant curvature we may have three geome the non-Euclidean on a surface of constant negative tries. E. lowed. Dissection an of a Riemann s Surface. P. Clifford of hyper-space were brilliantly England by William Kingdon (1845-1879) was born at Exeter. educated at Trinity College. Pezzo of Naples. Helinholtz. He studied. on Biguaternions. in 1871. of n-dimensional space in a direction mainly projective. by important investigations Beltrami ? s . also. of Segre Padua.

Battaglini of Naples. Stahl of Tubingen.306 resting A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. named by him respectively the elliptic. and Schlegel at Hagen constructed models of such projections. of Munich. Poncelet. Aschieri. pendence of projective geometry from the parallel-axiom. Craig of the Bonn. Ellery W. and pseudospherical geometries. Cayley. parabolic. Hoppe of Berlin. The not possible to so express the metrical of figures that they will not vary by projection (or properties question whether it is linear transformation) had been solved for special projections by Chasles. Lipschitz of Heath and Killing investigated the kinematics and mechanics of such a space. T. Davis &quot. Stringham of the University of California. Klein showed the inde quadric. F. d? Ovidio of Turin. E. Schering of Gottingen. E. Homersham Cox. and by properly choosing the law of the measurement of distance deduced from projective geometry the spherical. Eegular solids in n-dimensional space were studied by Stringham. others. Buchheim. de Paolis of Pisa. A. Euclidean. W. 1859. among whom may be mentioned Simon Newcomb of the Johns Hopkins University. A. Laguerre (1834-1886) of Paris. A. I. W. E. Schlafli of Bern. H. Lindemann R. Story of Clark University. particularly by G. W. This sug numerous writers. Killing of Minister. of the University of Nebraska. and hyperbolic geometries. Johns Hopkins. L. F. These are . but it remained for Cayley to give a general solution by denn an arbitrary constant ing the distance between two points as ratio in which multiplied by the logarithm of the anharmonic the line joining the two points is divided by the fundamental Enlarging upon this notion. and E. E. gestive investigation was followed up by E. and Stringham gave pictures of projections upon our space of regular solids in four dimensions. Yoss of Wiirzburg. 55 The geometry of n dimen sions was studied along a line mainly metrical by a host of writers. upon Cayley s Sixth Memoir on Quantics. S.

or cannot rotate without . Each has advantages over the other. Between 1826 and 1836 he held positions successively He then became professor of at Bonn. that a well-established routine in a certain degree may outrun thought itself. losing one of its dimensions. Pliicker laid the foundation of modern analytic geometry. Klein pointed out that knots could not be tied 5 Veronese showed that a body could be removed from a closed room without breaking the walls C.&quot. Brill in Darmstadt. Thus INewcomb showed the possibility of turning a closed material shell inside out by sim ple flexure without either stretching or tearing .ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. In connection with hyperspace we also mentioned analytical Modern synthetic and modern analytical geome treatises. among the most 307 L. The continual direct viewing of figures as existing in space adds exceptional charm to the study of the former. and Heidelberg. Julius Pliicker (1801-1868) was born at Elberfeld. curious of a series of models published by It has been pointed out that if a fourth dimension existed. but the latter has the advantage in this. have much in common. . Berlin. Peirce proved that a body in four-fold space either rotates about two axes at once. he spent a short time in Paris attending lectures of Monge and his pupils. in Prus sia. certain motions could take place which we hold to be impossible. and may be grouped together try under the common name &quot. and thereby aid original research. S. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. and Halle. After studying at Bonn. While in Germany Steiner and von Staudt developed synthetic geome try. Berlin. In the preceding chapter we endeavoured to give a flash light view of the rapid advance of synthetic geometry.protective geometry.

&quot. though occupying the chair was no physicist. based on the nature of the points at infinity. geometry.308 . Until 1846 his original researches were on In 1828 and in 1831 he published his AnatytischTherein he GeometriscJie Untersuchungen in two volumes. In the Mm second volume the principle of duality cally. 1835. declared that he would stop writing for Crelle s Journal if 66 The result was that Pliicker continued to contribute to it. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. and avoided the tedious process of algebraic elimination by a geometric consideration. physics at Bonn. 1839. says Cayley. by which he was able to explain tions &quot. But in the entire subject of modern geometry. con dinates of Mobius. contains. in a more adopted the abbreviated notation (used before restricted way by Bobillier).&quot. the analytic rela tions between the ordinary singularities of plane curves known.&quot. This induced him to relin- . besides an enumeration of curves of the fourth order. also work came were published in foreign jour to be better known in France The charge was of physics. as &quot. The homogenous or already tri-linear system used by him is much the same as the co-or With him In the identity of analytical operation and geometric construction Pliicker looked for the source of Ms proofs.the The discovery of these rela most important one beyond all is. comparison His Plucker s researches met with no favour. he brought against Plucker that. many nals. The Theorie der Algebraischen Curven. tains a complete classification of plane curves of the third order. is formulated analyti duality and homogeneity found expression in his system of co-ordinates.Plucker s equations. in Germany method was declared to be unproductive as compared with His rela the synthetic method of Steiner and Poncelet! Steiner once tions with Jacobi were not altogether friendly. of Plucker s researches and that his and England than in his native country.Poncelet s paradox. The System der Analytischen Geometrie.

one has the whole of lines in space. unfinished nevertheless. magnetism. Clebsch. at Konigsberg. spectrum-analysis were made by Mm. and in 1845 degree in 1840. For many years he had not kept up with the progress of geometry. greatly extended and supplemented and Ludwig Otto Hesse (1811-1874) was born at Konigsberg. His first researches on this subject were laid before the Eoyal &quot. Every new berg period was one of great activity for still greater achievement. The theory original. His further investigations thereon appeared Society in 1865. 309 Ms quish mathematics. mathematics. was continued by Felix Klein. in 1868 in a posthumous work entitled Neue Geometric des Maumes gegrundet auf die Betrachtung der geraden Linie als Eaumelement. Eegarding a right line as a curve involving four arbitrary parameters. His earliest . he became decent his pupils at that time extraordinary professor there. Neumann. Having taken Jacobi. already received more general treatment on in his last work had The work contained. eries. the doctor s Eichelot. &quot.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. . By connecting them by a single By &quot. left by Plucker. so that many investigations the part of others. Carl Neumann. studied at the university of his native place under Bessel. relation. who the ideas of his master. and F. &quot. edited by Felix Klein. much that was fresh and of complexes of the second degree. and for nearly twenty years to devote energies to physics. new geometry system of lines he got a complex by connecting them with a twofold relation. Jacobi. discovery increased his zeal researches were on surfaces of the second order.&quot. Hesse. a considering space as made up of lines he created of space. and Clebsch. Kirchhoff. The Konigs for Hesse. Pliicker s analysis lacks the elegance found in Lagrange. But towards the close of his life he returned to his and enriched it with new discov first love. he got a congruency of lines. Important discoveries on Fresnel s wave-surface. Among were Durege. &quot.

In 1855 he accepted a more lucrative position at Halle. a subject first studied by Cayley. he reduced a applied to the analytic study of curves of the third order. and in 1856 one at Heidelberg. called the &quot. showed how by determinants to make In his earlier results he was algebraic elimination easy. 1844). the most first are points on the second. Hessian &quot. 1855) was published at the same time as was a paper by Steiner treating of the same subject. or for surfaces (Crelle. and was led to an important determinant involving the second differential coeffi cient of a form of the third degree. and were partly synthetic. 55 The &quot. Here he remained until 1868. plays a leading part in the theory of invari Hesse showed that ants. Munich. By form of the third degree in three variables to one of only four terms. of his special method in analytic geometry lay in the avoidance of algebraic elimina Hesse.310 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He solved the problem to construct any tenth point of such a surface when nine points are given. His great memoir on this subject (Crelle. anticipated by Sylvester. however. 67 when he accepted a position at a technic school in At Heidelberg he revised and enlarged upon his . which passes through the 56 points of contact of the 28 bitangents of a curve of the fourth order. such that the double points of the &quot. Similarly Many of theorems on curves of the third order are important due to Hesse.&quot. Hesse s income at Konigsberg had not kept pace with his growing reputation. Hardly was he able to support himself and family. The analogous problem for a conic had been solved by Pascal by means of the hexagram. He determined the curve of the 14th order.Hessian. A difficult problem confronting mathematicians of this time was that of elimination. his determinant gives for every curve another curve. Pliicker had seen that the main advantage tion. of elimination in 1840.Hessian. who published his dialytic method These advances in algebra Hesse linear substitutions.

there corresponds to every in a plane a pair of points in a line. and published in 1861 Ms Vorlesungen uber die Analytiscke Geometrie des Itaumes. Cayley extended Plueker Cayley s s higher singularities. while Sylvester in 1851 discovered the pentahedron of such a surface. and Sylvester. lead to the conclusion that each higher sin a certain number of simple gularity of a curve is equivalent to singularities. insbesondere uber Flclclien 2. points in a line. Halphen (1844-1889) of the of Paris.&quot. and made some valuable discoveries on the theory of quadrics. the node. and James among the MacCullagh (1809-1846). for the interchange of scientific results between different nations was not so complete at that time as might have been desired. De La Gournerie Brill of Tubingen. While in Heidelberg he elaborated a principle. It may be premised here that early writers on analytical geometry in England Booth (1806-1878). H. More elementary works soon &quot. The researches of Plucker and Hesse were continued in England by Cay ley. Sylvester. G. Ordnung. Polytechnic School in Paris. and the projective point geometry of the plane can be carried back to the geometry of gungsprincip. and Salmon nearly five years earlier.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. of own investigations. whose chief results are embodied was James in his Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods. The influence of these men on the progress of geometry was insignificant. Salmon. . we mention that Chasles in France elaborated subjects which had previously been disposed of by Steiner in Germany. followed. 311 previous researches. A. Cayley and Salmon in 1849 determined the straight lines in a cubic surface. the double tangent. Nother of Erlangen. and studied its principal properties. equations to curves of and those M. his Uebertra- According to this. In further illustra tion of this.. who was professor of natural philos ophy at Dublin. the ordinary cusp. and Steiner published researches which had been given by Cayley.

where he worked in conjunction with in Carlsruhe. studied at the university of that place under Hesse. Clebsch had shown how therein. Not only did he apply Abelian elliptic functions could be advantageously applied to Malfatti s problem. Kichelot. which have been placed within easy reach of German readers by a free translation. Neumann. led him to his greatest discoveries. Higher Plane Curves. (Geschlecht) as a funda mental principle in the classification of algebraic curves. At the beginning of his career. made by Wilhelm Fiedler of the Polytechnicurn in Zurich. Abelian functions and their use in geometry. He worked Mathematical physics. The notion of deficiency was known before him to Abel and Eie&quot. the use . made systematic use of mann. of higher transcendentals in the study of geometry. Salmon helped powerfully a curve of the fourth order.&quot. .&quot. on the pentahedron enunciated by Sylvester and Steiner he &quot. Paul Gordan (now of Erlangen). with additions. Modern Higher Algebra. and remained there until his death. successively at the following subjects the calculus of variations and partial differential equations of : the first order. The next great worker in the field of analytic geometry was Clebsch. the general theory of curves and surfaces. F. In 1863 he accepted a position at the algebra University of Giesen. the theory of He proved theorems invariants. Rudolf Friedrich Alfred Clebsch (1833-1872) was born at Konigsberg in Prussia.deficiency&quot. and Flachenabbildung. Geometry of Three Dimensions). From 1858 to 1863 he held the chair of theoretical mechanics at the Polytechnicum The study of Salmon s works led him into and geometry. The idea involved viz. Sylvester studied the twisted Cartesian. &quot. In 1868 Clebsch went to Gottingen. inflection.312 and the A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. towards the spreading of a knowledge of the new algebraic and geometric methods by the publication of an excellent series of text-books (Conic Sections.

but conversely. he drew geometry into the service of Abelian functions. Gerard Mercator. Felix Klein. Caporali. Jean Gaston Darboux of Paris. Lagrange. 1) correspondence. The theory of surfaces investigated by Cayley Clebsch. pro fessor at the Sorbonne in Paris. Clebsch made liberal use of determinants. Clebsch s but his solution was given in inconvenient form. Chasles. : a given surface ? represented by a (1. particularly M. 313 functions to geometry. a plane the Plucker. Mother of Erlangen. Zeuthen of Copenhagen. W. that of geometry of quadrie surfaces Clebsch and Cremona. Cayley. R. His study of curves and surfaces began with the determination of the points of contact of lines which meet a surface in four consecutive Salmon had proved that these points lie on the inter points. recent writers. Scliroter (1829-1892) . Lambert. Gauss. has been studied also by Joseph Alfred Serret (1819-1885). investigation thereon is a most beautiful piece of analysis. Other surfaces have been studied in the same cubic surfaces. is Its importance in the construction of maps Gauss was the first to represent a surface upon another with a view of more easily arriving at its properties. G. way by Armenante. lin. so that they have a (1. The thoroughly studied for the first time by Clebsch. W. Roberts of Dub Surfaces of the of Breslau. representation of one surface upon another (Fldchenabwas bildung).ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. thus represented on obvious. A fundamental question which has as yet received only a partial answer is this What surfaces can be . John Casey of Dublin (died 1891). The repre sentation of a sphere on a plane is an old problem which drew the attention of Ptolemaeus. 1) correspondence upon This and the analogous question for curves was studied by have been Higher correspondences between surfaces and ISTother. H. Korndorfer. section of the surface with a derived surface of the degree H w _24. H.

His treat ment is embodied in the Disquisitiones generales circa super ficies Jidheren Geodasie of curvas (1827) and Vhtersuchungen uber gegenstdnde der 1843 and 1846. He defined the measure of curvature at a point to be the reciprocal of the product From of the two principal radii of curvature at that point. 56 The infinitesimal calculus was first applied to the determi nation of the measure of curvature of surfaces Euler. 69 Gauss obtained an interesting theorem that if one surface be developed (abgewickelt) upon another. and EresnePs by Hamilton. is a particular case of and Kummer s quartic surface. but they were eclipsed by the work of Gauss. who disposed of this difficult subject in a way that opened new vistas to geometricians. was answered by F. and was studied by Minding. expressed a$ a function of cur vilinear co-ordinates. order were investigated wave-surface. J.Minding in the affirmative only when the curvature is constant.314 fourth. formula of curvature was simplified through the use of deter minants by Heinrich Ricliard Baltzer (1818-1887) of Giessen. and Meunier (1754-1793) of Paris. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Ossian Bonnet of Paris (died 1892). by Lagrange. Then followed the researches of Monge and Dupin. the measure of curva The question whether ture remains unaltered at each point. Liouville (1806-1882) of the Poly technic School in Paris. gave an impetus to the study of differ- . studied by Kummer. that the arithmetical mean of the radii of curvature of all normal sections through a point is the radius of a sphere which has the same measure of curvature Gauss s deduction of the as has the surface at that point. one upon the other. The case of variable curvature is difficult. with sixteen canonical points sixteen singular tangent planes. two surfaces having the same curvature in corresponding points can be unwound. Gauss s measure of curvature. this flows the theorem of Johann August Grunert (1797-1872 . professor in Greifswald).

Neumann. and others. 0. Of geometrical text-books not yet mentioned. 315 which have been investigated by Jaeobi.Walter Dyck of Munich wrote on the analysis situs of three-dimensional spaces. Lie. C. . Dingeldey.&quot. Gregory in connection with the fundamental laws We Much was done in this line by De Morgan. E. Beltrami showed also the connection S. Listing. Solid Geometry.analysis situs. Simony. In continuation of his work. ential-invariants. have already spoken of George Peacock and D. Eiemann the analysis situs had for its object the deter mination of what remains unchanged under transformations of brought about by a combination of infinitesimal distortions. and others in their &quot. now of Munich Frost s s . Sir James Cockle. Durege s Ebene Ourven dritter Ordnung. Halphen. Vorlesungen uber Geomeedited by Ferdinand Lindemann. Various researches have been brought under the head of &quot. B.ALGEBRA. and the development of what is called modern higher algebra. ALGEBBA. between the measure of curvature and the geometric axioms. &quot. reference should be made to Alfred Clebsch trie. or differential-parameters. The later Leibniz. and was subject was first investigated by treated by Gauss.&quot. the growth of the theory of equations. studies. whose theory of knots (VerschUngungen) has been employed recently by J. F.topo- Tait was led to the study of knots by Sir logic Thomson s theory of vortex atoms. The progress of algebra in recent times : may be considered under three principal heads the study of fundamental laws and the birth of new algebras. of algebra. and elaborated into a general theory by Beltrami. In the hands William.

No subject was too insignificant to receive Ms attention. degree. proceeding to the M. and operations of mathematics . Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) was bom at Madura (Ma His scru dras).Cocker s Arithmetic&quot. 1842. The authorship of &quot. ples about the doctrines of the established church prevented him from. and the work of circle-squarers was investigated as minutely as was the history of the invention of the calculus. We know that mathematicians : care no more for logic than logicians for mathematics. was The value of his original work lies not so much in increasing our stock of mathematical knowledge as in putting it all upon a He felt keenly the lack of close thoroughly logical basis. Cambridge. and Sir William Few contemporaries Hamilton. he wrote a Formal Logic as well as a Double Algebra^ and corresponded both with Sir William Hamilton. His Differential Calculus. is still a standard work. logical eye.A. He said once : &quot. except for five years. the mathematician. from 1831-1835. De Morgan a unique.316 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The two eyes of exact science are the mathematical sect puts out the mathematical eye. In 1828 he became professor at the newly established University of London. and contains much that is original with the For the Encyclopaedia Metropolitans he wrote on the author. manly character. the logical sect puts out the it can see better with one eye than with De Morgan saw with both eyes. and educated at Trinity College. the metaphysician. calculus of functions (giving principles of symbolic reasoning) . Numerous arti cles of his lie scattered in the volumes of the Penny and Eng lish Cydopcedias.&quot. symbols. mathematics and logic each believing that two. were as profoundly read in the history of mathematics as Rowan was De Morgan. He analysed logic mathematically. and taught there until 1867. and pre-eminent as a teacher. and from sitting for a fellowship. and studied the logical analysis of the laws. reasoning in mathematics as he received it.

in a publication of 1 and between the mean proportional was developed further. 1842. During the times of Descartes. aV^l V + V^. and Peirce s dis met with immediate coveries. Kuhn. 1844. + constituted a powerful points on a plane.. and a between complex numbers and The connection number.?) of Geneva. (Trans. of imaginaries. V regarded as an algebraic ric picture. interpretation Newton. required a visual representation what we now call vectors was growing upon mathematicians. and 1847). geometry. Celebrated is his Budget of Paradoxes. but. indeed not slow in forthcoming. The writings of Kuhn and i Argand were little noticed. of Algebra&quot. Bellavitis s. some This is true of Grassmann s. The mind aid in the further study of symbolic algebra. in a remarkable Essai (1806) 70 . He represented 1 as line a. The first to give it a geomet the analogous to the geometric interpretation of a teacher in Danzig. as as a complex an independent unit co-ordinate to 1. so as to give a geometric interpretation of a-f by Jean-Robert Argand (1768. was H. fiction. The notion of to aid it.ALGEBRA. by a line perpendicular 1750-1751. of Gam. He published memoirs On the Foundation &quot. and construed to the This same idea 1. . Phil Soc. though artificial. 1841. and Euler. who wrote a System der Mathematik in 1822. like non-Euclidean of them were slow in finding recognition. 817 and on the theory of probability. remained for Gauss to break He introduced &quot. and it down the last opposition to the imaginary. ft&amp. but Hamilton s quaternions These algebras offer a geometrical appreciation in England. 1872. and equal to a in length. accepted as numbers. we have seen the negative and the imagi but the latter was still 1. In Germany symbolical algebra was studied by Martin Ohm. nary. The ideas of Peacock and Be Morgan recognise the possibility of algebras Such algebras were which differ from ordinary algebra.&quot.

the numerical solution of differential equations. equations the fifth He wrote also on the solution of the degree. on the 16th of October. in In 1835 he published his Academy &quot. Theory of as being no mere Algebraic Couples. the calculus. In 1824 he entered Trinity College. a discovery matics which with the by aid of mathe discovery of Neptune by Le Yerrier and Adams. ciple of Varying Action of Then followed papers on the Prin (1827) and a general method of dynamics (1834-1835). was mainly in languages. He regarded algebra art. is fluctuating functions. The capital discovery of Hamilton which his study of algebra culminated. and in 1827. Laplace s Mecanique Newton s Principia. in the Transactions of the Royal Irish his quaternions. hodograph. At the age of thirteen he is said to have been familiar with as many languages as he had lived years.&quot. After reading that.the Hence his defini tion of algebra as subject of years science of pure time. In 1832 he predicted conical refraction. about the same time. nor primarily a science of quantity. and others. he was appointed to the chair of astronomy. . sively analytical geometry. pendicular directed lines. G-rassmann. Dublin. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865) was born of Scotch parents in Dublin. geometric addition of vectors in space was discovered independently by Hamilton. His early education. &quot. but rather as the science of order of progression. At the age of eighteen he published a paper correcting a mistake in Laplace s work. It was the meditation for him to determine what he should regard as the product of each pair of a system of per At last. About this time he caine across a copy of Newton s Universal Arithmetic. he took up succes Celeste. carried on at home. while he was still an undergraduate. nor language.318 and tlie A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. His early papers were on ranks optics. Time appeared to him as the picture of such a progression.&quot.

319 1843. helped powerfully Cay ley. have each suggested an algebra of vectors with a new notation. His Lectures on Quaternions. Each of two gives a definition of his own for the product is vectors. were printed in 1852. a month 1. There is indeed great doubt as to whether the quaternionic product can claim a necessary and fundamental place in a system of vector Physicists claim that there is a loss of naturalness analysis. delivered in Dublin. but the true cause for the lack of progress is perhaps more deep-seated. Clifford. meet more adequately their wants. . but in such a way that the square of a vector positive. account of the discovery was given the following year in the Hamilton displayed wonderful fer Philosophical Magazine. A third system of vector analysis has been used by Oliver Heaviside in his electrical researches.ALGEBRA. J. Wl Gfibbs of Yale Uni versity and A. G. and Tait advanced the subject somewhat by But there has been little progress in original contributions. while walking witii Ms wife one evening. start. the discovery of quaternions flashed upon him. His Elements of Quaternions were greatly Quaternions appeared in 1866. along the Koyal Canal in Dublin. except that made by Sylvester in tjjp solution of quaternion equations. An later. Macfarlane of the University of Texas. The change in notation made in France by Houel and by Laisant has been to physics considered in England as a wrong step. tility in their development. and he then engraved with his knife on a stone in 2 Brougham Bridge the fundamental formula i =/ = If = ijJc = At the general meeting of the Irish Academy. In order to in taking the square of a vector to be negative. nor has the application of quaternions been as extended as was predicted. admired in England from the received less attenttion. Tait s Elementary Treatise to spread a knowledge of them in England. he made the first communication on quaternions. recent years. but on the Continent they P.

In 1842 he resumed mathematical research. It now became his ambition to secure a mathematical chair at a university. and so general. decided to devote himself to it. Up to this time his knowledge of mathematics was pretty much confined to what he had learned from his father. which was full of new and strange matter. the sciences.&quot. and to apply it in the study of tides. and of religion in a school there. In 1844 appeared his great classical work. was thus led abridged method. Grunert. in which Grassmann eclipsed the geometers of that . An article in Crelle s Journal. Mobius glanced over it. But now he made his acquaintance with the works of Lacroix. He In 1840 he had to a new geometric analysis. but a new book of Schleiermacher drew him again to theology. abstract. and he proceeded to elaborate this &quot. and Laplace. who had written two books on &quot. could be reached in a shorter way by some new ideas advanced in his father s books. the only man who had read it through.&quot.320 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Eight years afterwards. but returned to Stettin in 1836 to assume the duties of teacher of 71 mathematics. Gauss. and stndied theology in Berlin for three years. but in this he never succeeded.Baumlehre&quot. that it could hardly have had less influence on European mathematics during its first twenty had it been published in China. He noticed that Laplace s results Lagrange. attended a gymnasium at Ms native place (where his father was teacher of mathematics and physics) . In 1834 he succeeded Steiner as teacher of mathematics in an industrial school in Berlin. and out of fashion in its mode of exposition. but complained of the strange terminology and its philosophische Allgemeinheit. and becoming thor oughly convinced of the importance of his new analysis. and years. Hermann Grassmann (1809-1877) was bora at Stettin. Bretschneider of Gotha was said to be &quot. and Grossenlehre. the Lineale Ausdehnungslelire. praised it. made consic|jrable progress in its development.

and the linear vector functions. . His Ausdehnungslehre has very great extension. Calculj in which the point &quot. But the second part was no more appreciated than the first. 321 time by constructing. the function of two vectors represented in qua ternions by Saft and Fa/3. Common to the Ausdehnungslehre and to quaternions are geo metric addition.&quot.&quot. and resembling Mobius s Barycentrische is the fundamental element.inter and the open product.ALGEBRA. with heavy heart. continued to appear in Crelle s Journal. pMlosophy. the Ausdehnungslehre of 1844 was printed in 1877. Need we mar vel if G-rassinann turned Schleiermacher articles by him attention to other subjects. Hyde of the University of Cin cinnati wrote the first text-book on Grassmann s calculus in the English language. geometrically any algebraic curve. At the age of fifty-three. while with Grassmann we find in addition to the algebra of vectors a geometrical algebra of wide application. directed his energies to the study of Sans achieving in philology results which were better appreci ated. by considering not only geo metric applications. this wonderful man. Only in recent years has the wonderful richness of begun to be appreciated. The quaternion is peculiar to Hamilton.&quot. infinite series. to philology ? Still.external product. The last we now call product. mann nal developed the idea of the the &quot. and in s Ms 1862 came out the second part of Ms Ausdehnungslehre. to to polities. S. and krit. Peirce gave a representation of Grassmann s system in the his discoveries logical notation. Grass &quot. and E. W. A second edition of C. but by treating also of algebraic functions. having no limitation to any particular number of dimen sions. aid of Ms method. and which vie in splendour with those in mathematics. gave up mathematics. remained again unnoticed. with. It was intended to show better than the first part the broad scope of the Ausdehnungslehre. a matrix. and the differential and integral calculus.

then decent in Leipzig. by Justus Bellavitis (1803-1880). and were applied by the author to the theory of elimination in the same way as had been done earlier by Grassmann.322 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. In consider ing the foundations of algebra Hankel affirms the principle of the permanence of formal laws previously enunciated incom Hankel was a close student of mathe behind an unfinished work thereon. Hankel. were made by Saint. ject to his law of combinatorial multiplication. and we must turn to pletely by Peacock. as are those of Hamilton and Grass- . whose theory is not geometrical. Multiple algebra was powerfully advanced by Peirce. Clebsch. who published in 1835 and 1837 in the Annali delle Scienze his calculus of sequipollences.alternate numbers&quot. Before his death he was professor at Tubingen.Venant (17971886). Schlegel was at one time a as the successful interpreter of Grass young colleague of Grass- maun by at the Marienstifts-Gyrrmasiuin in Stettin. The first impression of G-rassmann s ideas is marked in the writings of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873). whose &quot. and the addition of vectors and oriented areas. who published in 1867 his Vorlesungen uber die Complexen Zahlen. of Hankel are sub Grassraann. His Complexe Zahlen was at first little read.clefs algebriques were units subject to combinatorial mul tiplication. 65 Bassano. that he might give his time to science. who in his thirty-eighth year laid down a city office in his native place. Discoveries of less value. which in part covered those of Grassmann and Hamilton. Schlegel wrote a System der Encouraged Baumlehre which explained the essential conceptions and operations of the Ausdehnungslehre. by Cauchy. Bellavitis. matical history. who described the multiplication of vectors. years professor at Padua. and left Victor ScMegel of Hagen mann. had been in correspondence with The &quot. &quot. for many was a self-taught mathematician of much power.

a son of Benjamin Peirce. 1855. being such that every binary combination ft. tion and commentary of the Mecanique Peirce Ctteste.y Vol. ji. undergraduate young helped in reading the proof-sheets. several papers thereon was read at the first The first of meeting of the in 1864. mann. etc. 2). but so small seemed to be the interest taken in this subject that the memoir Matli. having as carried the study of mathematics far beyond the limits of the 2 When Bowditch was preparing his transla college course. first of single algebras. Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880) was born at Salem. Charles S. which are linear functions of a determinate number of letters or units i. j. Profound are his researches on Linear Associative Algebra. Jc. the letters i. and so on up to sextuple.. ij. etc. etc. Peirce works out the multiplication tables. notation. j.ALGEBBA. and for which he had devised a simple Of these quadrate algebras quaternions is a simple . and calculated. American Association for the Advancement of Science Lithographed copies of a memoir were distributed among friends in 1870. Eo. the orbit of Neptune. and one of the foremost writers on mathe matical logic. but under the restriction of 56 satisfying the associative law. and graduated at Harvard College.. a position which he retained until his death. together with Sears C. making in all 162 algebras... was not printed until 1881 (Am. IV. Survey. Eor some years he was in charge of the Nautical Almanac and superintendent of the United States Coast He Walker of Washington. B. He was made professor at Harvard in 1833. showed that these algebras were all defective forms of quadrate algebras which he had previously discovered by logical analysis. Peirce.. I. is equal to a linear function of the letters. real or imaginary. published a series of college text-books on mathematics. Mass. Jour. an Analytical Mechanics. then of double algebras. with coefficients which are ordinary ana lytical magnitudes. etc.. which he shows to be possible on the consideration of symbols A.

324 example ion is . originated by Cauchy. in the opinion of Sylvester. double algebra. Nagelbach. carried the investigations much further. The theory of determinants 73 was studied by Hoene Wronski in Italy and J. . H. originator of matrices is really Hamilton. In a paper (Jour. H. In 1841 he wrote extended memoirs on determinants in Qrelle s Journal. The theory of matrices largely of the algebra of matrices. More recent researches on determinants appertain to special &quot. tions of quantics gave a powerful impulse. but his theory. reign of Algebra the Second. In 1826 Jacobi began using this calculus. forms. the great master of this subject... have been developed by Jacobi. He showed that his father s algebras are operational and matricular. &quot. previously used by Gauss in the functions considered by him. and quaternions. and introduced the use of determinant brackets. 16) Cauchy developed several general He introduced the name determinant. . is less general than that The latter makes no reference to Hamilton. nonions is another. Taber. The C. and published in various journals. Chapman. was developed as early as 1858 by Cayley in an important memoir which. -unambiguous. from which the ordinary imaginary scalar is excluded. Cauchy. ushered in the Clifford.Continuants&quot. a term theorems. Sylvester at the Johns Hopkins They treat University. H. . A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Garbieri axisymmetric determinants/ N&quot. Peirce linear associative algebras there are only three in showed that of all whieh divis These are ordinary single algebra. de Vecole Polyt. S..alternants. or the familiar pair of upright lines. Lectures on multiple algebra were delivered by J. Cayley developed skew-determinants and Pfafftans. are due to Sylvester. pub lished in his Lectures on Quaternions. Sylvester. &quot. which rendered the theory In England the study of linear transforma easily accessible. Trudi. and he gave brilliant proof of its power. IX. and G. C. J. Binet in Prance but they were forestalled by of Cayley.&quot.

Hanus (1886). A. G. treatise. Modern higher algebra is especially occupied with the theory of linear transformations. Spottiswoode (1825-1883). Scott (1880). that invariance is a property of discrimi- . pointed out relations between determinants and con tinued fractions Scott uses HankePs alternate numbers in his . both of Munich. There is hardly any subject in pure mathematics which the genius of Cayley has not enriched. born at Eichmond. Frobenius discovered the properties of Wronskians. Brioschi (1854).showed. F. . we are indebted to G. and particularly of Boole. He then devoted some years to the study and practice of law. have been studied by V.&quot. Gunther (1875). Giinther. E. Arthur Cayley. Gauss. B. first 325 used by Jacobi. he accepted the offer of that chair. Glaisher. in 1841. but most important is his creation of a new branch Germs ings of analysis by his theory of invariants. eirculants are due to E. who . 74 He came out Senior Wrangler in 1842. Lebesgue. Text-books on determinants were written by Spot tiswoode (1851). but which would enable him to give all his time to mathematics. Nachreiner and S. first used by WronskL V.ALGEBBA. &quot. Christoffel of Strassburg and Liege. and Hesse &quot. Catalan of Sylvester. Cambridge. Dostor (1877). thus giving up a profession promising wealth for a very modest provision. Some of his most brilliant discoveries were made during the time of his legal practice. Scott. W. J. W. Muir (1882). in Surrey. Its development is mainly the work of Cayley and Sylvester. &quot. L. in 1821^ was educated at Trinity College. Cayley began his mathematical publi cations in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal while he still was an undergraduate. Zehfuss. On the foundation of the Sadlerian pro fessorship at Cambridge. of the principle of invariants are found in the writ of Lagrange. for centre-symmetric determinants&quot. and E. Baltzer (1857).

1864 and 1873). &quot. the theory of numbers.326 A H1STOBY OF MATHEMATICS. It has often been difficult to determine how much really belongs discoveries followed in rapid succession. and was called to the bar in 1850. and they ley stimulated each other by frequent oral communications. professor Then printed paper was on followed his researches on invariants. and made the subject by A. and who applied it to the theory of orthogonal substitution. to begin with. in 1845. He came out Second Wrangler in 1837. Capitaine du Genie & Nice (published in Nouvelles Annales. In 1846 he became a student at the Inner Temple. Cayley set himself the problem to determine a priori what functions of the coefficients of a given equation possess this property of invariance. Johns College. theory of partitions. the disof close study . Peaucellier. University of Virginia. B. Fresnel s optic theory. and first is. Kempe. originated by the beautiful discovery of A. to each. At that time Cayand Sylvester were both residents of London. professor of mathematics at the . His About 1874 he took part in the development of the geometrical theory of linkwork movements. His Jewish origin incapacitated him from taking a degree. and educated at St. successively. at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. and found. that the so-called hyper-determinants possessed it. of additional discoveries. of geometry at Oxford. He became professor of natural philosophy at University College. and other subjects mentioned elsewhere. London then. After this. multiple algebra. the theory of equations. Boole made a number Then Syl vester began his papers in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathe matical Journal on the Calculus of Forms. 1837. nants generally. Cambridge. James Joseph Sylvester was born in London in 1814. &quot. at the Eoyal Military Academy in Woolwich. since 1883. To Sylvester is ascribed the general statement of the theory of contravariants.

S and T. developed in England mainly by Cayley and Sylvester. are his. McMahon of which remain unaltered by This theory is more general than Woolwich. and has been developed further by J. and the subject of mixed concomitants. treating of the func tions of a dependent variable y ential coefficients in regard to and the functions of x. for the many names he has introduced into mathematics. Chris- . Sylvester has opened up a its differ new subject. by David Hilbert of Konigsberg. the interchange of x and y. elaborated partly with aid of F. In Italy. now professor at the Johns Hopkins University. Among other writers on invariants are E. came to be studied earnestly in Ger many. E. of the ternary cubic. France. Jacobian. great theory of invariants. with the aid of symbolic methods. Brioschi of Milan to the and Fa& de Bruno invariants. Hermite discovered evectants and the theorem of reciprocity named after him. Hessian. In the American Journal of Mathe matics are memoirs on binary and ternary quantics. E. and Italy. Hammond of Oxford. (1825-1888) contributed theory of the latter writing a text-book on binary forms. the theory of reciprocals.ALGEBBA. Thus the terms invariant. and others. discriminant. that the number of distinct forms for a binary quantic Clebsch proved this to be true for is finite. A. At Oxford. Forsyth of Cambridge. Paul Gordan showed. which ranks by the side of Salmon s treatise and those of Clebsch and Gordan. F. with any number of variables. who demonstrated the existence of invariants. 327 covery of the partial differential equations satisfied by the invariants and oo variants of binary qualities. Syl vester playfully lays claim to the appellation of the Mathe matical Adam. Franklin. A very much simpler quantics proof of this was given in 1891. one on differential invariants by Halphen (1878). One of the earliest in the field was Siegfried Heinrich Aronhold The (1819-1884).

Clebsch. 1858. I. gave a second solution in which was given by Hermite (Compt Rend. had printed proofs of the insolvability. W. believed that his method furnished a general algebraic solution of equations of any degree. reduced the quintic to the trinomial form by an extension of the method of Tschirnhausen. Kronecker. Bring. After Hermite s first publication. Hamilton made a report on the validity of Jerrard s . Abel proved rigorously that the general algebraic equation of the fifth or of higher modi degrees cannot be solved by radicals (Crelle. like Tschirnhausen. his Mathematical Researches (1832-1835). 76 transcendental solution of the quintic involving A elliptic integrals 1865. P. Jerrard. Jerrard. G-laisher of ew York. Though inconclusive. In 1836 Wil liam B.. Paolo Euffini (1765-1822). Before Abel. Emory McClintock of covered that the theory of semi-invariants is a part of that of symmetric functions. a Swede. fication of Abel s proof was given by Wantzel. N geometry calculus of variations. .. and applied the results to geometry. which were criticised by his countryman Malfatti. The modern higher algebra has reached out and indissolubly connected itself with several other branches of mathematics mechanics. In the theory of equations Lagrange. L. Weierstrass. J. 1858. and Bianchi have used the theory of invariants in hyperelliptic and Abelian functions. A an Italian physician.328 toffel. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Argand. 1866). and Gauss furnished proof to the important theorem that every algebraic equation has a real or a complex root. Clebsch extended the theory of binary forms to ternary. Burckhardt. in in was obtained a simple resolvent of the sixth degree. as early as 1786 This important reduction had been effected by E. in a letter to Hermite. and brought out in a publication of the University of Lund. A. Wilhelm Eiedler. McMalion dis Cambridge. Klein. Buffings papers are remarkable as containing anticipations of Cauchy s theory of groups. 8. McMahon. 1826).

Through geometrical con Hesse came upon algebraically solvable equations of the ninth degree.&quot. of the equation is other. 1811. A. of Paris. this question. set of in the theory of elliptic presenting themselves the modular equations. provided that the degree if it is not prime. Such equations discussed by Gauss in considering the division of the ones Abel advanced one step further by proving that an circle. Kronecker (1823-1891) of 1885) of the Sorbonne .ALGEBKA. 329 method. Jordan in Paris. if. irreducible equation can always be solved in radicals. functions. not included in the previous groups.Hamilton s A transformation of equal importance to Jerrard s who expressed The the quintic as the sum of covariants and invariants of higher is that of Sylvester. G-alois s labours gave which has been birth to the important theory of substitutions. Ham ilton denned the limits of its applicability to higher equations. due also some valuable results in relation to another equations. series of numbers which he named &quot. J. and showed that by his process the quintic could be transformed to any one of the four trinomial forms. = and was led to a numbers. killed in a duel. then the solution depends upon that of equations of lower degree. equations have been studied much in recent years. 1832). The subject was powerfully advanced in Paris by the youthful who Evariste Galois (born. of the one can be expressed rationally in terms two of its roots. Abel s proof that higher equations cannot always be solved as to what equations of a given algebraically led to the inquiry are the degree can be solved by radicals. viz. three fifth-powers. I. Serret (1819greatly advanced by G. To him are introduced the notion of a group of substitutions. What is the lowest degree Sylvester investigated can have in order that it may admit of being an equation deprived of i consecutive terms by aid of equations not higher than fth degree. He carried the investigation as far as i 8. of the prime . siderations.

L. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. has been translated into English by F. 0. was greatly advanced by Sylves Hesse. of elimination Cayley. and ready means of finding the real roots of a numerical equation. The theory ter. Sylvester. was considered &quot. who contributed to the theory.380 Berlin. N. BrioschL Cayley of symmetric func gives rules for the weight and order &quot. Gfrossen. Since Fourier and Budan. published -in 1829 his celebrated theorem determining the number and situation of roots of an equation comprised between given limits. Moor of the University of Chicago to belong to a doubly-infinite system of simple groups. who gave an improved method of approximation (Philosophical Transac Jacques Charles Francois Sturm (1803-1855). and Gordan. Herniite of Paris. A. H. Cole of the University of Michigan. Netto of Giessen. in 1882. Brioschi. tionstheorie. Jacobi. Sylvester gave the dialytic method (Philosophical . tions. E. Klein of Gottingen. Switzerland. Cauchy. Arithmetischen Theorie der Algebraischen his Gf-rundzuge einer theory of differential equations. Sturm us that his theorem stared him in the face in the midst tells of of a some mechanical investigations connected with the motion 77 This theorem. has been shown by E. &quot. offer together sure method. a tions. Sylow of FriedEetto s book. more recently by Gauss. the Substiturichshald. Gr. discovered Cole. native of Geneva. Salmon. Mother of Erlangen. Cayley. Homer of Bath. &quot. Capelli of Naples. the solution of numerical equa tions has been advanced by W. A simple group of 504 substitutions of nine letters. M. and Homer s compound pendulum. 1819). The symmetric functions of the sums of powers of the roots of an equation. studied by Newton and Waring. by The theory of substitutions has important applications in the Kronecker published. and the successor of Poisson in the chair of mechanics at the Sorbonne.

the calculus of tions. On the expulsion of Charles X. studies. and received his early education from his father. Lagrange and Laplace. with whom the father came in frequent contact. Cauchy. At the classical Cent rale du Pantheon he excelled in ancient In 1805 he entered the Polytechnic School.. Laplace s Cherbourg in 1810. probability. found him unable to take the oath demanded of him. Cauchy resumed his and in 1831 was induced by the king of Piedmont to At TMbourg in Switzerland. variations. 331 1852 established a theorem relating to the expression of an eliminant as a determinant. ANALYSIS. and differential equa Prominent in the development of these subjects was Cauchy. Cayley made a new statement of Bezout s method of elimination and established a general theory of elimination (1852). and two cole des Ponts et Chaussees. and .ANALYSIS. Being. 1840). deprived of his positions. in he went into volun consequence. he renounced engi find him next holding neering in favour of pure science. We a professorship at the Polytechnic School. in the capacity of engineer. being exceedingly conscientious. . infinite series. Under this head we find it convenient to consider the sub jects of the differential and integral calculus. (1789-1857) was born in Paris. Augtistin-Louis Cauchy 78 foretold the future greatness ICcole of the young boy. self tary exile. Yielding to the persuasions of Lagrange and Laplace. Cauchy left for years later the studies. Considerations of health induced him to return to Paris after three years. C&leste and Lagrange s Fonctions Analytiques were M&camque 7 among his book companions there. and the accession to the throne of Louis Philippe in 1830.

the second empire. bestowed upon him the title of Earon. theory of numbers. and in two of his publications staunchly defended the piety. a work of great merit. covering pretty much the whole realm of mathematics. In 1833 he obeyed the call of his exiled king. many a lax and loose method of analysis hardly as yet eradicated . nominated member of the Bureau of Longitude. differential equations. but the He was oath demanded of him prevented his acceptance. Charles X. and Cauchy at last became On the establishment of professor at the Polytechnic School. During the political events of 1848 the oath was suspended. he -exercised a more immediate and beneficial influence upon the great mass of mathematicians than any contemporary writer. theory of func mathematical astronomy. a chair in the College de France was offered to him.. theory of substitutions. On his return to Paris in 1838. undertake the education This gave Cauchy an opportunity to visit various parts of Europe. Cauchy published in 1821 his Cours d Analyse de VEcole Royale Polytecfmique.. and to learn how extensively his works were being read. Had it been studied more diligently by } writers of text-books in England and the United States. determinants. Jesuits. Cauchy was a prolific and profound mathematician. light. By a prompt publication of his results. but Cauchy and Cauchy was a man of great Arago were exempt from it. for accept the chair of mathematical physics.332 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. etc. but declared ineligible by the ruling power. of imaginaries. the Duke of Bordeaux. the oath was re-instated. pure and applied. to of a grandson. He was one of the leaders His researches extended in infusing rigour into analysis. elasticity. tions. especially created him at the university of Turin. over the field of series. Charles X. Encouraged by Laplace and Poisson. and the preparation of standard text-books.

Cauchy made some researches on the calculus of variations. are included in the integrations of the fluous. Hesse. C. Eisenlohr. Recent American treatises on the calculus introduce time as an independent vari able. in 1831. and to variations of multiple integrals in Memoirs were published by Gauss in 1829. Spitzer. was awarded a . In calculus England special attention to the clear exposition of funda mental principles was given by De Morgan. by which the existence of a maximum or minimum can be first ascertained.ANALYSIS. Eecent studies pertain to the variation of a double integral when the limits are also variable. Petersburg in 1834. and Clebsch. Delaunay. A. The method of Cauehy and on Duhamel was accepted with favour by Houel and others. and the allied notions of velocity and acceleration. however. 383 from elementary text-books would have been discarded over half a century ago. S. This subject is now in its essential principles the same as when it came from the hands of Lagrange. without. presented with great brevity by Jacobi. E. Poisson general. showing that the difficult integrations demanded by the discussion of the second variation. the exposition of fundamental principles of the differential by his mode of considering limits and his new theory the continuity of functions. Lebesgue. was elucidated and extended by V. determining in a general manner the number and form of the equations which must subsist at the limits in case of a double or triple integral. thus virtually returning to the method of fluxions. and Ostrogradsky of St. variation. and thus are super This important theorem. Cauchy was the first to publish a He greatly improved rigorous proof of Taylor s theorem. In 1837 Jacobi published a memoir. An important memoir by Sarrus on the question of determining the limiting equations which must be combined with the indefinite equations in order to determine completely the maxima and minima of multiple integrals.

1810 . 1837 John Hewitt . Mainardi attempted to Cauchy. Cambridge. Bierens de Haan of Leiden in his Hxposd de la theorie des integrals d&finieSj The Amsterdam. Jellett (1817-1888). 1858. In 1866 he published a most important research. honourable mention Sarrus s method was being made of a paper by Delaunay. and doing for this subject what Sarrus had done for multiple integrals. In 1852 G. In 1861 Isaac Todexhibit a his valuable hunter (1820-1884) of St. by the French Academy in 1845. which contains researches of his own. Strauch in Zurich. The treatises following are the more important authors of systematic on the calculus of variations. 1862. developing the theory of discontinuous solutions (discussed in particular cases by Legendre). once Provost of Trinity College. necessity but they had no proper criteria. Lewis Buffett Carll of Flushing in New York. delivered by Dirichlet in have been elaborated into a standard work by G. Dublin. 1881. Brioschi showed the value of determinants in exhibit ing the terms of the second variation. . John s College. and extended Jacobi s theorem to double integrals. Mainardi and F. Cam Richard Abbatt in London. The subject has been treated most exhaustively by D. G. simplified by new method of discriminating maxima and minima. history of infinite series illustrates vividly the salient feature of the new era which analysis entered upon during the The Newton and Leibniz felt the quarter of this century. 1850 5 . Fellow of Caius College. excepting the test advanced first by Leibniz for alternating series. 1849 Moigno and Lindelof. By Euler and his contem poraries the formal treatment of series was greatly extended. and the dates of publi cation: Eobert bridge. F.334 prize A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. lectures on definite integrals. 1861. of inquiring into the convergence of infinite series. Meyer. published work on the History of the Progress of the Calculus of Variations. Woodhouse. W.

and thus bears the stamp of generality so characteristic of Gauss s writings. ative + l)th He showed Leibniz s that series with neg terms converge when the deduces of absolute values of the terms test converge. while tlie 335 necessity for determining the convergence was gen erally lost sight of. results obtained from infinite series lated prof ounder inquiries into the validity of operations with them. which has now passed beginning of the period into deserved oblivion. or plainly absurd. or the ratio or not. Owing to the strangeness of treatment and unusual rigour. now quite forgotten. Euler reached some very pretty results on well known. whose Analyse Algebrique of 1821 contains a rigorous treatment of All series whose sum does not approach a fixed limit series. The criterion devel oped by him settles the question of convergence in every case which it is intended to cover. he institutes comparisons with geometric terms are convergent series. The first important and striptly rigorous investigation of series was made by Gauss in con nection with the hypergeometric series. these expressions become ultimately unity and fail. Gauss s paper excited little interest among the mathematicians of that time.ANALYSIS. At the stimu now under consideration. for alternating The product two convergent series was not found to be necessarily convergent. the doubtful. now many. Cauchy established two other tests. Their actual contents came to be the primary. is ultimately less To reach some of the cases where or greater than unity. More as the number of terms increases indefinitely are called diver gent. Cauchy s theorem that the . and then series. according as the wth root of of the (n term and the nth term. and also some very absurd results. form a secondary. Like Gauss. The faults of Ms time found their culmination in the Combinatorial School in Ger infinite series. fortunate in reaching the public was Cauchy. consideration. and finds that series with positive the nth term.

the new views were generally accepted only after a .386 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. It is very interesting reading. Voss of Wiirzburg which remove in certain cases the necessity of applying tests of convergency to the product series by the application of tests to easier related expressions. product of two absolutely convergent series converges to the product of the sums of the two series was shown half a cen tury later by F. The most outspoken critic of the old methods in series was Abel. however. On the contrary. His letter to Ms friend Holmboe (1826) contains severe criticisms. then the product series will converge towards the product of the sums of the two given This remarkable result would dispose of the whole series. Since we do not possess such a criterion. The researches of Abel and Cauchy caused a considerable We are told that after a scientific meeting in which Cauchy had presented his first researches on series. Pringsheim of Munich and A. every one was found to be convergent! We must not conclude. problem of multiplication of practical criterion of series if we had a universal convergency for semi-convergent series. Mertens of G-raz to be still true if of the two . only one is abso lutely convergent. Laplace hastened home and remained there in seclusion until he had examined the series in Ms M&oanique C&leste. stir. of two semi-convergent series can never converge absolutely. or even a divergent series. multi plied The by an absolutely convergent series. may yield an abso lutely convergent product. but a semi-convergent series. theorems have been recently established by A. In his demonstration of the binomial theo rem he established the theorem that if two series and their product series are all convergent. convergent series to be multiplied together. reaches the following interesting conclusions: Pringsheim product. even to modern students. Luckily. that the new ideas at once displaced the old.

that the logarithmic criteria never fail mond and Pringsheim have each the Bois-Reydiscovered series demon. culminating in a regular mathematical theory. Bertrand and by Ossian Bonnet. etc. and to consider the subject from a wider point of view. on &quot. then follow those of De Morgan De Morgan established the loga rithmic criteria which were discovered in part independently by J. special criteria. Du Bois-Reymond divides criteria into two classes criteria : of the first kind and criteria of the second kind. been called by Fringsheim because they all depend upon a comparison of the nfh. are more convenient than De Morgan s. Bertrand. ^(logn)*. The forms of these criteria. Vol. The study of general criteria was continued by U. nx. and Pringsheim. a paper on I believe it will divergent series in this style be generally admitted that the heading of this paper describes the only subject yet remaining. as to the absolute correctness or incorrectness of First in time in the evolution of more delicate criteria of convergence and divergence come the researches of Josef Ludwig Eaabe (Crelle. It appears from Abel s posthumous papers&quot.&quot. of an elementary character. but Du strably convergent in which these criteria fail to determine The criteria thus far alluded to have convergence. term of the series with special functions an. Among the first to suggest general criteria. was Kummer. as given by as given in his calculus. He established a theorem still yielding a test consisting of two parts. Paul Du Bois-Beyrnond.). 337 1844 : As &quot. Gr. severe and long struggle. that he had anticipated the above-named writers in estab It was the opinion of Bonnet lishing logarithmic criteria. the first part of which was afterwards found to be superfluous. IX. late as De Morgan began &quot. Dini of Pisa.ANALYSIS. or the ratio of the (?i l)th term and + . Kohn of Minden. according as the general nth term. which a serious schism exists among mathematicians results.

only to series with never increasing terms. analogous A heim general criteria established by Du Bois-Beyrnond and Prings The respectively. the nth. which were. thorough researches on this subject (Crelle. and . secutive terms.). 79 Cauchy was the its by first who felt the necessity of inquiring into But his mode of proceeding was found convergence. They culminate in the result that whenever the function does not become infinite. Those of the third kind rest mainly on the consideration of the limit of the difference either of consecu In the generalised criteria of the second kind he does not consider the ratio of two con tive terms or of their reciprocals. are sufficient. Vol. of Bonn. and offers. From the to this. however. term. and there it converges toward the mean of maxima and minima. was invented by Pringsheim. IV. then Fourier the two boundary values. and does not possess number of dis an infinite number of s series converges toward the value of that function at all places. Dirichlet made the first Dirichlet to be unsatisfactory. theory of Pringsheim is very complete. is made the basis of research. two criteria previously given apart. however. Dirichlet s conditions but not necessary. entirely new criteria of a third Mud. all the special criteria can be derived. but the ratio of Difficult questions arose in the study of Fourier s series. except points of discontinuity. Schlafli of Bern and Du Boisdoubts as to the correctness of the mean Eeymond expressed value. and also generalised criteria of the second kind. Kummer s is a criterion of the first kind. proved that Fourier tion series still represents the func when the number of discontinuities is infinite. among others. s Lipschitz. which apply. criterion of the second kind. not well founded. by Kohn and Ermakoff respectively. in addition to the criteria of the first kind and second kind. does not have an infinite continuities.338 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. any two terms however far and deduces.

of Halle. Dirich- let s belief that all by Fourier s H. to exclude which was shown by Weierstrass to was not found necessarily them from being represented by Fourier s series. Cantor and Du Bois-Beymond. belong to large classes of functions. They do not decide. As compared with the vast development of other mathe- . Schwarz. A. that the integral of an infinite series can be shown to be equal to the the integrals of the separate terms only when the series converges uniformly within the region in question. it 339 represents a function having an infinite number of maxima and minima. so that there it is continuous functions can be represented series at all points was shared by Eiemann and may be a trigonometric series which. Bdernann inquired what properties a function must have.ANALYSIS. cient. gave a new definition. Eiemann rejected Cauchy s defini tion of a definite integral on account of its arbitrariness. and then inquired when a function has an His researches brought to light the fact that con tinuous functions need not always have a differential coeffi integral. Stokes (1847). Hankel. whether such a series actually repre sents the function or not. He found necessary and sufficient conditions for this. made by Weierstrass. whenever convergent. Later researches on Fourier s series were made by G. established a condition on which. This was done by Heinrich Eduard Heine (1821-1881). The sub sum of ject of wig Seidel (1848) and uniform convergence was investigated by Philipp LudGr. But this property. however. Doubts on some of the conclusions about Fourier s series were thrown by the observation. but was proved to be false by Du Bois-Keymond and H. and has assumed became necessary It great importance in Weierstrass theory of functions. converges toward the value of the function. to prove that a trigonometric series repre senting a continuous function converges uniformly. G-.

ments and sirnplications in the G-. J. cations of the calculus to statistics have been Appli L. Bertrand. of his TMorie Analytique). W. A. Quetelet (1796-1874). For example. upon the theory of inverse proba and F. The only noteworthy recent addition subject of &quot. the theory of probability has insignificant progress since the time of Laplace. who proposed the problem. the naturalist. were to go to the shore of the Atlantic Ocean and witness on m successive days the rise of the to conclude that then.&quot. solved by himself and Laplace. who has never heard sea. made by . Boole. of the tides. director of the observatory at Brussels. probability. it is seen that this view rests upon next day. or that of all theories proposed for inves tigation one-half are true. of Copenhagen and Dusing. he would be entitled there was a probability equal to that the sea would rise = 0. De Morgan. Ch. The earliest local problem on this subject dates back to the time of Buffon. floor ruled with equidistant parallel . II. A. to thrown at random upon a determine the probability that a short needle. by Lexis Harald Westergaard. Meyer (edited by Cournot and Westergaard treatment of insurance and the theory of life-tables are classical. Edgeworth also accepts it in his Mathematical to probability is the Psychics. . mode s of exposition made by A. VI. s matical branclies . Jevons in his Principles of Science founds induction bility. if a man.340 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. J.. says Quetelet. made very Improve have been E. Y. Worthy of note is the rejection of inverse probability by the best authorities of our time. This branch of probability had been worked out by Thomas Bayes (died 1761) and by Laplace By it some (Bk. S. logicians have explained induction. Putting the unwarrantable assumption that the probability of a totally m unknown event is $. developed by several English and a few American and French mathematicians. Czuber).

the general integration two variables. A. He was an intimate friend of young G-auss at Gottingen. and then as a particular case of the former. E&quot. By a found the general integration of par peculiar method. Barbier. Lemoine. Wolstenholme. Afterwards he was with the astronomer Bode. of the University researches of Johann Friedrich Pfatf (1795-1825) marked a decided advance. E. Cauchy. Petersburg. name &quot.&quot. H. The latter were investi iSmile Bour gated in more recent time by Monge. Starting from the theory of ordinary differential of the first order in n variables. W. Then came Sylvester s that four points. Watson. B. S. R. shall form a re taken Local probability has been studied in England by A. between . Clarke.. Boole. lines. Crofton was led to the evaluation of certain definite integrals. Meyer. Weiler. Through considerations of local probability. Serret. Pfaff tial differential equations of the first order for any number of variables. It was pursued in America by E. J. and others. Korkine of St. His order between of ential any equations researches led Jacobi to introduce the lem. This remark is especially The first full scientific true of partial differential equations. Pfaff. Later he became professor at Helmstadt. observed by Hamilton. A. and others. McColl. treatment of differential equations was given by Lagrange and Laplace. (1831-1866) of Paris. but with greatest success by M. A. Jacobi. four-point problem: to find the probability at random within a given boundary. Crofton of the entrant quadrilateral. military school at Woolwich. . however. G-. by Paul Mansion. Jordan.Pfaffian prob From the connection. E. as known. on partial differential were presented in text-book form equations of the first order. then at Halle. The keen of Gand. Clebsch. Sophus Lie. he gives first their equations considers the integration of the general integration. In 1873 their reseaches. will fall 341 on one of the lines. partial differential equations of differ assuming. Seitz in France by C.ANALYSIS.

and is developable by Taylor s theorem. which can be tion. all but the first system were entirely superfluous. the integration of was perfected by Hesse. Clebsch considered Pfaff s problem from a new point of view. differential equations. while Clebsch on the second variation. and reduced it to systems of simul taneous linear partial differential equations. To ascer tain whether the value is a maximum or a minimum. Bonnet in France. in a pre scribed manner. difficult This leads to new and which. shall reach a maximum or minimum value. Allied to the point of view indicated by this theorem is that of Riemann. who regards a function of a single variable as . was ingeniously deduced by Jacobi from the integration of the differential equations of the first varia tion. Cauchy gave a method of solving partial differ ential equations of the first order having any number of variables. 0. the vanishing of the first variation of the integral. the second variation must be examined. of the series of systems whose successive integration PfafPs method demanded. which of is synectic within a certain circle convergence. demands. known functions in such a The problem to determine un way that an integral containing these functions and their differential coefficients. the integration of which determines the functions. This condition leads to differential equations. BerJacobi s solution extended to the general case Jacobi s results trand. (in a system of ordinary differential equations analytical mechanics) and a partial differential equation. in the first place. Jacobi drew the conclusion that. J. and Imschenetzky in Eussia. which was corrected and extended by Serret. established independently of each other without any integra Jacobi materially advanced the theory of differential equations of the first order. for the simpler cases.342 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. is Fundamental the proposition of Cauchy that every ordinary differential equation admits in the vicinity of any non-singular point of an integral.

continued by JMouard Goursat of Paris. . Ireland. has been considered imposed upon by J. at one time professor in Queen s University. Tannery. This equation was studied also by Gauss .ANALYSIS. and a self-educated mathematician of great power. Fuchs began the study from the more general standpoint of the linear differential equations whose coefficients are not constant. and Jordan. who employed Fuchs method of linear differential equations and found all of Hummer s twenty-four integrals of this equation. and others. singular solutions. and Kummer. linear equations with constant co efficients of integration were almost the only ones for which general methods were known. While the general theory of these equations has recently been presented in a new light by Herniite. Its general theory when no restriction is the yalue of the variable. and especially A on symbolical methods. by the position and nature of and who has applied this conception to that linear differential of the second order. Darboux. his attention mainly to those He directed whose integrals are all regular. linear differential equations entered a new (bom period with the publication of Fuchs memoirs of 1866 and 1868. His treatise on and his Laws of Thought (1854) are Finite Differences (1860) works of high merit. Cork. defined 343 its singularities. He was a native of Lincoln. Henri Poincare of Paris The study of 1854). was prepared in 1859 by George Boole (1815-1864). of Paris. which is satisfied by the hyperequation geometric series. Felix Klein of G-ottingen (born 1849). This study has been standard text-book on Differential Equations. The fertility of the conceptions of with regard to differential equations Cauchy and Rlemann is attested by the researches to which they have given rise on the part of Lazarus Fuchs of Berlin (born 1835). including original matter on integrating factors. Before this.

Through the study of groups the reducibility or irreducibility of linear differ ential equations has been examined by Frobenius and Leo The subject of linear differential equations. Forsyth. B. but the resulting theory of irregular integrals is The theory as yet in very incomplete form. Frobenius by independent Logarithms generally appear in the integrals of a group. made to describe all possible paths enclos one or more of the critical points of the equation. Konigsberger. The nature of the integrals at singular points and Albert Briot ordinary points is entirely different. W. The forms of integrals of such equations were examined by Fuchs and by G-. investigators at first contented them selves with the study of the properties in the vicinity of a given point. the dif ferential equations take the form (a? a? ) = dx JC(oy) . Frobenius of Berlin. has been attacked by G. obtained first by solving the differential equation. The researches above referred to are closely connected with the theory of functions and of groups. Thome of G-reifswald (born 1841). and not from any analytical expression of the function. Instead of studying the properties of the integrals of a differential equation for all the values of the variable. and Fuchs and Frobenius investigated the conditions methods.344 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. near a singular point. and Poinear6. we ing have a certain substitution corresponding to each of the If the variable be paths. not all of whose integrals are regular. studied the case when. Endeavours have thus been made to determine the nature of the function defined by a differential equation from the differential equation itself. under which no logarithms shall appear. and Jem Claude Bouquet (1819-1885). Fuchs . of invariants associated with linear differential equations has been developed by Halphen and by A. the aggregate of all these substitutions being called a group. both of (1817-1882) at Paris.

which he called Kleinians. He found. for the old functions permit the integration of only a small num Poincare* tried this plan with ber of differential equations. as also for partial differential equations of the first order. The extension to non linear equations of the tions has been method thus applied to linear equa begun by Euchs and Poincare. Fuchsian groups. which were then the best known. Erobenius. was able to integrate sians. the former may be divided into curvilinear polygons. The developments for ordinary points were given by Cauchy and Madarae Kowalevsky. If the of such an equation be subjected to a certain trans integral formation. divided these equations into families. having linear equations. Thome*. arrives at what he calls ratio of two transcendents (theta-fuchsians) in the same way If. so that the knowledge of the function inside of one polygon Thus carries with it the knowledge of it inside the others. imaginary coefficients be used. The new transcendents have a . each representing a . . that elliptic functions can be. moreover. 81 them by the use of functions named by him Fuch&quot. tions with real instead of linear substitu coefficients. then discontinuous groups are obtained. Schwarz. 345 gave the development in series of the integrals for the partic ular case of linear equations. great analogy to elliptic functions while the region of the latter may be divided into parallelograms. The attempt to express the integrals hy developments that are always convergent and not limited to particular points in a plane necessitates the introduction of new transcendents. Poincare did the same for the case when the equations are not linear. group. as employed in the above groups. Klein.&quot. been studied in the vicinity of given points by Euehs. Poincare&quot.ANALYSIS. Confining himself to those with rational algebraical coefficients. and Halphen. that Euchsian functions can be expressed as the Poincare&quot. the result will be the integral of an equation He belonging to the same family.

it is. does not suffice in the application of differential equations to questions of mechanics. however. If we con The mode known sider the function as defining a plane curve. the curves defined by differential equations.346 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. We have of &quot. Poincare. among the earliest of the several kinds groups the theory of substitution). which since the time of Galois have become the leading concept in the theory of algebraic equations. the subject of general research in 1873 by Sophus Lie. now of Leipzig. which makes the properties of equations from the standpoint of the theory of functions. then the general form of the curve does not appear from the above mode of It is. often desirable to construct investigation. that since 1876 Felix Klein. a very special and . been studied by Poincare. Studies having this end in view have been carried on by Briot and Bouquet. or at least of : general occurrence. elliptic. Darboux and Cayley. Appel of Paris (born 1858). ought to be a phenomenon of universal. and others have applied the theory of finite and infinite discontin uous groups to the theory of functions and of differential are the finite discontinuous groups (groups in The finite continuous groups were first made equations. by simpler This has functions. Much interest differential attaches to the determination of those linear equations which can be integrated C. or Abelian. such as algebraic. The papers prepared by these mathe maticians point out a difficulty as yet unsurmounted whereas a singular solution. seen that &quot. and by Poincar& 81 The subject of singular solutions of differential equations has been materially advanced since the time of Boole by G. P. on the other hand. and applied by him to the integration of ordinary linear partial differential equations. H. from the point of view of the integrated equation. and of integration above referred to. Jordan.

when B. instead of the geometric method preferred by Klein and Schwarz. made to centre in the subject of THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. Johnson of Annapolis. and in Christiania. Abel found the first exercise of his talent in the attempt to solve by algebra the general Like Jacobi and many In 1821 he entered the Uni fifth degree. versity Legendre were closely studied by him. We begin These were richly developed by Abel and Jacobi. W. s interest by assigning original problems other young men who became eminent mathematicians. Lagrange. that he might continue . Holmboe became lecturer there. The idea of the inver equation of the sion of elliptic functions dates back to this time. The works of Euler. Traite A notable work. and aroused Abel to the class. matics until 1818. is now being published by is Paris. A geometrical theory of singular solutions resembling the one used by Cayley was previously employed by W. and was prepared for the university at the cathedral He exhibited no interest in mathe school in Christiania. Mels Henrick Abel (1802-1829) was born at Findoe in Nor way. An advanced Treatise on Linear Differential Equations (1889) was brought out by Thomas Craig of the Johns Hop kins University. the mile Picard of $ Analyse. His extraor of a dinary Success in mathematical study led to the offer his studies stipend by the government.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. our sketch of the vast progress in the theory of functions by considering the special class called elliptic func tions. exceptional 847 phenomenon from the point 89 of view of the differ ential equation. He chose the algebraic method of presenta tion followed by Hermite and Poincare. the interest of which differential equations.

. the study of functions. to which Gauss never paid any attention. and others . Cauchy. prevented the genial Abel from going to Gottingen. Encouraged by Germany and Prance. to the prevailing loose methods of analysis he endeav owing oured to clear up. Abel began to put some of his work in shape for print. already published several important memoirs in Crelle s Journal. He met but was there Birichlet. and difficult of apprehension. remained ten months in Paris. but by the French this new periodical was little as yet hardly speak of his him to known to exist. Tor a short time he left Berlin for Preiberg.348 in A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He had appreciated. Pecuniary embarrassments induced return home after a second short stay in Berlin. and it was there that he made researches on hyperelliptic and Abelian In July. and met Steiner. Crelle started his journal in 1826. and a haughtiness of spirit which he associated with Gauss. . and spent six months in Berlin. A similar Abel feeling was entertained by him later against Cauchy. ited the astronomer. This slight. 1826. Leaving Norway in 1825 Abel vis Hamburg. of the impossibility of solving the general equation of the fifth first printed in 1824 in a very concise was elaborated in greater form. and of the integral The obscurities everywhere encountered by him calculus. where he had fewer interruptions to work. upon the subject of infinite series (particularly the binomial theorem. He entered also detail. of which he gave in Grelle s Journal a rigid general investigation). Legendre. and published in the first volume. and Abel was too modest to own work. Schumacher. in Abel and Steiner. out having met Gauss Abel had sent to Gauss his proof of ! 1824 of the impossibility of solving equations of the fifth degree. At and served Christiania he for some time gave private lessons. Abel left Germany for Paris with functions. where he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle (1780-1855). His proof degree by radicals.

but the news of Crelle secured at last an appointment for at it did not reach Norway until after Mm the death of Abel at Proland. as decent. The his few months after his tory of this memoir is interesting. elliptic Abel func developed the curious expressions representing tions quotients of infinite products. arrival in Paris. the most general of these being that in his M6moire sur une propriety gen&rale d une classe tr&s-6tendue de fonctions transcendentes (1826). also arrived at independently by both. reference is made to that memoir. A Cauchy and Legendre were appointed to examine it . Legendre long be enriched by some extraordinary The advantage to be derived by inverting the at last to s favourite subject. is the introduction of imaginaries leading to the observation that the new functions simulated at once trigonometric and expo nential functions. For it was shown that while trigonometric functions had only a real period. Jacobi to inquire of Legendre whafr had become of it. published by Abel in Crette s This led Journal. elliptic functions had both sorts of periods. A second fruitful idea. each in his own way. Great as were the achievements of Abel in elliptic functions. 349 Berlin . and exponential only an imag inary. 82 At nearly the same time with Abel. Jacobi published on elliptic functions. so elliptic integral of the first kind and treating later also it as a function (now by Abel. articles neglected. These two discoveries were the foundations upon which Abel and Jaeobi. by infinite series or they were eclipsed by his researches on what are now called Abel s theorem on these functions was Abelian functions. Le- . but said nothing about it until after Abel s death. was discoveries. given by him in several forms. In a brief statement of the discoveries in question. erected beautiful new structures. and a few months of its amplitude called elliptic function) was recognised by Jacobi.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. Abel submitted it to the French Academy. 1829.

350 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. The memoir remained in Canchy s hands. Konigsberger. editions of Abel by Holmboe in 1839. and that Abel was asked to hand in a better copy. who aere greatly admired Abel perennius. the development of which has kept mathematicians busy for over half a century. Goursat. Hermite. and proved by him to possess multiple periodicity. he penetrated new fields of research. allotted to the Some by It was not published until 1841. E. Bolza of the University of Chicago. elliptic integrals are deducible from Abel s theorem.&quot. It was shown later that p is the defi The addition theorems of ciency of the curve F(x. Brioschi. the manuscript was lost before the proof-sheets were . The reduction of Abelian to has been studied mainly by Jacobi. Legendre. works have been published the first and the second by Sylow and Lie in s : Abel s theorem was pronounced by Jacobi the greatest dis The aged covery of our century on the integral calculus. y) = 0. In its form. 3. by a definite number p of similar where p depends merely on the properties of the equation F(x. which he neglected to do. function y which tion Abelian integrals depend upon an irrational is connected with x by an algebraic equa F(x } y) = 0. are special cases of Abelian integrals whenever _p= or &amp. called it &quot. gendre says that the manuscript was so badly written as to be illegible. Picard. y) = 0. and 0.mon- umentum During the few years of work young Norwegian. s genius. the contents of the memoir belongs to the inte gral calculus. read. The hyperelliptic integrals introduced by Abel. By a singular mis hap. elliptic integrals Two 1881. Abel s theorem asserts that a sum of such integrals can be expressed integrals. of the discoveries of Abel and Jacobi were anticipated In the Disqidsitiones Arithmeticce he observed .

Though slow at first. and particularly to the transcendents dependent on the integral _^__. Like many other mathematicians Jewish he was initiated into sity of Berlin. he was elected extraordinary professor at Konigsberg. he took the degree of Ph. In 1829. at tended the meetings of the British Association. in the collected works of Gauss confirm this con Carl Gustav Jacob Jacob! M (1804-1851) was born of parents at Potsdam. Poisson. Many of his discoveries in elliptic func tions were made independently by Abel. but that this time he had not been led to a him new single origi nal thought.THEOEY OF FUNCTIONS. After giving lectures in Berlin for two years. mathematics by reading Euler. in Paris. of his Fimdamenta Nova he spent some time in publication meeting Gauss in Gottingen. of elliptic integrals. made the acquaintance of English mathematicians. Jacobi communicated his first researches to Crelle s Journal. The papers clusion. and cubic residues. where they travel. /dx Erom this Jacobi 83 concluded that Gauss had thirty years earlier considered the nature and properties of elliptic functions and had discovered their double periodicity. 7 His early researches were on Gauss approximation to the value of definite integrals. When he was depressed in spirits in and said that important books generally excited ideas. At the Univer where he pursued his mathematical studies independently of the lecture courses. and two After the years later to the ordinary professorship there. his ideas flowed all the richer afterwards. at the age . He read Legendre s Exercises. 351 that the principles which he used in the division of the circle were applicable to many other functions. partial differential equations. In 1842 he and his colleague. in 1825. Bessel. which give an account he returned the book to the library. Courier. and Legendre. Legendre s coefficients.D. besides the circular.

determinants. a transcendental function of the modulus. and the theory of numbers is mentioned elsewhere. which contains in condensed form the main results in elliptic functions. but functions of 56 Thus in the case p 2. en. and in effect an addition-theorem for the expression of the gives functions X(u u v v ). Ms Fundaments Nova Theories Functionum Ellipticarum.** two new functions and which by with two different arguments are the taken each separately 56 four (single) theta-functions designated by the 1? 2 4 3. . Eecent studies touching Abelian functions have been made by Weierstrass. He was also = e&quot.v ). v) } each of two variables. and Poincare*. he published secured for him a wide reputation. v). = s considers. He then made a closer study of theta-functions and lectured to his pupils on a new theory of elliptic functions based on the theta-functions. X^u u yV v ) algebraically in terms of the functions X(u. Mm a pension. In a short but very important memoir of 1S32. such as the elliptic sn. Madame Kowalevski. which Jacobi especially p variables. He developed a theory of transformation which led him to a mul titude of formulae containing g.v ). Picard. it is shown that Abel theorem has reference to two functions X(u. . Jacobi s work on dynamics. + + + r r r notion of the Abelian function of p variables was established and the addition-theorem for these functions given. and he moved to Berlin. dn. At this time the Prussian government gave differential equations. Xi(u. In 1842 Jacobi visited Italy for a few months to recuperate his health. E. . v). This work at once of twenty-five. v). By the memoirs of Abel and Jacobi it may be considered that the r + . Xi(u .352 A HISTORY OP MATHEMATICS. \i(u. defined by the equation q /*. X(u . he shows that led it to consider the H . where the last years of his life were spent. for the hyperelliptic integral of to which Abel s any class the direct functions theorem has reference are not functions of a single variable.

and imaginary arguments have been made by Meissel of Kiel.THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. and have been studied by and also Sohnke. Alfred Enneper of Gdttingen (1830-1885).&quot. Bern (bom 1818) * method of reducing an The algebraic transformations of a relation elliptic functions involve between the old modulus and the new one which Jacobi expressed by a differential equation of the third order. Eichelot of Konigsberg (18081875).o). E.(&amp. = xWo&amp. Joubert of Angers. Schroter.o = was led to consider the functions & as a function of co. Schroter of Breslau (1829-1892). ML Gudermann of . and connected with it by the equation q e*. S. general formula for the product of two theta-functions was given in 1854 by H. L. most impor tant of which are those of Eichelot and of Weierstrass of Berlin. These equations have become of importance in investigators. Mathieu. zero. Hermite of Paris. Johann Georg Eosenhain of Konigsberg (1816-1887). In 1858 Charles Hennite of Paris (born 1822). The 353 researches on functions mentioned thus far have been greatly The notion of modular equations was familiar to ^(w).lt. ij/ (&amp. E. These Thomae functions have been studied also by xW? are n^ s modular Researches on theta-functions with respect to real &amp.).). while the three functions functions. Francesco Brioschi of Milan. Konigsberger. 0. A of Jena.(o&amp. E. Schlani. introduced in place of the variable q of Jacobi a new variable ik /k. L. the theory of algebraic equations. H.*& Schlani of Legendre s elliptic differential to its normal form has called forth many investigations. called by him &quot. so that &amp. but the development of this subject devolved upon later Abel. by an algebraic equation. Betti of Pisa (died 1892). Gtitzlaff. Cleve. 56 Henry Smith regarded a theta-function with the argument equal to This he called an omega-function. Konigsberger of Heidelberg (born 1837).

Cayley. Klein s theory las been presented in book-form by his pupil. . based in part upon geometrical interpretation. the statement of a more general problem as based on the doctrine of groups of operations. Heinricli Durtye of Prague (1821-1893). Eisenstein discussed by purely analytical methods the general doubly infinite product.354 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. 1884. and the further development of the subject in connection with a class of Bieniann s surfaces. product has been called by Weierstrass the sigma-function. Generalisations analogous to those of Weierstrass on elliptic functions have been made by Felix Klein on hyper elliptic Standard works on functions. elliptic functions have been published by Briot and Bouquet (1859). H. Felix Klein of G-ottingen has made an extensive study of modular functions. In 1845 rigorously Cayley studied these products. into the convergency of the products. Greenhill. and others. due to Weierstrass. dealing with. Eobert Fricke. and arrived at results which have been greatly simplified in form by the theory of primary A certain function involving a factors. G. inquire of doubly infinite products. known as the theory of substi tutions and the theory of invariants and covariants. which he made the basis of the whole theory of elliptic functions. a type of operations lying between the two extreme types. by Konigsberger. was published in 1886 by TMorie des fonctions elliptiques et des Applications of these functions have been his given also by A. and is the basis of his beautiful theory of elliptic functions. His researches embrace the theory of mod ular functions as a specific class of elliptic functions. however. The first systematic presentation of Weier doubly infinite strass theory of elliptic functions G. The bolder features of it were first published in his Ikosaeder. and found for them a complete theory. Halphen in leurs applications. The elliptic functions were expressed by Abel as quotients He did not.

H. Eesearches on double theta-functions. and Martin Krause of Dresden led to broader views. called double theta-functions. made by Cayley. W. notwithstand ing the fact that the double theta series came to be of increasing importance in analytical. and presents the theory in the broadest He rests the theory of the multiple theta-functions the general principles of the theory of functions of a upon form. the investigations of C. geometrical. Starting with the integrals of the most general form and considering the inverse functions corresponding to these in tegrals (the Abelian functions of defined the theta-functions of p p variables). Pryin of Wtirzburg. and that Hermite and Konigsberger had considered the subject of transformation. professor in a gym nasium near Potsdam. and mechanical prob lems. the general shows that the Abelian on p variables. Finally. on the analogy of the single theta-functions. and Johann Georg Rosenhain of Konigsberg (1816-1887). Weber of Marburg. 1847) and Rosenhain in several memoirs established each independently. Hiemann pending functions are algebraically connected with theta-functions of the proper arguments. . and researches of H. Borchardt of Berlin (1817-1880). Adolf Krazer. variables as the Eiemann sum of a term de p-tuply infinite series of exponentials. Jacobins 355 work on Abelian and theta-functions was greatly extended by Adolpk Gopel (1812-1847). The theta-relations established by G-opel and Bosenhain re ceived for thirty years no further development. Gopel in Ms Theories transcendentium primi ordmis admnbratio levis (Crelle. F.THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. 35. were extended to quadruple theta-functions by Thomas Craig of the Johns Hopkins University. the functions of two variables. and worked out in connection with them the theory of the Abelian functions of two variables. treating of the representation of Kummer s surface by Gopel s biquadratic relation between four theta-functions of two variables. 56 complex variable.

. Herschel.856 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The study of Fourier s theory oo and where between + of heat led Dirichlet to a of x. made in connection with Biemann-Roch s theorem and the theory of residuation. But more profound investigations were made in Germany by Blemann. which was theory of functions as a theory of the solution of functional equations by means of known functions or symbols. W. F. there has grown out of the theory of Abelian functions a theory of algebraic functions and point-groups on algebraic curves. there need be no -analytical connection between y and x. if y possess one or new definition : y is called a function more definite values for each of certain values that x is assumed to take in an interval x to %. and gave the first great impulse to the study of the general theory of functions. and De Morgan. we calculus of functions. and it becomes necessary to look for possible discontinuities. Brill of Tubingen. His researches were continued in France by Puiseux and Liouville. he gave the variables imaginary values. Nother of Erlangen. Cauchy established several fundamental theorems. Through the researches of A. if there existed an equation between these variables which made it possible to calculate y for any given value of x lying any oo. M.&quot. Babbage. and Ferdinand Lindemann of Munich. make mention by not so Before proceeding to the general theory of functions. With the Bernoullis and Leibniz. In functions thus defined. A great revolution in the ideas of a function was brought about by Cauchy when. in a function as defined by Dirichlet. and when he extended the notion of a definite integral by letting the variable pass from one limit to the other by a succession of imaginary values along arbitrary paths. y was called a function of #. C. studied chiefly of the &quot. much a The history of the general theory of functions begins with the adoption of new definitions of a function. J.

Like all of Biemann s researches. and was buried at Biganzolo. he was drawn. He attended also some lec Such was his predilection for this tures on mathematics. He laid the . by a galaxy of mathematicians. Gauss died in 1855. Our hearts are drawn to this extraordinarily gifted but s Biemann Habilitationsschrift tation of a Function shy genius when we read of the timidity and nervousness displayed when he began to lecture at Gottingen. 357 Georg Friedricli Berahard Riemann (1826-1866) was born at His father wished him to study Breselenz in Hanover. Steiner. Returning to Gottingen in 1850. in 1859. liegen. in 1847. excited the admiration of lecture. Grundlagen fur eine allgemeine Theorie der Funktionen einer verdnderlichen complexen Grosse. and was succeeded by Dirichlet. and of his jubilation over the unexpectedly large audience of eight students at his first lecture on differential equations. B/iemann was made ordinary professor. to Berlin theology. He died on his last trip at Selasca. and Eisenstein. The delicate state of his health induced him to go to Italy three times. where he made the acquaintance of French mathematicians. After studying for a science time under G-auss and Stern. and he accordingly entered upon philological and theological studies at Gottingen. visited Paris. and Dedekind. as did also Biemann s trial Ueber die Hypotliesen welche der Geometrie zu Grunde was on the Bepresenmeans of a Trigonometric Series. In 1860 he only. Later he lectured on Abelian functions to a class of three Schering. Bjerknes. Jacobi. that he abandoned theology. in which shone Dirichlet. those on functions were foundation for a profound and far-reaching. On the death of the latter. he studied physics under Weber. The thesis presented on that occasion. and obtained the doctorate the following year. Gauss to a very unusual degree. in by which he advanced materially beyond the position of Dirich let.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS.

had been proved by Dirichlet that (for a plane) there is always one. such that the passage from one made at the branch-points. W. and only one. Eiemann invented the cele brated surfaces. The 7i-valued function w becomes thus a one-valued function. was applied by him in pure mathe matics. 3L Clifford brought Eiemann s surface for algebraic functions to a canonical form.358 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Hurwitz of Zurich is how far a Eiemann s surface deter- . The theory of potential. function of x and y. whilst v is given for one point within the curve. and then transformed the surface into sheet to another is the surface of a solid with discussed the question. together with its differential quotients of the first two orders. and which. in which only the two last of the n leaves are multiply-connected. It follows then that w is uniquely determined for all points within a closed surface. Dirichlet s principle. stated for all points on the curve. and which has for points on the 86 Eiemann boundary of the area arbitrarily given values. known as &quot. which can be dissected by cross-cuts into a singly-connected surface.Eiemann s surfaces. and to observe the conditions about continuity. Aided by researches of J. but the same theorem was by Green and proved analytically by Sir William Thomson. In order to treat the more complicated case where w has n values for one value of z. which satisfies Aw = 0. general theory of functions of a complex variable. which up to that time had been used only in mathematical physics.&quot. A. r dx ^ -j. and that the n sheets form together a multiply-connected surface. is for all values of x and y within a given area = = + one-valued and continuous. p holes. if u is arbitrarily given called this &quot. consisting of n coincident planes or sheets.-^ = Aw = 2 2 dy f\2 0. which must u + iv of z x hold for the analytical function w It iy. He accordingly based his theory of functions on the f\2 partial differential equation. Liiroth of Ereiburg and of Clebsch.&quot.

it not necessary to transform one into the other. The theory . 62 points ruinate its 359 number of sheets. methods of the infinitesimal calculus and the calculus of variations (by which Dirichlet s principle is established) can be applied to an unknown analytical function in its generality. merely in certain critical points. but there Eiemann s work is more gen eral. but it is sufficient to prove the agreement to a far less extent. and thus defines a function indepen dently of a mathematical expression. by the assignment of and branch-lines. attempts have been made to graft Eiemann s rooted methods of Weier speculations on the more strongly strass. In order to show that is two different expressions are identical. and others. is not free from objections. Objections kind to Eiemann s theory have been raised by Kronecker. not with the theory Both applied their theories to expressions and operations. It has s (Thom become evident that the existence of a derived function is not a con sequence of continuity. and that a function may be integrable It is not known how far the without being differentiable. and Poincare of Paris. its branch Eiemann s theory ascertains the criteria which will deter mine an analytical function by aid of its discontinuities and boundary conditions. The latter developed a theory of functions by start of potential. In con sequence of this. Hence the use of these methods will endow the functions with of this properties which themselves require proof. as based on Dirichlet s principle theorem). and his it has become doubtful whether most important theorems are actually proved. 86 of functions of one complex variable has been studied since Eiemann s time mainly by Karl Weierstrass of Berlin (born 1815). Eiemann son s theory. Gustaf Mittag-Leffler of Stockholm (born Of the three classes of such 1846).THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. Abelian functions. Weierstrass. but with analytical ing.

Picard of Paris. but no singular lines. Poincar has shown how to generate functions of this class. unaltered by certain linear substitutions. can be decomposed into a product of an A primary factor of the infinite number of primary factors. and non-uniform functions) Weierstrass showed that those functions of the first class which can he developed according to ascending powers of x into converging series. first of the three classes of functions of a complex infinite variable embraces. 81 first functions. even though their properties in the vicinity of a given point have been diligently studied. and has studied them along the lines marked out by Weier strass. among others. functions uni form only in lacunary spaces. existing throughout the whole extent. and though Non-uniform functions are much . class. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. uniform only in lacunary were first pointed out by Weierstrass. These are Fuchsian Poincare an example of such a function. gave Uniform functions of two variables. have been studied by E. P (x y being an entire polyis A function of the species n n. and the Kleinian functions do not generally exist. one. called hyperfuchsian functions. and are therefore examples of functions of the second class. and by Poincare. except in Functions of the second the interior of a circle or of a domain otherwise bounded. the product (1 V nomial of the wfch degree.860 functions (viz. Important is his proof that there is no way of generalising them so as to get rid of the lacunae. functions having an number of singular points. less developed than the preceding classes. and at the same time no isolated singular points. functions uniform throughout. all the primary factors of which are of species This classi fication gave rise to many interesting problems studied also by The Poincare. The Fuchsian spaces. species is n e p (x aJ j ).

one can always find a variable z.(u = \l/(u. Poincare proved that if y is any analytical non-uniform function of x. Schwarz of Berlin (born 1845). substitutions a polygon bounded also by circular arcs into another bounded by circular arcs. t) is the expression which Cayley calls the &quot. f) where $ (u. light has been thrown on them by the use of Bdemann s With the view of reducing their study to thai of surfaces. has given the conform representation (Abbildung) of various In transforming by aid of certain surfaces on a circle.Schwarzian derivative. Weierstrass and Darboux have each given examples of con tinuous functions having no derivatives. Darboux is not valid. literature. Schwarz s developments on minimum surfaces.&quot. his inquiries tions to important on the existence of solu under prescribed partial differential equations have secured a prominent place in mathematical . a pupil of Weierstrass. A. 361 much. 87 general theory of functions of two variables has been investigated to some extent by Weierstrass and Poincare. uniform transcendents. He gave fresh evidence of the care that must be exercised in the use of series by giving an example of a always convergent and continuous. his work on hypergeometric conditions. . differential equation \f. but the demonstration (1806) In treating of discontinuous functions. series. such that x and y are uniform functions of z. Ampere was the first who attempted to prove analytically the existence of a derivative. and which led Sylvester to the theory of reciprocants. Formerly it had been generally assumed that every function had a derivative. established rigorously the necessary and sufficient condition that a continuous or discontinuous function be susceptible of integration.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. he was led to a remarkable t). such that the series formed by the integrals of the terms is always convergent. The H. and series yet does not represent the integral of the first series.

Important works on the theory of functions are the GOUTS de M. R.Mathematics. and arithmetic. and Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable by A. While the first two belong to the period in mathematical his tory preceding the one now under consideration. and Eiemann. The modern theory Schwarz. Dedekind. When the questioner said he should have thought Gauss was. lines indicated Du Bois-Reymond. principally. 83 Gauss is one of the three greatest masters of modern analysis. Hankel established the principle of the condensation of singularities . by J. which was translated into German. and Heine. Thoniae. Liiroth and A. definite integrals were studied by Thomae. Tannery s TMorie des Fonctions d une variable seule. and Darboux. but Gauss the greatest in all Europe. with additions. the queen of mathematics. and then carried further. A Treatise on the Theory of Functions by James Harlcness and Frank Morley.&quot. Dedekind and Cantor gave definitions for irrational numbers . THEORY OF NUMBERS. definitions of and Darboux along the by the such integrals given by Cauchy. Laplace. Of these three contemporaries he was the youngest. Such was the dictum of Gauss. Hermite. Dirichlet. G. Cantor. Hankel. Laplace replied. Laplace answered. the queen of the sciences. Forsytli. PfafF. Schepp. Dini wrote a text-book on functions of a real variable (1873).Pfaff is is by far the giuatest mathematician in Germany . Gauss is the one whose writings may truly be said to mark the beginning .362 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. first of functions of one real variable was worked out by H. When asked who was the greatest mathematician in Ger many. Du Bois-Reymond.&quot. &quot. Gauss. by Weierstrass. who was destined fc. Dini. olutionise the theory of numbers. Lagrange. &quot.

Gauss strove in his writings after perfection of form. is 363 own epoch. and surpasses this great Frenchman in rigour. the first to first the observe rigour in the treatment of infinite to fully recognise and emphasise the impor tance. as yet undecided whether to pursue philol ogy or mathematics. the bifilar magnetometer and the declination instrument. brought him under the notice of Charles &quot. He was series. and sent who Duke of him to the Collegium Carolinum. In that abundant fertility of inven displayed by mathematicians of the preceding period. of our tion. At the age of twenty branches of higher mathematics to publish his results. combined with an absolute rigorousness in demonstration is Mm which too often wanting in their writings.Wonderful was his richness of ideas one thought fol 5 lowed another so quickly that he had hardly time to write down even the most meagre outline. make systematic use of determinants and of the first to arrive at the method of least squares. Abraham Gotthelf Kastner. He reconstructed the whole of magnetic science. jokingly. the son. He used to say. imaginaries. Brunswick. Carl Friedricli Gauss 47 (1777-1855).William. The duke undertook to educate the boy. to Gottingen. In 1795 he went. Gauss had overturned old theories and old methods in all but little pains did he take . was born at Brunswick. and thereby to establish his priority. afterwards professor of mathematics at Dorpat. the first to observe the double periodicity of elliptic functions. and now chiefly remembered for . Unlike Laplace. &quot. together with Weber. He rivals Lagrange in elegance. for calculation of the young boy The marvellous aptitude attracted the attention of Bartels. and to He invented the heliotrope and.THEORY OF NUMBERS. that he could reckon before he could talk. His progress in languages there was quite equal to that in mathematics. then pro fessor of mathematics there. of a bricklayer. and which the ancient Greeks might have envied.

but were reached independently by Gauss. He worked quite independently of his teachers. . In 1828 he went to Berlin to attend a meeting of scientists. and at times a railroad a strong morose. chair in the Academy at St. marked objection to a mathematical chair. who desired to secure him as director of a proposed new observatory at Gottingeni he declined the Gauss had a offer. He spent his life in Gottingen in the midst of continuous work. Higher arithmetic was his favourite study. a curious simplicity. Petersburg. Geschichte der Mathematik (1796). and his character showed mixture of self-conscious dignity and child-like He was little communicative. In 1807 the Emperor of Eussia offered Gauss a was Wolfgang Bolyai. that he might give all his time to science. except in 1854. was not an inspiring At the age of nineteen Gauss discovered a method of teacher. Some of its beginning had been previously given by Lagrange and Euler. inscribing in a circle a regular polygon of seventeen sides. After completing In 1798 and 1799 he the university at Helmstadt to consult the library. when Hanover. who had gone deeply into the subject before he became acquainted with the writ The Disquisitiones Arithmetics ings of his great predecessors. and this success encouraged him to pursue mathematics. but after this he never again left Gottingen.364 his A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. but by the advice of the astronomer Olbers. He had was opened between Gottingen and will. and preferred the post of astronomer. and while a student at Gottingen made several of his greatest discoveries. 1801. repaired to and there made the acquaintance of Pfaff. a mathematician of much power. The of this work dates back as far as 1795. Among his small circle of intimate friends his course he returned to Brunswick. and accepted the place at Gottingen. A new epoch in the theory of numbers results dates from the publi cation of his Disquisitiones Arithmeticce. Leipzig.

&quot. 48 The solution of the problem of the repre sentation of numbers by binary quadratic forms is one of the created a new algorithm by introducing the theory of congruences. given in the fourth section of Gauss work. also given by Jacobi. Gauss gave a second proof of this gem &quot. Genocchi. Some of them were published for the first time after his death in his collected works (1863-1871). was discovered him by &quot. Pepin. J. 365 was already in print when Legendre s Theorie des Nombres appeared. E. and Th. Schering. Liouville. The fourth section of the Disquisitiones AritJimeticce. Kronecker. of higher arithmetic. Petersen. in 1817. His papers on the theory of numbers were not all included in his great treatise. were.THEORY OF NUMBERS. Eisenstein. then of Breslau. In the fifth section but met with apparently insuperable difficulties. E. and that Legendre had attempted to prove it. Kummer. standard work on A Kreistheilung was published in 1872 by Paul Bachmann. The great law of quadratic reciprocity. Gauss had planned an eighth section. and the fifth section. Busche. Voigt. passed over with universal induction before he was eighteen. In 1808 followed a third and fourth demonstration. a fifth and sixth. A. Stern. A. The seventh or last section. a law which involves the whole theory of quadratic residues. He forms. Lebesgue. and was proved by him one year later. but they have since been the starting-point of a long important researches. M. ISTo wonder that Proofs were he felt a personal attachment to this theorem. developing the theory of the division of the circle. Afterwards he learned that Euler had imperfectly enunciated that theorem. until the time of Jacobi. and has since been for students. which was omitted to lessen the expense of publication. Zeller. Chr. was received series of from the start repeatedly elaborated with deserved enthusiasm. treating of quadratic great achievements of Gauss. treating of congruences of the second degree. He wrote two memoirs on . Bouniakowsky.

August Ferdinand Wilhelm Struve. with Gegenstdnde der hoheren Geodesie.Gauss Analogies. homogeneous In a memoir on capil lary attraction. now usually called &quot. are found four formulae in spherical trigonometry. the theory of biquadratic residues (1825 and 1831).&quot. . which cover it. giving theorems without proofs. After the . among the earliest of whom was Jacobi. Ueber He wrote on the attrac ellipsoids.366 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The latter contributed to Crelle s Journal an article on cubic residues. and earlier (1749-1822) astronomical and . Georg Gauss researches on the theory of numbers were the start Christian Gerling. the limits of integration being also variable example of the solution of such a problem. but which were published some what earlier by Karl Brandon Mollweide of Leipzig (1774- 1825). Among Gauss pupils were Christian Heinrich Schumacher. tion of and in 1843 and 1846 wrote two memoirs. Mobius. German Magnetic Union. 1833. made the name of contains a discussion of the problems arising in the deter mination of the movements of planets and comets from In it observations made on them under any circumstances. He founded the the object of securing con tinuous observations at fixed times. Johann Frantz Encke. ing-point for a school of writers. Friedrich Mcolai. he solves a problem in the calculus of variations involving the variation of a certain double integral. the second of which contains a theorem of biquadratic reciprocity. In 1809 he published the Theoria motus corporum coelestium. it is the earliest He discussed the problem of rays of light passing through a system of lenses. He took part in geodetic observations. His determination of the elements of its orbit with sufficient accuracy to enable Olbers to redis Gauss generally known. Gauss was led to astronomy by the discovery of the planet Ceres at Palermo in 1801. 1813. M by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre Many years of hard work were spent in the still magnetic observatory.

More recently F. xn z . the expounder of Gauss. Poisson. within easier reach of mathematicians. In 1828 he accepted a position in Berlin. he was led to beautiful theorems on the representation of numbers by 2. 6. and finally succeeded Gauss at Gottingen became decent in 1855. Legendre. meticce. The facilities for a mathematical education there were far better than in Germany. and Lame proved it when n = 7. and then the Jesuit gymnasium in Cologne. In 1822 he was attracted to Paris by the names of Laplace.ft = n n that Fermat s equation. Some parts of the analysis are. Ueber die Bestim- der mittleren Werthe in der Zahlentheorie. Cauchy.THEOBY OF NUMBEES. Duren. 367 3 publication of Gauss paper on biquadratic 1849.&amp. however. Euler and Lagrange had proved this when n is 3 and 4. Mertens of Graz has determined the asymptotic mung values of several numerical functions. 4. attended the He was read in Paris Gauss Disquisitiones Arith- a work which he never ceased to admire and study. Next come the researches of Dirichlet. where Gauss was the only great figure. + = Legendre s. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet 88 (1805-1859) was born in gymnasium in Bonn. He in Breslau in 1827. Fourier. Dirichlet gave some . He showed when . Jacobi found a similar law for cubic residues. By the theory of elliptical functions. and a contributor of rich results of his own. His and thereby placed first memoir on the impossibility of certain indeterminate equations of the fifth degree was presented to the French Academy in 1825. Dirichlet s acquaint ance with Fourier led him to investigate Fourier s series. simplified Much in it by Dirichlet. cannot exist y 5. giving the law of biquadratic reciprocity. and 8 squares. The general principles on which depends the aver number of classes of binary quadratic forms of positive age and negative determinant (a subject first investigated by Gauss) were given by Dirichlet in a memoir. and his treatment of com plex numbers.

but it remained attention to prime numbers. France. at different times In 1877 the British Association began.000. how to find all the infinite solutions of a homogeneous indeterminate equation of the second degree in three variables when one solution is made by Cauchy.368 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. admit of a common solution. The printing. in that respect. inferior to a given number a?. to give an investigation of the asymptotic frequency of primes which is rigorous. G-auss and Legendre had given denoting approximately the asymptotic value of expressions the number of primes inferior to a given limit. in a celebrated memoir. by the Association. 1859. with reference to the distri bution of primes. of tables for the sixth million marked the completion of tables. Ueber die Anzakl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Gfrosse. the preparation of factor-tables. and. for instance. Peters burg (born 1821). Poincare s papers. must be comprised. given. are among the latest researches in this line.000. number less than Miscellaneous contributions to the theory of numbers were He showed. Sur les Nombres Premiers. established. under the direction of J. which involves abstruse theorems of the integral calculus. The enumeration of prime numbers has been undertaken by various mathematicians. to the preparation of which Germany. L. Hadamard (awarded the Grand prix of 1892). 89 This paper depends on very elementary considerations. which have the same modulus. for Bdemann in his memoir. Sylvester s con traction of Tchebycheff s limits. and researches of J. contrasts sum of the strongly with Riemann s. Patnutij Tchebyclieffy formerly professor in the University of St. . W. the existence of limits within which the logarithms of the primes P. 1850. He established the theorem that if two congruences. G-laisher. and which enable us to resolve into prime factors every composite 9. Ap proaching the problem from a different direction. and England contributed.

by Ferdinand Gotthold Eisenstein (1823-1852). don. But he did not publish demonstrations of his re In inspecting the theory of binary cubic forms. professor on the theory of quadratic forms of two. but the chief results of his own discoveries . of Berlin. the modulus is 369 Joseph Liouville a divisor of their resultant. They contain much orig exposition and perfection were inal matter. assigned the weight of any order or genus. but after that year he was never absent from Oxford for a single term. Ternary quadratic forms had been studied somewhat by Gauss. in his memoir. geometry. in 1855. he was led to the discovery of the first covariant ever considered in He showed that the series of theorems. who was one of the few Englishmen who devoted themselves to the study of higher arithmetic. but the extension from two to three indeterminates was the work of Eisenstein who. the presentation of numbers by sums of squares. and educated at Eugby and at Before 1847 he travelled much in Europe for his health. at the College de France. and at one time attended lectures of Arago in Paris. In 1861 he was elected Savilian professor of His first paper on the theory of numbers appeared The results of ten years study of everything pub on the theory of numbers are contained in his Eeports lished which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 These reports are a model of clear and precise to 1865. investigated (1809-1882). 90 Henry John Stephen Smith (1826-1883) was born in Lon Balliol College. defined the ordinal and generic instituted characters of ternary quadratic forms of uneven determinant. sults. and mainly questions Profound researches were of a greater number of variables. in case of definite forms. ceases when the number of squares surpasses eight. Oxford. Many of the proofs omitted by Eisenstein were supplied by Henry Smith.THEORY OF NUMBERS. and. relating to analysis. of form. Neue Tkeoreme der liolieren Arithmetik.

by Eisenstein. He contributed also two memoirs to the Proceedings of the Royal Society of 1864 and 1868. and Dedekind. This class of theorems group. Eisenstein. Instead of the equation x* 1 0. and added the corresponding theorems for 7 squares. Theorems relating to the case of 5 squares were given by Eisenstein. Eisenstein used the equation = . another prize being also awarded to H. accomplished fifteen years earlier. Minkowsky of Bonn. 8 squares. (1810-1893). They treat of linear indeterminate equations and congruences. His successor is at Oxford was Ernst Eduard Kummer s versity of Berlin. the Academy offered a prize for the demonstration tion of Eisenstein s theorems for 5 squares. He sent in a dissertation in 1882. 4. is limited to 8 squares. but when the number of squares is odd. relating to the representation of numbers by 4. and Smith completed the s In ignorance of Smith investigations. 6 squares may be obtained by elliptic functions. He wrote also on modern geome J. and of the orders and genera of ternary quadratic forms. introduced by Gauss. in the second of which he remarks that the theorems of Jacobi. but Smith completed the enunciation of them. The theory of numbers led Smith to the study of try. He established the principles on which the extension to the gen eral case of n indeterminates of quadratic forms depends. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861 and 1867. 6. J. a month after his death. was extended by him. the prize was awarded to him. and Liouville.870 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. professor in the closely identified with the theory of of the Uni num Dirichlet work on complex numbers form a-M&. Erench and comple This Smith had and next year. it involves processes peculiar to the theory of numbers. bers. Sylvester. elliptic functions. and other simple quadratic forms are dedueible by a uniform method from the principles indicated in his paper. The solu tion of the cases of 2. the roots of which yield Gauss units.

o3 1 371 and complex numbers a + (p being a cube root of unity).gt. Petersburg to the solution of a problem numbers. Second Series. where a are whole real numbers. On quadratic . left unfinished deviates from the course of ideal numbers. and their prime factors cannot be defined in the same as prime factors of way common integers are denned.&quot. his Kronecker (1823-1891) made researches which pupil. Julius Wttlielm Richard Dedekind of Braunschweig (born 1831) has given in the second edition of Dirichlet s Vorlesungen uber ZahlentJieorie a new theory of of the integral calculus. difficulty. &quot. = t is Euclid s theory of the greatest common divisor not applicable to such complex numbers. by Abel (LiouviHe s Journal. Attracted by Kummer s investigations. complex numbers of the form a = a 1A1 + a2A2 + asAs -\ . 1864. Seeber and that of the arithmetical auto. Leopold utilise in he applied to algebraic equations. The more difficult prob lem of the equivalence for indefinite ternary forms has been investigated by Edward Selling of Wtirzburg. in which he to some extent Kummer. efforts have been made to the theory of numbers the results of the modern higher algebra. On the other hand. of two positive or definite ternary quadratic forms equivalence was solved by L.ideal 59 Kummer was led to introduce the conception of Gr. morphics of such forms. In the effort to overcome this equation. the theory of which resembles that of Gauss num Kummer passed to the general case xn 1 = and got bers. and A+ roots of the above 6/&amp. and avoids the use of Dedekind has taken the roots of any irreduci ble equation with integral coefficients as the units for his com plex numbers. Paul Bachmann of Munster investigated the arithmetical formula which gives the auto89 The problem -of the morphics of a ternary quadratic form.THEORY OF NUMBERS. IX. These ideal numbers have been applied by Zolotareff of St. by Eisenstein. Vol. complex numbers. Following up researches of Hermite.).



little lias

forms of four or more indeterminates

yet been done.

Hermite snowed that the number

of non-equivalent classes of

and a given dis quadratic forms having integral coefficients criminant is finite, while Zolotareif and A. HT. Korkine, both
of St. Petersburg, investigated the

minima of

positive quadratic

In connection with binary quadratic forms, Smith forms. established the theorem that if the joint invariant of two the determinant of either properly primitive forms vanishes,



represented primitively by the duplicate of the


The interchange of theorems between arithmetic and algebra

of J. displayed in the recent researches


L. G-laisher

of Trinity College (born 1848) and Sylvester. Sylvester gave a Constructive Theory of Partitions, which received additions


his pupils,


Eranklin and G.



The conception of number" has been much extended in With the (keeks it included only the ordinary our time.
positive whole
to the

Diophantus added rational fractions domain of numbers. Later negative numbers and


imaginaries came gradually to be recognised. Descartes fully grasped the notion of the negative Gauss, that of the imagi



Euclid, a ratio, whether rational or irrational,


not a number.


recognition of ratios and irrationals as

numbers took place in the sixteenth century, and found expres sion with Kewton. By the ratio method, the continuity of the real number system has been based on the continuity of space,
but in recent time three theories of irrationals have been advanced by Weierstrass, J. W. B. Dedekind, G. Cantor, and
Heine, which prove the continuity of numbers without borrow

from space.


are based on the definition of


by regular

sequences, the use of series and limits,

and some

new mathematical



Notwithstanding the beautiful developments of celestial mechanics reached by Laplace at the close of the eighteenth century, there was made a discovery on the first day of the
present century which presented a problem seemingly beyond the power of that analysis. We refer to the discovery of Ceres by Piazzi in Italy, which became known in Germany just after

the philosopher Hegel had published a dissertation proving a From the priori that such a discovery could not be made.

not positions of the planet observed by Piazzi its orbit could remained be satisfactorily calculated by the old methods, and it
for the genius of G-auss to devise a
elliptic orbits

which was





method of calculating from the assumption of a small Gauss method was developed

further in his Theoria Motus.

The new planet was


covered with aid of Gauss

data by Olbers, an astronomer

who promoted


studies, but also

not only by Ms own astronomical by discerning and directing towards astro

nomical pursuits the genius of Bess el. 91 of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) was a native Fondness for figures, and a distaste Minden in Westphalia.
for Latin

grammar led him
fifteenth year

to the choice of a mercantile

he became an apprenticed clerk in Bremen, and for nearly seven years he devoted his days to to mastering the details of his business, and part of his nights some day to become a supercargo on trading Hoping

In his


became interested in observations at sea. With a sextant constructed by him and an ordinary clock he deter mined the latitude of Bremen. His success in this inspired One work after another was him for astronomical
expeditions, he

mastered by him, unaided, during the hours snatched from




old observations he calculated the orbit

Bessel introduced himself to Gibers, and Halley s comet. submitted to him the calculation, which Olbers immediately sent for publication. Encouraged by Olbers, Bessel turned his back to the prospect of affluence, chose poverty and the

and became assistant in J. H. Schroter s observatory at Four years later he was chosen to superintend Lilienthal.
the construction of the

92 la observatory at Konigsberg. the absence of an adequate mathematical teaching force, Bessel


was obliged

to lecture

on mathematics

to prepare students for

He was

relieved of this


in 1825

arrival of Jacobi.


shall not recount the labours

by the by which

Bessel earned the

title of founder of modern practical astron As an observer he towered far above geodesy. G-auss, but as a mathematician he reverently bowed before the genius of his great contemporary. Of BessePs papers, the one

omy and

of greatest mathematical interest is an UntersucJiung des TJieils der planetarischen Sffirungen, welcher aus der Bewegung

der Sonne ensteht" (1824), in which he introduces a class of transcendental functions, n (#), much used in applied mathe

He gave their matics, and known as "BessePs functions." and constructed tables for their eval principal properties, uation. Recently it has been observed that BessePs func






literature. 98

Such functions of the zero order occur in papers of Daniel
Bernoulli (1732) and Euler on vibration of heavy strings sus pended from one end. All of BessePs functions of the first

kind and of integral orders occur in

the vibration of a stretched elastic membrane.

paper by Euler (1764) on In 1878 Lord
L. G-laisher illustrates

Rayleigh proved that BessePs functions are merely particular
cases of Laplace




by BessePs functions
growing out

his assertion that

mathematical branches

of, physical

inquiries as a rule

the easy flow



or homogeneity of form which is characteristic of a mathemati cal theory properly so called." These functions have been

studied by C. Th. Anger of Danzig, 0. Schlomilch of Dresden, Ku Lipschitz of Bonn (born 1832), Carl Neumann of Leipzig

(born 1832), Eugen


of Leipzig,


Todhunter of




College, Cambridge.

Prominent among the successors of Laplace are the follow ing: Simeon Denis Poisson (1781-1840), who wrote in 1808 a classic M6moire sur les inegalites sfoulaires des moyens mouvements des plan&tes.
1864) of Turin, a

Giovanni Antonio Amadeo Plana (1781nephew of Lagrange, who published in 1811

a Memoria sulla teoria

attrazione degli sferoidi



contributed to the theory of the moon. Peter Andreas Hansen (1795-1874) of G-otha, at one time a clockmaker in Tondern,

then Schumacher s assistant at Altona, and finally director of the observatory at Grotha, wrote on various astronomical sub jects, but mainly on the lunar theory, which he elaborated in

work Fundamenta nova

investigationes orbitcB verce



George Biddel Airy (1801astronomer at Greenwich, published in 1826 his 1892), royal Mathematical Tracts on the Lunar and Planetary Theories.

(1838), and in extensive lunar tables. embracing



These researches have since been greatly extended by him.
August Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868) of Leipzig wrote, in 1842, Elemente der Mechanik des Himmels. Urbain Jean Joseph Le
Verrier (1811-1877) of Paris wrote, the Eecherches AstronomiqueSj constituting in part a new elaboration of celestial

mechanics, and


famous for his theoretical discovery of

Adams (1819-1892) of Cambridge John Neptune. divided with Le Verrier the honour of the mathematical dis

covery of Neptune, and pointed out in 1853 that Laplace s explanation of the secular acceleration of the moon s mean

motion accounted for only half the observed acceleration.




Delaimay (born 1816, and drowned off Cher bourg in 1872), professor of mechanics at the Sorbonne in Paris, explained most of the remaining acceleration of the
Charles Eugene

moon, unaccounted for by Laplace


Adams, by tracing

the effect of


theory as corrected by friction, a theory

previously suggested independently by Kant, Eobert Mayer, and William Ferrel of Kentucky. George Howard Darwin of


(born 1845)

made some very remarkable


tigations in 1879 on tidal friction, which trace with great He has certainty the history of the moon from its origin.


studied also the effects of tidal friction

upon other

bodies in the solar system.

Criticisms on some parts of his researches have been made by James Nolan of Victoria. Simon

Newcomb (born 1835), superintendent of the Nautical Almanac at Washington, and professor of mathematics at the Johns
Hopkins University, investigated the errors in Haiisen s tables of the moon. Eor the last twelve years the main work of the 17. &. Nautical Almanac office has been to collect and discuss data for new tables of the planets which will supplant the

Le Verrier. G. W. Hill of that office has contributed an elegant paper on certain possible abbreviations in the com putation of the long-period of the moon s motion, due to the
tables of
direct action of the planets,

and has made the most elaborate

determination yet undertaken of the inequalities of the moon s motion due to the figure of the earth. He has also computed

due to the action of Jupiter. certajpHkunar inequalities Fhe mathematical discussion of Saturn s rings was taken x

up by Laplace, who demonstrated that a homogeneous solid ring could not be in equilibrium, and in 1851 by B. Peirce, who proved their non-solidity by showing that even an irregu
lar solid ring could not be in equilibrium about Saturn.


was investigated by James Clerk Maxwell in an essay to which the Adams prize was awarded.
of these rings





concluded that they consisted of an aggregate of uncon

nected particles.

The problem of three bodies has been treated in various ways since the time of Lagrange, but no decided advance
towards a more .complete algebraic solution has been made, and the problem stands substantially where it was left by him.

He had made
seventh order.

a reduction in the differential equations to the This was elegantly accomplished in a different

way by Jacobi

in 1843. J3. Radau (Comptes Rendus, LXVIL, and AlUgret (Journal de MatMmatiques, 1875, 1868, p. 841) p. 277) showed that the reduction can be performed on the

equations in their original form. Noteworthy transformations and discussions of the problem have been given by J. L. IT.
Bertrand, by Emile Bour (1831-1866) of the Polytechnic School in Paris, by Mathieu, Hesse, J. A. Serret. H. Bruns of Leipzig

has shown that no advance in the problem of three or of n bodies may be expected by algebraic integrals, and that we

must look

to the

modern theory of functions

for a complete

solution (Acta Math., XL, p. 43)." Among valuable text-books on mathematical astronomy rank the following works Manual of Spherical and Practical Astron

omy by Chauvenet (1863), Practical and Spherical Astronomy by Robert Main of Cambridge, TJieoretical Astronomy by James
(1868), Traite tlementaire de M&canique Celeste of H. Eesal of the Polytechnic School in Paris, Cours d Astronomie de VEcole PolytecJimque by Faye, Trait6

Watson of

Ann Arbor

de M6canique Celeste by Tisserandj Lehrbuch der JBahnbestimmung by T. Oppolzer, Mathematische Theorien der Planeten-

bewegung by 0.

DziobeJc, translated into

English by M.


Harrington and




During the present century we have come to recognise the advantages frequently arising from a geometrical treatment of
mechanical problems.


Poinsot, Chasles, and

Mobius we



in geometrical a graduate of the

owe the most important developments made
Louis Poinsot

(1777-1859) ,

Polytechnic School in Paris,, and for many years member of the superior council of public instruction, published in 1804

EUments de


This work


remarkable not only

as being the earliest introduction to synthetic mechanics, but also as containing for the first time the idea of couples, which

was applied by Poinsot
of rotation.

in a publication of

1834 to the theory



conception of

the nature of rotary

motion was conveyed by Poinsot s elegant geometrical repre sentation by means of an ellipsoid rolling on a certain fixed

This construction was extended by Sylvester so as measure the rate of .rotation of the ellipsoid on the plane. A particular class of dynamical problems has recently been

treated geometrically^ by Sir Robert Stawell Ball, formerly astronomer royal of Ireland, now Lowndean Professor of

Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge. His method is given in a work entitled Theory of Screws, Dublin, 1876, and in subsequent articles. Modern geometry is here drawn upon, as was done also by Clifford in the related subject of Biquaternions. Arthur Buchheim of Manchester (1859-1888), showed that G-rassmann s Ausdehnungslehre supplies all the
necessary materials for a simple calculus of screws in elliptic space. Horace Lamb applied the theory of screws to the ques

on the in and the alteration in form of dynamical equations, tegration were made since Lagrange by Poisson, William Eowan Hamil

tion of the steady motion of any solid in a fluid. Advances in theoretical mechanics, bearing


Madame Kowalevski, and


Lagrange had


equations of given a theory of the variation of the arbitrary constants which, however, turned out to be less fruitful in results than a theory advanced by Poisson." Poismotion.



He had



s theory of the variation of the arbitrary constants and the method of integration thereby afforded marked the first

onward step since Lagrange. Then came the researches of His discovery that the inte Sir William Kowan Hamilton. of the dynamic differential equations is connected with gration
the integration of a certain partial differential equation of the first order and second degree, grew out of an attempt to deduce,

by the undulatory theory,

results in geometrical optics previ

ously based on the conceptions of the emission theory. The Philosophical Transactions of 1833 and 1834 contain Hamil


papers, in which appear the first applications to me chanics of the principle of varying action and the characteristic function, established by him some years previously. The

object which Hamilton proposed to himself is indicated by the title of his first paper, viz. the discovery of a function by means of which all integral equations can be actually

represented. The new form obtained by him for the equation of motion is a result of no less importance than that which

was the professed

object of the memoir.

Hamilton s method

of integration was freed by Jacobi of an unnecessary complica tion, and was then applied by him to the determination of a

geodetic line on the general ellipsoid. With aid of elliptic co ordinates Jacobi integrated the partial differential equation and expressed the equation of the geodetic in form of a
relation between

Jacobi applied to differential equations of dynamics the theory of the ultimate The differential equations of dynamics are only multiplier. one of the classes of differential equations considered by

two Abelian




investigations along the lines of Lagrange,

Hamilton, and Jacobi were made by Liouville, A. Desboves, Serret, J. C. F. Sturm, Ostrogradsky, J. Bertrand, Donkin,
of a Brioschi, leading up to the development of the theory system of canonical integrals.

is of importance in hydro&quot. An important addition to the theory of the motion of a solid body about a fixed point was made by Madame SopMe de Kowalevski 96 (1853-1891). in connection with his theory of ignoration of co-ordinates. By the use of theta-functions of two independent variables she furnished a remarkable example of how the modern theory of functions may become useful in mechanical problems. There are in vogue three forms for the expression of the kinetic energy of a dynamical system: the Lagrangian.. first enunciated by Newton principle was (Principia. and by A.&quot. studied under Weierstrass. corollary to it.. certain velocities s equations in are omitted. the third form. and in other branches of physics. The Prop. as a homo geneous quadratic function of the momenta of the system. elaborated recently by Edward John Eouth of Cambridge. and was derived by Bertrand from the principle of virtual velocities. which are the time-variations of the co-ordinates of the system. 32). By it one can determine from the performance of a model the action of the machine constructed on a larger scale. in the second form. and a modified form of Lagrange which. which was doubled on account of the exceptional merit of the paper. Basset. She was a native of Moscow. Bordin prize of the French Academy in 1888. Sec. and from 1884 until her death was professor of higher mathematics at the University The research above mentioned received the of Stockholm. II. Bk. VIII. the Hamiltonian. dynamical problems relating to the motion of perforated solids in a liquid.380 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. obtained the doctor s degree at Gottingen.% A . applied in ship-build. who discovered a new case in which the differential equations of motion can be integrated. B. The kinetic energy is expressed in the first form as a homogeneous quadratic function of the velocities. In recent time great practical importance has come to be attached to the principle of mechanical similitude.



goes by the

ciated also

name by Heech.


William Ifroude


law, but was enun

The present problems of dynamics differ materially from those of the last century. The explanation of the orbital and axial motions of the heavenly bodies by the law of universal

D Alembert,
the aid

was the great problem solved by Clairaut, Euler, Lagrange, and Laplace. It did not involve the consideration of frictional resistances. In the present time

dynamics has been invoked

by the physical

there arising are often complicated the presence of friction. Unlike astronomical problems of by a century ago, they refer to phenomena of matter and motion

The problems

that are usually concealed from direct observation. The great pioneer in such problems is Lord Kelvin. While yet an

undergraduate at Cainb ridge, during holidays spent at the seaside, he entered upon researches of this kind by working
out the theory of spinning tops, which previously had been

only partially explained by Jellet in his Treatise on the Tlieory of Friction (1872), and by Archibald Smith.


standard works on mechanics are Jacobi

s Vorlesun-

gen uber Dynamite, edited by Clebseh, 1866 KirchliolFs VorleBenjamin Peirce s sungen uber mathematische PhysiJc, 1876

MechaniJc, Analytic Mechanics, 1855; Tait and Steele s Dynamics of a Particle, 1856; Minchin s 1879; Treatise on Statics; Routh s Dynamics of a System of Rigid



Bodies; Sturm


The equations which

Cours de M&canique de VEcole Polytechnique. constitute the foundation of the theory

of fluid motion were fully laid down at the time of Lagrange, but the solutions actually worked out were few and mainly of the irrotational type. powerful method of attacking in fluid motion is that of images, introduced in 1843 problems


by George Gabriel Stokes



College, Cambridge.
s dis-

Tt received little attention until Sir

William Thomson



covery of electrical images, whereupon the theory was extended by Stokes, Hicks, and Lewis. In 1849, Thomson gave the maximum and minimum theorem peculiar to hydrodynamics, which was afterwards extended to dynamical problems in

A new epoch in the progress
in 1856,

of hydrodynamics



by Helmholtz, who worked out remarkable properties

of rotational motion in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid, devoid of viscosity. He showed that the vortex filaments in

such a medium may possess any number of knottings and twistings, but are either endless or the ends are in the free surface
they are indivisible. These results suggested to Sir William Thomson the possibility of founding on them a
of the


new form

of the atomic theory, according to which every atom a vortex ring in a non-frictional ether, and as such must be The vortexabsolutely permanent in substance and duration.

atom theory

discussed by J. J.




(born 1856) in his classical treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings, to which the Adams Prize was awarded in 1882.

Papers on vortex motion have been published also by Horace Lamb, Thomas Craig, Henry A. Eowland, and Charles Chree.

was investigated by Helmholtz, ELirchand Rayleigh the motion of fluids in a fluid by hoff, Plateau, Stokes, Sir W. Thomson, Kopcke, G-reenhill, and Lamb the
subject of jets



theory of viscous


by Navier, Poisson,


Stokes, 0. E. Meyer, Stefano, Maxwell, Lipschitz, Craig, Viscous fluids present great Helmholtz, and A. B. Basset. difficulties, because the equations of motion have riot the same degree of certainty as in perfect fluids, on account of a defi
cient theory of friction,


of the difficulty of connecting
differentials of the

oblique pressures on a small area with the


in liquids have been a favourite subject with




mathematicians. The early inquiries of Poisson and Cauchy were directed to the investigation of waves produced by disturbing causes acting arbitrarily on a small portion of the fluid. The velocity of the long wave was given

approximately by Lagrange in 1786 in case of a channel of rectangular cross-section, by Green in 1839 for a channel of
triangular section, and by P. Kelland for a channel of any uniform section. Sir George B. Airy, in his treatise on Tides

and Waves, discarded mere approximations, and gave the exact equation on which the theory of the long wave in a channel of
uniform rectangular section depends.

But he gave no general


of University College at


discusses this topic more fully, and arrives at exact and The most important complete solutions for certain cases.

application of the theory of the long wave is to the explana tion of tidal phenomena in rivers and estuaries.

The mathematical treatment of solitary waves was taken up by S. Earnshaw in 1845, then by Stokes but the



sound approximate theory was given by J. Boussinesq in 1871, obtained an equation for their form, and a value for the Other methods of velocity in agreement with experiment. were given by Eayleigh and J. McCowan. In approximation


connection with deep-water waves, Osborne Reynolds gave in 1877 the dynamical explanation for the fact that a group of such waves advances with only half the rapidity of the
individual waves.
solution of the problem of the general motion of an ellipsoid in a fluid is due to the successive labours of Green


The free (1856), and Bjerknes (1873). motion of a solid in a liquid has been investigated by W.


Thomson, Kirchhoff, and Horace Lamb. By these labours, the motion of a single solid in a fluid has come to be pretty well understood, but the case of two solids in a fluid is not devel-

oped so

The problem has been attacked by W. M.

of the period of oscillation of a rotating has important bearings on the question of the liquid spheroid G-. H. Darwin s investigations thereon, origin of the moon. viewed in the light of Eiemann s and Poincare s researches,

The determination

seem to disprove Laplace
from the earth
great for stability


hypothesis that the



as a ring, because the angular velocity






The explanation of the contracted vein has been a point of much controversy, but has been put in a much better light by the application of the principle of momentum, originated by
Eroude and Eayleigh.
Eayleigh considered also the reflection
of waves, not at the surface of separation of two uniform media, where the transition is abrupt, but at the confines of two media between which the transition is gradual.


first serious


was instituted

study of the circulation of winds on the at the beginning of the second

quarter of this century by H. W. Dov William (7. JZedJield, and James P. Espy, followed by researches of W. Reid, Piddington, and JSlias Loomis. But the deepest insight into the wonder

among the varied motions of the atmosphere was obtained by William Ferrel (1817-1891). He was born in Fulton County, Pa., and brought up on a farm. Though in unfavourable surroundings, a burning thirst for
ful correlations that exist

knowledge spurred the boy to the mastery of one branch after He attended Marshall College, Pa., and graduated another. in 1844 from Bethany College. While teaching school he

became interested in meteorology and in the subject of tides. In 1856 he wrote an article on the winds and currents of the ocean." The following year he became connected with the Nautical Almanac. A mathematical paper followed in 1858



motion of



solids relative to the

earth s




subject was

extended afterwards so as to

embrace the mathematical theory of cyclones, tornadoes, water-spouts, etc. In 1885 appeared his Recent Advances in
ologist (Julius

In the opinion of a leading European meteor

of Vienna), Ferrel has "contributed more to the advance of the physics of the atmosphere than any


other living physicist or meteorologist." Ferrel teaches that the air flows in great spirals toward the poles, both in the upper strata of the atmosphere and on the
earth s surface beyond the 30th degree of latitude; while the return current blows at nearly right angles to the above spirals, in the middle strata as well as on the earth s surface,
in a zone comprised between the parallels 30 IsT. and 30 S. The idea of three superposed currents blowing spirals was first

advanced by James Thomson, but was published in very



FerrePs views have given a strong impulse to theoretical Several objec research in America, Austria, and Germany.
tions raised against his

have been answered by

argument have been abandoned, or M. Davis of Harvard. The mathe matical analysis of F. Waldo of Washington, and of others, has further confirmed the accuracy of the* theory. The trans port of Krakatoa dust and observations made on clouds point

toward the existence of an upper east current on the equator, and Pernter has mathematically deduced from FerrePs theory
the existence of such a current.

Another theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere was propounded by Werner Siemens of Berlin, in which an attempt is made to apply thermodynamics to aerial currents.
Important new points of view have been introduced recently by Helmholtz, who concludes that when two air currents blow
one above the other in different directions, a system of air waves must arise in the same way as waves are formed on the


He and
A. Oberbeck showed that

when the waves on the

sea attain lengths of from 16 to 33 feet, the air waves must attain lengths of from 10 to 20 miles, and proportional depths. Superposed strata would thus mix more thoroughly, and their

energy would be partly dissipated.

From hydrodynainical

equations of rotation Helrnholtz established the reason why the observed velocity from equatorial regions is much less in a latitude of, say, 20 or 30, than it would be were the move

ments unchecked.

About 1860 acoustics began to be studied with renewed The mathematical theory of pipes and vibrating strings had been elaborated in the eighteenth century by Daniel Ber

noulli, Alembert, Euler, and Lagrange. In the first part of the present century Laplace corrected Newton s theory on the velocity of sound in gases, Poisson gave a mathematical dis


cussion of torsional vibrations


Poisson, Sophie Germain, and

Wheatstone studied Chladni s

Thomas Young and the Weber developed the wave-theory of sound. Sir J.


Herschel wrote on the mathematical theory of

sound for

the Encydopc&dia, Metropolitana, 1845.




Epoch-making were and mathematical researches. In experimental and Rayleigh s, Fourier s series received due


difference tones,

Helmholtz gave the mathematical theory of beats, and summation tones. Lord Rayleigh (John

William Strutt) of Cambridge (born 1842) made extensive mathematical researches in acoustics as a part of the theory of vibration in general. Particular mention may be made of his
discussion of the disturbance produced by a spherical obstacle on the waves of sound, and of phenomena, such as sensitive flames, connected with the instability of jets of fluid. In 1877 and 1878 he published in two volumes a treatise on TJie Theory of Sound. Other mathematical researches on this subject have been made in England by Donkin and Stokes.

The theory
of elasticity 42 belongs to this century.


Before 1800 no attempt had been made to form general equations for the motion or equilibrium of an elastic solid. Particular prob lems had been solved by special hypotheses. Thus, James
Bernoulli considered elastic laminae; Daniel Bernoulli and Euler investigated vibrating rods; Lagrange and Euler, the

The earliest investiga tions of this century, by Thomas Young Young s modulus of in England, J. Binet in France, and Gr. A. A. Plana elasticity
equilibrium of springs and columns.

in Italy, were chiefly occupied in extending and correcting the earlier labours. Between 1830 and 1840 the broad outline of the

modern theory

of elasticity was established.

This was accom

plished almost exclusively by French writers,

(1785-1836), Poisson, Cauchy, Mademoiselle Sophie Germain (1776-1831), Felix Savart (1791-1841). Simeon Denis Poisson 94 (1781-1840) was born at Pithiviers.
to a nurse,

his father (a

and he used to tell that when came to see him one day, the soldier) nurse had gone out and left him suspended by a thin cord to a nail in the wall in order to protect him from perishing under the teeth of the carnivorous and unclean animals that roamed on the floor. Poisson used to add that his gymnastic efforts when thus siispended caused him to swing back and forth, and

The boy was put out


thus to gain an early familiarity with the pendulum, the study His father of which occupied him much in his maturer life.
this to

him for the medical profession, but so repugnant was him that he was permitted to enter the Polytechnic

est of

His talents excited the inter and Laplace. At eighteen he wrote a memoir Lagrange on finite differences which was printed on the recommendation He soon became a lecturer at the school, and of Legendre.
School at the age of seventeen.

continued through

life to

posts and professorships.

hold various government scientific He prepared some 400 publications,



mainly on applied mathematics. His Traite de Mfaanique, 2 vols., 1811 and 1833, was long a standard work. He wrote on the mathematical theory of heat, capillary action, proba
judgment, the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism, physical astronomy, the attraction of ellipsoids, definite integrals, series, and the theory of elasticity. He was considered one of the leading analysts of his time.
bility of

His work on

elasticity is hardly excelled

and second only
problem in

to that of Saint-Venant.

by that of Cauchy, There is hardly a


which he has not contributed, while The equilibrium and motion of a circular plate was first successfully treated by him. Instead of the definite integrals of earlier writers, he used
elasticity to

of his inquiries were new.

preferably finite summations.



contour conditions

for elastic plates were objected to by Gustav Kirehhoff of But Thomson and Berlin, who established new conditions.

Tait in their Treatise on Natural Philosophy have explained the discrepancy between Poisson s and KirchhofPs boundary conditions, and established a reconciliation between them.

Important contributions to the theory of elasticity were made by Cauchy. To him we owe the origin of the theory
of stress, and the transition from the consideration of the

upon a molecule exerted by its neighbours to the con upon a small plane at a point. He anticipated Green and Stokes in giving the equations of isoThe theory of elasticity tropic elasticity with two constants. was presented by Gabrio Piola of Italy according to the prin
sideration of the stress
ciples of

Lagrange s Mtcanique Analytique, but the superiority method over that of Poisson and Cauchy is far from evident. The influence of temperature on stress was first
of this

investigated experimentally by Wilhelm Weber of Gottingen, and afterwards mathematically by Duhamel, who,




theory of elasticity, examined the alterations of

As resilience and cohesion. Hodgkinson. He was called to Russia with Clapeyron and others to superintend the construction of Gabriel Lame 94 (1795-1870) was born On his return. As engineer he took an first railroads in Prance. viz. Poncelet advanced the theories of ment. Subsequently he held various engineering posts and professorships in Paris. 389 form which the formulae undergo when we allow for changes of temperature.&quot. and gradu ated at the Polytechnic School. at Tours. in 1832. applications. professor of physics at the Polytechnic School. a truer theory of flexure was soon pro pounded by Saint-Venant. Sur les coordonnees curvilignes et leurs diverses Sur la theorle analytique de la clialeur. les In four works : Legons sur fonctions inverses des transcendantes et Us sur faces isothermes. while the latter physicist in England and Yicat (1786-1861) in Prance experimented extensively on absolute Vicat boldly attacked the mathematical theories of strength. . flexure because they failed to consider shear and the time-ele a result. he was elected bridges and roads. and known by the name of Lame s func &quot. and memoirs he displays fine analytical powers but a certain want of physical touch sometimes reduces the value of In his contributions to elasticity and other physical subjects. A problem in elasticity called by Lame s name.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. he employed functions analogous to Laplace s functions. considering the temperature in the interior of an ellipsoid under certain conditions. Sur la . Other important experiments were made by of phenomena^ which disclosed a wider range and demanded a more comprehensive theory. tMorie math&matique de V elasticity des corps solides (1852) in various . Set was investigated by Gerstner (1756-1832) and Eaton different scientists. tions. Weber was also the first to experiment on elastic after-strain. active part in the construction of the Lame devoted his fine mathemati cal talents mainly to mathematical physics.

which has long divided elasticians into two opposing factions. threw new light upon the subject of &quot. ingenieur des ponts et made it his life-work to render the theory of chaussees. Clebsch. Jellett. engineers. He elasticity deserves much credit for his derivation and transformation of the general elastic equations. Neumann. he showed that the problems of flexure and torsion can be solved. The uni-constant isotropy of Navier and Poisson had been ques tioned by Cauchy. against the theorists led Saint-Venant to place the theory in its man. and was now severely criticised by Green and Stokes. and &quot. Rectangular and triangular mem resulting shifts branes were shown by him to be connected with questions in the theory of numbers. Wertheim. upon the side surfaces of which no forces act. and the determination of the is the only completely general problem on which can be said to be completely solved. Clausius. showed that this problem is . in his Lehrbuch der Elasticitat. Barre de Saint-Venant (1797-1886). In case of a rod.390 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. 1862. if the end-forces are distributed over the end-surfaces by a definite law. to investigate the conditions for equilibrium of a spherical elastic envelope subject to a given distribution of load on the bounding spherical surfaces. He corrected the theory of flexure by the considera tion of slide.multi-constancy.raii-constancy&quot. E.&quot. E. and the theory of tor sion by the discovery of the distortion of the primitively plane section. His results on torsion abound in beautiful graphic illustrations. and for his application of them to double refraction. Clerk Maxwell. The field of photo-elasticity was entered upon by Lame. E. Stokes. Numerous errors true place as a guide to the practical committed by his predecessors were removed. like Vicat. the theory of elastic rods of double curvature by the introduction of the third moment. The charge brought by practical elasticity of practical value.

In SaintVenant s translation into French of Clebsch s Elasticitat. Laplace had elasticity co-operates shown how the earth would behave if it resisted deformation only by gravity. has recently exam ined mathematically the permissible limits of the application of the ordinary theory of flexure of a beam. Among the numerous modern writers on elasticity may be mentioned Entile Mathieu (1835-1891). Darwin. them which was popular ised by Rankine. which is an important element gation If the earth is a solid. Sir William Thomson applied the laws of elasticity of solids to the investi of the earth s elasticity. but differ ence of opinion exists on other vital questions. and afterwards H.&quot. with gravity in opposing deformation due to the attraction of the sun and moon. computed that the resistance of the earth to . professor at Besaneon.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. extended the research to very thin rods and to very thin plates. multi-constancy. Karl Pearson. then its in the theory of ocean-tides. and compared them with the G-. superintendent of the Kew Ob servatory. and has not been generally adopted. Lam6 had investigated how a solid sphere would change if its elasticity only came into play. Saint-Yenant considered problems arising in the the case of Clebsch 68 scientific design of built-up artillery. schools of rari-constancy and &quot. &quot. Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) of Glasgow. this notation is cum brous. reversible to 391 side-forces without end-forces. Boussinesq of Paris. J. The mathematical theory of elasticity is still in an unsettled Not only are scientists still divided into two &quot. actual deformation. he 4 develops extensively a double-suffix notation for strain and stresses. condition. A. Maurice Levy of Paris. and his solution of differs considerably from Lame s solution. London. Sir William Thomson combined the two results. Charles Chree. and others.. Thomson. B. and much used by gun-designers. Basset. professor in University College. Though often advantageous.

Beer. By their Arago opposition Fresnel was spurred to greater exertion. and it was not until Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827) applied mathematical analysis to a much greater extent than Young had done. Poisson. and s opinion that a science of physics only exists since invention of differential equations finds corroboration even the in this brief and fragmentary outline of the progress of mathe Riemann The undulatory theory of light. it would be 441. from Fresnel s formulae the seemingly paradoxical deduction that a small circular disc. Clebsch. first ad vanced by Huygens. and the to bring forward the idea of transverse vibrations in light waves. both of first the first to explain the light and sound. then Laplace was at last won over. F. the observed on elasticity period being 430 days. Some of Fresnel s mathe matical assumptions were not satisfactory. attracted little notice. . Meyer. Neumann. days. Thomas Young 95 (1773-1829) was principle of interference. Among text-books of Lame. J.392 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. hence Laplace. that the undulatory theory began to carry conviction. not being verified by him by extensive numerical calcu lations. This conclusion has been confirmed recently by Simon NQWcomb. may be mentioned the works W. owes much to the power of mathematics by mathematical analysis its assumptions were worked out matical physics. Mathieu. from the study of the observed periodic changes in latitude. B. illuminated by a luminous point. Winkler. When polarisa tion and double refraction were explained by Young and Poisson drew Fresnel. though it tidal deformation is nearly as great as were of steel. Young s explana tions. and others belonging to the strictly mathematical school. was the first great convert made by Fresnel. at first disdained to consider the theory. edited by 0. but if as For an ideally rigid earth the period would be 360 rigid as steel. : to their last consequences. Ibbetson.

that Fresnel s formulae are correct. C. who from his formulae predicted conical refraction. while C. must this 398 cast a &quot. as taught by Green and others. a bright spot in the centre. Green. Sarrau. verified experi mentally by Lloyd.was shadow with. but the elasticity the same. and like an elastic solid in case of the infinitesimal disturbances in light propagation. that the ether might act like a fluid in case of finite disturbances. W. Presnel postulated the density of ether to be different in different media. and not On perpendicular to it. W. such an elastic solid would transmit a longitudinal disturbance with infinite velocity. McCullagh. Hamilton. Lorenz. While the above writers endeavoured to explain of a all optical that they arise supposition properties of the ether in entirely from difference in rigidity or density there is another school advancing theories in the medium. medium on the which the mutual action between the molecules of the body and the ether is considered the main cause of refraction and 100 The chief workers in this field are J. the luminiferous ether was an incompressible elastic solid. for son. however. But. according to Green. the reason that fluids could not propagate transverse vibra tions. Boussinesq. dispersion. direction of vibration lies the latter assumption the in the plane of polarisation. Stokes remarked. as in the theory of Eresnel. fact. found to be in accordance with But The theory was taken up by another great mathematician. Neumann. Elrchhoff. Sir William Thomson in his lectures delivered at the and . Saint-Venant. Ketteler.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Voigt. however. The theory was placed on a sounder dynamical basis by the writ ings of Cauchy. Stokes. E. These predictions do not prove. E. Lommel. Biot. Neumann elasticity and McCullagh assume the density uniform and the different in all substances. and Sir William Thom In the wave-theory. for these prophecies might have been made by other forms of the wave-theory. Sellmeyer. Helrnholtz.

HISTORY OE MATHEMATICS. A. The first complete method of measure ment was the system of absolute measurements of terrestrial magnetism introduced by Gauss and Wilhelm Weber (18041891) and afterwards extended by Wilhelm Weber and F. The commission recommended a unit in than Weber s by principle like W. nor in a plane perpen a magnetic dicular to it. but something occurs in both planes vibration in one. but greater a factor of 10 7 101 The discussions and labours . In 1861 the British Association and the Royal Society appointed a special commission with Sir William Thomson at the head. . to consider the unit of electrical resistance. Weber s. It will be mentioned again later. and his application of interference methods to astro nomical measurements. and an electric in the other. the direction of vibration does not lie exclusively in the plane of polarisation. Of recent mathematical and experimental contributions to optics. Rowland s theory of concave gratings. until in 1881 a general agreement was reached at an electrical congress in Paris. Fitzgerald and Trouton in Dublin verified this conclusion of Maxwell by experiments on electro-magnetic waves. A.394 A. Neither this nor the first-named school succeeded in explaining all the phenomena. and of A. and in magnetism the measurements of Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736-1806). became the foundations for a system of measurement. Michelson s work on interfer ence. He proposed the electro-magnetic theory. Johns Hopkins University in 1884. According to Maxwell s theory. Kohlrausch to electro-magnetism and electro-statics. In electricity the mathematical theory and the measure ments of Henry Cavendish (1731-1810). mention must be made of H. A third school was founded by Maxwell. which has received extensive develop ment recently. For electro-magnetism the same thing was done by Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836). an this subject continued for twenty years.

while Gauss. It contained It escaped the notice known as &quot. to the magne even of English mathematicians until 1846. Cambridge. xliv. who about 1840 secured it the general adoption of the function. He was born in 1824 at Belfast. Meanwhile re-disgeneral theorems had been Sturm. Chasles. when Sir William Thomson had it reprinted in what is now Crelle s Journal. He introduced it into the of electricity and magnetism. is Ireland. for the treatment of potential. but of Scotch descent. . called simply potential made by and magnetism have been Large contributions to electricity William Thomson. It &quot. and in 1845. He and his brother James studied in Glasgow. and xlv. da? dy 2 =0 dz* 4?rfc which was extended by Poisson by writing in place of zero in the right-hand member of the equation. vols. tional attractions in 1773. Green was a self-educated man and at his death was fellow of In 1828 he published by subscrip theory of electricity and tion at Nottingham a paper entitled Essay on the application of mathematical analysis tism. Laplace gave the celebrated differential equation. coverecl by Sir William Thomson. applies not only to a point external to whatever. Green potential the word force-function. used by Lagrange in the determination of gravita Soon after. . and Gauss.&quot. Prom was graduated as Second Wrangler there he entered Cambridge. William Thorn- .APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 395 A function was first theories of electricity of fundamental importance in the mathematical and magnetism is the potential. Hamilton used The term function is due to Green. who started out as a baker. The first to apply the potential but to any point function to other than gravitation problems was George Green mathematical theory (1793-1841). Green all of s theorem s &quot. Caius College. so that it the attracting mass.

viz. somewhat earlier than by Dirichlet. Maxwell. Thomson was elected professor of and physical achievements he was knighted. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. J. a problem previously considered insolvable. In 1845 F. dynamics. The entire subject of electro-magnetism was revolutionised . The distribution of static electricity on conductors had been studied before this mainly by Poisson and Plana. a position which he has held ever* since. induction in submarine cables. was worked out mathematically by Horace Lamb and also by Charles Niven. Clifford. At of twenty-two W. the theory of electric images and the method of electric inversion founded thereon. and also the strength of current in each branch of a network of linear conductors. This experimentally by Joseph Henry of William Thomson worked out the electro-static Washington. and in 1892 was made Lord Kelvin.896 son. of the course of induced currents in various cases. Thomson predicted by mathematical analysis that the dis charge of a Leyden jar through a linear conductor would in certain cases consist of a series of decaying oscillations. The subject of the screening first was established due to sheets of different metals.Dirichlet s principle&quot. In 1855 W. We owe to Sir William Thomson new synthetical methods of great elegance. W. By them he determined the distribution of electricity on a bowl. Helmholtz in 1851 gave the mathematical theory Gustav Robert Zirchlioff w (1824-1887) investigated the distribution of a current over a flat conductor. E. and J. Weber s chief researches were on electro effect against induction. His researches on the theory of potential are epoch-making. was discovered by him in 1848. For his brilliant mathematical men who were Second Wranglers at Cambridge. What is called &quot. Sylvester. Neumann of Konigsberg developed from the experimental laws of Lenz the mathematical theory of magneto-electric induction. Thomson are a group of great the age natural philosophy in the University of Glasgow.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Thomson. He constructed the electro-magnetic theory from general equations. J. to to determine in what direction experiments should be made . being Senior Wrangler. since verified experimen His first researches thereon were published tally by Hertz. and der Kraft. entered the University of Edinburgh. Heaviside. H. attention to this part of the subject in 1871. studied at the University of Berlin. He was born in 1821 at Potsdam. He was bom Edinburgh. at Heidelberg he produced his work on Tonempfindwng. It is a mathematical discussion of the stresses and strains in a dielectric forces. and came out Second Wrangler. L. Eowland. In 1865 he retired to private life until 1871. Hermann von Helmlioltz turned his Poynting. when he became professor of physics Maxwell not only translated into mathematical language the experimental results of Faraday. H. T. by James Clerk Maxwell 397 near (1831-1879). London. J. and others. in 1856 professor at Aberdeen. Helmholtz aimed inquiries in electricity and hydrodynamics. In 1871 appeared his great Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. In 1850 he went to Trinity College. at Bonn in 1855. at Cambridge. E. E. 0. in 1864. H. and in 1860 professor at King s College. which are established upon purely dynamical principles. berg in 1849. Helmholtz. published in 1847 his pamphlet Ueber die Erhaltung He Berlin. at Heidelberg that In 1871 he accepted the chair of physics at the University of From this time on he has been engaged chiefly on Berlin. medium subjected to electro-magnetic The electro-magnetic theory has received developments from Lord Eayleigh. and which determine the state of the electric field. Glazebrook. Eouth Maxwell then became lecturer at Cambridge. but established the electro-magnetic theory of light. J. A.Academy He was elected professor of physiology of Art in at Konigs- It was in 1858. Cambridge. and became a pupil of Kelland and Forbes. became teacher of anatomy in the &quot. Boltzmann.



decide between the theories of W. Weber, E. E. Neumann, Riemann, and Clausius, who had attempted to explain electro-

dynamic phenomena by the assumption of forces acting at a dis tance between two portions of the hypothetical electrical fluid, the intensity being dependent not only on the distance, but also
and the theory of Faraday on the velocity and acceleration, and Maxwell, which discarded action at a distance and assumed
stresses and strains in the dielectric. His experiments favoured the British theory. He wrote on abnormal dispersion, and created analogies between electro-dynamics and hydrody


Lord Eayleigh compared electro-magnetic problems with their mechanical analogues, gave a dynamical theory of diffraction, and applied Laplace s coefficients to the theory of radiation. Eowland made some emendations on Stokes paper
on diffraction and considered the propagation of an arbitrary electro-magnetic disturbance and spherical waves of light.
Electro-magnetic induction has been investigated mathemati cally by Oliver Heaviside, and he showed that in a cable it is

an actual

benefit. Heaviside and Poynting have reached remarkable mathematical results in their interpretation and

development of Maxwell s theory. Most of Heaviside s papers have been published since 1882 they cover a wide field.

One part

of the theory of capillary attraction, left defective

by Laplace, namely, the action of a solid upon a liquid, and the mutual action between two liquids, was made dynamically

by Gauss.


stated the rule for


of contact

between liquids and solids. A similar rule for liquids was established by Ernst Eranz Neumann. Chief among recent workers on the mathematical theory of capillarity are Lord
Hayleigh and E. Mathieu.

energy was by Robert Mayer (1814-1878), a physician in Heilbronn, and again independently by Colding of Copengreat principle of the conservation of


hagen, Joule, and Helmholtz.


James Prescott Joule (18181889) determined experimentally the mechanical equivalent of heat. Helmholtz in 1847 applied the conceptions of the

transformation and conservation of energy to the various branches of physics, and thereby linked together many well-

known phenomena.

These labours led to the abandonment

of the corpuscular theory of heat.

The mathematical treat ment of thermic problems was demanded by practical con siderations. Thermodynamics grew out of the attempt to determine mathematically how much work can be gotten out
of a steam engine.

an adherent of the corpuscular

theory, gave the



of his

impulse to this. The principle known name was published in 1824. Though the importance work was emphasised by B. P. E. Clapeyron, it did not

meet with general recognition until it was brought forward by William Thomson. The latter pointed out the necessity
of modifying Carnot s reasoning so as to bring it into accord with the new theory of heat. William Thomson showed in

1848 that Carnot

s principle led to the conception of an absolute scale of temperature. In 1849 he published "an account of Carnot s theory of the motive power of heat, with

numerical results deduced from B-egnault

s experiments."


February, 1850, Rudolph Clausius (1822-1888), then in Zurich, (afterwards professor in Bonn), communicated to the Berlin
a paper on the same subject which contains the Protean second law of thermodynamics. In the same month


William John M. Rankine (1820-1872), professor of engineer ing and mechanics at Glasgow, read before the Eoyal Society
of Edinburgh a paper in which he declares the nature of heat to consist in the rotational motion of molecules, and
arrives at


some of the results reached previously by Clausius. does not mention the second law of thermodynamics, but

in a subsequent paper he declares that

could be derived



from equations contained in Ms first paper. His proof of the second law is not free from objections. In March, 1851, appeared a paper of William Thomson which contained a

He obtained it perfectly rigorous proof of the second law. before he had seen the researches of Clausius.- The state
given by Clausius,, has been much by Eankine, Theodor Wand, P. G-. Tait, and Tolver Preston. Eepeated efforts to deduce it from mechanical principles have remained fruitless. The general
of this



was developed with great suc and Eankine. As early as 1852 by Thomson, Clausius, Thomson discovered the law of the dissipation of energy,
science of thermodynamics

deduced at a later period also by Clausius.


latter desig

nated the non-transformable energy by the name entropy, and then stated that the entropy of the universe tends toward a maximum.. ITor entropy Eankine used the term

thermodynamic function. Thermodynamic investigations have been carried on also by G. Ad. Him of Colmar, and Helmholtz (monocyclic and polycyclic systems). Valuable graphic methods for the study of thermodynamic relations were de
vised in 1873-1878 by J. Willard Gibbs of Yale

an account of the advantages of using various pairs of the five fundamental thermodynamic quanti ties for graphical representation, then discusses the entropyand entropy-volume diagrams, and the volumetemperature



energy-entropy surface (described in Maxwell s Theory of Gibbs formulated the Heat). energy-entropy criterion of equilibrium and stability, and expressed it in a form appli

Important works on thermodynamics have been prepared by Clausius in 1875, by E. Euhlmann in 1875, and by Poincare in 1892. In the study of the law of dissipation of energy and the principle of least action, mathematics and metaphysics met

cable to complicated problems of dissociation.







doctrine of least action was


pounded by Maupertius in 1744. Two years later he pro claimed it to be a universal law of nature, and the first
It was weakly proof of the existence of God. sup attacked by Konig of Leipzig, and ported by him, violently

keenly defended by Euler.

Lagrange s conception of the prin ciple of least action became the mother of analytic mechanics, but his statement of it was inaccurate, as has been remarked by Josef Bertrand in the third edition of the Mcanique Analytique.

The form of the principle of least action, as it now was given by Hamilton, and was extended to electro exists, dynamics by F. E. Neumann, Clausius, Maxwell, and Helrn-


To subordinate the

principle to all reversible processes,

Helmholtz introduced

into it the conception of the



form the principle has universal



offshoot of the mechanical theory of heat is the


kinetic theory of gases, developed mathematically by Clausius, The first Maxwell) Ludivig Boltzmann of Munich, and others.

suggestions of a kinetic theory of matter go back as far as the time of the Greeks. The earliest work to be mentioned here is
that of Daniel Bernoulli, 1738.

He attributed to gas-molecules the pressure of a gas by molecular great velocity, explained bombardment, and deduced Boyle s law as a consequence of Over a century later his ideas were taken his assumptions. and Clausius up by Joule (in 1846), A. K. Kronig (in 1856),
(in 1857).

Joule dropped his speculations on this subject

when he began

Kronig experimental work the kinetic theory the fact determined experi explained by of a gas is not mentally by Joule that the internal energy when no external work is done. Clausius altered by expansion took an important step in supposing that molecules may have in a molecule may move rela rotary motion, and that atoms He assumed that the force acting to each other.

on heat.



between molecules

a function of their distances, that tem

perature depends solely upon the kinetic energy of molecular motions, and that the number of molecules which at any


ence each other

are so near to each other that they perceptibly influ is comparatively so small that it may be

and by Buy s-Ballot and by Jochniann, were satisfactorily answered by Clausius and Maxwell, except in one case where an addi tional hypothesis had to be made. Maxwell proposed to him self the problem to determine the average number of molecules,
the velocities of which

calculated the average velocities of molecules, explained evaporation. Objections to his theory, raised


between given limits. His expres sion therefor constitutes the important law of distribution of



after him.



law the distribution of

molecules according to their velocities is determined by the same formula (given in the theory of probability) as the dis
tribution of empirical observations according to the magnitude of their errors. The average molecular velocity as deduced

by Maxwell differs from that of Clausius by a constant factor. Maxwell s first deduction of this average from his law of dis
0. E.

was not



in 1866.



is true,

A sound derivation was given by Maxwell predicted that so long as the coefficient of viscosity and the coeffi

cient of thermal conductivity remain independent of the press ure. His deduction that the coefficient of viscosity should

be proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature appeared to be at variance with results obtained from pendu


experiments. This induced him to alter the very foun dation of his kinetic theory of gases by assuming between the molecules a repelling force varying inversely as the fifth

power of their distances. The founders of the kinetic theory had assumed the molecules of a gas to be hard elastic spheres;
but Maxwell, in his second presentation of the theory in 1866,



went on the assumption that the molecules behave like cen He demonstrated anew the law of distribution tres of forces. of velocities but the proof had a flaw in argument, pointed out by Boltzmann, and recognised by Maxwell, who adopted a somewhat different form of the distributive function in a

paper of 1879, intended to explain mathematically the effects observed in Crookes radiometer. Boltzmann gave a rigorous
general proof of Maxwell s law of the distribution of velocities. None of the fundamental assumptions in the kinetic theory
of gases leads by the laws of probability to results in very Boltzmann tried to estab close agreement with observation.
lish kinetic theories of gases

by assuming the

forces between

molecules to act according to different laws from those pre viously assumed. Clausius, Maxwell, and their predecessors

took the mutual action of molecules in collision as repulsive, Ex but Boltzmann assumed that they may be attractive.

periment of Joule and Lord Kelvin seem to support the latter
is Lord theorem of Maxwell and Boltzmann, asserting that the average kinetic energy of two given portions of a system must be in the ratio of the number of degrees of freedom of those portions.

assumption. Among the latest researches on the kinetic theory
s disproof of a- general



Abacists, 126.


8, 13, 63, 79, 82, 119, 122, 126,

Abbatt, 334. Abel, 347, 348;

ref. to, 146, 279, 291,

312, 328, 336, 337, 350, 353, 371.

Abelian functions, 292, 312, 328, 346,
348, 349, 352, 355-357, 359.

Algebra: Beginnings in Egypt, 15; early Greek, 73; Diophantus, 74-77 p Hindoo, 93-96 Arabic, 107, 111, 115 ; Middle Ages, 133, 135 Eenaissance, 140, 142-150, 152; seventeenth cen tury, 166, 187, 192; Lagrange, 267; Peacock, 284; recent, 315-331; ori gin of terms, 107, 115. See Nota



Abelian integrals, 350, 379. s theorem, 352. Absolute geometry, 301. Absolutely convergent series, 335,


Algebraic functions, 346;



Abul Gud, 111 ref. to, 113. Abul Hasan, 115. Abul Wefa, 110 ref. to, 112, 113. Achilles and tortoise, paradox of,

Algorithm, origin of term, 106 dle Ages, 126, 129. Al Haitam, 115 ref. to, 112. Al Hayyami, 112 ref. to, 113.
; ;


Acoustics, 262, 270, 278, Action, least, 253, 366,
292, 318, 379.

Al Hazin, 112. 27. Al Hogendi, 111. Al Karhi, 111, 113. 386. 401; varying, Al Kaschi, 114. Al Kuhi, 111; ref.
Allegret, 377. Allman, IX., 36.

to, 112.

Adams, 375


ref. to, 214.
elliptic integrals,

Addition theorem of
252, 350, 396. Adrain, 276.

Al Madshriti,

ref. to, 105, 109, 127,

Almagest, 56-58;
134, 136, 140. Al Mahani, 112.

j3Equipollences, 322. Agnesi, 260.


ref. to, 17, 18, 53, 74.

Ahmes, 10-15


Airy, 375 ; ref. to, 383. Al Battani, 109; ref. to, 110, 125. Albertus Magnus, 134. Albiruni, 111; ref. to, 102, 104. Alcuin, 119.

Alphonso s tables, 127. Al Sagani, 111. Alternate numbers, 322. Ampere, 394; ref. to, 361. Amyclas, 33.
Analysis (in synthetic geometry), 30, 39; Descartes , 186; modern, 331334.

Alembert, D Alexandrian School


See D Alembert.




ond), 54-62. Alfonso s tables, 127.

Analysis situs, 226, 315. Analytic geometry, 185-189, 191, 193,
240, 287, 307-315.


315. 38. to. W. to. Axioms (of geometry). 173. 86. 115. 365. 382. Nicolaus (born 1695). ref. 108. Bede. 23. 27. Ben Junus. 113. X. 118. 123. 373-403. Egyptian. 124-128. 75. 9. 198. Hin doo. 56 . 87. 126. Archytas. Notation. 18 ref Anaximander. 50. 212-216. Bamngart. Arithmetic: Pythagoreans. to. Bauer. X. 251. 127. Anaxagoras. Ball. 332. Arithmetical machine. ref. 315. .. 86 . . Ballistic curve. 159. 78. 238. Baltzer. ref. 144. 18. Arneth. Bernelinus. Archimedes. ref. 271-274. 45-50 . Aschieri. Astronomy: Babylonian. ratio. 88. 46. 91. 49. 322. 29 . 306. 29. 221. to. 380. 154. Bacon. to. Berkeley. El Apollonian Problem. 220. 100-117. Arithmetical triangle. 320. 105. 122. Renaissance. 300. Arago. Arabic manuscripts. 182. 296. 31. ref. 153. Appel. 327. 61. Antiphon. . 281. to. 340. 51. W. 321. 302. 10. 106. 125 Athensens. to. 130. 284. 125. ref. Eegula falsa. Barbier. 43. to. 392. Arabic. 239. 112. 102. 135. August. B. Babylonians. 66. R. Aristotle.. to. 46. 73. to. ref. 32. Daniel. more recent researches. ref. Beer. 392. 373-3TT. 178. 32. 294. Assumption. See Meziriac. Astronomy. Arbogaste. XI. De. Bachet de Meziriac. Th. 253.406 Analytical 283. 39. 317. 30. 140. Mechanics. 262. the Venerable. 366. 378. 305. 382. 3. 47. 133. Aronhold. 65. 151. 37. 5-9. Anharmonie Athelard of Bath. 304. 70 Greek. conservation of. 28. 122. 34. Middle Ages. 114. Areas. 386. Atomic theory. 126. 217. INDEX. Bellavitis.. Anthology. 202. 314. 50. Barrow. 255.. ref. 127-129. 236. See De Beanne. 257. chanics. 54. 306. 19. 2. 61. Beaumont. 32. Ball. XII. 54. Hindoo. R. 18. ref. Society (in . 238. Sir B. 120. 35. Newton. 371. to. 325. 279. 17. 67-70 . Cambridge). 227. 37. XI. See Babbage. 101. 369. See Me Anger. 203. 283. 378. to. 38. 196. Applied mathematics. 150. Arabic. 297. 63-77. 115. 20. See Gravitation. 103. 158161. Apices of Boethius. Apollonius. 61. Aristsens. 317. 129.. Beltrami. 39. 98. 173. 346. to. 134. 40. 65. 253. See Numbers. 313. to. 43.. 8. 27. Astrology. 119. . 51. Arabs. 375. 341. Greek. Argand. Arabic numerals and notation. 45. 78. to. 300. Ausdehnungslehre. 119. 105. 134. XI. 18. 304. Platonists. Armemante. Euclid. 105. ref . Battaglini.. to. 40-45 . Anaximenes. 37. 188. 35. S. 401. 115. to. 73. 185. 306. Aryabhatta. 24. 73. 92. 154. 34.305. 269. 82. Beha Bddin. ref. 264. to. Attains. Palatine. Bernoulli. 356. Middle Ages. ref. Angeli. Beaune. 260. Arenarins. Attraction. 68. Nicolaus (born 1687). . Bayes. tentative. See Bernoulli. 90-92. Baker. 277. 262. lipsoid. 63. ref. 140. ref. 26 ref. 100. Bachmann. Basset. 90. 108. ref. Bernoulli. 155.

89. 81 . Brahe. James (born 1654) . 346. 232. Beyer. 364. Bessy. to. Bertrand. 236. 340. 337-339. . ref. 330. 291. 1744). Caesar. K. 305. Boole. John (born John (born Bowditch. Brioschi. ref. 340. 250. 275. Beta function. 234. to. 296. 220. Bode. Calculating machines. 260 ref. Canon paschalis. Biirgi. Biquadratic residues. Johann. 282. 81. 353. 146. 135 . 307. 271. . Tycho. Betti. 309. 160. 239. See Biirgi. genealogical table of. 291. Bolyai. Calculation. 377. 374. 239. 234. 237. 275. 63. 311. 265. 373-375. ref... to. 72. Bernoulli. Buchheim. 226. 379. 288. 139. ref.238. 141. 9.. 380. 327 . 379. Brianchion. Bretschneider. 383. Bradwardine. Brill. H. See Differential Calculus. 351. 356. Bolyai. 112. 239. Bezout 331. 195. Brouncker. 288. Burkhardt. 97. 152. 308. 311. Budan. 356. ref. 324. Bjerknes. Billingsley.. 337. 154. ref. 355. 325. Brachistochrone (line of swiftest de scent). Burkhardt. 160. Buckley. Bruno. 146. 27. . A. to. 181. 182. 340. Biquadratic equation. 291. Brans. to. Bertini. 260. Bernoullis. James (born John (born 1758). XIII. 401. 110. 302. 328. to. 102. Calculus of operations. 402. origin of word. 300. du. Briot. ref. to. 387. 337. Bonnet. Callisthenes. 344. Boltzmann. 334. to. 251. 297. 341. Bring. 391. Brahmagupta. 393. 229. Boethius. 81. 1710). 202. Bessel s functions. 377. ref.. 261. Bezout. 238. 226. 238 ref to. Bouniakowsky.. 366. 378 ref. 79. Buffon. Bessel. 87. to. 320. 301. 342. L. Bryson of Heraclea. Faa de. 155. 357. 306. P. Binet. 141. 341. 152. s method of elimination. 103. Byrgius. Bhaskara. Bernoulli. Bouquet. 328. Bois-Reymond. 327. Boussinesq. Boyle s law. 328. 196. 121.INDEX. Bolza. Julius. 383. 393. 350. Busche. Buy s-Ballot. Calendar. 154. XII. Borchardt. ref. 401. 377. 138. 251. 165. 79. 118. 197. Booth. 350. 284. XIV. Burmester. 251 Biot. to. 354. 323. 247. 348. 40T 365. Binomial formula. Buteo. Bredon. 86. Bombelli. A. 333-334. 237. 303. 353. J.. to. Brill. Bocher. Biquaternions. 343. ref. 328. ref. 346. Bernoulli. ref. 356 1667). 163. 275. 264. 344. C. 149. ref. 354. 362. to. 314. ref. 0. 397.. to. 346. 403. 249. Bianchi. to. 95. to. 341. 249. Bungus. 97. 92-95. 159. to. 302. 168. 135. 178. Bernoulli s theorem. Bobillier.. ref. 229. to. 237. 378. 250 Bernoulli. 387. 92. Bour. 243. 356. of varia tions. 366. 365. Buddha. IX. 289. 342. Briggs. Calculus. XIIL. 135. Wolfgang. 292. 134. 9. 98. Bernoulli. 325.

396. Commercium epistolicum. lapeyron. 309. 358. 1 Co-ordinates. 382. 167. 153. Geometry. Cassiodorius. 294. 192. 91. to. 326. 221. 335. Concentric spheres of Eudoxus. Centre of gravity. 356. X. 402. 24-28. 203. Centres of osculation. /Circle-sguareri Cissoid. 232. 256-258. 271 &amp. Chasles. 106. 226. 169. 319. 192. 390-392. 236. 383. 227. . Chinese. 270. 42. 119. 314. Chree. 152. See Im- Cavalieri. 50. 398. Conon. E. to. 313. Cataldi. 399. 257. 345. 238. to. . INDEX. to. 338. 355. Conic sections.* 334. 349. Sadi. ref.408 Cantor. 341. Characteristics. 243. 388. 328. 39. 52. 324. IX. 400- Cardan. 83. 341. theory of. X. 387. division of. olson. method of. 154. 176-178. 378. 55. Congruency of lines. Condensation of singularities. Commandinus. 112. 368. . 333. 252. more re-. t ^ Chapman. 191. 101. ref. 252. 306. 19. Caustics. 372. 322. 193. 264. 168. 383. 31. Catenary. Carnot. to. 118. 154. 311. 244. 313. 183.Jomte. 331-333. to. 234. 306. 339. 333. 32. to.50. 170.. 350. 398. 339. 325. 341. ref. Carnot. 397. 223. 49. 289. 379. 191 . 315. 232. Renais 45-49. 237. 330.. 92. 47 377 49. 315. 297. . 73. Lazare. &quot. 7. Centrifugal force.~ Contracted vein. 297. Cassini. 155 Carll. 346. 159. 324. 156. 354. sance. 56. 393. Kepler. 247. XII. 327. 143. XII. 330. Contravariants. 19. 253 of energy.. folding.. to. 328. Colebrooke. Complex of lines. ref. 177. 361. 311. Chladni s figures. )lebsch. ChristotM. 308. 41. to. van. . 296. 334-339. D. 313. G. 325. 293. of. 87. 319. 330. 372. 377. ref.jtf. Jlausius.40. 312. 329 &quot. Cavendish. 149. Cayley. 335.. 230. 305. Colla. of vis viva. 390. to. 365. 294. Cauchy. X. 308. to. 366. Convergence of series. Capelli. 326. 262. ref. 288. Casey. Cheyne. Ceva. 291. 391. 159 144. ref. 313 . 313. 206. 399. of oscilla tion. lairaut. 255. Catalan. Ceulen. 296. 204.. See Ludolph. 386. 118. 153. Casting out the 9 s. Cole. Conchoid. 228.. 289. 293. 394. Colburn. 325. 324. 322. 247. 145. 206. 384. Continued fractions. ref. 292. 241. 159. 317.. 278. See Chess.larke. ref. Chauvenet. Continuity. Greek. 185. 192. 193. Z. Combinatorial School. Jollins. 398 . 348. Cattle-problem. 362. 358. Computus. 214. Cockle. 296-298. 4. 324. Caporali. aginaries. 297. 327. to. Cantor. 290. 390. 52. 155. Arabs. 243. Congruencies. 362. 309. cent researches. 306. Conform representation of surfaces. ref. 194 Circle. ref. 191. Ulavius. first use of term. W. 362. J^J4. 342. degrees . 388. ref. Jomplex quantities. 112. M. XIV. Jlifford. 399. 398. 226. 359. 342. 172. 330.. 353.. 197. 309.. 180. 2. Conservation of areas. 381.

ref. 226 quadrature of. See Duplication--^ . ! 409 Darbous:. 356. 229. 325. 240. 317 . of. 334-339. D Alembert. 321. 174. 290. 193. 260. I Darwin. 142-145. 394. 330. 223. 327. 348. 49. 347. to. 189. Decimal point. 351. 346. 191. Curvature.INDEX. 306. De Morgan. Copernican System. 174. 103. .221-227. Descriptive geometry. Cox. 258. 39. 362. 243. 285. 294-296. 112. 240. Differential calculus. 138. 265. 371 ref. to. of.. ref. 240. Cube. Deficiency of curves. D Alembert s principle. 200. Culmann. 252. . 333. M. 184. 72. 28 De Moivre. 313. Ctesibius. 314. Davis. duplication of the cube. controversy Cyzicenus. 291. to. Covariants. De Lahire. ref. 161. 366. 292. 254. Criteria of convergence. 176. 167. See Algebra. 295. 259. 185. 297. 300. 341. 285. Cusanus. 362. 357. to. 189. 240. See Duplication 70. 16. La(see Bernoullis. to. 227alleged invention by Pascal. 174. 60. 240. Crelle s Journal. osculating. the cube. 239. 152. 97. Crozet. 277. XL. ref . Correspondence. . 386. Cremona. 366. 173. 268-270. 369. to. 4. 278. finite. 334. Craig. De Baune. 257. theory See of. 234.. 291. 233. Devanagari-numerals. 225. Cotes. 391. 173. Cubic residues. 361. 340. Dedekind. Del Pezzo. 177. 165. 382. 384. philosophy of . 152. 42. See Finite dif Differences. 202. 216. 300. 141. 289. etry. 327. 104. 265. 340. Democritus. 96. 349. Davis. 333. 187. ref. X. Cyclic method. ref. 339. 225. See Dinostratus. 268. 313. Delian problem. 236242 Euler. Delaunay. to. 343. 278. 109. XIII. 48. 306. Data (Euclid s). 191. 52. Cridhara. 314. 318. 340. 159-161. 154. j . 177. 316 . Crofton. Curve of swiftest descent. rule of signs. . 111. 242 ref to. Czuber. Descartes. Definite integrals. 354. De Paolis. 300. Desargues. 33. 96. 149. 113. 226. Derivatives. 190. Desboves. 223. 341. 256. Geom Cycloid. 61 . 1. to. method of. 355. 183-189. Differential equations. principle Cosine. Dee. 293. .. 305. 171. 217. 243. 161. W. 220. to.. 165. ref. 299. 306. to. Rectification. measure 113. 313. 242. 254. 286-288. Crelle. term for algebra. 269.-236. 190. Cournot. 321. Laplace. Copernicus. Decimal fractions. Cube numbers. ref. Dialytic method of elimination. 180. Differential invariants. etc. 290. curves. Craige. 341-347. 376. 139. 265. 220. Cubic curves. Delambre. 56.W. ref. 153. 297. Cousinery. Determinants. 306. Curtze. 288. 312. 337. 334. 226. Cotangent. Cubic Cubic equations. grange. to. 226. E. 299. 205. 362. M. 193. ref. Conic sections. 333. 217. ferences. 324. 192. 38. 139. 187. Cramer. 299. 2. 372. 334. 262. 87. Coss. . 333. 285. 363. Curves. of. 299. 376 ref. to. 385.) 233. Deinostratus. between Newton and Leibniz. Coulomb. 238. &quot.. 379. 234. 254-256 Darnascius.

to. 127. 17. 250. See Least squares. ~ -~-&quot. Algebra. to. 357.. Equations. 298. Elliptic integrals. to. Equations. 363. Euclid. Eratosthenes. 50. 308. 362. 35-40. 40. 17. . 58. 247. 367. Euclidean space. 45.410 Dingeldey. 126. Duillier. Duality. 285. 383. 250. Diirer. Dronke. Electro-magnetic theory of light. 240. 379. Dusing. 74^77 17. 30. 138. Earth. 383. XIII. 340. Theory of numbers. 300. Epicycles. 71. 40. 333. 340. 308. 166. Ether. 23-25. 367-369. Entropy. 331. 61. 25. 25. 393. ref. 186. 21. 394. 193. 217. D Ovidio. 111. Duplication of tne cube. . 354. 396. 149. 51. XI. 114. 53. 135. 345.72. Earnshaw. 26. Elements (Euclid s). 377. conservation Enestrom. 86. 106. 58. 384. 216. Eddy.. 264. 21. 7. 107. See Cubic equations. XHL. 338. 15. Eudoxus. Donkin. 9-16. 144. 32. 31. 315. 333.~45. 133.50. llasticity. Eudemus. Errors. 370. 32. 310. Electricity. Elliptic functions. 22. 114. 61. 42. 347-354. to. 50. 300. See . Diocles. 32. XIII. Duodecimals. 315. 136. 379. 75. 346. 277. 280. 329. 30. rigidity of 391. 325. See Groups.. 379. 353 . 292. 365. 40. 337. Dziobek. 60. 291. 12.. ref. 33. Dionysodorus. 35. figure of. Sly. luminiferous. X. 34. 289 ref. 309. 46. 371. 36. Energy. 250. 366. 306. 81. 28. Divergent parabolas. 282. Ellipsoid (attraction of). See 125. Dostor. 162. ilastic curve. Eudemian Summary. Directrix. 318. Dupin. 215. 255. 108. 35. to. 365 370. 127. 366. Elliptic co-ordinates.. Euclid. 51. 290. Durege. 73. ref. ref. . Dini. Divergent series. of. 44. IX. to. 252. 138. 95. See Non-Euclidean geometry. . 328-331. 78. 257. 349. * of. See Non-Euclidean 17. 394-398. 356. 16. 271. 328. Enumerative geometry. 241. solution of. 110. Eisenstein. 260. 156. 400. 278. 288. 387-392. 71. size of 214. 32. 104. 357. 53. 263. ref. 125. Egyptians. Dirichlet. 147. 124. / &quot. Diihring. XII. 179. Epping. to.. 315. 400. 189. 348. 69. ref. 348. 362. 35. Eisenlohr. 9. 188. 136. Division of the circle. Dositheus. Dinostratus. theory of. 10. . 303. Diwani-numerals. numerical. 359. Dissipation of energy. 49. . 19. ref. Dynamics. 350. 96. 215. 105. Dyck. motion of. 31. A. 102. 371. 33. 22. 388. Inneper. 128. Elimination. to. 378-381. 334. Edfu. 31. 297. 330. Dubamel. 279. INDEX. 153. 372. Dove. 104. 54. 378. Diogenes Laertius. Diophantus. 230. 57. 93. 372. 33. Elizabeth. 398. 354. 281. geometry. 55. 277. 296. to. 97. Espy. ref. 280. Elliptic geometry. Diodorus. ref. 337. theory . 237. 257. to. Princess. 314. 384. 46. 36-39. Edgeworth. 397. ref. 369. to. 32. 179. 32. 70.153. 297. E. 329. 339. 241. Encke.

^ Bessel s function. 335.. 247. 291. Greek. Figure of the earth. Ferro. 345.ISTDEX. 299. 278. . 145 Ferrel. 46. See Arithmetic. 160. Gabir ben Aflah. 248-254. 227-233. Egyptian. 315. 389. 343. 170. to. Elliptic functions. Garbieri. Frost. 241. to. XIII. to. 324. Geber. 374. 241. 191. duodecimal. ref. 367. 124. 384. function. 279. of. 67. 254. 172. Omega function. 255. 328. 384. 159. 386. ISO. Four-point problem. Force-function. 252. 343. Gamma function. 7. Eoman. 341. Abelian functions. to. Franklin. 333. Fuchsian groups. ref. 179-182. Eulerian integrals. 356. Genocchi. 376. 169. 278. Fourier s theorem. 50. Fontaine. Friction. ref. 180. 139. 401. 269. Fluents. 351. theory of. to. 364. Fahri des Al Karhi. Favaro. 314. Factor-tables. XII. Galileo. 120. Beta functions. 334. Frezier. 161. 218. 312. 144. 13. 202. 134. 294. 339. 179. 261. 313. to. Euler. 77. 182. 327. 397. ref. 92. function. 324. 46. 283. Fine. 314. 381. Babylonian. 273. ref. method of. 411 283. 325. Fricke. Faraday. 325. 373. 330. Froude. 45. 345. 174. 159. 259. Fluxional controversy. Flachenabbildung. 314. ref. 366. 197. 329. 173. 264. Fluxions. Geminus. theory 356-362. 42. 77. 315. 333. 270. 242. 280. ref. 280. 302. 354. 357. Fresnel. 362. 313. Fibonacci. 327. 292. 365. decimal. 26. 43. Flamsteed. 63. XII. 60. Geber s theorem. s theorem. 202-213. 252. Finseus. Potential. Ferrari. 360. ref. 386. 65. Hindoo. to. 282. Frantz. 304. . Gellibrand. 398. Fermat 177. Fourier. Exhaustion. 264. 118. 281-284. 401-403. Floridas. 287. 264. See Potential. Finite differences. 300. Fitzgerald. 258. 265. 344. 344. 251. Funicular polygons. 241. 368. Eutocius. 246. 268. Galois. 345.96. 367. 250. Focus. 206. 158. 398. 124. 262. 387. sexagesimal. 36. 142. continued. 127. Fiedler. 351. 372. 160. Falsa positio. Gauss Analogies. to. 265. 267. 142. to. 126. 152. 171. 344. 65. 169. 343. 350. . Gases. 173. Fink. 363-367. 394. Faye. 395. 252. Fermat. 159. 248. 200. Gamma Flexure. 111. 264. 49. 362. definition of. 377. Frobenius. 49. Fourier s series. 168. Evolutes. Hyperelliptic Theta functions. 365. 64. Kinetic theory Gauss. Fuchs. 61 ref. 303. 57. 188. 257. 147. 249. 54. theory of. 356. See Gabir ben Aflah. 94. Forbes. 317. 240. See Finger-reckoning. 345. 33. 367. 28. Fuchsian functions. ref. 115. 187. XII. 205. 165. 78. to. 270. 162. 262. Sigma function. 276. Middle Ages. 320. Forsyth. to. 268. 338. 116. 239. 26. Functions. 317. 382. . 198*252. 286. Scipio. 170. 367. 144. Fagnano. arbitrary. 392. 126. 65. 7. Exponents. of. 57. XII. 209. 53 ref. See Leonardo of Pisa. Fresnel s wave-surface. 251. 348. Fractions. 345.

33. Renaissance. theory Heath. 390. 290. Gibbs. ? 28. Haas. 16-77. 10-13. 297. 127. 304. Grammateus. 249. 161. Hadamard. Hagen. 292. 59. 213. 171. XL. 297 ref to. 314. Greenhill. 327. 31(5. 354.. Gerhardt. 366. 393. Glazebrook. XIV. 218. to. 311. 165. 261. 379. . 184. and 22) and by O. 327. David F. 93. Sophie. 322. 187. 329. 97. ref. 1G7. 395. 284. Gow. Gutzlaff. 243. theory Papers by W. to. 121. 127. 383. 218. Gunter. ref. 393. 354. 362. Graham. 366. XII. Guldm. Gordan. of. Hann. 178.. Arabic.. Golden section. to. Gravitation. See Curves. ref. Gregory. 120-124. 103. IX. 130. 385. 397. XII. Glaisher. 8.. Quadrature. Hamilton.. 372. Holder (Math. de scriptive. Halsted. 382. Guldinus. Hebrews. 131. Guderniann. 325. 186-189. 104. 353. to. 325. 69. ref... 388. X. to. 328. 108. 315. 98. Harkness. Hathaway. 214. Gregory. 341.291. 320-321 317. 192. Greeks. 288. de.. Rectification. 104. 17-62.. 397. 374. 82. 300. 147. thetic. XII. modern syn Gua. Halley. . Green. 55. Hanus. 343 ref. 154. 285-290. 34) should have been men tioned on p. ref. ref. 34^-346. 228. 151. 152. 330. Hamilton s numbers.. X. Hegel. 398. ref. 45. IX. XI. Goursat. 362. 318. 127. Harriot. 96. 240. 318. J. 193. of. ref. 215.. 82. Circle. 375. 286-288. Germain. Gobar numerals. ref. 339. 316. Surfaces. Ann. Heat. R. Greek. 386. 166.412 Geodesies. 126. 366. 103. 276. Geometry. 125. 240. to. 134.. Giovanni Campano. German Magnetic Union. theory 275. Hankel. Grassmann. to. Curvature. Gregorian Calendar. 35. James. Halley s Comet. 368. 307-315.. INDEX. XI. 399-401. 294. Gournerie. 258. 330. Hindoo. Harmonics. Hamilton. ref. Groups. Girard. to. to. 128. 328. 158. analytic.. 114. 136. fieaviside. Ann. 377. X. 358. 153. Geodesy. 162. Godfrey. 271. 373. 266. Babylonian. 233. 353. 387 ref. to. Halphen. Harrington. 154. 167. Gerling. Hardy. 174. 19. Grunert. Gerstner. Hachette. 321. XIII. . Gerbert. to. 325. 230. 312. Middle Ages. 400. 334. . . 320. 314 . ref. 325.. Hammond. 80. 213. Halifax. 80. 110. E. 319. 311. 327. Hadley. Gromatici. 317. 292. 368. 355. 319. Hansen. Haan. 379. 299. 20 Roman. to. 113. See Guldin. Egyptian. Grandi. 300. ref. Graphical statics. Gerard of Cremona. 285. to. W. 300. 306: of. 166. IX.. 227. 258. 374. 344. ref. . 324. 350. Giinther. 378. 191. Gopel. 345. 303. W. to. Gergonne. to. 315. 401. Saroun-al-Raschid. Gubar-numerals. 293-307. S. 251. 395. 389. 138. 287. 378. 319. Dyck (Math. 328-330.

ref. 347. 30. 250. 51. Homer. Insurance. Huygens. 305. 349. 33. 3. See Mechanics. ref. to. Indian mathematics. 188. 361. 293. Him. 106. 147. Indeterminate coefficients. 51 . See Groups. 65. Ignoration of co-ordinates. 28. Hesse. 101. Hovarezmi. 269. 104. See Mechanics. 7. 400. 169. 104.INDEX. Holder. 328. 329.. 51: ref. to. 349. Hippias of Elis.. to. 335. 269. Imaginary quantities. Houel. 189. 107. 334r-339. Ibbetson. 255. Homological figures. XIII. Hyde. 350. 301. See 25. 381. 296. Hyperspace. 353. 50. Irrationals. Hoppe. Hermite. Hippocrates of CMos. Indeterminate analysis. Hydrodynamics. 169. 54. 380. 63. 70. 360. 207. 111. 348. W. 203. 241. Heuraet. 396. Images. Holmboe. Hindoos. 333. 190-192. Hicks. 347. Induction. Ideler. Helicon. 350. 239. 223. 304. ref. Hill. X. 135. 283. Hospital. 354. 384. 295. Infinity. 208. 37. 146. 182. its History of mathematics. 240. 371 origin of term. Incommensurables. 330. 186. 213. to. Integral calculus. Indices. 309-311. 372. 178. 355. 308. 377. Helmholtz. 319. 304. 363. to. 80. 95. See Theory of numbers. 237. 140. 239. 413 Helen of geometers. ref. 45. Hydrostatics. 362. Hooke. 354. 363. 372. Hilbert. 362. 350. 187. 371. 386. 381-384. 398. ref. 32. Hermotimus. 386. 193. Hippopede. Hyperbolic geometry. 292. 177. 400. 340. 56. 203. Imaginary geometry. Hyperelliptie functions. 32. 171. 178. Imschenetzky. 178. 72. 190. 361. ref. 348. 284. 44. lines. J. ref. 308 . lamblichus. 327. 321. 247. 0. 356. 193. 363. 69. 213. 309. 368. 170-173. 255. 283. 110. 276. 349. 111. See Arabic numer als. 259. Infinitesimal calculus. HodgMnson. to. 330. 98. 234. ref. theory of. value. 131. Heliotrope. Heine. 310. 397. See Non-Eucli Henry.. 105. Infinitesimals. 1-4. 306. 219. 396. See Exponents. Herodianic signs. Hyperelliptie integrals. 176. 304. 389. 38. 342. 382. 135. symbol for. 10. 401. Indian numerals. Henrici. 352. XIII. to. 208. Imaginary points. 327. Hurwitz. Hussey. 197. to. tial calculus. etc. 377. 95. Hypsicles. 25. 127. ref. See Hindoos. 372. lehuda ben Mose Cohen. Hypergeonaetric series. 295. 336. Indeterminate equations. 382. See Differen Hudde. to. 214. Infinite products. to. Hypatia. 328. 22. 36. Hessian. . . 211. 376. F. dean geometry. 293. ref. 54. 125. 305. 52 . 392. 239. 257. 166. Homogeneity. Heron the Elder. 380. 255. 312. . 38. Infinite series. . 84-100 ref. 298. 27. ref. 22. 339. to. 330. to. 114. 61 ref. Ideal numbers. to. 325.. 71. 393. Hipparclras. 220. 340. 358. Honein ben Ishak. See Theory of numbers. Hippasus. Herschel. Hexagrammum mysticum. 342. 193. 348. 343. to. 101. 287. P. Indivisibles. Heraclid. 385. 392.

XII. 118. 161. Ivory theorem. 284.283. 394. 390. 278. 396. 378. 240. Jerrard. ref. Kelland. 234. 276. 395. Lahire. ref. 4. Jellet. 386. to. 315 394 358. 362. 69. 392. 325. Kelvin. Ionic School. Kopcke. 306. ref.. 344. 277. 235. Killing. 382. Lame s functions. 373. 232. 279. 388. 343. 156. Invariant. to. ref. Laplace s coefficients. 396. 169. Inverse tangents (problem of). 274. 401. 183. 365. See Incommensurables. 215. to. 393. 347. 247. 354. Krazer. 399. 219. 388. Landen. 352. 359. 306. 320. 285. to. 383. ref. 362. Jordanus Nemorarius. 398. La Louere. ref. 10. 340. Isidores of Seville. 324. 194. 347. 382. Irregular integrals. 392. ref. 360. 307. 345. 345. 313. 320. 345. Lagrange. ref. 303. 279. 279. to. 309. 285. Lame. Latus rectum. 363. 363. 139. to . 401. ref. Kaffl. 381. XIII. 217. 397. to. Lamb. to. 291. N. Kant. 374.. ref. 305. 237. 367. 362. 293. 353. 363. to. 270-278.. 383. 304. Ketteler. to. See Thomson. 334. 392. 319. 370. 263. 126. Laertius. John of Seville. Korndorfer. 403. Konig. 168-170. 355. Kerbedz. 308. ref. 395-396. XIII. 189. Involution of points. 386. 223. \V 158 Laplace. 77. Jacohi. 306. Kuhn. 220. 382. 273. ref. 372. to. to. 343. 174. 315. 107. 81. 351-352. 381. 340. 355. 401. 337. 48. 350. to. 340. Kempe. 378. ohn. 174. 389. Kaestner. 314. J. 213. 396. 290. llein. Isochronous curve. 382. 60. periodic changes in. 329 . 104. 280. 403. 379. 255. 386. 333. s lorkine. . to. 391. de. 389. 248. 296. 94. 328. 174.213. 259. Lord. 376. Irrationals. Johnson. 179. 309. Kepler s laws. 236. 314. See Calculus of variations. 357. 179. 400. 402. . 159. Interpolation. 293. 246. 204. See Rhseticus. 254. Jochmann. Jordan. 177. ref. to. H. 167. 354. 325. 328. ref. 353. 2. Kronig. 310. 360. 231. Kuhn. 263.. Isoperimetrical figures. 249. 393. 388. 26. to. Jets. 256. 383. 378. 355. 346. Kinetic theory of gases. 277. Ivory. 261. See Mercator. 309. 349. 393. 344. 341. 22. 61. ref. to. Kautimann. 341. ref. Lacroix. 378. Inverse probability. Joubert. 202. 382. . Jevons. 337. 223. 338. 380 rause. 365. 313. to. 328. Joule. 383. to. 329. ref. Heinian functions. 309. 285. 258-259. 353. iGeinian groups.414 INDEX. 377. 330. 375. Sirchhoff. 134. 2*44. 171. 259. 371. Kepler. 313 177. Kowalevsky. 344. 365. Lambert. 381. 395. 376. 387. Julian calendar. Ishak ben Honein. 384. 399. ref. 313. to. 347. 317. Joachim. Laguerre. 326. 401. Jurin. 330. 372 . 295. 328. 287. 17-19. Latitude. 245. 341. 343. 51. BLohlrausch. Kuramer. 268. 336. 401-403. 370. ref . 279. 354. 364. inckhuysen. 355. 260-270. 346. 389. ref. Konigsberger. to. Laisant. 168. 367. 286. 381. 367. 330. Kronecker. 246. ref.

X. 375. Lie. 243. Limits. 393. 92. L Hospital. 23. Lintearia. to. Magister matheseos. 323. 183. 333. 401. 402. 253. Lobatchewsky. 291. 253. Matthiessen. series. s problem. 209. 154. Matrices. Mayer. . 356. 113. Lorenz. Lindelof 334. Lagrange. 200. 379. Marie. 237. 390. to. Leodamas. 34. to. Hydrostatics. 25. Lindemann. Leyden jar. 401. 334. 356. Legendre s function. Laws of motion. . 296. 363. 135 ref. 186. 285. ref . Huygens. 340. \Iaclaurin. 33.. 2M. Mensechmus. . to. 32. 316. 353. 315 . 398. 328. Machine.. 192. 367. to. 392. Maupertius. Le Verrier. 384. 227. Descartes. 365. See Pacioli. 339. Leibniz. 2. Long wave. Lemoine. 328. tronomy. 266. ref. 266. McMahon. 239. 341. 154. 281. to. Legendre. Marie. to. Liouville. Bernoullis. McColl. 250. ref. 33. 333. 376. Lexis. 34. 253. 172. squaring of. 197. 174. 391 . 325. 365. 268. 340. 133. 128 Leslie. 306. 311 ref. 218. jUne. 370. Lebesgue. 274. to. ref. 197. 236. 415 Least action. 237. to. 285. 314. Least squares. 315. Abbe. 161-165. McClintock. 334. 137. . As Graphic statics. 46. 243. 240. ref. of motion. . McCullagh. 229. Lloyd. 238. more 328. 341. 353. Lommel. 323. 337. 393. X. to. 377-381. 284. to. 328. 135.iiroth. 383. Maxwell. McCowan. arithmetical. 369. 276. 250. Mainardi. 259. 398. 311. 191. 290. method of. to. 376. Galileo. 273. ref. 298. 393. Laws Laws of Laplace. 237. 296. C. 247. 4. 212. 382. 43 . 158. Maxima and minima. 158. 208. 362. ref. theory of. 300. ics. /udolph s number. Malfatti. 244. 176. Manrolycus. 365. Logarithmic criteria of convergence. 400. 377. Leibniz. Lewis. Malfatti Levy. 153 ref. 52. Hydrodynamics. 349. 300. . 312. Loomis. to. Stevin 182. Lemonnier. ref . 398. 242. 37. ref. 321. 241. . 188. 158. 356. 350. Marie. Linear associative algebra. 241. 267. Macmahon. Newton. to. 358. X. Mansion. 306. 252. 213.. XL 298. 346. 343. Main. to. 375 . Local probability. Listing. 393. 377. 353. 341. ref. to. 168. 393. ref. T Wallis Wren. 280. 327. 210. 397. See Dynam ~^ 188. 31.F. 290. 382. 382. Logarithmic Logarithms. 391. 268. 334. 390. 376. 315. 301 ref. . 257. D Alembert s principle. Logic. Meissel. Macfarlane. 136. 324. Rudolph. 319. Taylor.M. 219-235. ref. 375. 394.INDEX. M. 49. 155. 396. 341. to. 351. 220. Light. ref. 396. 251. La recent work. 189. 279. ref. ***? Magic squares. MacCullagh. 212-216. 401. 266. 383. 303. and Mechanics: Greek. Mathieu. 350. Leonardo of Pisa. to. place. ref. 280. Loria. 346. 141. 301. J Loud. Leon. Euler. 276. 403. 234. 338. Lucas de Burgo. 342. 208. 252. Maudith. to. Lipschitz. 401. 278-281.

X. 313. 286-288. F. 252. MincMn. 200. 293. Morley. 238. 376 . 317. 115. 72 ref. Nicomachus. 302. 125. j I Multiplication of series. of. See Regiomontanus. Mertens. 55 ref to. 174. to. 324. 382. Minkowsky. Niven.. 300. Modern Europe. 367. Mobius. 33. in fLuxionary calculus. 392. 107. Mydorge. to. 375. 220. to. E. Newton. 330. E. to. . 190 . 198. 42. 300. Meyer. 274. 335. 152. 362.. 58. Napier. Meyer. 162. Meteorology. 110. 381. Meziriac. 330. 154. 314. 240. 117-137. 50. 336. 334. MuTLer. 81.. 197 ref. Moore. 312. 329. United States. 138 et seq. Mohr. See Algebra. 377. INDEX. 0. 391. Nieuwentyt. ref. 233. 306. J. 57. ref. Mollweide. Mercator. Method Method of characteristics. Negative roots. 268. laws of. 187. Newton s parallelogram. Newton Newton s discovery of 196. 257. Neocleides. Musical proportion. 201-218. 325. 359. G. 173. controversy with Leibniz. 396. ref. Montmort. See Astronomy. M. de. 392. 191. 366. 195. . 380. 314. 213. 28. 315. 165. . 372. Nasir Eddin. Multi-constancy. orem. Mittag-Leffler. 172. 376. 239. 262. 243.. 163. 297. 309. 372. 375. 248. X. 36. 114. 396. 235. Mouton. 334. 309. Moivre. 392. 401. of exhaustion. Mersenne. Nines. 50. N. 366. 116. to. Meyer. Negative quantities. to. 205. . 164. to. 208. Moschopulus. 219. 340. 127. 183. Napier. 157. 314. de. 179. 195. 112. 192. 341. 390. 93. Moors. 76. J. 166. Michelson. 33. 285. binomial the 293. 245. 8. Nicomedes. 259. Neumann. Newton s Principia. 330. 165. Nagelbach. . 169. 390. 108. 161. . 353. 60. 390.. ref. Newcomb. A. 402. ref. F. 106. Monge. 297. 186. XII. 384r-386. Netto. 229. 217. ref. Neumann. ref. 294. Modular equations. ref. . Meunier. Muir. Navier. 135. 146. 106 ref. Miiller.416 Menelaus. 149. 387 . 254. to. 370. 182. 258. 382. Moigno. Moral expectation. Nachreiner. ref. 212-215. Neil. 156. 240. 321. to. casting out the. Mercator. Newton. 93. 282. . discovery Nesselmann. 354. Vusa ben Sakir. 191. Mere. to. 256. to. 325. 307. 191. to. 386... 213. Nebular hypothesis. Middle Ages. 366. 227-233. Metius. 188. 152. to. Moments 206. Napier s rule of circular parts. Midorge. Nicolai. to. Nicole. G. 290. 242. See Algebra. 341. 147. Minding. 180. 177. Modular functions. Neptune. ref.. 375 ref. See Tartaglia.. 265. 336. 125. 394. Nicolo of Brescia. Nautical almanac. s discovery of universal grav Montucla. 282. itation. X. 320.. Motion. 334.. Moon. C. 244. 4. 114. 393. 398. Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi.

385. OEnopides. calculus Oppolzer. 191. 2 s. Otho. 178. 178. Madame. 301. 103. 307. Egyptian. Pell s problem. 55. triangular. 112. 133. . 326. 341 et seq.. Fagnano s. 350. Olivier. . 303. See Exponents. Periodicity of functions. 194. 300. 182.. 214. Perspective. 281 . 362. Pendulum. 13. 38. 198. 372 the cessive. 323. See Geometry. Neither. ref. mathematical. Oscillation.. Omega-function. centre of. 300-307. 153 ref. 158. 87. Peletarius. 151. 202. 252. 201. 264. of. 22. 142. Perier. 333. 249. 280. 191. 372. 273. J. 41. 5-7. 342. notation. 38. 321. Archime dean. Philippus. 306. 362-372. 152. 260. 166. 49. 5 Ludolph s. trigonometry. - . 284. 373. 384. 243. 241. 181. J. 180. 149. 68. Arabic. to. heteromecic. 219. Babylonian and He brew. Pemter. 376. 177. 160. 37. 187. 68. 259. 112. Nonius. 220 . 167. 102. to. selection of letter TT. 68. . 283. Baby Pappus. Numerals: Egyptian. 311. 175-177. 98. Pepin. 70. 87. Babylonian. 315. 95. 342. 93. Peaucellier. 197. 255. 58-61 . C. 154. to. See Geometry. 108. 285. Philonides. per fect. Ovals of Descartes. 3. 48. 373. X. 64 Arabic Parabola. 283. 349. 290. 341. Parabolic geometry. 35. 195.. Oresme. ref. 33. 240. . Pascal. ref. 13. Pascal s theorem. 186. semi-cubical. calculus. Peirce. 291. ref. . ref. 196. 135. differential Parallelogram of forces. Perturbations.. Wallis . 5-7 Egyptian num 50. ref. 178-182. 133. 108. 281. Peirce. 75. Picard. Ohm. Partition of numbers. 379. M. 97. 269. Pfaffian problem. Philolaus. 391. X. 134 ref.. 142. 417 Nolan. . 66. 154. Oldenburg. Gibers. 50.. Algebra. definitions of numbers. 134. ref. See Apices. 147. proved to be irrational. ref. Greek numbers. 364. Pemberton. to. proved to be transcendental. 160. 120. 190. 310. 108. 347. 161. 183. See Applied mathematics.. Operations. 350. 45. 356. Piazzi. 102. 55. 323. Oughtred. 317. X. Petersen. Piddington. Pacioli. 330. 68. 150. 73. 11. 292. Physics. Pell. 68. Palatine anthology. 68. 181. Non-Euclidean geometry. 46. 42. 360. 73. . 221. 376. Numbers of Bernoulli. Greek. 131. ref. to. to. 205. 365. 215. ?r: Perseus. Pfaff. 377. 8. 250. Ohrtmann. Numbers amicable. 284. 386. 87. 238. Optics. 19. 353. 28. to. M. 39. 300. Parameter. ory of numbers. values for. 134. 20. to. 178. Hindoo. Notation: in algebra. Brouncker Leibniz s. : . ean geometry. 313. 151. 155. 76. to. to. 115 ex Partial differential equations. ref. 379. defective. 365. See Non-Euclid 159 Koman. 167. to. S. 127-129. 160. 78 decimal fractions. 15. 39. Pearson. 154. 222. 317. Peacock. B. Picard. Padmanabha.HSDEX. 220. lonian numbers. bers. Pherecydes. 196. Orontius. Ostrogradsky. 161. 153. to. 147. 287. Parallels. Oberbeck. 16. 64. E. 381. 228. 130. 65. 119. 341. 208. Arabic.

60. 33. 368. 108. . 29-34. 355. Rahn. Pohlfce. 179. 154. 56. 182. Regula falsa. Raclau. 191. 68. 360. to. 93. 293. 139. to. signs for. Regula aurea. 212- 215. 372. 16. 63. Plana. 290. Proportion. 377. 68. Reciprocants. 377. 317. 3. Pulveriser. ratios. 25. 112. 55. 153. 33. 300. appearance of arith 149. 158. 154.418 Piola. 98. 308. 67-70. 151. 120. Prym. Poncelet. XIII. Porisms. to. Proclus. 387. 256. Planudes. 397. 245. Puiseux. .110. 95. 39. 375. 307. 175. 298. Propositiones 119. to. X to. Raabe. 388. 399 Ratios. 153. 308. 19. Poincare.. 168. Plus and minus. 135. 351. 29-31 ref. 347. theory Ramus. Reech. 142. 377. Playfair. 361. 36. See Plato of Tivoli. 106. Princess Elizabeth. . Plato Tiburtinus. 198. Poinsot. ref. Recorde. 39. 341. See Circle. 383. 343. Plato. 398. 21. 22. ad acuendos iuvenes. 330. 67. 386. 140. 178. Preston. 160. 400. 18. 76. 111. 82. X. 58. Plato of Tivoli. 220. 386 384. 23. 280. 141 ref. 354. 151. Pitiscus. 61 ref. See Falsa positio. 384. 190. Ptolemaic System. 155. Pringsbeim. Pliicker. 340 . Weierstrass of. 233. 352. 319 Quercu. 158. 237. 382. ref. 150. 55. 54. 139. 177. 252. 36. Reciprocal polars. 252. Quaternions. 383. Plateau. 19-23. 193. to. 198. 306.135. first Eeductio ad absurdum. 38. 381. 26. metical and geometrical. ref. Regula duorum falsormn. 50. Principia (Newton s). Purbach. 382. 71. 106. 276. 16. to. 313. . Platonic figures. Quadratic reciprocity. 398. 125. Rectification of curves. 34. 104. 17. INDEX. 54. 346. 358. ref. 34. ref. ref. Pythagorean School. Primary factors. 39. 333. Rari-constancy. 387. 38. 208. M 156. 188. 35. 38. 403. See Curves. 392. 8. Pythagoras. 337. to. Porphyrius. Probability. Quadratic equations. 308. 190. See Ptolemy. to. 192. 390. 24. 45. . 134 ref. Poynting. 359. Quadrature of the circle. ref. Regular solids. Projective geometry. 10. 327. 239. 140. 38. 42. 288. Poisson. 35. 313. ref. 277. 395. Radiometer. Reaction polygons. ref. Quetelet. 7. Rankine. 9. to. 169. 109. 375. TT. ? . 158. 222.. 28. Potential. 400. to. 395. 318. Progressions. Plectoidal surface. Problem of three bodies. Ptolemseus. to. Quadratrix. 300. . 389. 31. . Quadrature of curves. 285. 345. 115. 378. Ptolemy. 60. to. 180. Poncelet s paradox. Lord. Problem of Pappus. 390. 397. 253. 229. 33. 17. 242. ref. 97. 29. 212. Platonic School. 32. . 63. 60. ref. #ee Algebra. a. 384. 177. 106. 396. Regiomontanus. 49. Redfield. 396. 387. 290. . 378. 56-58. 356. to. M. Prime numbers. 304. 365. Prime and ultimate 268. 368. 400. 240. 19-23. 51. 59. 336-338. Equations. 374. 23. 270. 289. 109. 3. 107. to. 32. to. also see Circle-squarers. 340. 307-309 ref. Rayleigh.

Saint-Venant. Sellmeyer. 380. Sehlegel. 109. Reid. 305. ref. 290. 392. 397. 371. 192. 390. Divergent series. 383. 328. 241 . Rosenberger. 187. 249. to. Serret. to. 393. 311-313. 313 382. 172. 387. 305. Seidel. Saurin. 378. Sehroter. 193.. 300. 297. 218. ref. Schuster. 290. 32. Rule of three. XIII. 296. 341. 339. 241 124. 336. 357. 377. 306. . Schlessinger. ref.. 37. 3(52. Roberts. Similitude (mechanical). 117- 77-83. Section. s surfaces. 142. 116. to. Richard of TTallingford. 341. 142. 355 . Rhseticus. 355. 109. to. Schlomilch. Roman mathematics in Occident. 90. H. 154. 202. 353. 99. ref. Roulette. Sectio aurea. 385. to. 400. 245. 384. 371. Servois. 65. 322. 288. 306. to. 191. J. Schering. . 368. 61. ref. 384. ref. Rowland. 313. Sexagesimal system. 154. 357-359. . 142. to. Reye. 172 Rolle. ref. origin of term. 187. 339. ref. Scott. to. 328. 354. 397. XIL. Sextant. 239. ref. Sextus Julius Africanus. Schmidt. rule of. Rhind papyrus. H. 297. Schlafli. ref. 361. 33. 55. Schreiber. Trigonometric series. 353. Romer. 111. 312.INDEX. 375. 190. Richelot. 284. Seeber. 333. to. Schwarz. Scaliger. 358. 322. Rudolff. 92. 126. Romans. Segre. Schepp. Sigma-f unction. 339. 338. ref. Simplicius. 302. Simson. Riemann. ref. Rheticus. to. 193. 419 XL to. 380. 394. 300. to. 199. 393.. Seitz. 389. See Rhseticus. to. 374. Reiff. 304. Saccheri. Signs. ref. 65. 356. 154. 102. 330. 305. Savart. ref. 315. ref. 303. to. 139-156. 382. ref. Schiaparelli. Schroter. Sarrau. Rosenhain. ref. Sacro Bosco. the golden. 141 . 10-15. Semi-cubical parabola. Sine. 365. 362. 140. Riihlmann. 313. Reynolds. 58. 398. to. 151. 7. 356. Resal. Riccati. 306. Serenus. Secants. 366. 171. Romanus. 309. 381. 57. Sachse. 106. XIL Schooten. 288. XIV. Series. 342. 148. 342. Sarrus. Schellbach. Semi-convergent series. See Halifax. 379. to. 296. XIII. 377. Salmon. Screws. theory of. Sand-counter. Riemann Schwarzian derivative. to. 39. 393. Uniformly convergent series. Semi-invariants. Simony. to. 236. 315. 187. 325. to. 295. 139. 354. 240. Absolutely convergent series. 135. Renaissance. 345. 33. 398. 189 . to. 353. van. 141. Rule of signs. Simpson. 347. 353. Roberval. 348. 312. 125. See Infinite series. 376. Siemens. Selling. 290. ref. Saturn s rings. Fouriet s series. Schumacher. to. Ruffini. ref. Schubert. 190. ref. Routh. XII. . Semi-convergent series. 67. 361. ref.

178-182. 383. 320. 55. 381. Somoff. H. 29. 324. Spitzer. to. Suter. Sosigenes. 306. Thales. ref. 379. 189. 388. 75. 296. Substitutions. 110. Steiner. 135. to. 223. 280. Vincent. 295. 378. Spheroid (liquid) 384. B. 226. 361. 344. 312. 306. 388. 354. 277. Staudt. 353. 54.. 334. 252. (Gerbert). 381. Star-polygons. IX. 283. Stevimis. 81. ref.. 333. 37. 325. W. 255. 295. 342. 149. 165. ref. 330. 268. 08. 108. Theon of Alexandria. See Von. Solid of least resistance [Prin. 224. Swedenborg. to. 345. theory of. 270. 72. 357. Spirals. 115. . 35.. 36. 343 . 310. 292. 151. See Rayleigh. 237. to. 21. Smith. Strauch. 282. Theory of functions. 370. Surfaces. 292. 23-29. 366. 18 ref. of. Tangents. 341. 293. 243. 191. 319. Tabit ben Korra. Struve. 169. 265. See Functions. ref. 30. 310. &quot. 224. direct problem inverse problem of. theory of. 226. 264. 381. Strassmaier. 159. Spherical Harmonics. 250. 255. 357. ref. Sylvester. 350. to. 33. 222. See Speidell. See Stevin. 33JO. ref. 268. 119. 390. 328. ref. to.. 381. Smith. 108. 131. to. 3S2. 398. 372. Stringhana. 141. Taylor s theorem. 296 Tchebycheff. 290. Tannery. Theon of Smyrna. 314. 173. 339. Stereometry. St. 152. Stifel. 62. 333. 162. 31. . Theory of equations. . to. 330. . of the circle. 242. Strutt. velocity Acoustics. 262. 386. 241. 105. 127.242. 215. 306. 329. Symmetric functions. 22. See Quadrature Tangents. 242.. Theory of substitutions. 61 . 178. See Mechanics. 95. 198. von. Stef ano. C. Staudt. 328.. to. Gregory. Squaring the circle. IL. 370. 143-145. 293-307. . Stevin. 92. 55. 20. to. 274. 296. 155. 120-124. 326. 108 . to. 362-372. Sylvester II. A. ref. Stern. 311. 234. of. See Equations. 298. 369. to. Sturm. 56. 76. 247. XII. Solitary wave. Spherical trigonometry. Sturm Smith.. 319. 82. 151 ref. 55. INDEX. 264. 65. SHI. 162. 381. R. 244. to. 396. s theorem. Spottiswoode. 38. 297. 160 ref. 368. X. Theory of numbers. falsa. Tautochronous curve. Sohnke. 269. 287. 294. 17. 280. J. . 330. to. 51. 16. 190. 42. 382. vibrating. 182. 44. 70 ref. . 365. 134. 222. ref. 299. Sturm. Synthesis. to. Tentative assumption. 186. Stokes. 362. Sylow. 25]. 353. 386. ref. to. 347-362. 312. 223 . ref. 325. 125. ref. 189. 393. 250.Italy. 311. 278. 309. 197. ref. ref. to.. Theodorus. 142. Statistics. Taber.E. Square root. to. Sluze. 348. Thesetetus. Tait. ref. 156. ref. Theodosius. J. Synthetic geometry. 58. Stirling. F. 381. 400. See Kegula Stewart. 94. Taylor. 216. to. Steele. 346. 368. 33. 383. 324. 60. 330. in trigonometry. Strings. Stabl. Sound. Tartaglia. 220. 65. 328. 70. in geometry. 31. XIIL. 269.420 Singular solutions. Statics. to.. Sophist School. Tchirnhausen. 182. 340. 153. 168.

ref. . 264. 392-394. 57. Weber. to. Weigel. Valson. 197. Watson. 377. Thomae. 56. to. 262. H. 171. 355. 362. Todhunter. 234. 51. 341. Voss. Trisection of angles. to. 328. . 33. 153. Torricelli. 202. 395. 278. Whiston. to. ref. ref. Vieta.. 306. 377. Leipzig. Timseus of Locri. 160. Whewell. Vibrating strings. 381. 87. 153. 353. 171. 383. Theudius. 341. 229. 153. Triangulum characteristicum. Vlacq. 385. 165. 161. Vincent. 179.&quot. to. 397. 390. to. 238. 299. Paris. 391. 115. 389. 396. Waldo. 387. S. 352. 150. 50. 109. 259. Tucker. 359. 339. 136. 142. 345. 152. 355. See Fourier s series. 324. to. E. 79. 255. Venturi. Trigonometry. 396 . Walker. Veronese. 253. 278 . Varignon. 334. 220. 292. Volaria. 216. 398. 353. Voigt. 421 action. 340.INDEX. 393.. 294. Wantzel. 245. 354. 167. 147. 165. 378. to. Vandernionde. 398-401. 363. 265. 379. J. to. 344 ref. XI. 34. 283. Wheatstone. Tycho Brahe. 388. ref. theory of. 187. See Undulatory theory. 390. 158. H. J. Weber. 345. Versed sine. 154. ref. Trochoid. 400. 352. 190.. Xm. 135. Trudi. Gregory St. Wave theory. 238.. IX. Vibrating rods. Ubaldo. 361. . to. C. Sir William. 52. 161. Thomson s theorem. Varying 379.. 382. Universities of Cologne. 400. 253. 359. 379. 375. 50. 110. Undulatory theory of light. J. W. problem of. See Ludolph. 99. Van Ceulen. . 217.. 357. 280. Virtual velocities. Waves. 386. 202. 172. 236. 249. 110. 188. 196. 190.. 242. 305 ref. Victorius. 394. 237. 141. 382. 292. Theta-fuchsians. to. . 240 ref. 168. 357. ref. XIII. 139. 315. 358. 403. 154. Warring. principle of. 328. and Prague. 382. 294. Whitney. to. 385. 353. Thomson. Variation of arbitrary consonants. 202. Trajectories. Wallis. 394. See Helmholtz. 388. to. 394. 264. 330. 382-385. ford. Ultimate multiplier. 383.. ref. Westergaard. 177. 29. Weierstrass. Ulug Beg. . Wertheim. Vortex motion. 219. 256. ref. Schooten. Viviani. 98-100. 336. 197. Van Werner. 24. 264. Tisserand. 339. 396. 393. Von Helmholtz. J. 380. 377. ref. 399. Trouton. 385. Thomson. 98. Wand. 372. 242. Trigonometric series. 323.. Twisted Cartesian. . 114. 278. XIIL. Thomson. Theta-functions. Vortex rings. 359 Ox Weiler. 73. 183. Tonstall. Watson. Thermodynamics. to. Thome. 307. 140. 295. Vicat. L. Three bodies. 382. / Kelvin (Lord). Tides. 395. 283. 318. 339. 31. 365. ref. Waltershausen. 362. Widmann. 192-195. to. 298. 189 ref. Thymaridas. Von Staudt. spherical. 43. 192. XIII. ref. * 115. 312.

Zeno. 167. Wolstenaolme. Williams. IX. 241. Zeuxippus. 29. 384-386. origin of term.. 325. Xenocrates. Wren. INDEX. Woepcke. 129. Zenodorus. 127. 264. to. 371 . Young. 27. R. 287. ref. 267. ref. Zeller. 188. Woodhouse. Wilson s theorem. ref. 213. ref. 372. to. Wittstein. ref. Wilson.422 Wiener. C. to. Zahn. 313. 264. Winkler. 341. 103. 387. Wolf. XII. 365. Zag. 198. 153. Zero (symbol for). 386. Wolf. 40. Zehfuss.. 392. XI. Zolotareff. to. 260. Winds. 7. 177. to. 1751-3 . Zeuthen. 83. Wronski. Witch of Agnesi. 324. 51. 334. XII. 88. Xylander. 297.. XI. 392.

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and that which will probably be the most inter . the intelligent reader can gain a very complete view of the progress of mathematical science its from beginnings until its contemporary differentiation into numerous specialties. The inter esting character of the notes is quite a feature of the book.A. CAMBRIDGE. and that the continuity of mathematical discovery can be more fully traced.. ROUSE BALL. Gow s history.. J. CAMBRIDGE. . BY JAMES GOW. NEW YORK.25. &quot. BY WALTER W. . 8vo. Revised. Evidently the production of a scholar. SCHOLAR OF TRINITY COLLEGE. which is in this respect distin It must be to all students of guished from almost all histories of mathematics.. Mr. . A SHORT HISTORY OF CREEK MATHEMATICS. While technical and exact enough to be of value to the specialist in mathematics as a handy book of reference. &quot. all of which and modern A HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICS AT CAMBRIDGE.. AVENUE.. From this history. _that it is the best work on this subject for the general reader that we know of. $3. S. S. .&quot. ROUSE BALL.00. MACMILLAN & 66 FIFTH CO.00. $3. in The Academy. for it is in this department of mathematics that the acuteness of the Greek mind is most conspicuously seen. are fruitful in their applications to the various phases of modern science Science* industry.A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 8vo. BY T. . . FELLOW AND TUTOR OF TRINITY COLLEGE. B.. MACKAY. The largest part of Mr. $2. the second and third parts are concerned with Greek arithmetic and geometry.&quot. is justly devoted to geometry. $1. mathematics a most welcome and instructive volume.. .90. . DIOPHANTOS OF ALEXANDRIA: A STUDY IN THE HISTORY OF GREEK ALGEBRA. it is so clearly and familiarly written. and the result of years of laborious research. HEATH. Second Edition.. each of them important and difficult enough to detain for a lifetime a brilliant mind. BY WALTER W. esting to the general mathematical reader. The first treats of the decimal scale and Egyp tian arithmetic. or historical sketch. Gow divides his history into three parts. I2mo..






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