318 views

Uploaded by Luís Pinho

save

You are on page 1of 415

Cajori

History of mathematics

48 00376 4479

MA

MATHEMATICS

BY

PLORIAN CAJORI

FOHMEBLY PROFESSOR 03T APPLIED MATHEMATICS IN THE TULANE UNIVERSITY

OF LOUISIANA; NOW PROCESSOR or PHYSICS

IN COLORADO COLLEGE

**I am sure that no subject loses more than mathematics
**

*

**"by any attempt to dissociate it from, its history." J. W. L.
**

GLAISHMR

gatfc

MACMILLAN AND CO.

ANB LONDON

1894

All riff Ms reserved

COPYRIGHT, 189,1,

BY MAOM1LLAN AND 00,

*

ITortooob prt ;

**J. S, Gushing & Co, -Berwick & Smith,
**

Boston, Mass,, U.S.A.

of Colorado College. Davis. AN increased interest in the history of the exact sciences manifested in recent years by teachers everywhere. 1 am specially indebted to Professor 3T. of Amherst College. of the University of Texas Professor L. are put forth with great diffidence. of the Leland . have been made by . Carlo Veneziani v . Van Velzer. cause me to believe that a brief general History of Mathematics will be found acceptable to teachers and students. to Dr. all of whom have afforded valuable assistance. PREFACE. HosMns. A. University . of the University of Nebraska. and Professor Gr. E. B. Davies and Professor C. J. To all who the gentlemen above named. both of the University of Wisconsin. Stanford Jr. D. as well as to Dr. The proof-shoots of this chapter have also been submitted to Dr. W. E. H. The pages treating necessarily in a very condensed form of the progress made during the present century. Olds. M. has read the proof-sheets throughout. Halsted. G-. although I have spent much time in the effort to render them accurate and reasonably complete. and the attention given to historical inquiry in the mathematical class-rooms and seminaries of our leading universities.B/ecent Times". Many valuable suggestions and criti cisms on the chapter on ". Loud.I)r.

manuscript. of Salt Lake City. who read the first part of my work in. But in acknowledging their kindness. . I desire to express my hearty thanks.vi PKEFACE. 1893. December. I trust that I shall not seem to layupon them any share in the responsibility for errors which I may have introduced in subsequent revision of the FLORIAN CAJOBL COLORADO COLLEGE.

. . PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 . . 189 VIETA TO DJCSOARTES ^ DBSGARTES TO NEWTON 183 NBWTGN TO EULBK 199 vii . ANTIQUITY 5 THE BABYLONIANS 5 THE EGYPTIANS 9 THE GREEKS 16 Greek Geometry 16 The Ionic School 17 The School of Pythagoras 19 The Sophist School 23 The Platonic School 29 The First Alexandrian School 34 The Second Alexandrian School 54 Greek Arithmetic 63 TUB ROMANS 77 ^ MIDDLE AGES 84 THE HINDOOS 84 THE ARABS 100 EtJBOPE DURING THE MIDDLE AOES 117 Introduction of Roman Mathematics 117 Translation of Arabic Manuscripts 124 The First Awakening and its Sequel 128 MODERN EUROPE 138 THE RENAISSANCE : . TABLE OF CONTENTS.

LAGRANGE. AND LAPLACE 246 The Origin of Modern Geometry 285 KECENT TIMES 291 SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY 293 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 307 ALGEBRA 315 ANALYSIS 331 THEORY OP FUNCTIONS 347 THEORY OF NUMBERS 362 APPLIED MATHEMATICS 373 INDEX 405 . PAGE EULER.Viii TABLE OF CONTENTS.

DB MORGAN. 1807.. 9. ix . A Short History of Greek Mathematics. II.. Ziele tmd Hesultate der neueren Mathematisch-his- torischen JForschung. 1876. BituTHOHNKiDfflR. 1874. Bd. J. GUNTHER. 3. A. II. 10. Unter Mitwirlcung von P. Erlangen. and articles have been used in the preparation of this history. HERMANN. 1889. Histories marked with a star are the only ones of which extensive use has been made. S. 1884. The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the U. HANKBL. 1. J. BOOKS OF REFEKENCE. Theorie der Complexen Zahlensysteme. J. * Gow. Astronomisches aus Babylon. XEUTIIISN. Washington. WmcwELL. Freiburg. G. 1870. K. JAMES. History of the Inductive Sciences. CAJTOEI. 7. S. F. 11. Dublin. pamphlets. 4. 1892. STUASSMAIER. WILLIAM. Leipzig. MORITZ. Leipzig. G-reek G-eometry from Thales to JEuclid. 6. The following books. *CANToit. KopQnlaagen. * HANKBL. C. Bel I. in Smith s Dictionary of Greek and Itoman Biography and Mythology. G. 2. Die Lehre von den Kegelschnitten im Alterthum. Cambridge. *ALLMAN. 1886. HERMANN. 1889. 1880. 5. 8. 12. Leipzig. 1890. Die Qeometrie und die G-eometer vor Eukli- des. Zur Gfeschichte der MathematiJc im Alterthum und Mittelalter. ". Vorlesungen uber Gfeschichte der MathematiJc.Euclides". EPPING. Leip zig. A. Reference to any of them is made in the text by giving the respective number.

u 26. 7th editi6n. MAXIMILIEN. Leipzig. translated by W. Fort$chritte der Mathematik. Philosophy of Mathematics. PLAYFAIR. GEORGE. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Nordlingen. 35. BREWSTER. 29. 1834. GesckicJite der antiJcen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophic. ". HEINRICH. Aritlimetic. R. 17. 1878. Paschal. MARIE. ^81. in the Philosophical Magazine. 13. GIL- LESPIE. London. PEACOCK. G. G-eschichte der Geometric.". Aus dem Franzosischen tibertragen durcli DR. D. 1852. 21. SUTER. 1863. 1839. 1847. November. ARNETH. W. Memoirs of John Napier of Merchiston. of 1 22. SIEGMUND und WiNBELBAND. BE MORGAN. Cfeschichte der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. W. 24. Halle. HERMANN. 16. 1866. Vol. 31. Translated into English by W. Tome I.". A. QUETELET. 27. Article Progress of the Mathematical and Phys ical in Encyclopedia Britannica. ". 33. 1802. OURTMANN und MULLER. SOHNCKE. NAPIER. Histoire des Sciences Matheniatiques et Phy siques. A. Kritische Geschichte der allgemeimn Principien der Mechanik. 25. MONTUCLA. 18. 1860.On the Early History of lEfiEitesixualB. HANKEL. HERSCHEL. London. XL. 30. 23. BALL. M. 28. A. GUNTHER. L. M.. London. 20. Die ISntwickelung der Mathematik in den letz- ten Jahrhunderten. Grundzilge der Antiken und Modernen Algebra der Litteralen GUichungen. 1873-75. A.E. Article ". A. !F. Geschichte der reinen Mathematik. Edin burgh. 2nd edition. Tubingen. The Life of Mr. * CHASLES. Halle. 1884.X BOOKS OF REFERENCE. MOIUTZ. A. Histoire des Mathematiques. B. 189S.-XII. con Sciences.wton. CANTOR. 15. 1888.". MADAME PERIER. Paris. Stuttgart. Leipzig. Zurich. 1879. in Edinburgh Jfflncy- dopcedia. LTIDWIG. American Journal of Mathematics. Mathematische Beitrage zum Kulturleben der VoUcer. BtiHRiNG. Edinburgh. Pure Mathematics. MARK. F. JOHN. DE MORGAN. W. J. A. 1887. Sciences Mathetna&iques et IViysiques ehe% les Beiges. 32. 14.Note on the First English Euclid. . COMTE. J.". Article * Mathematics. 19. 1883-1888. MATTIIIESSEN. Bruxelles. Paps. tinued in the 8tlx edition by SIK JOHN LESLIE. 1852. in The Encyclopedia. W. 1744. 1888. HALSTEB. The Memoirs of Nc. Arithmetical Books from the Invention of Printing to the Present Time.

46. 1865. Smithsonian Iteport. . 41. I.". the 50. I. ". W. Leip zig. M. SntdecJcung der Di/erenzialrechnung durch Leib niz. WOLF. ". RKIFF. I. 1887. *TODUUNTEK. Gfeschichte der Unendlichen Heihen. Mtinchen. C. 1888. S. 7 51. Leipzig. C. *Toi&. Gauss . February.iniNTBK. Daniel Bernoulli und Leonhard Euler. BOOKS OF REFERENCE. 40. X Joseph Fourier.". Stockholm. BaHol. London. Note on ". 1876. ins deutsche tibertra- ihrer fr dhtren gen von Fitm SOHUTTB. A. ical Trigonometry. and u Commercimn Epistoli- cum. F. mm Q-ed&chniss. Articles ". CnuiHTiAN. herausgegeben von GUSTAP ENESTROM. WALTKRSIIAUSKN .Memoir of Legendre. 1850. 3. Leipzig. Halle. Koniglich Preussischen Academic der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.gt. A History of the Theory of Elasticity and of the Strength of Materials.Early History of the Potential. Cambridge. AUAOO. Lehrfatch der Darstellenden Gfeometrie.Muxions". Cambridge and London.". *LoiA. 55. I. Y. DB MoR(UK. 39. Translated by C. Vermischte Untersuchtingen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften. Bibliotheca Mathematica. 47. GERHARDT. WITHER. Bulletin of N. SAHTOUIXIS. ALEXANDISR. 46. J. FeTbruar. I^LIK DB. 44. Leibniz in in jSitzirngsberichte der ". Mathematical Society.". BAUMCJART. 52* BEAUMONT. HATHAWAY. 38. Deutschland. GERIIARBT. 1885.". RUDOLF. OSWALO. 1867. Leipzig. 1886. xi 36. 1877. A History of the Mathematical Theory of Probabil ity from the Time of Pascal to that of Laplace. Leip zig. 1871. SIEGMUND. 1848. Miinclien. 1884. 42. Smitlisonian llPfiort. 43. tlie History of Certain Formulas in Spher Philosophical Magazine. TOBHUNTKR. 1873. Geschichte der Mathematik in. 1). 48. R. I. *GERHARDT. Cfeschichte der Astronomie. ". Eulogy on Laplace. AUAOO. 1891. 1889. Die JBasler Mathematiker. Smithsonian Eeport. in tlie Penny Cyclopaedia. Translated by B. 54. I. F. 1884. I. Tubingen. 49. A. 58. I). Die Ilmptsilchliehstm Theorien der Geometrie in GTKO. K. GUNTHER. Edited and completed by KARL PEARSON. 1874. und heutlgen fJntwicMnnff. Ueber das Quadratische J&eciprocitatsgesetz. A. POWELL.". 37.

R. Zur Qeschichte des Malfatttf schen Problems. 67. 26 5. Nature. 1881. Julius Plucker.". ANTON. FELIX. ARMIN. Mathematische Annalen. 1871. VII. 1883. 59. GUSTAV. BAUER. 1889. 1886. A. 76. MUIR.James Joseph Sylvester. KLEIN. 39:10. HEiNRicii. W. 73. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Leip zig. BURKHARDT. ^1 Treatise on Determinants*. London.". 1868. Vergleichende Betrachtimgen uber neuere geome- trische Forschungen. 48:2. FINE.Xll BOOKS OF REFERENCE. Hermann Gfrassmann. Justus Bellavitis. 75. 63. GIBBS. AD. CAYLE Y. KARL. A. HAAS. : 66. Inaugural Address before the British Association. ". FAVARO. CAYLEY. Leipzig. ". 1872. Die AnfUngo der Gruppontliooiie und Paolo Ikiffim. Grrunertfs Archiv. 68. Tubingen. January. 57. SCHMIDT. Proceedings of the ". 1890. 1893. 70. Versuch einer Darlegung und Wunligung seiner wissenschaftlichen Leistungen von einigen seiner Freunde. 1874. 28:21. Zeitschrift der MathemaUk und Physik. Boston and New York. FRANZ. 1878. WILLIAM. 1878. The Number.". Nordlingen. WITTSTEIN. 64. Nature. H. Versuch einer Darstellung der Geschichte dvs Krwnmungsmasses. 61. ALFRED CLEBSCH. Multiple Algebra. Geschichte der Elenientar-Mathematik.Aus dem Leben zweier ungarischer Mathe- matiker Johann und Wolfgang Bolyai von Bolya. 1892. Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik. 1890. 1891. FORSYTH. SCHLEGEL. GRAHAM. 1881. SPOTTISWOODE. Gfedachnissrede auf Otto Hesse. ". 1878. Inaugural Address before the British Association.System of Algebra. ARTHUR. Supple ment. 72. 56 .". 74. . FINK. Geometry of Position. 4. 1882. 58. Bonn. VICTOR.". WILLARD. Cambridge. R. ". sein Leben und seine Werke. 60. 1873. Tubingen. SALMON. September. v. 1882. J. Miinchen. 62. GEORGE.". 65. AUGUST. Einige Worte zum Andenkon an Hermann Ilankol. 71. 1883. BRONICE. Erlangen. HENRY B. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. THOMAS. 69.Arthur Cayley.". ZAHN.

E. 87. Vol. 1891. 91. ". Gottingen. Inaugural Presidential Address to the Mathe matical and Physical Section of the British Association at Exeter. of Planetary Motions. Cn. Bendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo. JUlliptische JFunktionen. Paris. STEPHEN. C. Kirchhoff. SMITH. Tome I. A. Nature. SACHSE. W. xiii 77. BJERKNES. Notice stir les Travaux Scientijlques de M. Bessel als Bremer Ifandlungslehrling. 1876. 95. VOIGT. Berlin. A.Discours prononc6 devant le president de la R6pii- Tblique. 1869. Gfedachnissrede auf G-ustav Peter Lejeune-Dirichlet. J. 83. 94. 26: 17. 1852. 1891. XIV. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. Niels-HenriTc Abel. ". 1884. Mine JBntgegnung. GLAISUISH. 90. O. 1888. Gottingen.W. HENRI. E. 43 : 14 and 15. 82. YALSON. Bremen. Tubingen. ". ENNEPER. 79. Versuch einer Qeschichte der Darstellung will- kiirlicher Funktionen einer variablen durch trigonometrische Meihen.Sophie de KowalevsM. Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Henri Poincare. C. Paris. Konigsherg. 84. FRANTZ.Carl Friedrich Gauss. Paris. ". ALFRED. PAUL DU. 1890.. 86. Tableau de sa vie et de son action scientifique. J.. Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques.". 1886. HERMITB. Halle a/S. Henry John Stephen Smith. HENRICI. ARNOLD. Harrington and J. 1882. LEJEUNE. 1876. 1884. ". KERBEDJS. 80. Theorie und Ge- schichte. Zum Gfeddchniss von G. J*. TUCKER. La Vie et les travaux du Baron Cauchy.". L. SCHUSTER.. 105. H. 81. Nature.. 4. Monthly Notices ". BOIS-KEYMOND.On the Present State and Prospects of Some Branches of Pure Mathematics. 92.W". J. 104. Mathematical Theories Translated into English by M. J.97. BOOKS OF REFERENCE. Nature. 1860. GASTON. DARBOUX. Festrede aus Veranlassung von HesseVs hundertjahrigem Geburtstag. 89. . .. 0.. April..". Paris. BE. R. 96. XLIV. 1868. 1885.Theory of Functions. 78. 88. 1879. Janvier. Gfedachnissrede auf Carl Gf-iistav Jacob Jacobi. ARTHUR. E. DZIOBEK. 1890. Gas- ton Darboux. SYLVESTER .". ". V. ". Zur G-eschichte der Trigonometrischen Heilien.The Influence of Mathematics on the Prog ress of Physics. Hussey.". Nos. 85. KUMMER. of the Eoyal Astronomical Society. DIRICHLET. W. 1877. VIII. ". 93. II. 1884.". POINCARE.

. 08) Bdci-iER.". 101. Braunschweig. /SV&. Bulletin of the T. MAXIME. II. 5. Math. CAY:LEY. ARTHUR. U. u A Bit of Mathematical History. GLAZEBROOK. T. No. If.gt.. 1887-1890. 2V". Geschichte tier Physik. 100. 99. ROSENBERGER.. 1857.c. Report on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dynamics. Report on Optical Theories. 1885. .xiv BOOKS O:F BEFBBBNCE. Vol.

is an exact science.eshas proved to be useless. but 5 it inay also teach us how to increase our store. He takes pride in the fact that his science. the importance of a good notation upon the progress of the science it discourages excessive specialisation on the part of . but the mathematician finds the geometry of the Greeks and the arithmetic of the Hindoos as useful and admirable as any research of to-day. The history of mathematics may be instructive as well as agreeable may not only remind us of what we have. INTEODUCTION. It warns us against hasty conclusions it points out . mathematics has had periods of slow growth. in course of its develop ment. THE contemplation of the various steps by which mankind has come into possession of the vast stock of mathematical knowledge can hardly fail to interest the mathematician. 1 . yet in the main it has been pre-eminently a progressive science. and that hardly anything ever done in jnatheBiati. Says De Morgan.".A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. more than any other. The chemist smiles at the childish. and in this * aspect it is well to pay attention to the history of mathe matics. efforts of alchemists. * The early history of the mind of men with regard to mathe matics leads us to point out our own errors. He is pleased to notice that though.

ni- meiisurable. it saves the student from wasting time and energy upon prob lems which were. ". by that method. The circle-squarers have existed in crowds ever since the period of Archimedes. after thou sands of complete failures. Some years ago. But progress was made on this problem by approaching it from a different direction and by newly discovered paths. by showing how apparently distinct brandies have been found to possess unexpected connecting links. 1 The importance of this strategic rule may be emphasised by citing a case in which it has been violated.". Lambert proved in 1761 that ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diametot is iad0. We cannot remember an instance tyx a question to be solved by a definite method was tried by\$k6 best heads. when investigators possessed that most powerful tool.is circlewith the old allowance of means: Euclid s postulates and nothing more. that whenrepulsed from a direct assault it is well to recon noitre and occupy the surrounding ground and to discover the secret paths by which the apparently unconquerable position can be taken. it discourages him from attacking an unsolved problem by the same method which has led other mathematicians to failure . investigators. perhaps.^ problem. (An untold amount of intellectual energy has been expended on the quadrature of the circle. wMlo those who still persisted were completely ignorant of its Ms- tory and generally misunderstood the conditions of the prob lem. by means of the ruler and compass only. it teaches that fortifications can be taken in other ways than by direct attack. yet no conquest has been made by direct assault.". the differential calculus. says De Morgan. and answered at last.2 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. After innumerable fail ures to solve the problem at a time. persons versed in mathematics dropped the subject. even.gt. is .&.lt. Linclomaim demonstrated that this ratio is also transcendental and that the quadrature &. the circle.Our to square the ". solved long since.

3 sible. Let no one who is . and how mathematicians long wrestled with this problem. jubilant over his great discoverer accomplishment. A class in arithmetic will be pleased to hear about the Hindoos and their invention of the ". tell them about the duplication of the cube how the wrath of ^Apollo could be appeased only by the construction of a cubical altar double the given altar. great army of circle-squarers have. Another reason for the desirability of historical study is the value of historical knowledge to the teacher of mathe matics. . that the . quote the inscription over the entrance into i academy of Plato. When they know how to construct a square whose area is double the area of a given square. After the class have exhausted their ener gies on the theorem of the right triangle. they will marvel at the thousands of years which elapsed before people had even thought of introducing into the numeral notation that Coluni bus-egg the zero j astounding that it should have they will find it taken so long to invent a notation which they themselves can now learn in a month. been assaulting a fortification which is as indestructible as the firmament of heaven. by elementary geometry. Arabic notation ". the apparently very simple problem of the trisec- tion ofan angle. for two thousand years. the philosopher : ". tell them something about its how Pythagoras. INTBODUCTION. The interest which pupils take in their studies may bo greatly increased if the solution of problems and the cold logic of geometrical demonstrations arc interspersed with historicalremarks and anecdotes.He thus showed by actual proof that which keen- minded mathematicians had long suspected namely. surprise them by telling of the many futile attempts which have been made to solve. When the value of mathematical training is in question. After the pupils have learned how to bisect a given angle. sacrificed a hecatomb to the Muses who in- him.

In his historical talk possible for the teacher to make it plain to the it is student that mathematics is not a dead science. 2 The history of mathematics is important also as a valuable contribution to the history of civilisation. . Mathematical scientific and physical researches are a reliable record of intellectual progress. they should become familiar with the parts that Kewton. and. The history of mathematics is one of the large windows through which the philosophic eye looks into past ages and traces the line of intellectual development.". but a living one in which steady progress is made. after taking up the differential and integral calculus. unacquainted with geometry enter here. Students in analyt^ icalgeometry should know something of Descartes. Leibniz. and Lagrange played in creating that science. Human progress is closely identified with thought.4 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

for 4. and was. THE fertile valley of the Euphrates and Tigris was one of the primeval seats of human society. on the other hand. in Chaldaoa and Babylonia. I characters". Thus. Much light has been thrown on their history by the discovery of the art of reading the cuneiform or wedge-shaped system of writing. In the study of Babylonian mathematics we begin with the notation of numbers. In the Babylonian notation two were employed the and multiplica ptincjiiples ^ditive) tive. In writing the hundreds. A vertical wedge If stood for 1. THE BABYLONIANS.gt. for 23. character for 10 originally to been the picture of two hands. for 30 Here the |f )f | |or 3. in fjase.lt. the palniis being pressed together. btiTOhe thumbs thrust out.*. as held in prayer. G-rotefend believes the ^ and signified 10 and 100 respec y&. ANTIQUITY. Authentic history of the peoples inhabiting this region begins only with the foun dation. a Ir symbol was placed to the left of the 100. J I order. |i Numbers below 100 were expressed by symbols whose respt-Mctive values had to be added. to be multiplied by 100. the fingers close to each other. ^ Thus. s y ^^ signified the eaf 5 . XJJ1 &.lt.* ^^ of higher order appear always to the left of those of &. while the tively. y stood for 2. of a united kingdom out of tho previously disunited tribes.

Its both for integers and fractions. in this connection.1 = 2. 2. ^^ f &..21 = 60 + 21. as is believed by most specialists. the from the fifth to the fifteenth day being respectively 1. not only of the above decimal system. biit also of a sexagesimal one.40 = 10 2 2.reinLfta unintelligible. (=80). 16. 1.20! 1. This only exhibits the use of the sexagesimal system.*". etc. taxless we assume the sexagesimal scale.12.25.21 =9 2 . consequential development. = This". not 20 times 100. It is full of historical interest. We have next 1. which have hitherto been found. 9.28. 10/ 20. wl xioh makes 1. The latter was used chiefly in constructing tables for weights and measures. One of them. 2. but cates the acquaintance of the Babylonians with .6 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. But this symbol for 1000 was itself taken for a new unit.gt. but 10 times 1000. denoted. are given asv the squares of the first seven integers respectively.40. . which could take smaller coefficients to its left.24. 3. Most surprising. 3.8. probably written between 2300 and 1600 B. 3. 2. 3 If. is the fact that Sumerian inscriptions disclose the use. The illuminated during the first five days are the series 5. 40. in all probability. From the series becomes an arithmetical progression. then they were. The i tablet records the magnitude of the illuminated portion of moon s disc for every day from new to full moon. the early Sumerians were the inventors of the cuneiform writing. We possess two Babylonian tablets which exhibit its use.4 = 60 + 4. the wlxol being assumed to consist of 240 parts.C. 1. reveals a high degree of mathematical insight. Of the largest numbers written in cuneiform symbols. 10 times 100. 49. 2. 2. . or 1000. 4. 4.62.1 11*.Thus.44.66. 36.4 =8 s . none go as high as a million. also familiar with the notation of numbers. contains a table of square numbers up to 601 The numbers 1. which is a geometrical progression.60 + 1. 1.

each degree representing the daily amount of the supposed yearly revolution of the sun around the earth. it But nothing of the human body could have suggested 60. Cantor offers the following theory At first the Babylonians : reckoned the year at 360 days. requires a symbol for zero. This led to the division of the circle into 360 degrees. to supply the word ". We ask.principle of position". because represents the number of fingers. It may be asked. by virtue of its position with respect to the 4. What led to the invention of the sexagesi mal system ? Why was it that 60 parts were selected ? To this we have no positive answer. for they happen to contain no number in which there was occasion to use a zero.The sexagesimal system was used also in fractions. The Greek geom eter Hypsicles and the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemaeus borrowed the sexagesimal notation of fractions from the Babylonians and introduced it into Greece. The introduction of this principle at so early a date is the more because in the decimal notation it remarkable. The principle of position. the 1 is made to stand for 60. the reader being expected. when they finally yielded their place to the decimal fractions. the unit of the second order.". Thus. 7 Not to be overlooked is the fact that in the sexagesimal nota-. in 1. sixtieths. Thus. in its general and syste matic application. | and | are designated by 30 and 20. was employed. tion of integers the ". From that time sexagesimal fractions held almost full sway in astronomical and mathematical calculations until the sixteenth century. THE BABYLONIANS. very probably. was not introduced till about the fifth or sixth century after Christ. Now they were. Did the Babylonians possess one? Had taken the they already gigantic step of representing by a symbol the absence of units? Neither of the above tables answers this question.4 (=64). Ten was chosen. in the decimal system. in the Babylonian inscriptions. familiar with the . in his mind.

Besides the division of the circumference into 6 parts by its radius. Among the races of middle Asia. was once a great commercial centre. Fixing their attention upon these degrees. subdivision of the degree. in the Oriental mind the intui tive powers eclipse the severely rational and logical. we have nevertheless reason to believe that in practical calculation they used the abacus. Babylon. the division into 60 parts may have suggested itself tp Thus. : they took w = 3. When Alexander the Great. and of the hour into minutes and seconds on the scale of 60. is due to the Babylonians. It appears that the people in the Tigro-Exiphrates basin had made very creditable advance in arithmetic. and it is. which they used in their auguries. Now. Like the Hebrews (1 Kin. Their knowledge of arithmetical and geometrical progressions has already been alluded to. after . Though we possess. 7 23). such as the triangle and quadrangle. and even the invention of the so-called musical proportion.". and that each of these chords subtends an arc measuring exactly 60 degrees. In this way the sexagesimal notation may have originated. fact that the radius can be applied to its cir%umference as a chord 6 times. they had some knowledge of geometrical figures. no trace.8 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. not unreasonable to suppose that her merchants employed this most improved aid to calculation. The division of the day into 24 hours. when greater precision necessitated a them. In geometry the Babylonians accomplished almost nothing. even as far as China. it was partitioned into 60 minutes. The astronomy of the Babylonians has attracted much attention. ".no conclusive proof. the -metropolis of many nations. the abacus is as old as fable. lamblichus attributes to them also a knowledge of proportion. Of geometrical demonstrations there is^ of course. therefore. and into 360 degrees.As a rule. They worshipped the heavenly bodies from tie earliest historic times.

). and have identified by calculations the Babylonian names of the planets. Menes. thy faithful servant.". my lord. . On the first day. These scholars have succeeded in giving an account of the Babylonian calculation of the new and full moon.C. changes ".C. . Mar-Istar. possessed a Babylonian record of eclipses going back to 747 B. Porphyrius says that these were sent to Aristotle.".To the King. I erred not. and builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis. The Egyptians built the pyramids at a very early period. the Alexandrian astrono mer. as translated by Oppert : ". the first king. . yet all authorities agree in the statement that.C.C. Though there great difference of opinion regarding the is antiquity of Egyptian civilisation. they find no uncivilised state of society. Eecently Epping and Strassmaier 4 threw considera on Babylonian chronology and astronomy by explain ble light ing two calendars of the years 123 B.. took possession of Babylon. as I had already predicted to my master the King. and 111 B. 9 the battle of Arbela (331 B. makes a great reservoir. ". Ptolemy. the course of the Wile. Surely a people engaging in . Callisthenes found there on burned brick astronomical records reaching back as far as 2234 B. taken from cuneiform tablets coining. THE EGYPTIANS. from an old observatory. THE EGYPTIANS. however far back they go.C. as the new moon s day of the month Tham- muz declined. the moon was again visible over the planet Mercury. We append part of an Assyrian astronomical report.". presumably. and of the twelve zodiacal signs and twenty-eight normal stars which correspond to some extent with the twenty-eight naksJiatras of the Hindoos.

geometry originated. All Greek writers are unanimous in ascribing. or from indulging in wild conjectures. of Naucratis there was a famous old god whoso name was Theuth. which passed thence to Hellas. and found to be a mathematical manual containing problems in arithmetic and geometry. because there the priestly class had the leisure needful for the study of it. Aristotle says that mathematics had its birth in Egypt.. was deciphered by Eisenlohr in 1877. Plato in Pho&drus says At the Egyptian city : ". had to go to hh^i and notify what had happened. Geometry. lie then sent the overseers.".gt. Diogenes Laertius. lamblichus. A hieratic papyrus. without envy. to Egypt the priority of invention in the mathematical sciences. enterprises of such magnitude must have known something of mathematics at least of practical mathematics. Diodorus. by imposing a tax to be levied yearly. smaller.-y We from introducing additional Greek opinion abstain regarding Egyptian mathematics. such as arithmetic and calculation and geometry and astronomy and draughts 15 and but his great discovery was the use of letters/ dice. and he was the inventor of many arts. this (II. We rest our account on documentary evidottc^. ".Iti this wny/ifc appears to me. and other ancient 5 writers to have originated in Egypt. included in the Rhine! collection of tha British Museum. : divided the land among all Egyptians so as to give each 0110 a quadrangle of equal size and to draw from each Ms revenues. the bird which is called the Ibis was sacred to him.10 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. But every one from whose part the river tore away anything. In Herodotus wo find They said also that this king [Sesostjris] ". is said by Herodotus. in/ proportion to the entire tax imposed. in order that the owner might pay on what was left. It was written by Ataw . who had to measure out by how much th0 land become lxad&. 109) c. in particular.

the equality af the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle. a different way viz. shadow of the pyramid at the moment when the shadow of a staff was 0(jual to its own length.". He is said to have resided there. which took him to Egypt. This solution presupposes a knowledge of proportion and ? the Ahmes papyrus actually shows that the rudiments of proportion were known to the Egyptians.seven wise men.). in his commentaries on Euclid. a pupil of Aristotle. the pyramids were measured by Thales in. A full jdstory of Greek geometry and astronomy during this period. written by Eudenus. has been lost. and to have studied the physical sciences and mathematics with the Egyp tian priests. one of the ". During middle life he engaged in commercial pursuits. who. gives a brief account of it. Plutarch declares that Thales soon excelled his masters. Ac cording to Diogenes Laertius. falls the honour of having introduced the study of geometry into Greece.C. This abstract constitutes our most reliable information. and the congruence of two . by finding the length of the . It was well known to Proclus. The Ionic School To Thales of Miletus (640-546 B. The JSud&mian Summary ascribes to Thales the invention of the theorems on the equality of vertical angles. We shall quote it frequently under the name of Eudemian Summary. According to Plutarch. and amazed King Amasis by measuring the heights of the pyramids from their shadows. the bisec tion of a circle by any diameter. and the founder of the Ionic school. this was dono by considering that the shadow cast by a verti cal staff of known length bears the same ratio to the shadow of the pyramid as the height of the staff bears to the height of the pyramid. THE GREEKS. 17 left behind no written records of their discoveries.

in some of their constructions found in the Ahmes papyrus. Thales may be said to have created the geometry of lines. essentially abstract in its character. 570 B. The Egyptians must have made use of the above theorems on the straight line. empirical in their character.C.) and Anaximenes (b. or the is not known. when thou seest not what ". Egyp tians studied only the geometry of surfaces and the rudiments 8 of solid geometry. while contemplating the stars during an evening walk. is at thy feet ? The two most prominent pupils of Thales were Anaximander (b. He acquired great celebrity by the prediction of a solar eclipse in 585 B.). Whether he predicted the day of the occurrence. while the. The good old woman attending him exclaimed. he fell into a ditch. which others saw. It is told of him that simply year. an explicit. abstract expression.C. It has been inferred that he knew the sum of the three angles of a tri angle to be equal to two right angles.C. but itwas left for the Greek philosopher to give these truths.18 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. ". and to put into scientific lan guage and subject to proof that which others merely felt to be true. They studied chieflyastronomy and physical philosophy. but did not formulate into words. The first to theorem that all angles inscribed in a semicircle are right angles is attributed by some ancient writers to Thales.a the last philosopher of the Ionic pupil of Anaximenes. With Thalesbegins also the study of scientific astronomy. triangles having a sideand the two adjacent angles equal re spectively. Of Anaxagoras. Thales was doubtless familiar with other theorems. by others to Pythagoras.How canst thou know what is doing in the heavens. not recorded by the ancients. The theorem last he applied to the measurement of the distances of ships from the shore. . and the sides of equi 8 angular triangles to be proportional. 611 B. Thus Thales was the apply theoretical geometry to practical uses. and .

Anaxagoras did not ofer any solution of it. he passed his time attempting to square the circle. as compared with its growth in a later epoch of Greek history. a line equal to a given augle. und seems to have luckily escaped paralogisms. indi- eates that geometry was still in its infancy. THE GREEKS. Proclus ascribes to him the solution of the following problems From a point without. except that. and Egyptians. flourished (Enopides of Chios. : to draw a perpendicular to a given line. while in prison. The Ionic school lasted over one hundred years. 19 school.) was one of those figures which /ffmes to such an impressed the imagination of succeeding eitenlt that their real histories have become difficult to be . that rock upon which so many reputations have been destroyed. About the time of Anaxagoras. But the invention of a method to find its exact value. Babylonians. and to draw an angle on. Hebrews. The pt ogress of mathematics during that period was slow. but isolated from the Ionic school. that we find mention of the famous problem of the quadrature of the circle. TJie School of Pythagoras.C.d&a| med through the mythical haze that envelops them. It turns upon the determination of the exact value of IT. That a man could gain a reputation by solving problems so elementary as these. and that the Greeks had not yet gotten far beyond the Egyptian con structions. The jtello^dng account of Pythagoras excludes the most doubtful . This is the first time. A new impetus to its progress was given by Pythagoras. we know little. in the history of mathematics. Pyrthagoras (580 ?-500? B. Approx imations to TThad been made by the Chinese. is the knotty problem which has engaged the attention of many minds from the time of Anaxagoras down to our own.

statements. and natural science. The Pythagoreans themselves were in the habit of referring every discovep". On his return to Samos. but it was a brotherhood. arithmetic is the foundation of his philosophic . Failing in an attempt to found a school there. He was a native of Samos. He then visited the ancient Thales. and our sources of information are rather scanty. mathematics. caused it to becoiae ai* object. ras fled to murdered. visited Babylon. intro duced in imitation of Egyptian usages. Thejr wore l|ad observances ". and find it difficult to determine to whom each particular discovery is to be ascribed. back to the great founder of the sect.20 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and may have. This school grew rapidly and gained considerable political ascendency. and the a*|stooratic tendencies of the school. of suspicion. in the icipal study. This brotherhood masonic peculiarity. and was drawn by the fame of Pherecydes to the island of Syros. he found it under the tyranny of Polycrates. Pythagoras has left behind no mathematical tventtees. The democratic party in Lower Itely revolted and destroyed the buildings of the Pythagorean school* Tarentum and thence to Metapontum.approaching forbidden to divulge the discoveries and doctrines of their school. He sojourned in Egypt many years. This was not merely an academy for the teaching of philosophy. removed to Magna Grsecia in South Italy. mathematics was the that. He settled at Croton. following the current of civilisation. Certain it is Pythagorean school.and founded the famous Pythagorean school. the members of which were united for life. Pythagoras raised mathematics to the taak of a so iencc. Hence we are obliged to speak of the Pythagoreans as a body. Arithmetic was courted by him as fervently ft&*geo$tetYj fact. he quitted home again and. who incited him to stndy in Egypt. But the mystic and secret obseivaaptcfe.

They demonstrated also that the filled by six equilateral plane about a point is completely so that it triangles. To Pythagoras is ascribed the important theorem that the square on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other . 4. I. the geometry of the Pythagoreans . 6. The theorem on the sum of the three angles of a triangle. respectively. icosaedron. given in Euclid s Elements. is due to Euclid himself. because the Pythagoreans believed in the transmigration of the soul and opposed. four squares. The story goes. presumably known to Thales. was proved bythe Pythagoreans after the manner of Euclid. In the later traditions of the !N". up a plane into figures of either kind. Like Egyptian geometry.". and not to the Pythagoreans.Pythagoras changed the study of geometry into the form of a liberal education. octaedron. reans this objection is removed by replacing this bloody sacri fice by that of an ox made of flour The proof of the law ". THE GrKEEKS. the shedding of blood. tetraedron. 21 The Eudemiart Summary says that ". is possible to divide equilateral triangle and From the the square arise the solids. that Pythagoras was so jubilant over this discovery that he sacrificed a hecatomb. His geometry was connected closely with his arithmetic.ofthree squares. two sides/ He had probably learned from the Egyptians the truth of the theorem in the special case when the sides are 3. therefore. ! . namely These solids were. and the the cube. in all probability. or three regular hexagons. He was especially fond of those geometrical relations which admitted of arithmetical expression.eo-Pythago-". for he examined its principles to the bottom. . known to the Egyptians. 47. What the Py thagorean method of proof was has been a favourite topic for conjecture. ismuch concerned with areas. Its authenticity is doubted. and investigated its theorems in an immaterial and intellectual manner.

Philolaus wrote a book on the Pythago* . a Py- thagorean. lamblichus states that Hippasus. The progress from empirical to reasoned solutions must. including the cases ~f defect and excess. and was called by them Health. and earth.". the Pythagoreans invented the prob-* lerns concerning the application of areas. namely the dodecaedron. excepting. It is worth noticing that on the circle no theorem of any importance *wa$ discovered by this school. the icosaedron. air. ". Philolaus and Arckytas aw the most prominent. no* to his earliest successors. The the most beautifttl of all treatment of the subjects of proportion and of irrational quantities by him and his school will be taken up under the head of arithmetic. have been slow. 29. This problem depends upon several important and somewhat advanced theorems. namely. which. Pythagoras called the sphere the most beautiful of all solids. According to Eudemus. yet the school continued to exist at least two centuries longer* Among the later Pythagoreans. ". VI. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. perished in the sea. of necessity. The star- f shaped pentagram was used as a symbol of recognition by the 1 Pythagoreans. fire. they represent respectively the four elements of the physical world. Later another regular solid was/ discovered. some cannot be attributed to Pythagoras himself. and testifies to the fact that t jhe Pythagoreans made no mean progress in geometry.because he boasted that he first divulged the sphere with the twelve pentagons. Of the theorems generally ascribed to the Italian school. perhaps. Though politics broke up the Pythagorean fraternity. water. in absence of a/fifth element. as in Euclid. In Pythagorean philos ophy. . and the circle plane figures. 28. They were with the construction of a polygon also familiar iqual in area to a given polygon and similar to another given )olygon. was made to represent the universe itself.

These mean proportionals were obtained by Archytas from the section of a half-cylinder. and universally admired for his virtues. The iquity. . The brilliant Archytas of Tarentum (428-347 B. The doctrine of proportion was advanced through him. a league was formed among the Greeks liberated Greek cities on fco preserve the freedom of the now bhe islands and coast of the JEgsean Sea. 480 B. His solution involves clear notions on the genera tion of cones and cylinders. There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens. Plato bought the works of Philolaus. Of this league Athens soon became leader and dictator. and had a warm friend in Archytas.. The Sophists acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. and then spent the money of her allies for her own Athens was also a great commercial centre. She caused the to be merged into that of separate treasury of the league Athens. He also found a very ingeni ous mechanical solution to the problem of the duplication of the cube. known as a great statesman and general. Phus she became the richest and most beautiful city of an- All menial work was performed by slaves. THE GREEKS.). By him were given to tlie world tlie first teachings of the Italian school. was the only great geome ter among the Greeks when Plato opened his school.C. This problem reduces itself to findingtwo mean proportionals between two given lines. The Sophist School After the defeat of the Persians under Xerxes at^the battle of Salamis. tggrandisement. which had been kept secret for a whole century. Archy- tas was the first to apply geometry to mechanics and to treat the latter subject methodically.C. 23 rean doctrines.

then in Lower Italy. or ". Nearly all their discoveries were made in connection with their innumerable attempts to solve the following three famous problems : (1) To trisect an arc or an angle. The bisection of an angle was one of the easiest problems in geometry.wise men.e.24 * A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. But the general problem. where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. citizen of Athens was well-to-do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. be educated. Athens soon became the headquarters of Grecian men of letters. The supply came principally from Sicily. to find a square or some other rectilinear figure exactly equal in area to a given circle* These problems have probably been the subject of more discussion and research than any other problems mathe m matics. (2) To ". they also taught geometry. first of all. These teachers were called Sophists.". they accepted pay for their teaching. i.". of elementary geometry. (3) To ". at Athens. Among the firfit . was taken up by the Sophists. Thus there arose a demand for teachers.e. and philosophy.". which had been entirely neglected by the Pythagoreans. Unlike the Pythagoreans. The home of mathematics among the. though easy in appearanee^ tran scended the power. \ The geometry of the circle. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction. double the cube. astronomy. on the other hand. Greeks was first in the Ionian Islands. The trisection of an angle. and of mathematicians in particular. i. A right iwagle had been divided into three equal parts by the Pythagoreans. The government being purely democratic. every citizen was a politician. to find a cube whose volume is double that of a given cube. and during the time now under consideration. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must.square the circle. presented unexpected difficulties.

Hippocrates of Chios (about 430 B. Thoughtless workmen simply constructed a cube with edges twice as long. i. Eratosthenes ascribes to this problem a different origin. he failed in effecting the trisection by means of a ruler and compass only. . a talented mathematician. but otherwise slow and stupid. and born about 460 B.C.". But he failed to find the two mean proportionals. as the inventor of a transcendental curve which served to divide an angle not only into three.C. but into any number of equal parts. He and his disciples searched eagerly for a solution to this ". a contemporary of fco Socrates. THE GREEKS. for though lie made himself celebrated by squaring a kine. Prockts mentions a man. For. Like all the later geome ters. was the first to show that the problem could be reduced to finding two mean proportionals between a given lineand another twice as long. to find the edge of a cube having double the volume of a given cube. contributed much to the geometry of the circle. he committed an error in attempting to apply this result to the squaring of the circle. This same curve was used later by Deinostratus and others for the quadrature of the circle. 25 wrestle withit was Hippias of Blis. lujhis study of the quadrature and duplication-problems. 4 = 2 cfx and a? 3 =2a 8 .Delian Problem. Plato was con sulted on the matter. presum ably Hippias of Elis. The Delians were once suf fering from a pestilence and were ordered by the oracle to double a certain cubical altar. This probably suggested the problem of the duplication of the cube. : since a? = ay 2 and y2 = 2 ax and ce* = a2/. Hippias. On this account it is called the quadratrix. His attempt to square the pircl& was also a failure.). but this did not pacify the gods. The Pythagoreans had shown that the diagonal of a square isthe side of another square having double the area of the original one. The error being discovered. we have a.e. in the proportion a: a? =x : y = y 2 a.

therefore. was used by them in a restricted sense. This publication shows that the Pythagorean habit of secrecy was being abandoned. Proportion had. and on the sides of these triangles erecting new triangles. etc. The subject of similar figures was studied and partly developed by Hippocrates.which eneh. o&f until the circle is finally exhausted. The two notions appeared. thus far. called the Elements. of ".regular polygons of 8.". 64 sides. Ho did himself credit by remarking that by inscribing in a circle a square. Thais is obtained an iTD0 ^e . The Sophist Antiphon.integers. They used the word in the same sense as wo use ". while magnitudes were continuous.". secrecy was contrary to the spirit of Athenian life. one could obtain a succession of . The term ". and oa its sides erecting isosceles triangles with their vertices itt the circumference. Hippocrates added to his fame by writing a geometrical text-book.26 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. entirely distinct. a contemporary of Hippocrates. Not even rational fractions were called numbers. been used by the Greeks only in numbers. In Euclid s Elements we find the theory of proportion of magnitudes developed and treated independent of that of numbers. and so on.incommensurable magni tudes do not have the same ratio as numbers. intro duced the process of exhaustion for the purpose of solving the problem of the quadrature. What we call irrational numbers was not included under this notion. 32. Hence num bers were conceived as discontinuous. The transfer of the theory of proportion from numbers to mag nitudes (and to lengths in particular) was a difficult and important step. They never succeeded in uniting the notions of numbers and magnitudes. approaches nearer to the circle than the pxeviot^.number ". 16. The chasm between them is exposed to full view in the statement of Euclid that ". This involved the theory of proportion..

Antiphon rest of seems to have believed it possible.". Brys0n of Heraclea. It did not suit the rigour of their proofs. to obtain a polygon coin ciding with the circle. there also can be found a square equal to the last polygon inscribed. attempted to show its absurdity by proving that if magnitudes are infinitely divisible.olverons. Since there can be found squares equal in area to any polygon.method of exhaustion. If a polygon can coincide with the circle. and therefore equal to the circle itself. Zeno argues that Achilles could not overtake a tortoise. and while Achilles reached that second spot.gt. process of Antiphon and Bryson gave rise to the The cum brous but perfectly rigorous ". then. This question gave rise to lively disputes in Athens. we must put aside the notion that magnitudes are divisible ad infinitum. motion is impossible.ainar i . In determining the ratio of the areas between two curvilinear plane i|jp. Thus the tortoise was always in advance of Achilles. however.|% s&y/two circles. No wonder they were deterred by such paradoxes from introducing the idea of infinity into their geometry. for while he hastened to the place where the tortoise had been when he started. the Stoic. the tortoise again moved forward a little. a contemporary of Antiphon. the tortoise crept some distance ahead.. Unlike Bryson and the Greek geometers. Such arguments greatly con founded Greek geometers. while Zeno. THE GREEKS* 27 polygon whose sides coincide with the circumference. in assuming that the area of a circle was the arith metical mean between circumscribed and inscribed polygons. says Simplicius.He erred. Aristotle always supported the theory of tihe infinite divisibility. by continually doubling the sides of an inscribed polygon. and so on. advanced the prob lem of the quadrature considerably by circumscribing poly gons at the same time that he inscribed polygons. and then bv infyrAfl. geometers first inscribed or Similar t&.

He used to boast that in the construction of plane figures with proof no one had yet surpassed him.C. we have P&. nearly exhausted the spaces between the polygons and circumferences. Ho was a successful geometer and wrote on incommensurable lines.lt. D $= : : . c.. then P : p=D 2 . Hankel refers this Method of Exhaustion back to Hippo crates of Chios. D and d be respectively the : circles Then if the proportion and diameters in question. as follows Let and c. and an admirer of the Pythagoreans. Abdera in Thrace. &. c f. but the reasons for assigning it to this early writer. Next they proved by this same method of reductio ad absurdum the falsity of the supposition. a friend of Philolaus. P polygon in C. it must be equal to it.gt. IProm the theo rem that similar polygons inscribed in circles are to each othsr as the squares on their diameters. suppose that : 2 c is c If d c. Sicily. &. then a polygon p can be inscribed in the circle c which conies nearer to it in area than does c If be the corresponding f . yet Ionia.gt. which differ but little from the last drawn poly gons. which is absurd. not even . on geometry. must be to each other as the squares on their diameters. Since c can be neither larger nor smaller than. rather than to Eudoxus. But in order to exclude all vagueness and possibility of doubt. Though progress in geometry at this period is traceable only at Athens.). Hone of these works are extant.D. QJE.gt. seem insufficient. He visitedEgypt and perhaps even Persia. the number of sides. We can mention here only Bemociitus of Abdera (about 460-370 B.C. geometers may have divined the theorem attributed to Hippocrates of Chios that the circles. on numbers. c. A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. later Greek geometers applied reasoning like that in Euclid. and Gyrene produced mathematicians who made creditable contribution B to the science. d2 =G : c . D 2 : d2 =C not true. Since j&. XII. that c f &. 2. and on perspective. and P O=p: : c . a pupil of Anaxagoras.gt.

and died in 348. Like them. and science. THE GREEKS. a knowledge of geometry isa necessary preparation for the study of philosophy. 29* the so-called harpedonaptae rope-stretchers of Egypt. he sought in arithmetic and geometry the key to the universe. then to Lower Italy and Sicily.C. TJie Platonic School. and devoted the remainder of his life to teaching and writing. ".. He was a pupil and near friend of Socrates.C.) the progress of geometry was checked.Let no one who is unacquainted with geometry enter here. etrises continually.". By (". Archytas of Tarentum and Timaeus of Locri became his intimate friends. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B. where he came in contact with the Pythagoreans. ". literature.C. was born at Athens in 429 B. but it was not from him that he acquired his taste for mathematics. the year Plato of the great plague. On his return to Athens^ about 389 B.". . After the war. After the death of Soc rates.) this assertion he pays a flattering compliment to the skill and ability of the Egyptians. followed in his master s footsteps. He wentto Egypt.. Accordingly. To show how great a value he put on mathematics and how necessary it is for higher speculation. he founded his school in the groves of the Academia. When questioned about the occupation of the Deity. Athens sank into the background as a minor political power. a successor of Plato as teacher in the Academy. ". Plato travelled extensively. by declining to admit a pupil who had no mathematical training. Plato answered that He geom. Xenocrates. but advanced more and more to the front as the leader in philosophy. Plato placed the inscrip tion over Ms porch. In Cyrene he studied mathematics under Theodoras. Plato s physical philosophy is partly based on that of the Pythagoreans.

and exhibited on every occasion the re markable connection between mathematics and philosophy.an indivis and alength without breadth. ". He filled his writings with mathe ". Many of the definitions in Euclid are to be ascribed to the Platonic school.equals 7 One of the greatest achievements of Plato and his school is the invention of analysis as a method of proof. It is true that the Sophist geometers of the but as a rule previous century were rigorous in their proofs. defined a point as the ". To be sure. for thou hast not the grip of philosophy.unity in position/ but statement of a philosophical theory rather than a definition. like a true philosopher^ turned the instinc . He ". this method had been used unconsciously by Hippocrates and others but Plato. surface. and the geometrical concepts. Plato observed that geometry trained the mind 1 for correct and vigorous thinking.". we need not wonder that the Platonic school produced so large a number of mathemati cians.".". surface. surface.".. such as the point. matical discoveries. the point. or as ".Depart. respectively. With Plato as the head-master. ". Plato did little real original work.30 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. without assigning to them formal definitions. line. The same is probably true of Euclid s axioms.".beginning of a line". but he made valuable improvements in the logic and methods employed in geometry. etc. tive logic into a conscious. The terms synthesis and analysis are used in mathematics in a more special sense than in logic. the boundaries of the line. In ancient mathematics . with the remark. ible line. He called line as ". Hence it was that the Eudemian Summary says. they did not reflect on the inward of their They used the axioms without giving them explicit expression. line. legitimate method. solid. nature methods. Aristotle refers to Plato the axiom that subtracted from equals leave equals. Plato objected to calling a point a geometrical fiction. The Py this is a 7 thagoreans called a point ".

The oldest definition of mathematical analysis as opposed to syn thesis is that given in Euclid. Plato is said to have solved the problem of the duplication of the cube.". To remove all doubt. and Menaeclmius. Eudoxus. for we again reduce it to theworld of sense. consisting of a reversion of all operations occurring in the analysis. 31 they had a different meaning from what they now have. cylinder. It is now generally admitted that the duplication problem. added to the analytic process a synthetic one. 5. Thus the aim of analysis was to aid in the discovery of synthetic proofs or solutions. But the solution is open to the very same objec tion which he made to the solutions by Archytas. as a rule. XIII. These objections indicate either that the solution is wrongly attrib uted to Plato or that he wished to show how easily non-geo metric solutions of that character can be found. unless all operations involved in it are known to be reversible. instead of elevating and imbuing it with the eternal and incorporeal images of thought. He called their solutions not geometrical. and cone were hardly known to . for which reason He always is God. of geometry is set aside and destroyed. The analytic method is not conclusive. . but the prism. the Greeks. for they required the use of other instruments than the ruler and compass. cannot be solved by means of the ruler and compass only. Analysis is the obtaining of the thing sought by assuming it and reasoning up to an so admitted truth synthesis . THE GREEKS. even as it is employed by God. The sphere and the regular solids had been studied to some extent. He said that thereby the good ". but mechanical. which until his time had been entirely neglected. is the obtaining of the thing sought by reasoning up to the inference and proof of it.". Plato gave a healthful stimulus to the study of stereometry. as well as the trisection and quadrature problems. which in all probability was framed by Eudoxus : ". pyramid.

O. which. Another great geometer was Dinostratus. Mensechmus cut three kinds of cones. He was born at Cniclus about 408 B. went with his pupils to Athens. studied under Archytas. the brother of Menaechmus and pupil of Plato. Judging from the two very elegant solutions of the ".Delian. The fame of the academy of Plato is to a large extent due to Eudoxtts s pupils of the school at Cyzicua. raised geometry to the loftiest height which it was destined to reach during antiquity. for two months.C. visit ing Plato. Diogenes Laertius describes Eudoxus as astronomer. and then returned to Cyzicxis. the right-angled/ acute-angled/ and obtuse-angled/ by planes at right angles to a side of the cones. Perhaps the most brilliant mathematician of this period was Eudoxus. Eudoxus had a school at Cyzicus.concentric spheres*". Athensaus. From the fragmentary notices of his astronomical researches.. legislator. and hyperbola. found in later writers. ellipse. by means of the quad- ratri of Hippias. physician. by means of intersections of these curves. and thus obtained the three sections which we now call the parabola. Problem". Ideler and Schiaparolli succeeded in recon structing the system of Eudoxus with its celebrated representa tion of planetary motions by ". He was imbued with a true spirit of scientific inquiry. and later. where ho died 355 B. in course of only a century. and has beea called the father of scientific astronomical observation. invented the conic sections. under Plato. an associate of Plato and pupil of Eudoxus. One result of these inquiries was epoch-making. and Helicon.32 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. All these solids became the subjects of investigation by the Platonic school. Menaechmus. Mensechimis must have succeeded well in investigating their properties. exist. as well as geometer. The Eudemimi Summary . Celebrated is his mechanical solution of the quadrature of the circle. aiaong whom are Meneeclnnus. Dinostratus.

Plato has been called a maker of mathematicians. Eudoxus added much to the knowledge of solid geometry. finally.". on the subject of the section. 33 says that Eudoxus number of general increased the ". no doubt. the ". and are generally attributed to Eudoxus. . Theudius of Magnesia. that a pyramid is exactly one-third of a prism.golden section". aixd raised to a considerable quantity the learning. for Leon to the work wrote an Elements carefully designed. Colophon. By this section is meant. which had been confined to particular cases Hermotimus of . Eudoxus also found two mean proportionals between two given lines. Besides the pupils already named. and Philippus of Mende. who propositions of the Elements discovered many and composed some on loci. The proof that spheres are to each other as the cubes of their radii is probably due to him. Leodamas of Thasos . and. which cuts a line in extreme and mean ratio. the Eudemian Summary men tions the following: Theaetetus of Athens. first theorems. thought to be Proclus. very good book of Elements and generalised propositions. A scholiast on Euclid. who added much of their predecessors. The propositions in Euclid XIII. both in number and who composed a utility of its proofs. the names of Amyclas of Heraclea. He made frequent and skilful use of the method of exhaustion. THE GREEKS. begun by Plato. Cyzicenus of Athens. and a cone one-third of a cylinder. (sectio aurea). Euclid was greatly indebted gifts. Feocleides and his pupil Leon. of which he was in all probability the inventor. no\loubt. first five relate to lines cut by this section. . to which he applied the analyt c ical method. a man of great natural whom. He proved. says Archimedes. having equal base and altitude. added to the three proportions three more. rables . says further that Eudoxus practically invented the whole of Euclid s fifth book. to 8 in the composition of the 10th book treating of incommensu. but the method of solution is not known.

though not a professed mathematician. About his time there appeared a work called Mechanic. of which he is regarded by some as the author.34 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. started out to conquer the world. Aristous wrote also on regular solids and cultivated the analytic method. probably a senior contempo rary of Euclid. Athens produced the greatest scientists and philosophers of antiquity. A skilful mathematician of whose life and works we have no details is Aristaelis.). the son of Philip. forever. In 338 B. The First Alexandrian School. Mechanics was totally neglected by the Platonic school. Alexander the Great. the systematise! of deductive logic. its transference to the Ionian Islands. His works contained probably a summary of the researches of the Platonic school.. The fact that he wrote a work on conic sections tends to show that much progress had been made in their study during the time of Menaechmus. and her power was broken beaten. Wo have witnessed its growth in Greece from feeble childhood to vigorous manhood. thence to Lower Italy and to Athens. and now we shall see it return to the land of its birth and there derive new vigour. It was the timo of Plato and Aristotle. promoted the science of geometry by improving some of the most difficult defini tions. Soon after.C. During her declining years. 8 Aristotle (384-322 B. la eleven years he built up a great empire which broke to pieep ia a day* . the elder. immediately following the Feloponnesian War. Athens was by Philip of Macedon. at the battle of OUf&ronea.C. His Physics contains passages with suggestive hints of the principle of virtual velocities. In the previous pages we have seen the birth of geometry in Egypt.

Ptolemy created the university of Alexandria. Alex andria soon became the great centre of learning. museums. ". the latter of whom mentions him. Ptolemy made Alexandria the capital. The history of Egypt during the next three centuries is mainly the history of Alexandria. says Proclus. Of the life of Euclid. . and art were diligently cultivated. that Euclid was invited with him open the mathematical school.". He collected the Elements. of whom he more than insinuates the opposite character. which soon became ". little is known. 35 fell to the lot of Ptolemy Soter. put in order muchEudoxus had prepared.reigned from 306 to 283 B. THE GREEKS. When Ptolemy once asked him if geometry could not be mastered by an easier process than by studying the Elements. Pappus is evidently making a contrast to Apollonius. to Euclid s greatest activity was during the time of the first Ptolemy.". and promenades. and it is probable. was younger than Plato and older than . and well read in its doctrines. Euclid. 9 A pretty little story is related by Sto- 6 baeus: youth who had begun to read geometry with ". par ticularly toward those who could do anything to advance the mathematical sciences.the noblest of all cities.Eratosthenes and Archimedes. who. Alexander had founded the seaport of Alexandria. the imperfect attempts of his prede cessors. philosophy. He founded the great Library and built labo ratories. Demetrius Phalereus was invited from Athens to take charge of the Library. Pappus states that Euclid was distin guished by the fairness and kindness of his disposition. and was the first who reduced to unob jectionable demonstration. inquired.There is no royal road to geometry. Euclid returned the answer. says Gow. when h had learnt the first proposition. He was of the Platonic sect. completed many that things of Theaetetus. Literature. a zoological garden.C. except what is added by Proclus to the Eudemian Summary.A Euclid.

who lived a century earlier. are still regarded by many as the best In England they ntroduction to the mathematical sciences. him. that the Elements of Euclid. comes from the Pythagoreans. Comparatively few of the propositions and proofs in the Elements are his own discoveries. .lt. called the Elements. that tlie substance of Book VI. In fact. is due to the Pythagoreans and Exidoatufy tlto latter con tributing the doctrine of proportion as applicable to ineom- mensurables and also the Method of Exhaustions (Book VII. an armed Minerva ". At one time Euclid of Alexandria was universally confounded with Euclid of Megara. &. II. Some editors of Euclid have.36 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. from the head of Jupiter. The Greeks gave Euclid the special title of ~ c the author of the . and Theudius. What do I get by learning these tilings ? So Euclid called his slave and said. The fame of Euclid has at all times rested mainly upon his book on geometry. They would have us believe that a finished and unassailable system of geometry sprang at once from the brain of Euclid. Allman conjectures that the substance of Books I. been inclined bo credit him with more than is his due. IV. the proof of tlie Theorem of Pythagoras is the only one directly ascribed to ".Elements". since he must make gain out of what he learns/ These are about all the ".. xre used at the present time extensively as a text-book in schools. This book was so far superior to the Elements written by Hippocrates.). but they are unre liable. written two thousand years ago. It is a remarkable fact in thei xistory of geometry. that the latter works soon perished in the straggle for existence.". Loon. that Thesetetus contributed much toward Books X. ". and XIII. Syrian and Arabian writers claim to know much more. They fail to mention the earlier eminent mathematicians from whom Euclid got his material. Give him threepence. personal details preserved by Greek writers. however.

The text of the Elements now commonly used is Theon s edition. his time. Archimedes. The Elements has been considered as offering models of scrupulously rigoroxis demonstrations. be due to Euclid himself. made Theon the scape goat for all the defects which they thought they could discover in the text as they knew it. later commentators. Many variations from Theon version were noticed therein. as being well-known truths. especially Robert Simson. from a few definitions and axioms. and by logical arrangement of the propositions selected. the father of Hypatia. s but they were not at all important. about 700 years after Euclid. It would be erroneous to believe that he incorporated into his Elements all the elementary theorems known at. By careful selection from the material before him. At the beginning of our editions of the Elements. Peirce to be ". Theon of Alexandria. brought out an edition. are given the assumptions of such . As a consequence. but when examined in the light of strict mathematical logic. 37 that the principal part of the original work of Euclid himself is to be found in Book X. with some altera tions in the text. S. The results are correct only because the writer s experience keeps him on his guard. riddled with fallacies. under the head of definitions. THE GREEKS. he built up. and even he himself refer to theorems not included in his Ele ments. therefore. The defects in the Elements for which Theon was blamed must.". a proud and lofty structure. But among the manuscripts sent by Napoleon I. It is certainly true that in point of rigour it compares favourably with its modern rivals . Apollonius. 8 Euclid was the greatest systema- tiser of his time. who laboured under the idea that Euclid must be absolutely perfect. it has been pronounced by C. from the Vatican to Paris was found a copy of the Elements believed to be anterior to Theon s recension. and showed that Theon generally made only verbal changes.

Tho postulate about parallels plays an important role in the history of non* Euclidean geometry. prism. octaedron. The next three books are on stereometry. but not by Euclid. The eleventh contains its more elementary theorems the .38 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. etc. especially of the triangle and pentagon. be moved about in space without any alteration in form or magnitude. twelfth. parallels This is indeed their proper place. and twelve axioms. of common notions common either to all men or to all sciences. Then follow three postulates or demands. the metrical relations of the pyramid. and not common notions or axioms. eighth. The tenth book treats of the theory of incommensurables. He speaks. There has been much contro versy among ancient and modern critics on the postulates and axioms. of which it is stipposed that Hypsicles and Damasoms are the authors. . The regular solids were studied so extensively by the. notions as the point. An immense preponderance of manuscripts and the ? testimony of Proclus place the axioms about right angles 9 10 and (Axioms 11 and 12) among tho postulates. according to which figures can. and then uses them as faces of the five regular solids namely. line. and two. or on arithmetic.. and some verbal explanations. Tho thirteenth treats of the regular and sphere. icosaedron. cone. ninth on the theory of numbers.Platonists fhfrjfe they . The term axiom 7 was used by Proclus. and dodecaedron. The sixth book develops the geometry of similar figures. the totraedron. The fifthbook treats of the theory of proportion as applied to magnitudes in general. cylinder. instead. The first four books are on plane geometry. for they arc really assump tions. The Moments contains thirteen books by Euclid. In the booksy^re ninth book is found the proof to the theorem that tha number of primes is infinite. The only postulate which Kxiolid missed was the one of superposition. polygons. The seventh. cube.

or to find the G. The Data is a course of practice in analy sis.". a work on spherical geometry and astronomy. which develops the hypothesis that light proceeds from the eye. The following are the other extant works generally attributed to Euclid: Phenomena. 39 received the name of ". like a theorem. It contains little or nothing that an intelligent student could not pick up from the Elements itself. The term porism is vague in meaningl The aim of a porism is not to state some property or truth. containing . . on musical intervals. having completed the Ele ments. is obviously wrong. Ohasles in restoring it from numerous notes found in the writings of Pappus. Thus the theorem that the area of a triangle equals half the product of its base and its altitude is foreign to Euclid. but to find and bring to view a thing which necessarily exists with given numbers or a given construction. are apocryphal. Optics. of two given numbers. nor to effect a construction. treat ing of solid geometry. It seems to have been written for those who. THE GEBEKS. A remarkable feature of Euclid s. as.Platonic figures. to find the centre of a given circle. a work . The statement of Proclns that the whole aim of Euclid in writing the Elements was to arrive at the construction of the regular solids. Hence it contrib utes little to the stock of scientific knowledge. con taining propositions on reflections from mirrors De Divisioni. ftus. like a problem. 6 His other lost works are Fallacies. and of all Greek geometry before Archimedes is that it eschews mensuration. a treatise on the division of plane figures into parts having to one another a given ratio Sectio Canonis. wish to acquire the power of solving new problems proposed to them. Catoptrica. and not from the object seen.D. The fourteenth and fifteenth books. His treatise on Porisms is lost . Another extant book of Euclid is the Data. but much learning has been expended by Eobert Sims on and M.C.

was born in Syracuse. but little is known of them. and Zeuxippus. it is highly probable that he studied in. is probably a fiction. \Archimedes (287?~212 B. Plutarch calls him a rela tion of King Hieronj but more reliable is the statement of Oicero.". however. and.C. exercises in detection of fallacies.40 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in four books. where he made himself useful to his admiring friend patron. Jf No -blame attaches to [the Roman general Marcelltts.by perished in the indiscriminate slaughter which followed.). tJTIxe city was takenlengthait the Romans. rushed upon him and killed him. Ac cording to tradition. studying the diagram bo some problem drawn in the sand. Heiberg believes it to mean ". As a Roman soldier approached him.loci which are surfaces. at the time. he called out. and raised in his honour a tomb bearing the figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder. ". and Loci on a Surface. This belief is strengthened by the fact that he had bhe most thorough acquaintance with all the work previously done in mathematics. who admired his genius. Dositheus. Alexan dria. which are the foundation of a work on the same sub jectby Apollonius. the greatest mathematician of antiquity. by applying his extraordinary inventive genius to the construction of various war-engines. 1 The story that. He returned.Don t spoil my circles. since he was a great friend of Conon and Eratosthenes.". feeling insulted. by the use of mirrors reflecting bhe sun s rays. The soldier. the meaning of which title is not understood. Diodorus says he visited Egypt. by wjbdch he inflicted much loss on the Romans during the siege of Marcellus. King Hieron. to Syracuse. and Archimedes ". when they came within bow-shot of the walls. The immediate successors of Euclid in the mathematical school at Alexandria were probably Conon. he set on fire the Roman ships. who tells us he was of low birth. Conic Sections. When . he was.

2.3^. he starts with an equilateral triangle of which the base is a tangent and the vertex is the centre of the circle. Two books on Floating Bodies.".the circumference of a circle ex- . 96 sides. Fifteen Lemmas. on the ground that it is not evident that a straight line can equal a curved one. To do this. Two books on the Sphere and Cylinder. THE GREEKS. his discoveries in pure science. and by taking the irrational square roots always a little too small. he finally arrived at the conclusion that ?r&. 7. Archimedes was admired by his fellow-citizens chiefly for". The Sand-Counter. Archimedes proves first that the area of a circle equal to that of a is right triangle having the length of the circumference for its b~se. by comparing ratios. 5.every kind of art which was connected with daily needs was ignoble and vulgar-^". j In the book on the Measurement of the Circle. He fir^t finds an upper limit to the ratio of the circum ference to the diameter.". 12. hismechanical inventions he himself prized far more highly . which is. Two books on Equiponderance of Planes or Centres of Plane Gravities. or TT. the Quadrature of the Parabola. He declared that ".lt. and the radius for its altitude. The Measurement of the Circle . 41 Cicero was in Syracuse. finding for each successive polygon its perimeter. 6. lie found the tomb buried under rubbish. between which is inserted his treatise or. Thus he finally concludes that ". Next he finds a lower limit by inscribing in the circle regular polygons of 6. 8. 3. Some of his works have been lost. 4. By successively bisecting the angle at the centre. On Spirals. Conoids and Spheroids. of course. arranged approximately in chronological order : 1. In this he assumes that there exists a straight line equal in length to the circumference an assumption objected to by some ancient critics. 24. The following are the extant books. always less than the circumference. The finding of suct^ a line was the next prob lem. 48.

This approximation is exact enough for most purposes. as some believe.42 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and described in the book On Spirals. } &. 9 . perhaps.all his . was discovered by Archi medes. Nowadays. This was ordered done by Marcellus. The Quadrature of the Parabola contains two solutions to the problem one mechanical. Nowhere is the fertility of his genius more grandly displayed than in his masterly use of this method. and not.". ceeds three times its diameter by a part which. With Euclid and his predecessors the method of exhaustion was only the means of proving propositions which must have been seen anf b&litved before they were : - . J~-Of all his discoveries Archimedes prized most highly those in his Sphere and Cylinder.spiral of Archimedes. of. used the method of exhaustion.". But in the hands of Arehtoete it lecame art instru ment of discovery. In it are proved the new theorems. respectively. that the surface of a sphere is equal to four times a great circle that the surface of a segment of a sphere is . proved. 8 His treatise thereon is. It is believed that he wrote a book on conic sections. the most wonderful of. Archimedes desired that the figure to the last proposition be inscribed on his tomb. the other geometrical. by his friend Conon. Archimedes studied also the ellipse and accomplished its quadrature. equal to a circle whose radius is the straight line drawn from the vertex of the segment to the circumference of its basal circle that the volume and the surface of a sphere are . The method of exhaustion is used in both.lt. works. the volume and surface. the use of the infinitesimal calculus. of the cylinder circum scribed about the sphere. but to the hyperbola he seems to have paid less at tention. subjects of this kind are made easy by . In its stead the aBteients.CThe spiral now called the ". is less than $ but more than f& of the diameter.

Aris totle knew the property of the lever. says Whewell. together with the habits 5 of ^thought which dictated these speculations. holds its place in text-books to this day. Spheroids are produced by the revolution of an ellipse. according to nature. latter contrary to nature. but failed. but could -not establish its true mathematical theory. he says. Aristotle. was ". The book leads up to the cubature of these solids. It entered upon the right path. These inappropriate notions of natural and unnatural motions. given in his Equi- ponderance of Planes. His arithmetical and problems will be consid treatise ered later. We shall now notice his works on mechanics. The radical and fatal defect in the speculations of the Greeks. according as the ellipse revolves around the major or minor axis. Archytas. / We Rave now reviewed briefly all his extant works on geom etry. one in the direction of the tangent and one in the direction of the radius the former motion is. Aristotle asserted that when a body at the end of a lever is moving. The proof of the property of the lever. made the per ception. the ideas 93 were not distinct and appropriate to the facts. 43 By the word conoid/ in his book on Conoids and Spheroids. this science should have remained absolutely stationary till the time of Galileo a period of nearly two thousand years.that though they had in their possession facts and ideas. and are long or flat. His estimate of the efficiency of the lever is expressed in the . it may be considered as having two motions . the . Archimedes isfirst sound knowledge on this the author of the subject. is meant thQ solid produced by the revolution of a parabola or a hyperbola about its axis. and others attempted to form the known mechanical truths into a science. THE GKEEKS. of the true grounds of mechanical properties impos seems strange that even after Archimedes had sible.". For instance.

] The story goes that our philosopher was in a bath when the true method of solution flashed on his mind.". was not alloyed with silver. He is the Newton of antiquity/] Eratosthenes. After examining the writings of Archimedes. It is possible that Archimedes solved the problem by both methods. or the equilib /s ". ! a piece of silver. and calculated from that the amount of gold and silver in the crown. saying attributed to him. in ancient times. silver.lt.44 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Meas urement of the Earthy Comedy. naked. His attention was first drawn to the subject of specific gravity when King Hieron asked him to test whether a crown. and crown. he weighed separately the gold. His many-sided activity may be inferred from his works. Ac cording to one author. Chronology. He was educated in. the JSquiponderance treats of solids. one can well ? understand how. I have ". He immediately ran home. Prom these data he easily found the solution. while immersed in water. and how an Archimedean proof came to be the synonym for i unquestionable certainty. Geography. Archimedes wrote on a very wide range of subjects. found it llo solve the problem. the book 011 Floating Bodies treats of hydro statics. thereby determining their loss of weight in water. and crown respectively. came to mean a problem too deep for ordinary minds to solve. ".While rium of solids. eleven years younger than Archimedes.". each weighing the same as the crown. and I will move the earth. was a native of Cyrene. silver. He wrote on Cfood and Evil. and displayed great profundity in each. shouting. Alexandria under Callimachus the poet. Constel- . an Archimedean problem &.Give me a fulcrum on which to rest. he determined the volume of water displaced by the gold. According to another writer. he took a piece of gold and ". whom he succeeded as custodian of the Alexandrian Library. professed by the maker to be pure gold.

whose genius nearly equalled that of his great prede cessor. He measured the obliquity of the ecliptic and invented a device for finding prime numbers. atPerganmm. was discovered. The next three books were unknown in Europe till the middle of the seventeenth when an Arabic translation. who leigned 222-205 B. The eighth book has never been found. and the Duplication of the Cube. Apollonius was born in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes and died under Ptolemy Philopator. 45 lotions. where he made the acquaintance of that Eudemus to whom he dedicated the first three books of his Conic Sections. Great Geometer. THE GREEKS. In his old age he lost his eyesight. This is all that is known of his life. He incontestably occupies the second place in dis tinction among ancient mathematicians. accused Apollonius . The brilliancy of his great work brought him the title of the ". founded on the introductory lemmas. of Pappus. and for some time/ also. and on that account is said to have committed suicide by voluntary starvation. His Conic Sections were in eight books. In 1710 Halley of Oxford published the Greek text of the first four books and a Latin translation of the remain the ing three. in his life of Archimedes. giving a history of the duplication prob lem and also the description of a very ingenious mechanical contrivance of his own to solve it. He was also a philologian and a poet. together with his conjectural restoration of eighth book. He studied at Alexandria under the successors of Euclid. of which the first four only have come down to us in the original Greek. Of his geometrical writings we possess only a letter to Ptolemy Euergetes. The first four books contain little more than the substance of what geometers had done. Eutocius tells us that earlier of Heraclides. About forty years after Archimedes flourished Apollonius of Perga.C. made century. about 1250.".

12 The firstbook. Instead of calling the three * curves. Euclid. whether right or scalene.". Eutocius quotes Geminus as replying that neither Archimedes nor Apollonius claimed to have invented the conic sections. I whom introduced to you at Ephesus. comes into the neighbourhood of Pergamum. in his Conic Sections. the remaining ones consisted almost entirely of new matter. give it to him also. says Apollonius in his preface to it. having appropriated. the geometer. He pro duced all the sections from one and the same cone. and all his suc cessors down to Apollonius. and that the three sections were obtained each from a different cone. parabola. and by sections which may or may not be perpendicular to its sides. con ". It reads thus : ". We remember that Mensechmus. It is difficult to believe that this charge rests upon good foundation. sections of the^ acute-angled/ right-angled/ and obtuse-angled cone.". more fully and generally worked out than in the writings of other authors. The first three books were sent to Eudemus at intervals. and . The preface of the second book is interesting as showing the mode in which ? Greek books were ( published at this time. the unpublished discoveries of that great mathematician. Aristseus. If Philonides. the other books (after Eudemus s death) to one Attalus. he called them ellipse. I have sent my son Apollonius to bring you (Eudemus) the second book of my Conies. The old names for the three curves were now no longer applicable. considered only sections of right cones by a plane perpendicular to their sides.46 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. but that Apollonius had introduced a real improvement. While the first three or four books were founded on the works of Menaechmus. Apollonius introduced an important generalisation. tains the mode of producing the three sections and the conju gate hyperbolas and their principal characteristics. and Archimedes. Bead it carefully and communi cate it to such others as are worthy of it.

How this property forms the key to the system of the ancients is told in a mas terly way by M. The plane jpassing through the axis. The word ellipse was applied &. the curve. and the term hyperbola &. because y*&.". but they are probably only interpolations. The points in which this plane meets the two sides of this triangle are the vertices of the curve .gt.lt. the word parabola was introduced because y 2 =px. ola and ellipse ? in the works of Archimedes. and the straight line which joins these two points is a diameter of it. is called the triangle through the axis.px. exit s". to be determined as we shall specify later. draw at right angles an ordinate : the square of this ordinate. ". respectively. determines in the circle a diameter the triangle having this . will be equal to the rectangle constructed on the portion of the ordinate comprised between the diameter and the straight . perpendicular the cone along two lines and to* its base.lt. Apollonius supposed the cutting plane to be perpen dicular to the plane of the triangle through the axis. In the formation of his conic sections. for its sides. At one of the two vertices of the curve erect a perpendicular (latus rectum) . and from the extremity of this per pendicular draw a straight line to the other vertex of the curve now. Chasles.lt. 13 says he. comprehended between the diameter and the curve. 47 hyperbola. of a certain length.to the plane of the triangle through the axis. Apollonius called this diameter latus transversum. the straight line drawn from its summit to the centre of the circle forming its base is called the axis of the cone.px. To be sure.Conceive. through any point whatever of the diameter of . THE GREEKS.an cone on a circular base. diameter for its base and the two lines.p being the parameter. oblique ". The treatise of Apollonius rests on a unique property of conic sections.gt. which is derived directly from the nature of the cone in which these sections are found. 2 because y &. we find the words parab &.

as we shall see. The fifth book reveals better than any other the giant . It plays. He also examines a system of two conies. asymptotes. the moderns changed this name first to that of latus rectum. and shows that they cannot cut each other in more than four points. as. The third book treats of the equality or proportionality of triangles. Such is the characteristic property which Apollonius recognises in his conic sections and which he uses for the purpose of inferring from it. when. of which the component parts are determined by portions of transversals. chords. or tangents.". ". and the part of the diameter comprised between the first vertex and the foot of the ordinate. The second book treats mainly* of asymptotes. line. The book of the Conic Sections of Apollonius is almost first wholly devoted to the generation of the three principal conic sections.4:8 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. nearly all the rest. The perpendicular in question was called by them latus erectum. which are frequently subject to a great number of conditions. It also touches the subject of foci of the ellipse and hyperbola. for instance. almost the same rdle as the equation of the second degree with two variables (abscissa and ordinate) in the system of analytic geometry of Descartes. axes. with which to establish their theory of conies. rectangles.It will be observed from this that the diameter of the curve and the perpendicular erected at one of its extremities suffice to construct the These are the two elements curvj|r which the ancients used. Apollonius discusses the harmonic divis ion of straight lines. He investigates the various relative possible positions of two conies. by adroit transformations and deductions. In the fourth book. they have one or two points of contact with each other. or squares. in his hands. and diameters. and afterwards to that of parameter.

The eighth book. The subject investigated is. and to that portion of geometry which considers only the forms and situations of figures. Besides the Conic Sections. The sixth book is on the similarity of conies. Two questions which have occupied geometers of all periods may be regarded as having originated with them. which renders the proofs long and cumbrous. Pappus ascribes to Apollonius the following works: On Contacts. and uses only the intersection of lines and surfaces and the ratios of rectilineal distances. as restored by Halley. The first of these the quadrature of curvilinear figures. The seventh book is on conjugate diameters. 49 intellect of its author. Difficult questions of maxima and minima. of which. Plane Loci. Section of an Area. 13 Chasles. continues the sub ject of conjugate diameters. It is worthy of notice that Apollonius nowhere introduces the notion of directrix for a conic. says M. though he inciden tally discovered the focus of an ellipse and hyperbola. Determinate Section. which was the prelude to the theory of geometrical curves of all degrees. and gives lemmas . THE GREEKS. to find the longest and shortest lines that can he drawn from a given point to a conic. 6 in his Conspicuous geometry is also the absence of technical terms and symbols. Inclinations. which gave is birth to the infinitesimal calculus. These two great divisions of geometry may be designated by the names of Geometry of Measurements and Geometry of Forms and Situa tions. or. marked the most brilliant epoch of ancient geometry. Here are also found the germs of the subject ofevolutes and centres of osculation. Geometry of Archimedes and of Apollonius. he did not discover the focus of a parabola. are here treated most exhaustively. The discoveries of Archimedes and Apollonius. The second is the theory of conic sections. and that. few examples are found in earlier works.

". therefore. during which they paused here and there to look around for details which had been passed by in the hasty ascent.C. : three circles. on the other hand. except that he invented the conchoid (". were needed.high a state of perfection as it perhaps could be brought without first introducing some more general and more powerful method than the old method of exhaustion. Instead of a climb to still loftier heights we observe. claims it as his own. About the life of Perseus we know as little as about that of Nicomedes and Diocles. a Cartesian geometry. The curve can also be used for trisecting angles in a way much resembling that* in the eighth lemma of Archimedes.50 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Nothing definite is known of him.). With aid of the conchoid he duplicated the cube. 3 Among the earliest successors of Apollonius was Mcomedes. The Greek mind was not adapted to the invention of general methods. He some time between 200 and lived 100 B. the inventor of the cissoid (". an infinitesimal calculus. to find a fourth which shall touch the three. Euclid. mussel-like". Two books on De Sectione Rationis have been found in the Arabic. He devised a little machine by which the curve could be easily described.and Apollonius brought geometry to as. from which attempts have been made to restore the lost originals. on the part of later Greek geometers.). contains the so-called Apollonian Problem Given ". About the time of Mcomedes. . as restored by Vieta. Archimedes. a descent. This curve he used for finding two mean proportionals between two given straight lines.ivy-like". A briefer sym bolism. but Pappus. Prom Heron and Geminus we learn that he wjtote a . flourished also Diodes. The book on Contacts. Proclus ascribes this mode of trisection to Nicomedes. The conchoid was used by Newton in con structing curves of the third degree.

the regular is the greatest of all solids . He established inductively the famous theory of epicycles and eccentrics. Probably somewhat later than Perseus lived Zenodorus. were thought out by Perseus. iso- perimetncal figures. . regular polygons. but only as an aid to astronomical inquiry.C. polygons of n sides. in twelve books. the one having the largest number of angles has the greatest area. namely. He wrote an interesting treatise on a new subject. a sort of anchor-ring surface described by Heron as being produced by the revolution of a circle around one of its chords as an axis. Such calculations . THE GREEKS. The sections of this surface yield peculiar curves called spiral sections. the circle has a greater area than any regular polygon of equal periphery of all isoperimetrical . and that he calcu lated a table of chords ". Here are a few of them : Of isoperimet- rical. Fourteen propositions are preserved by Pappus and Theon. but Theon of Alexandria informs us that Hippar- chus originated the science of trigonometry.) was supposed to be the author of both the fourteenth and fifteenth books of Euclid. 51 work omthe spire. according to G-eminus. but recent critics are of opinion that the fifteenth book was written by an author who lived several centuries after Christ. ". No mathematical writings of his are extant. The fourteenth book contains seven elegant theorems on regular solids. which. These curves appear to be the same as the Hippopede of Eudoxus. Hypsicles (between 200 and 100 B. the sphere has TfieT^eatest** volume. A treatise of Hypsicles on Risings is of interest because it is Greek work giving the the first division of the circumference into 360 degrees after the fash ion of the Babylonians. not per se. As might be expected. he was interested in mathematics. Hipparchus of Nicsea in Bithynia was the greatest astron omer of antiquity. having surfaces equal in area.

But no reli recent than able evidence has been found that there actually existed a second mathematician by the name of Herory ". of which there exist three manuscript copies. and that Geodesy.". He exhibited talent of the same order as did his master by the invention of the eolipile and a curious mechanism known as ". Great uncertainty exists concerning his writings. says Venturi. such as the hydraulic organ. ". says Chasles. of a large number of questions in geometry. u thinks that the quite dissimilar.Dioptra. contains the important formula for finding the area of a triangle expressed in terms of its sides .C. of which one only . Dioptra.silence of the ancient writers. ". such as to find the distance between two points. stress on this .52 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. without that some Greek geometer should have thought to cite Marie lays greatit.". Marie Dioptra is the work of Heron the Younger.". another book supposed to be by Heron. About 155 B. is only a corrupt and defective copy of the former work. who was celebrated for his ingenious mechanical inventions. It seems to me difficult to believe. But M. ( The book Dioptra is a treatise on geodesy containing solutions. must have required a ready knowledge of arithm } Sal and algebraical operations.that so beautiful a theorem should be found in a work so ancient as that of Heron the Elder. its derivation is quite laborious and yet exceedingly ingenious.Heron s fountain. It is believed by some that Heron was a son of Ctesibius.". the water-clock. Most au thorities believe him to be the author of an important Treatise on the Dioptra. who lived in the seventh or eighth century after Christ. and catapult. flourished Heron the Elder of Alexandria. and argues from it that the true author must be Heron the Younger or some writer much more Heron the Elder. He was the pupil of Ctesibius. with aid of these ^instruments. were instramejrfs which had great resemblance to our modern theodolites.

53 is accessible. who considered it degrading the science to apply geometry to surveying. The character of his geom etry is not Grecian. or between two points which are visible but both inaccessible . Heron divides complicated figures into simpler ones by drawing auxiliary lines. The writings of Heron satisfied a practical wan^ and for that reason were borrowed extensively by other peoples. but decidedly Egyptian. jU found in the Edfu inscriptions. There are. out entering it. to find the difference of level between two points to measure the area of a field with .i". Heron gives the for a* a* mula ". This fact is the more surprising when we consider that Heron demonstrated his familiarity with Euclid by writing a commentary on the 21 Elements. He wrote also a book. and even in India. We find traces of them in Rome. moreover. now lost. x -. THE GEBEKS. from a given point to draw a perpendicular to a line which cannot be approached. Thus. he shows. in the Occident during the Middle Ages. on the Arrangement of Mathematics. This may account for the fact that his writings bear so little resemblance to those of the Greek authors. points of resemblance between Heron s writings and the ancient Ahmes papyrus. Geminus of Khodes (about 70 B. a special fondness for the isosceles trapezoid. throughout.C. Heron was a practical surveyor.) published an astronomi cal work still extant. which contained many valuable . besides the above exact formula for the area of a triangle in terms of its sides. Some of Heron s formulas point to an old Egyp tian origin. Heron uses them ^oftener than other fractions. which bears a striking likeness to the for- mula i 2 x -^_ 2 for finding the area of a quadrangle. like them. Like Ahmes and the priests at Edfu. Thus Ahmes used unit-fractions exclusively .

very little is known of the history ofgeometry between the time of Apollonius and the beginning of the Christian era. The close of the dynasty of the Lagides which ruled Egypt from the time of Ptolemy Soter. however. The names of quite a number of geometers have been mentioned. had left incomplete.". A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Traders of all nations met in her busy streets. that there were no mathematicians of real genius from Apollonius to Ptolemy. but very few of theirworks are now extant. the absorption of Egypt into the Roman Em pire the closer commercial relations between peoples of the . Froclus and Eutocius quote it frequently. The Second Alexandrian School. museums.to cut a sphere so that its seg ments shall be in a given ratio. Theodosius of Tripolis is the author of a book of little merit on the geometry of the sphere. scholars from the East mingled with those of the West. Unfortunately. in his Sphere and Cylinder. these events were of far-reaching influence on the progress of the sciences. Dionysodorus of Amisus in Pontus applied the inter section of a parabola and hyperbola to the solution of a prob lem which Archimedes. the builder of Alexandria.54 . In consequence of this interchange of ideas the Greek philosophy became fused with Oriental . The problem is ". Alexandria became a commercial and intellectual emporium. Greeks began to study older literatures and to com pare them with their own. spread of Christianity. which then had their home in Alexandria. It is certain. We have now sketched the progress of geometry down to the time of Christ. lecture- halls. :or 300 years . East and of the West the gradual decline of paganism and . and in her magnificent Library. ff notices of the early history of Greek mathematics. excepting Hipparchus and perhaps Heron.

The fundamental theorem of plane trigonome try. The diameter is divided into 120 divisions each of these into 60 parts. that ". Upon these propositions he built up his trigonometry. The Almagest is in 13 books. minutes and seconds. Hence our names. The fact that trigonometry was cultivated not for its own sake.original with him. In Latin. now appended to Euclid VI. The circle is divided into 360 degrees. to trigonometry. was not stated explicitly by him. that two sides of a triangle are to each other as the chords of double the arcs measuring the angles opposite the two sides.". but was contained implicitly in other theorems. But Ptolemy s method of calculating chords seems ". which . Chapter 9 of the first book shows how to calculate tables of chords. each of which is halved. Ptolemy proved the lemma of Menelaus/ and c also the regula sex quantitatum. explains the rather . are again subdivided into 60 smaller parts. The proofs of these theorems are very pretty. These theorems he applied to the calcu lation of his tables of chords. He then shows how to find from the chords of two arcs the chords of their sum and difference. He first proved the proposition. THE GKEEKS. 73 The sexagesimal method of dividing the circle is of Babylonian origin. 57 The foundation of this science was laid by the illustrious Hipparchus. these parts were called partes minutes primce and paries mmutce secundcB. and from the chord of any arc that of its half. (D). Another chapter of the first book in the Almagest is devoted and to spherical trigonometry in particular.the rectangle contained by the diag onals of a quadrilateral figure inscribed in a circle is equal to both the rectangles contained by its opposite sides. and was known to Geminus and Hipparchus. More complete are the proposi tions in spherical trigonometry. biit to aid astronomical inquiry.

the Almagest.58 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. The remaining books of the Almagest are on astronomy. His genius was inferior to that of Archimedes. The only occupant eter appeared after of this long gap was Sextus Julius Africanus.". indicate that Ptolemy did not regard the parallel-axiom of Euclid as self-evident. at a period when interest in geometry was declin ing. made by Proelus. This was originally in eight books. Their favourite study was theory of numbers. He is the author of a Com mentary on Commentary on JSucli& s JSlernents. But living. But no important geom Ptolemy for 150 years. and that Ptolemy was the first of the long line of geometers from ancient time down to our own who toiled in the vain attempt to prove it. says that Pappus objected to the statement that an. a writer of whom nothing is known. Proclus. entitled Cestes. who wrote an unimportant work on geometry applied to the art of war. angle equal to a right angle is always a right angle. Two prominent mathematicians of this time were Nicoma- chus and Theon of Smyrna. as he did. Pappus. The investigations in this science culminated later in the algebra of Diophantus. except one on geometry. Ptolemy has written other works which have little or no bear ing on mathematics. he towered above his contemporaries "..like the peak of Teneriffa above the Atlantic. startling fact that spherical trigonometry came to exist in a developed state earlier than plane trigonometry. -who flourished over 500 years earlier.D. itself The only work of Pappus still extant is his Mathematical Collections. but the firsi . Apollonius. probably bora about 340 A. probably quoting from the Commentary on EiicUd. All these works are lost. in Alexandria. and Euclid. a a Commentary on the Analemma of Diodorm. was the last great mathematician of the Alexandrian school. Extracts from this book.

cuts the screw- surface in a curve. he gives very accurate summaries of the works of which he treats. Mathematicians of the last century considered it possible to restore lost works from the resume by Pappus alone. that pie volume generated by the revolution of a plane curve which lies wholly on one side of the axis. Pappus proved also that the centre of gravity of a triangle is that of another triangle whose vertices lie upon the sides of the first and divide its three sides in the same ratio. the fourth book are new and brilliant proposition^ on the quac|ra- trix which indicate *&& intimate -acqnafitai!K^. making any con venient angle with the base of the cylinder. First of all ranks the elegant theorem re-dis covered by Guldin. The Mathemat ical Collections seems to have been written by Pappus to supply the geometers of his time with a succinct analysis of the most difficult mathematical works and to facilitate the study of them by explanatory lemmas. But these lemmas are selected very freely. and frequently have little or no connection with the subject on hand. The Mathematical Collections is invaluable to us on account of the rich information it gives on various treatises by the foremost Greek mathemati cians. which are now lost. 59 and portions of the second are now missing. THE GBEBKS. We shall now cite the more important of those theorems in the Mathematical Collections which are supposed to be original with Pappus.^ He generates the quadratrix as follows Let a : spiral line be drawn upon a right circular cylinder then the . However.Wifeii curvs^i surfaces. over 1000 years later. A. the orthogonal projection of which upon the base is the quadratrix. In. perpendiculars to the axis of the cylinder drawn from each point of* the spiral line form the surface of a screw. plane A passed through one of these perpendiculars. second mode of generation is . equals the area of the curve multiplied by the circumference described by its centre of gravity.

if we consider that. then this cone cuts the cylinder in a curve of double curvature.problem of Pappus. straight lines at given angles) are drawn from it to the given lines. The perpendiculars to the axis drawn through every point in this curve form the surface of a screw which Pappus here calls the plectoidal surface. suggested the iise of the directrix. It is worth noticing that it was Pappus who first found the focus of the parabola. ijGriven several straight lines in a plane. was then and for a long time afterwards an unsolved problem. such as spher ical triangles.60 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Pappus considers curves of double curvature still further. He solved the problem to draw through three points lying in the same straight line.".* Prom the Mathematical Collections . to find the locus of a point such that when perpendiculars (or? more generally. 8 A question which was brought into prominence jby Descartes and Hewton is the ". although the entire surface of the sphere was known since Archimedes time. complanation ". He then finds the area of that portion of the surface of the sphere determined by the spherical spiral. no less admirable : If we make the spiral of Archimedes the base of a right cylinder. A plane passed through one of the perpendiculars at any con venient angle cuts that surface in a curve whose orthogonal projection upon the plane of the spiral is the required quadra- trix.! and pro pounded the theory of the involution of points. and imagine a cone of revolution having for its axis the side of the cylinder passing through the initial point of the spiral.a which claims the more lively admiration. while the great circle itself revolves uniformly around its diameter. He produces a spherical spiral by a point moving uniformly along the circumference of a great circle of a sphere. to measure portions thereof. the product of certain ones of them shall be in a given ratio to the product of the remaining ones.". three straig% lines wiiich shaft form a triangle inscribed in a given circle.

Simplicius wrote a commentary on Aristotle s De Oodo. which he probably used as a text-book in his classes. is now believed to be the author of the fifteenth book of Euclid. 61 many more equally theorems might be quoted which difficult are original with Pappus as far as we know. however. which is valuable for the information it contains on the history of geometry. disapproving heathen learning. Damascius of Damascus. From now on. Her tragic death in 415 A. is vividly described in Kingsley s Hypatia. We possess only that on the first book. mathematics ceased to be cultivated in Alexandria.D. Proclus. at the Athenian school. The leading subject of men s thoughts was Christian theology. Justinian. and that he may have done the same thing in other cases in which we have no data by which to ascertain the real discoverer. His commen tary on the Almagest is valuable for the many historical notices. THE GREEKS. Theon s daughter Hypatia. The Neo-Platonic school at Athens struggled on a century longer. He brought out an edition of Euclid s Elements with notes. the successor ". of Syrianus. Another pupil of Isidorus was Eutocius of Ascalon. a woman celebrated for her beauty and modesty. the pupil of Tsidorus. In the year 529. It ought to be remarked. finally closed by imperial edict the schools at Athens. Her notes on the works of Diophantus and Apollonius have been lost. that he is known in three instances to have copied theorems without giving due credit. was the last Alexandrian teacher of reputation. and especially for the specimens of Greek arithmetic which it contains.". Proclus. the commentator of Apollonius and Archimedes. . wrote a commentary on Euclid s Elements. and others kept up the golden chain of Platonic succession. and with it pagan learning. Isidorus. and is said to have been an abler philosopher and mathematician than her father. About the time of Pappus lived Theon of Alexandria. Paganism disappeared.

begins with indefatigable perseverance. for the ancient geometers. To devise methods by which the various eases could all be disposed of by one stroke.The determination of the tangents to the three conic sections did not furnish any rational assistance for drawing the tangent to 35 any other new curve. (2) A complete want of general principles and methods. As a rule. ". to crumble the rock slowly into fragments the modern mathe 5 matician appears like an excellent minor. as many different cases requiring separate proof as there were different positions for the lines. such as the conchoid. The greatest geometers considered it necessary to treat all possible cases Independently of each other. from without. from which he then bursts it into pieces with one powerful blast. the geometries of the last 500 years showed a lack of creative power.62 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.If we compare a mathematical problem with a huge rock.". They were commentators rather than discoverers.". into the interior of which we desire to penetrate. etc. was beyond the power of the ancients. ". Ancient geometry is decidedly special Thus the Greeks possessed no general method of drawing tangents. and to prove each with equal fulness. . wlio first bores through the rock some few passages. then the work of the Greek mathematicians appears to us like that of a vigorous stonecutter who. and brings to light the I6 treasures within. the cissoid. In the demonstration of a theorem. with chisel and hammer. there wore. are : principal characteristics of ancient geometry The (1) A wonderful clearness and defmiteness of its concepts and an almost perfect logical rigour of its conclusions.

The abacus. is The oldest Grecian numerical symbols were the so-called Herodianic signs (after Herodianus. which resembled in form the nine Arabic numerals. G-reek mathematicians were in the habit of discriminating between the science of numbers and the art of calculation. In case of large numbers. existed among different peoples and at different tim$s. the pebbles. Plato. An abacus is still employe! by the Chinese under the name of Sivan-pan. who travelled in Egypt and. Like the Egyptians and Eastern nations. The former they called arithmetical. the correctness of this assertion subject to grave doubts. gave considerable attention to philosophical arithmetic. The difference between them is as marked as that between theory and practice. in India. Pythagoras.. Boethius says that the Pytha goreans used with the abacus certain nine signs called apices. ais it is called. But ". 63 GREEK ARITHMETIC. a Byzantine grammarian of about 200 A. We possess no specific information as to how the Greek abacus looked or how it was used.D. those on the second tens. we shall first give a brief account of the Greek mode of counting and of writing numbers. Later. These signs occur fre- . According to tra dition. who describes them). THE GREEKS. those on the third hundreds. Pebbles on the first line represented units. perhaps. but pronounced calculation a vulgar and childish art.". on the other hand. and so on. the latter logistica. the earliest Greeks counted on their fingers or with pebbles. first introduced this valuable instrument into Greece.were probably ar ranged in parallel vertical lines. In sketching the history of Greek calculation. frames came into use/ in which strings or wires took the place of lines. The drawing of this distinction between the two was very natural and proper. in various stages of perfection. Among the Sophists -the art of calculation was a favourite study.

. to prevent confusion. together with three strange and antique letters & 9 and 5). ^ *s * *)e observed that the Greeks had no zero. the alphabet is begun over again. Thus = -$%* /x8". In case of fractions having unity for the numerator. |^|. The coefficient for was sometimes placed M before or behind instead of over the M.000 20. horizontal line A drawn over a number served to distinguish it more readily from words. on that account. ft v M M M etc. inas much as they contained fewer symbols and were better adapted to show forth analogies in numerical operations.lt. and the . symbol M. but. The follow ing table shows the Greek alphabetic numerals and their respective values : 1 2 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 p&.64 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. quently in Athenian inscriptions and are.000 30. Fractions were denoted by first writing the numerator marked with an accent. then the denominator marked with two accents and written twice. 10. the a was omitted and the denominator was written only once. ly tO^nO". for the old Attic numerals were less burdensome on the memory. Thus 43.678 was written SM^yx07?.xVrcw 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 ^/a 900 1000 J 2000 /y 3000 etc. Thus. This change was decidedly for the worse.lt. For some unknown reason these sym bols were afterwards replaced by the alphabetic numerals. now generally called Attic.000 It will be noticed that at 1000. in which the letters of the Greek alphabet were used.TTV&. a stroke placed before is now the letter and generally somewhat bolow it.

but he gives no clue to the method &.and VS &. 1000 ed. except that sexagesimal fractions are employed of our decimals. and even multiplication were probably performed on the abacus. He states. 3600. Thus Eutocius. Pappus. We have seen in geometry that the more advanced mathe maticians frequently had occasion to extract the square root. gives a great many multipli 6 cations of which the following is a specimen : The operation is ex 265 by the plained sufficiently 265 modern numerals append 8 a In case of mixed MM 40000. 12000. the process was 12000. Divis 1000.lt. It is not im probable that the earlier Greek mathematicians found the square root by trial only. As might be expected. 25 ions are found in Theon of Alexandria s commen M cr/c e 70225 tary on the Almagest. Thus Archimedes in his Mensuration of the Circle gives a large number of square roots. by which he obtained these approximations. Expert mathematicians may have used the symbols.gt. 300. THE GBEBKS. 17 Of interest. Theon s is the only ancient method known to us. subtraction. that V3 l^y. in connection with arithmetical symbolism. Addition. an essay addressed by Archi- . for instance. the process is long and tedious. 65 Greek writers seldom refer to calculation with alphabetic numerals. Theon. a commentator of the sixth century after Christ. Eutocius say^ that the method of extracting given by Heron. numbers. is the Sand-Counter (Arenarius). It is the same as the one used nowa in place days. f -f-f. What the mode of procedure actually was when sexagesimal were not used. lias been the sub fractions ject of conjecture on the part of numerous modern writers. and other it wsts commentators on the Almagest. 300 still more clumsy.

know not whom to thank for an invention of such importance to the general progress of 6 intelligence. Assuming that 10. having the distance from the earth scentre to the fixed stars for its radius. the number cannot be expressed by arithmetical symbols. com prehensive symbolism. was reserved by tho irony of fate for a namdcBB Indian of an unknown time. would contain a number of grains of sancl less than 1000 myriads of tho eighth octad.Pappus that Apollonius proposed an improvement in the Greek method o writing numbers. Supposing the universe to reach out to the fixed stars. In our notation. Thus we see that the Greeks never possessed tho boon of a clear. king of Syracuse. he finds that the sphere. In it Archimedes shows that people are in error who think the sand cannot be counted.000 diameters of the earth. It can hardly be cioubtod that one object which Archimedes had in view in making this calcula tion was the improvement of the Greek symbolism. and that the latter be less than 1. this number would be 10 or (I3 1 with 63 ciphers after it. and we.000 grains of sand suffice to make a little solid of the magnitude of a poppy-seed. Archimedes finds a number which would exceed the number of grains of sancl in the sphere of the universe. once for all. assuming further. that the diameter of the universe (supposed to extend to the sun) be less than 10.000 stadia. . He shows that the number of grains in a heap of sand not only as large as the whole earth. can be arithmetically expressed. It is not known whether he invented some short notation by which to represent the above number or not. We judge from fragments in the second book of ". He goes on even further.000. The honour of giving suoli to the world. medes to Gelon. or that if it can be counted.66 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. but its nature wo do not know. and that the diameter of a poppy-seed be not smaller than ^part of a finger s breadth. but as large as the entire universe.

however. then his Arithmetica is the earliest treatise on algebra now extant. It must be remarked. This is applied to the multi plication of differences. but which generally suggest some stratagem by which r^lues can be secured satisfying all the conditions of the &. in which 2 x could not be smaller than 10 without leading to an absurdity.roblem. ?. are with Diophantus the simplest consequences of the algebraic laws of operation. In this work is introduced the idea of an algebraic equation expressed in algebraic symbols. In the solution of simultaneous equations Diophantus adroitly managed with only one symbol for the unknown quantities and arrived at answers. 75 suggestions of algebraic notation. THE GREEKS. that Diophantus had no notion whatever of negative numbers standing by themselves. and sometimes ignored even these by describing an oper ation in words when the symbol would have answered just as well. His treatment is purely analytical and completely divorced from geometrical methods.". He is. ber gives a positive number. Diophantus used but few sym bols. such as (x l)(x 2).gt. He appears to be the first who could perform such operations as (x 1) x(x 2) without reference to geometry.+which + with Euclid appear in the ele vated rank of geometric theorems. that satisfy only one or two of the conditions. most commonly. the first to state that a negative number multiplied by a negative num ". and of the solution of equations. such as (2 x 10). Such identities as (a + 6) 2 a 2 = 2 ab 6 2 . These values lead to expressions palpably wrong. All he knew were differences. quantities he had only one symbol. He had no sign for addition except juxtaposition. His sign for subtraction was ^/. which consists in assigning to some of the unknown quantities preliminary values. by the method of tentative assumption. for equality For unknown i. . as far as we know.

Another point to be observed is that he never accepts as an answer a quantity which is negative or irrational. B$s + d = y*. 84 x2 + 7 x = 7. (7= f and Ax2 +Bx+ (7= . The remaining. whence x is found = ". (2) Eor the double equation of the second degree he has a definite rule only when the quadratic term is wanting in both expressions : even then his solution is not general. We are ignorant of Ms method. even when both roots are positive.&2 +JS& 4-0=?/2 or of two simultaneous equations of the . namely. in his wonderful ingenuity to re duce all sorts of equations to particular forms which ho knoW Jiow to solve. that this same inability to perceive more than one out of the several solutions to which a problem may point is common to all Greek mathematicians. same form. Notice he gives only one root. as stated by Gow. is : degree are treated completely only when the quadratic or the absolute term is wanting: his solution of the equations Ax*-\. Diophantus also solved determinate equations of the second degree.". The opinion of Nesselmann on the method of Diophantus. Very great the variety of problems considered! is The 130 problems found in the great work of Diophantus COB/- . he solves B% + C = 2 ?/ .?/ 2 is in many respects cramped. for he nowhere goes through with the whole process of solution.". how ever.books extant treat mainly of indeterminate quadratic equations of the form J. Thus. rather surprises us. He considers several but not all the possible caseswhich may arise in these equations. 2 The extraordinary ability of Diophantus lies rather in another direction. as follows (1) Indeterminate equations of the second ". His failure to observe that a quadratic equatioti has two roots. It must be remembered.76 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Diophantus devotes only the first book of his Arithmetica to the solution of determinate equations. . Thus. but merely states the result. More com plicated expressions occur only under specially favourable circumstances.

But in mathematics he did not even rise to the desire for imitation. In spite of these defects we cannot fail to admire the work for the wonderful ingenuity exhibited therein in the solution of particular equations. The mathematical fruits of Greek genius lay before him untasted. had to begin the study of indeterminate analysis anew and received no direct aid from Diophantus in the formulation of methods. after studying 100 Diophantine solutions. That which robs his work of much of its scientific value is the fact that he always feels satisfied with one solution. THE ROMANS* 77 tain over 50 different classes of problems. Nowhere is the contrast . In him a science which had . poetry. Mod ern mathematicians. but that of the Eoman a period of sterility. difficult for a modern. which. to solve 7 the 101st. ". The sway of the Greek was a flowering time for mathematics. therefore. La Grange.". which is often useless for the most closely related problems. It is still an open question and one of great difficulty whether Diophantus derived portions of his algebra from Hindoo sources or not. though his equation may admit of an indefinite number of values. THE BOMANS. and art the Eoman was an imitator. such as Euler. But still more multifarious than the problems are the solutions. Each problem has its own distinct method. are strung together without any attempt at classification.It is. General methods are unknown to Diophantus.between the Greek and Eoman mind shown forth more distinctly than in their attitude toward the mathematical science. Another great defect is the absence of general methods. Gauss. In philosophy.

In the designation of large numbers a horizontal bar placed over a letter was made to increase its value one thousand fold. who. In fact. Many other passages from Roman authors point out the use of the fingers as aids to calculation. As a consequence. the number of days in a^ year. for he had erected.78 A HISTOJEtY OF MATHEMATICS. as well as the practical geometry of the Romans. the principle of subtraction. A less primitive mode of designating numbers. What little mathematics the Romans pos sessed did not come from the Greeks. and by tables prepared for the purpose. If a . but even the Elements of Euclid. Of arithmetical calculations. the fact that a principle is involved in it which is not met with in any other namely. were en tirely neglected. ". says Pliny. presumably of Etruscan origin. at the earliest period to which our knowledge of them extends. 8 Finger-symbolism was known as early as the time of King Nuina. inhabited the district between the Arno and Tiber. and that the Romans continued this practice. the Romans cm ploy od three different kinds : Reckoning on the fingers. upon the abacus. a finger- symbolism of practically the same form was in use not only in . Exactly where and how originated a matter of it is doubt. its value is not to be added to. Livy tells us that the Etruscans were in the habit of repre senting the number of years elapsed.". was a notation resembling the present Roman notation. that of the greater. This system is noteworthy from ". but subtracted from. of which the fingers indicated 305 (355?). seems most probable that the It Roman notation. not only the higher geometry of Archimedes and Apollonius. but from more ancient sources. no direct bearing on practical life could awake no interest.". In fractions the Romans used the duodecimal system. came from the old Etruscans. letterbe placed before another of greater value. a statue of the double-faced Janus. by driving yearly a nail into the sanctuary of Minerva.

His tables contain a peculiar notation for fractions. 79 Bonie. To obviate this difficulty. and continued to be used in Europe during the Middle Ages.D. Each column was supplied with pebbles (calculi. have been beyond the power of the ordinary arithmetician. Tables of this kind were prepared by Victorius of Aquitania. It happens that twins are born. was a subject of elemen tary instruction in Borne. Especially unique is the following : A dying man wills that. but also in Greece and throughout the East. being with child. but in multiplication the abacus could be used only for adding the particular products^ and in division for performing the subtractions occurring in the process. gives birth to a son. Victorius is best known for his canon pascJialis. which he published in 457 A. covered with dust and then divided into columns by drawing straight lines. But the multiplication of large numbers must. a rtiterftrr finding the correct date for Easter. from which the desired products could be copied at once. a boy and a girl. the son shall receive f and she of -j- his estates . Doubtless at this point recourse was made mental operations and to the mul to tiplication table. certainly as early as the beginning of the Christian era. Possibly finger-multiplication may also have been used. by either method. Payments of interest and problems in interest were very old among the Bomans. but if a daughter is born. The Roman laws of inheritance gave rise to numerous arithmetical examples. which continued in use through out the Middle Ages. 3 3 Addi tions and subtractions could be performed on the abacus quite easily. The second mode of calculation. Passages in Eoman writers indicate that the kind of abacus most commonlyuseiTwas". . by the abacus. possess no We knowledge as to where or when it was invented. if his wife. she shall receive $ and his wife -|. the arithmetical tables mentioned above were used. THE KOMANS. whence cal- culare and calculate ) which served for calculation.

laidout irregularly. consisted only of empirical rules. being one of the sides) But the latter area was also calculated . 7 Whatever Egyptian geometry the Romans possessed was transplanted across th Mediterranean at the . theorems. Treatises thereon have come down to us. with definitions. and proofs arranged in logical order. axioms.. { Among the latter is that for finding the area of a triangle from its sides and the approx imate formula. and as though a deluge were lying between the two. We next consider Eoman geometry. This Egyptian formula was used by the Romans for finding the area. decided that the estates shall be divided into seven equal p&its.The total impression is as though the Eoman gromatic were thousands of years older than Greek geometry. will be disap pointed. for the determina- 2 2t tion of the surface of a quadrilateral. not only of rec tangles. are identical with those of Heron. the first of which was 2 unknown to Heron. ". the groma- tici considered it eveii sufficiently accurate to determine the areas of cities. called agrimensores or gromatici. simply by measuring their circumferences. to be abstracted by the reader from a mass of numerical exam ples. son receives four. like the old Egyptian. How shall the estates be divided so as to satisfy the will? The celebrated Eoman jurist. Probably the expression. Indeed. which. but of any quadrilaterals whatever. -|-| a 2 for the area of equilateral triangles (a . One would naturally expect rules to be clearly formulated. But no they are left . the wife two. compiled by the Roman sur veyors. of which the. but others ".80 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. i.". This practical geometry was employed in surveying. 2 2 by the formulas -J-(a +a) and -|a . |a was derived from the Egyptian formula ii-r. He who expects to find in Koine a science of geometry. the daughter one. Salvianus Julianus. The only geometry known was a practical geometry. Some of their rules were probably inherited from the Etruscans.

but a Liliputian by the side of Greek masters. Odoacer. the Western Empire passed away. THE KOMANS. he was imprisoned. and the province of Africa broke off from the decaying trunk. who ordered a survey of the whole empire iso secure an equitable mode of taxation. While in prison he wrote On the Consolations of Philosophy.the twelfth century. He secured the services of the Alexan drian astronomer. from the fact that. being charged by envious courtiers with treason. How can this omission of proofs be accounted for ? It has been argued by some that Boethius possessed an incomplete Greek copy of . the theorems in the first three books. It is remarkable that . and at last decapitated. In 476. Soon after. became king. As a mathematician. Three great branches Spain. in addition to definitions. Sosigenes. Boethius was a Brobdingnagian among Eoman scholars. He wrote an In stitutis Arithmetica. without proofs. but later. postulates. but are of absorbing interest. In the fifth century. down to . and a Geometry in several books. for that purpose. drew from Egyptian learning.reformed Hh e calendar. and axioms. Ceesar also . These compilations are very deficient. which con tains. Gaul. 81 time of Julius Ccesar. At he was a great favourite of King first Theodoric. School-books began to be compiled from the elements of Greek authors. they were the only sources of mathematical knowledge in the Occident. The first book on geometry is an extract from Euclid sElements. and. and the Visigothic chief. Italy was conquered by the Ostrogoths under Theodoric. which is essentially a transla tion of the arithmetic of ISTicomachus. Eoremost among these writers is BoetMus (died 524). this very period of political humiliation should be the one during which Greek science was studied in Italy most zeal ously. the Western E/oman Empire was fast falling to pieces. Some of the most beautiful results of Mco- machus are omitted in Boethius arithmetic.

Pebbles are discarded. century. The second book. The is not mentioned by Boethius in the text. from numerical examples. and apices (probably small cones) are used. that the apices were known to the Greeks. or that numeral signs of any sort were used by them with the abacus. Upon each of these apices is drawn a numeral giving it some value below 10. A second theory is that the Geometry attributed to Boethius is a forgery that it is not older than the tenth. moreover. nor is there any evidence in any Greek author. the ninth. apparently. These figures are obviously the parents of our modern ". This hypothesis has been generally abandoned. But . which he attributes to the Pythago reans. that the Indian signs. This theory is based on contradictions between pas sages in the AritJimetica and others in the Geometry. 82 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. by a later hand. from which the apices are derived. and that the apices are derived from the Arabs.Arabic". while the proofs were supplied by Theon. The names of these numerals are pure Arabic. teaches. which are admittedly of Indian origin. A considerable improvement on the old abacus is there introduced. the Elements. where the Pythagoreans used them secretly. These numerals bear striking resemblance to the Gubar-numerals of the West- Arabs. It is improbable. A celebrated portion in the geometry of Boethius is that pertaining to an abacus. or nearly so. for it is not certain that Pythagoras or any disciple of his ever was in India. or possibly . but are added. as also other books on geometry attributed to Boethius. the mensuration of plane figures after the fashion of the agriniensores. that he had Theon s edition before him. by others. These facts have given an endless controversy. and believed that only the theorems came from Euclid. numerals. and from there brought the nine numerals to Greece. are so old as the time of Pythagoras. Some contended rise to that Pythagoras was in India.

and to the Western Arabs on the other. THE ROMANS. / This explanation is the most plausible. 83 there is an Encyclopaedia written by Gassiodorius (died about 570) in which both the arithmetic and geometry of Boethius are mentioned. . is that the Alexandrians either {L third theory (Woepcke s) directly or indirectly obtained the nine numerals from the Hindoos.. about the second century A. and gave them to the Romans on the one hand.D. There appears to be no good reason for doubt ing the trustworthiness of this passage in the Encyclopaedia.

to the Aryan race. Again. THE first people who distinguished themselves in mathe matical research. The only castes enjoying the privilege and leisure for advanced study and thinking were the Brahmins. 84 . Indian society was fixed into castes. but an Asiatic nation. however. the Indians were in the habit of putting into verse all mathematical results they obtained. and was studied for its own sake. It would seem that Greek mathematics grew up under more favourable conditions than the Hindoo. and the IZshatriyas. MIDDLE AGES. who attended to war and government. A few manuscripts bear testimony that the Indians had climbed to a lofty height. Unlike the Greek. as in Egypt. whose prime business was religion and philosophy. and had its seat in far-off India. It was. for in Greece it attained an independent existence. free to be cultivated by all who had a liking for it . in India. while Hindoo mathematics always remained merely a servant to astronomy. not a Euro pean. in Greece mathematics was a science of the people. it was in the hands chiefly of the priests. THE HINDOOS. after the time of the ancient Greeks. and of clothing them in obscure and mystic language. Furthermore. Of the development of Hindoo mathematics we know but little. like them. but their path of ascent is no longer traceable. belonged.

the Indian was first of all arithmetical The Hindoo dealt with number. Hindoo trigonometry might possibly be mentioned as an exception. On the other hand. Numerical symbolism. . by way of Alexandria. After Egypt had become a Eoman province.well adapted to aid the memory of him who already understood the subject. that with the traffic of merchan dise there should also be an That interchange of ideas. Very striking was the difference in the bent of mind of the Hindoo and Greek for. though ". itdoes not seem improbable. the science of numbers. is evident from the fact that . the Greek with form. show unmistakable likeness to . communications of thought from the Hindoos to the Alexan drians actually did take place. and proofs belonged to ihe stock of knowledge quite as much as/fthe theorems themselves. BuT it rested on arithmetic more than on geometry. and algebra attained in India far greater perfection than they had previously reached in Greece. we believe that thei^e was little or no geom etry in India of which the source may not be traced back to Greece. Very different in these respects were the Greeks. Obscurity of language was generally avoided. 85 which. a more lively commercial intercourse sprang up between Rome and India. so that the naked theorems and processes of operation are all that have come down to our time. Although the great Hindoo mathematicians doubtless reasoned out most or all of their discoveries. certain philosophic and theologic teachings of the Manicheans. An interesting but difficult task is the tracing of the rela tionbetween Hindoo and Greek mathematics. A priori. was often unintelligible to the uninitiated. while the Greek mind was pre-eminently geometrical. yet they were not in the habit of preserving the proofs. It is well known that more or less trade was carried on be veen Greecel and India from early times. THE HINDOOS. Gnostics. Teo-Platomsts.

His celebrity rests on a work entitled Aryabhattiyam. while in their pet science of astronomy they displayed an inaptitude to observe. for India had no mathematicians proper. there appears deep irony in the fact that these secondary branches were after all the only ones in which they won real distinction.. and to the writings of Heron in particular. probably. Aryabhatta is the earliest.gt. We shall consider the science only in its complete state. In algebra there was. Hindoo astron omy was influenced by Greek astronomy. of which the third chapter is devoted to mathematics.. We suspect that Diophantus got the first glimpses of algebraic knowledge from India. at Pataliputra. He was born 476 A. Weshall now proceed to enumerate the names of the leading Hindoo mathematicians. to collect facts. and then to review briefly Indian mathematics. on the upper Ganges. a mutual giving and receiving. Of the great Indian mathematicians. Most of the geo metrical knowledge which they possessed is traceable to Alexandria. for our data are not sufficient to trace the history of the development of methods. At that time flourished Brahraagupta (born 598). The earliest knowledge of algebra in India may possibly have been of Babylonian origin. evidences have been found of Greek algebra among the Brahmins.r&. or rather. About one hundred years later. astronomers. In 628 he wrote his Brahma-sphutOrSiddhanta (". Scientific facts passed also from Alexandria to India. of which the twelfth and eighteenth chapters belong to mathematics. mathematics in India reached the highest mark. This shown plainly by the Greek origin of some is of the technical terms used by the Hindoos. To the fourth or fifth century belongs .86 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Indian tenets. On the other hand.). and to make inductive investigations. When we consider that Hindoo scien tists looked upon arithmetic and algebra merely as tools useful in astronomical research.The Revised Sys tem of Brahma".

". The following centuries produced only two names of impor tance. Conn. namely. From now Hindooson. for a work entitled Siddhantaciromani (". and Padmanabha. the noble science) and Viga-ganita (= ". is the invention of the principle of position in writing numbers. be called the ".Hindoo". of all mathematical inventions. The science seems to have made but little progress at this time . D. and in modern times a very deficient Arabic work of the sixteenth century has been held in great authority/ The mathematical chapters of the BraJima-siddhanta and Siddhantaciromani were translated into English by H. which by native authorities was ranked second only to -the Brahma-siddJianta. The two most important mathematical chapters in this work are the Lilavati ( = ".). but is of in terest to us merely as furnishing evidence that Greek science influenced Indian science even before the time of Aryabhatta. Generally we of our notation the Arabic notation.. the in the Brahmin schools seemed to content themselves with studying the masterpieces of their predecessors.).e.the beautiful. stands little higher than that of Brahmagupta. That the invention of this notation was .Knowledge from the Sun". New Haven. 87 an anonymous astronomical work. written over 500 years earlier. T. has contributed most to the general progress of intelligence. 1817. de voted to arithmetic and algebra. Burgess. and annotated by W. the author of an 3 algebra.). r The grandest achievement of the Hindoos and the one which. for the Arabs borrowed it \rom the Hindoos. Whitney. speak as ". Cridhara. The Surya-siddhanta was trans lated by E. THE HINDOOS. Colebrooke. who wrote a Ganita-sam (". 1860. notation.Quintes sence of Calculation ).Diadem of an Astronomical System written by Bhaskara Acarya in ".root-extraction". i. called Surya-siddhanta (". Scientific intelligence decreases continually. but it should ". London. 1150.

they were probably known to Aryabhatta. and when? But we know neither the inventor nor the time of invention. imperfect numerals of India. and also one for 1000.like it. nine others for the tens. in the second chapter. These 20 characters enabled them to write all the numbers up to 9999. That our system of notation is of Indian origin is the only point of which we are certain. This view receives support from the fact that on the island of Ceylon a notation resembling the Hindoo. 20. for. -who invented this ideal symbolism. It seems highly probable. but without the zero has been pre served. 7. while it made progress on the continent.88 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he gives directions for extracting the square and cube roots. nine figures were used for the units. 5. 100. and that this culture remained stationary there. 8725 would have been written with six signs. There is a marked resemblance between the notation of Ceylon and the one used by Aryabhatta in thefirst chapter of his work. not even the keen-minded Greeks possessed one. of other nations. Although the zero and the principle of position were unknown to the scholars of Ceylon. : These Singhalesian signs. From the evolution of ideas in general we may safely infer that our notation did not spring into existence a completely armed Minerva from the head of Jupiter. then. like the old Hindoo numerals. which seem to indicate a knowledge of them. that the numerals of Ceylon are the old. In Ceylon. and there only. not so easy as we might suppose at first thought. The nine figures for writing the units are supposed to have been introduced earliest. We know that Buddhism and Indian culture were transplanted to Ceylon about the third century after Christ. We inquire. 1000. Thus. and the sign of zero and the principle of position to be of later origin. may be inferred from the fact that. are supposed originally to have been the initial letters of the corre sponding numeral adjectives. . representing the following numbers 8. one for 100.

thus be more easily remembered. when placed one against the other. but by generally were not expressed by objects suggesting the particular numbers in question. Of interest is also a symbolical system of position^ in which the figures numerical adjectives.917. he was asked whether he could determine the number of primary atoms which. In arithmetic. The number 1. they tell us of an examination to which Buddha.828 is follows: Vasu (a class of 8 expressed from right to left as gods) + two + eight -f mountains (the 7 mountain-chains) + form + digits (the 9 digits) + seven + mountains + lunar days (half of which equal 15). the reformer of the Indian religion. for 1 were used the words moon. illustrates the idea. or form. taken from the Surya- siddJianta. . in order to win the maiden he loved. (because divided into four parts) it is or ocean. Brahma. The se are the inventions which give the Hindoo system its its admirable perfection. At an early period the Hindoos exhibited great skill in calculating. not in principle. great superiority. but merely in the forms of the signs employed. 89 It would appear that the zero and the accompanying principle of position were introduced about the time of Aryabhatta. Thus. after having astonished his examiners by naming all the periods of numbers up to the 53d.577. The use of such notations made it possible to represent a number in several different ways. which differed. This greatly facilitated the framing of verses con which could taining arithmetical rules or scientific constants. the words Feda. had to submit.even with large numbers. The following example. There appear to have been several notations in use in different parts of India. Creator. 7 of these make a minute grain of dust. for 4. Buddha found the 7 primary atoms make a very required answer in this way : minute grain of dust. would form a line one mile in length. when a youth. etc. THE HINDOOS. Thus.

4 4. 5-9 = 45. say 569 by 5. Thus. The multiplication of all the factors gave for the multitude of primary atoms in a mile a number con sisting of 15 digits. they first multiplied. The product is 2845. Or they would say. hence the must be increased by 4. The Hindoos were generally inclined to follow the motion from left to right. they would have added 254 and 663 thus 2 + 6 = 8.3 = 7. Thus he proceeded. In the multiplication with each other of many-figured numbers. 8 from 11 = 3. with a cane-pen upon a small blackboard with a white. figuring was made much easier. 5 from 12 = 7. 4 from 8=4. 5-6 = 30. and made the necessary corrections as they proceeded. 8 from 11*= 3. and replacing them by new ones. whenever necessary. as the process continued. 3 from 7 = 4. 5-5 = 25. 4 from 11 = 7. with the left-hand digit of the multi plier. 7 After the numerical symbolism had been perfected. they added the left-hand columns first. step by step. 7 of tJiese a grain of dust whirled up by the wind. the product was not placed in a new row. 5 + 6 = 11. and so on. . In subtraction they had two methods. which was written above the multiplicand. Wo who possess the modern luxuries of pencil and paper. the old digits. which changes 25 into 28. but the first product obtained was corrected. until finally the whole product was obtained. by erasing. Many of the Indian modes of operation differ from ours.90 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Thus in 821 348 they would say. On multiplying with the next digit of the multiplier. 3?or instance. Hence the sum 917. This problem reminds one of the Sand- Counter of Archimedes. as with us. would not be likely to fall in love with this Hindoo method. : which changes 8 into 9. until he finally reached the length of a mile. But the Indians wrote ". they generally said. in the manner just indicated. and placed the product above the multiplier. In multiplication of a number by another of only one digit. as in writing.

". or green unknown. Another important generalisation. division. 93 Passing now to algebra. by writing Tea. to each a name and symbol.". quantities occurred.the product". Tea 15 Tea 103 ". x times y ". root.45 x = 250. by placing a dot over . was this. me^nt x. blue. They brought out the differ ence between positive and negative quantities by attaching to the one the idea of possession/ to the other that of debts/ The conception also of opposite directions on a line. The first unknown was designated distinct by the general term ".". for it is is inadequate people do not approve of negative roots. . Addition was indicated simply by juxtaposition as in Diophantine algebra subtraction. as an interpretation of + and quantities. yellow. They advanced beyond Diophantus in observing that a quad ratic has always two roots. unlike Diophantus. The rest were distinguished by names of colours.unknown quantity. before the quantity. Com . . by placing the divisor beneath the dividend square.". but not admitted. red. bha. was not foreign to them.kdla ka^ black) meant yj yd Jed bha. ". from the word Tcarana (irrational). the subtrahend multiplication.the second value in this case not to be taken. Vl5 VlO. THE HINDOOS. says he.But. For instance. The Indians were the first to recognise the existence of absolutely negative quantities. the abbreviation of the word bhavita. as the black. ". The unknown quantity was called by Brahma- gupta ydvattdvat (quantum tantum) When several unknown . he gave. ". by putting after the factors . The initial syllable of each word constituted the symbol for the respective unknown quantity.". Thus Bhaskara gives x = 50 and x= 5 for the roots of x2 . mentators speak of this as if negative roots were seen. that the Hindoos never confined their arithmetical operations to rational numbers. we shall first take up the symbols of operation. Ted (from ". . says Hankel. Bhaskara showed how.. Thus yd.

added or subtracted. .. set up by the Greeks. Indeed.) 2 = a + 2 ab + 5 2 2 and (a + &)*= ^ + 3 a 6 + 3 ab + W. Let us now examine more closely the Indian algebra. - -- c& 2 2&. are destroyed or created. no change place ". . application of arithmetical operations to complex magnitudes of all sorts.. /a - Va the square root of the sum of rational and irrational numbers could be found.^.. a state ment of Bhaskara is interesting. whether rational or irrational numbers or space- magnitudes. In figuring with zeros. Indeed. up or brought forth. From this we infer that the principle of position and the zero in the numeral notation were already known to him. In extracting the square and cube roots they used the formulas (a + Z&. Yet by doing so the Indians greatly aided the general progress of. though much be is zero. A fraction whose denomi nator says he. in the same way. In the Hindoo solutions of determinate equations. s 2 In this connection Aryabhatta speaks of dividing a number into periods of two and three digits. (--y .motile Infinite and immutable Deity when worlds taEes". . The Hindoos never discerned the dividing line between numbers and magnitudes. which.gt. if one understands by algebra the ".gt. i by the formula V a + V5T ==^--1-- . admits^of.". . alteration. though the product of a scientific spirit. mathematics. They passed from mag nitudes to numbers and from numbers to magnitudes without anticipating that gap which to a sharply discriminating mind exists between the continuous and discontinuous.94 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. then the learned Brahmins of Hindostan are the 7 real inventors of algebra. yet in other places he jifakes a complete failure in figuring with fractions of zero denominator. Cantor . Though in this he apparently evinces clear mathematical notions. greatly re tarded the progress of mathematics. even though numerous orders of beings be taken.

". and that his ingenuity was almost inexhaustible in devising solutions for particular cases. c are* integers. Diophantus was content with a single solution the Hindoos . the Indians give no proof. as for most other rules. There is no square root of a negative number. Their solution is essentially the same as the one of . for it is not a square. or this. on the other hand. the Indians succeeded in solving only some special cases in which both sides of the equation could be made perfect powers by the addition of certain terms to each. Even if it be true that the Indians borrowed from the Greeks. The object of the former was to find all possible integral solutions. demanded not necessarily integral. The Hindoo indeter minate analysis differs from the Greek not only in method. THE HINDOOS.Greek analysis. they deserve great credit for improving and generalising the solutions of linear and quadratic equations. but simply rational answers. 95 thinks he can see traces of Diophantine methods.the is positive. Indeterminate analysis was a subject towhich the Hindoo mind showed a happy adaptation. Aryabhatta gives solutions in integers to linear equations of the form ax by=c.". positive and negative. where a. But the glory of having invented general methods in this most subtle branch of mathematics belongs to the Indians. Bhaskara advances far beyond the Greeks and even beyond Brahmagupta when he says that square of a positive. Some technical terms betray their Greek origin. Of equa tions of higher degrees. The rule employed is called the pulveriser. that the square root of a positive number is twofold. 6. as also of a negative number. We have seen that this very subject was a favourite with Dio- phantus. but also in aim. Incomparably greater progress than in the solution of deter minate equations was made by the Hindoos in the treatment of indeterminate equations. endeavoured to find all solutions possible.

for instance.to amounts to the same as the Hindoo process of finding the greatest common divisor of a and b by division. taking b at pleasure. on the ground that Diophantus not only never knew the method. They were applied. and that if. they applied = + ". Remarkable is the Hindoo solution of the quadratic equa tion cy 2 = ace +2 b. cyclic consists. In the solution of xy ax c. Passing by the subject of linear equations with more than two unknown quantities. =m+ and y = n + a. It = + amounts to the following theorem If p and q be one set of : values of x and y in y 2 = ax2 + b and p and q the same or 1 1 another set. by means of one solution given or found. finding an indefinite number of solutions of y 2 ay? 1 (a be = + ing an integer which is not a square).by + the method re-invented later by Euler. Euler ~ a continued fraction- Euler. s process of reducing . b m . says De Morgan.". then one preliminary solution of y* ax* + 1 = . in a rule for It ". ". This is fre quently called the Diophantine method. but did not even aim at solutions 7 purely integral. of decomposing (ab c) + into the product of two integers n and of placing a. t/ == aa? + b can be solved so that x and y 2 2 are divisible by b. JYom this it is obvious that one solution of 2/ 2 = ay? + 1 may be made to give any number. They solved it by the method. These equations probably grew out of prob lems in astronomy. then qp + pq and app* + qq are values of a? and y in 2/ = ace + 6 2 2 2 . and of feeling for one solution by making a solution of t/ = ay? + b give a solution of y* 2 ace 2 W. With great keenness of intellect they recognised in the special case 2/ 2 a&2 l a fundamental = + problem in indeterminate quadratics. we come to indeterminate quadratic equations.96 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. to determine the time when a certain constellation of the planets would occur in the heavens. Hankel protests against this name.

The Mohammedans have added but little to the knowledge in mathematics which they received. adopted a higher civilisation. Medicine and astronomy were their favourite sciences. irre by spective of nationality or religious belief. Bagdad. and . These tables. The capital. the most distinguished Saracen ruler. Thus Haroun-al- Baschid. and more of a practical turn of mind. Astounding as was the grand march of conquest by the Arabs. still more so was the ease with which they put aside their former nomadic life. With the rule of the Abbasides in the East began a new period in the history of learning. Even the more elevated regions in which the Hellenes and Hindoos delighted to wander namely. Thus science passed from Aryan to Semitic races. and Greece in the West. and assumed the sovereignty over cultivated peoples. THE ARABS. 101 in Spain. to keep it ablaze during the period of confusion and chaos in the Occident. The Arabs were destined to be the custodians of the torch of Greek and Indian science. and afterwards to pass it over to the Europeans. lay half-way between two old centres of scientific thought. drew Indian physicians to Bagdad. situated on the Euphrates. and then back again to the Aryan. but they were quite incapable of discovering new fields. known by the Arabs as the SindMnd. They now and then explored a small region to which the path had been previously pointed out. Arabic was made the written language throughout the conquered lands. In the year 772 there came to the 3ourt of Caliph Almansur a Hindoo astronomer with astronom ical tables which were ordered to be translated into Arabic. India in the East. the Greek conic sections and the Indian indeterminate analysis were seldom entered upon by the Arabs. They were less of a speculative. The Abbasides at Bagdad encouraged the introduction of the sciences inviting able specialists to their court.

probably taken from the Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta of Brahma- gupta. the numerous computations connected with the financial administration over the conquered lands made a short symbolism indispensable. Doubtless at this time. taken from the Almagest. that it had no rival. and that the Arabs selected from the various forms the most suitable. the numerals of the more civilised conquered nations were used for a time. Here the alphabetic notation offered no great disadvantage. as also of the letters in India. They contained the important Hindoo table of sines. is of interest. In some locali ties. the Hindoo numerals. and also by writers on arithmetic. the numeral adjectivesmay have been abbreviated in writing. This notation was in turn superseded by the Hindoo notation. since in the sexagesimal arithmetic. the Coptic. differed in different localities. Gradually it became the practice to employ the 28 Arabic letters of the alphabet for numerals. with the zero and the principle of position. An Arabian astronomer says there was among people much difference in the use of . in Egypt. the Greek notation was retained. who spent many years in India. In some cases. are supposed to be such abbreviations. Numbers were written out in words. He says that tlie shape of tlie numerals. tlie statement of the Arabic writer Albiruni (died 1039). Later. Before the time of Mohammed the Arabs had no numerals.102 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The Diwani- numeralSj found in an Arabic-Persian dictionary. were introduced among the Saracens. except in astronomy. Thus in Syria. in analogy to the Greek system. where the alphabetic notation continued to be used. which quite early was adopted by merchants. 7 As regards the form of the so-called Arabic numerals. numbers of generally only one or two places had to be written. stood in great authority. Its superiority was so universally recognised. and along with these astronomical tables.

6. it explains better than any other yet propounded. the Indian numerals were brought to Alexan dria. simply to be contrary to their political enemies of the East. is difficult to explain. especially of those for 5. and dissimilarity on the other. from those in the East. We find material differences between those used by the Saracens in the East and those used in the West.This strange similarity on the one hand. 103 symbols. It has beenmentioned that in 772 the Indian SiddJianta was brought to Bagdad and there translated into Arabic. and assumed the greatly modified forms of the modern Devanagari-numer- 3 als. 7. and were hence called Ghtbar-nuwierdls ( = dust-numerals. (4) that the old forms were remembered by the West-Arabs to be of Indian origin. in mem ory of the Brahmin practice of reckoning on tablets strewn with dust or sand. since the eighth century. and 8. the 1 numerals in India underwent further changes. (5) that. and Devana gari numerals. the Arabs of the West borrowed the Columbus-egg. THE AEABS. before the zero had been invented. This is rather a bold theory. the zero. The most plausible theory is the one of Woepcke: (1) that about the second century after Christ. whether true or not. But most surprising is the fact that the symbols of both the East and of the West Arabs deviate so extraordinarily from the Hindoo Devanagari numerals (= divine numerals) of to-day. the relations between the apices. but retained the old forms of the nine numerals. but. the Gubar. the East-Arabic. (2) that in the eighth century. The symbols used by the Arabs can be traced back to the tenth century. and that they resemble much more closely the apices of the Eoman writer Boethius. There . if for no other reason. whence they spread to Eome and also to West Africa . the Arabs at Bagdad got it from the Hindoos (3) that . after the notation in India had been already much modified and perfected by the invention of the zero.

by the learned Honein ben Ishak. written by Hypsicles. in successive waves. As this reyision still contained numerous errors. especially philosophy and medi cine. was as it evidently difficult to secure translators who were masters of both the Greek and Arabic and at the same time proficient in mathematics. The successors of Al Mamun continued the work so auspic iously begun. Greek physicians and scholars were called to Bagdad. Translations of works from the Greek began to be made. first of all. Erom Syria. and as tronomical works of the Greeks could all be read in the Arabic tongue. The first Greek authors made to speak in Arabic were Euclid and Ptolemasus. ex cepting the travels of Albiruni. Ishak ben Honein. This was accomplished * during the reign of the famous Haroun-al-Easchid. medical. were cultivated by Greek Christians. The works must have translations of mathematical been very deficient at first. But we should be very slow to deny the probability that more extended communications actually did take place. is no evidence that any intercourse existed between Arabic and Indian astronomers either before or after this time. Celebrated were the schools at Antioch and Emesa. But it remained for Tabit . a new trans lation was made. A large number of Greek manuscripts were secured by Caliph Al Mamun (813-883) from the emperor in Constantinople and were turned over to Syria. revised A translation of Euclid s Elements was ordered by Al Mamun. and the fifteenth by Damascius. mathematical. dashed upon and penetrated Arabic soil. and. until. In Syria the sciences.104 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the more important philosophic. at the beginning of the tenth century. or either by his son.estorian school at Edessa. the flourishing E". To the thirteen books of the Elements were added the fourteenth. The translations had to be revised again and again before they were satisfactory. Better informed are we regarding the way in which Greek science.

This led to more accurate determina tions of time. To fix the exact date for the Mohammedan feasts became necessary to observe more closely the motions it of the moon. and Diophantus. For these reasons considerable progress was made. the old Oriental supersti tion that extraordinary occurrences in the heavens in some mysterious way affect the progress of human affairs added 7 increased interest to the prediction of eclipses. As in India.Believer". on the other hand. The prayers and ablutions had to take place at definite hours dur ing the day and night. Heron. . Thus we see that in the course of one century the Arabs gained access to the vast treasures of Greek science. 105 ben Korra to bring forth an Arabic Euclid satisfying every need. THE ABABS. The religious observances demanded by Mohammedanism presented to as tronomers several practical problems. great activity in original research existed as early as the ninth century. Archimedes. Most of the so-called mathematicians were first of all astronomers. In astronomy. we hardly ever find a man exclusively devoted to pure mathematics. No attempts were made at original work in mathematics until the next century. Among other impor tant translations into Arabic were the works of Apollonius. Astro nomical tables and instruments were perfected. we need not marvel if. observatories erected. must turn during prayer that he may be facing Mecca. Having been little accustomed to abstract thought. In addition to all this. The Moslem dominions being of such enormous extent. during the ninth cen tury. it remained in some localities for the astronomer to determine which way the ". and a connected series of observations instituted. Still greater difficulty was experienced in securing an intelligible translation of the Almagest. so here. This intense love for astronomy and astrology continued during the whole Arabic scientific period. all their energy was exhausted merely in appropriating the foreign material.

The regula duorum fal- sorum was as follows 7 To solve an equation. Here the name of the author. Ho- varezmi. from which comes our modern word algorithm.106 A HISTORY Otf MATHEMATICS. /(a?) = F. signifying the art of computing in any particular way. It begins thus: Spoken has Algoritmi. ". and in measuring a degree of the earth s meridian. The first notable author of mathematical books was Moham med ben Musa Hovarezmi. being based on the principle of position and the Hindoo method of calculation. has passed into Algoritmi.excels/ says an Arabic writer. which was sometimes called the ".". assume. Let us give deserved praise to God. in revising the tablets of Ptole- maeus. two values for x . The portion on arith metic-is not extant in the original. ". by which algebraical examples could be solved without algebra. Both these methods were known to the Indians. They explained the operation of casting out the 9 s. Arabian arithmetics generally contained the four operations with integers and fractions. ing extracts from the SindMnd.". if wrong. namely. Important to us is his work on algebra and arithmetic. They contained also the regula falsa and the regula duorum falsorum. in taking observations at Bagdad and Damascus.".rule of three. and exhibits the Hindoo intellect and sagacity in the grandest inventions. ". This book was followed by a large number of arithmetics by later authors. was corrected by some process like the ". : for the moment. who lived during the reign of Caliph Al Mamun (814-833) He was engaged by the caliph in mak . The arithmetic of Hovarezmi. Diopliantus used a method almost identical with this. which value. The regula falsa or falsa positio was the assigning of an assumed value to the unknown quantity. modelled after the Indian processes. .". x =a and $ = 6. and it was not till 1857 that a Latin translation of it was found.Hindoo proof.all others in 7 brevity and easiness. which dif fered from the earlier ones chiefly in the greater variety of methods. our leader and defender.

Al Sagani. +n 3 Al Karhi also busied himself with indeterminate analysis. indeterminate analysiswas too subtle for even the most gifted of Arabian minds. His treatise on algebra is the greatest algebraic work of the Arabs. He was the first to operate with higher roots and to solve equa tions of the form x2n + axn = b. and Al Biruni made a study of the trisection of angles. In it he appears as a disciple of Diophantus. an able geometer. He was the first Arabic author to give and prove the theorems on the summation of the series : 33 + . Creditable work in theory of numbers and algebra was done by Fahri des Al Karhi. solved the problem by the intersection of a parabola with an equilateral hyperbola. He showed handling the methods of Diophantus. He. Abu Mohammed Al Hogendi of Chorassan thought he had proved this. He solved the problem. who lived at the beginning of the eleventh century. Ill Al KuM. For the solution of quadratic equations he gives both arithmetical and geometric proofs. .. but skill in added nothing whatever to the stock of knowledge already on hand. p The Arabs had already discovered the theorem that the sum of two cubes can never be a cube. As a subject for original research. was a close student of Archimedes and Apollonius. the second astronomer at the observatory of the emir at Bagdad.. Abul Gud. THE ARABS. to construct a segment of a sphere equal in volume to a given segment and having a curved surface equal in area to that of another given seg ment. Bather surprising is the fact that Al Karhi s algebra shows no traces whatever of Hindoo indeterminate analysis. but we are told that the demonstration was defective.

wrote an arithmetic in which Hindoo numerals no place. The one who did most to elevate to a method the solution of algebraic equations by intersecting conies. to determine the side of a regular hepta gon. Al Hasan ben Al Haitam. the other Indian. demand ing the section of a sphere by a plane so that the two seg ments shall be in a prescribed ratio.D. This practice is the very find opposite to that of other Arabian authors. the trinomial. Abul Wefa also. that an arithmetic by the same author completely excludes the Hindoo numerals. He believed that cubics could not be solved by calculation. while Abu Gafar Al Hazin was the first Arab to solve the equation by conic sections. They were led to such solutions by the study of questions like the Archimedean problem. Each species is treated separately but according to a general plan. is certainly a puzzle. Cantor suggests that at one time there may have been rival schools. 20 Another difficultproblem. was Omar al Hayyami of Chorassan. and others. The first to state this problem in form of a cubic equation was Al Mahani of Bagdad. required the construction of the side from the equation _ _ a8 cc2 2 x 1 + =0. Attempts were now made to solve cubic equations geometrically. He rejected negative roots and often failed to discover all the positive ones. nor bi-quadratics by geom etry. about 1079 A. Attempts at bi-quadratic equations . He divides cubics into two classes. why the Hindoo numerals were ignored by so eminent authors. of which one followed almost exclusively Greek mathematics. The Arabs were familiar with geometric solutions of quad ratic equations. The question. in the second half of the tenth century. But most astonishing it is. and each class into families and species. It is con structed wholly after Greek pattern. Solutions were given also by Al Kuhi.and quaclrinomial. It was attempted by many and at last solved by Abul Cud.112 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

in 1256. Between 1100 and 1300 A. then far superior to their own but the Arabs got no science from the Christians . show how the Arabs departed further and further -from the Indian methods. come the crusades with war and bloodshed. and now it begins to ebb. The Greeks had advanced to a point where material progress became difficult with their methods but the . of a cube double another cube of side a. the Arabic solutions of cubics remained unknown until quite recently. The Arabs. The works of Al Hayyami. Abul Gud. crusaders were not the only adversaries of the The Arabs. in return. The caliphate at Bagdad now ceased to exist. and. In the Occident.D. The foun dation to this work had been laid by the Greeks.%%? The solution of cubic equations by intersecting conies was the greatest achievement of the Arabs in algebra. THE ABABS. During the first half of the thirteenth century. were conquered by them under the leadership of Hulagu. during which European Christians profited much by their contact with Arabian culture. they had to encounter the wild Mongolian hordes. At the close of the fourteenth century still another empire was formed by Timur . and placed themselves more immediately under Greek influ ences. many of which the Arabs now rejected. mathematics among the Arabs of the East reached flood-mark. Al Karhi. In this way they barred the road of progress against themselves.lt. Hindoos furnished new ideas. With Al Karhi and Omar Al Hayyami. on the other hand. 20 who solved geometrically #4 =a land x + 4 =& &. 113 were made by Abul Wefa. Descartes and Thomas Baker invented these constructions anew. for it was Mensechmus who first constructed the roots of cc3 a or = 3 or 2a 3 = 0. but simply to determine the side a. It was not his aim to find the number corre sponding to x. had another object in view to find the roots of given : numerical equations.

arithmetic. which were under separate governments. the author of an arithmetic. The last Oriental writer was Bella. or Tamerlane. there generally existed consider able political animosity. He persuaded Htilagu to build him and his asso ciates a large observatory at Maraga. during intervals of peace. A group of astronomers was drawn to this court. Ulug Beg (1393-1449). a grandson of Tamerlane. astronomy and mathematics in the Orient greatly excel these sciences in the Occident Thus far we have spoken only of the Arabs in the East. ". During such sweeping turmoil. Bagdad and Cordova.Eddin (1547- 1622). Between the Arabs of the East and of the West. Indeed.Wonderful is the expansive power of Oriental peoples. it is a marvel that it existed at all. in less than two generations. and a translation of Euclid s Elements. Most prominent at this time was Al Kaschi. lived Nasir Eddin (1201-1274).East for several centuries. During the supremacy of Hulagu. the sciences were by no means neglected. was himself an astronomer.". During allthese centuries. were prepared by him. they raise themselves from the lowest stages of cultivation to scientific efforts. Thus. geometry. written nearly 800 years before. His Essence of Arithmetic stands 011 about the same level as the work of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. but more wonderful the energy with which. Even at the court of Tamerlane in Samarkand. with which upon the wings of the wind they conquer half the world. it is not surprising that science declined. In consequence of this. there was less scientific intercourse among them than might be expected to exist between peoples having the same religion and written language. the Tartar. a man of broad culture and an able astronomer.114 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. . Treatises on algebra. and of the enormous distance between the two great centres of learning. Thus the . science continued to be cultivated in the.

THE ARABS. 115

**course of science in Spain was quite independent of that in
**

Persia. While wending our way westward to Cordova, we

must stop in Egypt long enough to observe that there, too,

scientific activity was rekindled. ISTot Alexandria, but Cairo

with its library and observatory, was now the home of learn

ing. Foremost among her scientists ranked Ben Junus

(died

1008), a contemporary of Abul Wefa. He solved some difficult

problems in spherical trigonometry. Another Egyptian astron

omer was Ibn Al Haitam (died 1038), who wrote on geometric

loci. Travelling westward, we meet in Morocco Abul Hasan

All, whose treatise on astronomical instruments discloses a

**thorough knowledge of the Conies of Apollonius. Arriving
**

finally in Spain at the capital, Cordova, we are struck by the

**magnificent splendour of her architecture* At this renowned
**

seat of learning, schools and libraries were founded during the

tenth century.

known of the progress of mathematics

Little is in Spain.

The earliest name that has come down to us is Al Madshriti

**(died 1007), the author of a mystic paper on amicable num
**

5

bers. His pupils founded schools at Cordova, Dania, and

Granada. But the only great astronomer among the Saracens

in Spain is Gabir ben Aflah of Sevilla, frequently called Geber.

He lived in the second half of the eleventh century. It was

formerly believed that he was the inventor of algebra, and that

the word algebra came from Gabir or Geber. He ranks

among the most eminent astronomers of this time, but, like so

**many of his contemporaries, Ms writings contain a great deal
**

of mysticism. His chief work is an astronomy in nine books, of

which the devoted to trigonometry.

first is In his treatment

of spherical trigonometry, he exercises great independence of

**thought. He makes war against the time-honoured procedure
**

adopted by Ptolemy of applying "the rule of six quantities,"

and gives a new way of his own, based on the rule of four

116 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS.

quantities/ This is : If PP

and QQi be two arcs of great

:

**circles intersecting in PQ andA, andbe arcs of great
**

if P^

circles drawn perpendicular to QQ^ then we have the propor

tion

: sin PQ = sin APi : sin

**iFrom this he derives the formulas for spherical right triangles.
**

To the four fundamental formulas already given by Ptolemy,

he added a fifth, discovered by himself. If a, b, c, be the sides,

and A, JB, 0, the angles of a spherical triangle, right-angled at

.4,. then cos B= cos b sin 0. This is frequently called Geber s "

Theorem. 7

Eadical and bold as were his innovations in

**spherical trigonometry, in plane trigonometry he followed
**

slavishly the old beaten path of the Greeks. Not even did he

adopt the Indian sine and cosine/ but still used the Greek

chord of double the angle. So painful was the departure

from old ideas, even to an independent Arab After the time !

of Gabir ben Aflah there was no mathematician among the

**Spanish Saracens of any reputation. In the year in which
**

Columbus discovered America, the Moors lost their last foot

hold on Spanish, soil.

We have witnessed a laudable intellectual activity among

the Arabs. They had the good fortune to possess rulers

who, by their munificence, furthered scientific research. At

the courts of the caliphs, scientists were supplied with libra

ries and observatories. A large number of astronomical and

mathematical works were written by Arabic authors. Yet

we fail to find a single important principle in mathematics

brought forth by the Arabic mind. Whatever discoveries

they made, were iix fields previously traversed by the Greeks

or the Indians, and consisted of objects which tho latter had

overlooked in their rapid march. The Arabic mind did not

possess that penetrative insight and invention by which mathe

maticians in Europe afterwards revolutionised the science.

EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 117

**The Arabs were learned, but not original. Their chief service
**

to science consists in this, that they adopted the learning of

Greece and India, and kept what they received with scrupu

lous care. When the love for science began to grow in the

Occident, they transmitted to the Europeans the valuable

treasures of antiquity. Thus a Semitic race was, during the

Dark Ages, the custodian of the Aryan intellectual possessions.

EUEOPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES.

**With the third century after Christ begins an era of migra
**

tion of nations in Europe. The powerful G-oths quit their

**swamps and forests in the North and sweep onward in steady
**

southwestern current, dislodging the Vandals, Sueves, and

Burgundians, crossing the Roman territory, and stopping and

**recoiling only when reaching the shores of the Mediterranean.
**

From the Ural Mountains wild hordes sweep down on the

Danube. The Roman Empire falls to pieces, and the Dark

Ages begin. But dark though they seem, they are the germi

nating season of the institutions and nations of modern Europe.

The Teutonic element, partly pure, partly intermixed with the

Celtic and Latin, produces that strong and luxuriant growth,

the modern civilisation of Europe. Almost all the various

nations of Europe belong to the Aryan stock. As the Greeks

and the Hindoos both Aryan races were the great thinkers

of antiquity, so the nations north of the Alps became the great

intellectual leaders of modern times.

Introduction of Roman Mathematics.

**We shall now consider how
**

these as yet barbaric nations of

the North gradually came in possession of the intellectual

118 A HISTOKY OE MATHEMATICS.

**treasures of antiquity.Witli the spread of Christianity the
**

Latin language was introduced not only in ecclesiastical but

also in scientificand all important worldly transactions. Nat

urally the science of the Middle Ages was drawn largely from

Latin sources. In fact, during the earlier of these ages Eo-

man authors were the only ones read in the Occident. Though

Greek was not wholly unknown, yet before the thirteenth

century not a single Greek scientific work had been read or

translated into Latin. Meagre indeed was the science which

could be gotten from Eoman writers, and we must wait several

centuries before any substantial progress is made in mathe

matics.

After the time of Boethins and Cassiodorius mathematical

activity in Italy died out. The first slender blossom of science

**among came from the North was an encyclopaedia
**

tribes that

entitled Origines, written by Isidorus (died 636 as bishop of

**Seville). This work is modelled after the Eoman encyclopae
**

dias of Martianus Capella of Carthage and of Cassiodorius.

Part of it is devoted to the quadrivium, arithmetic, music,

**geometry, and astronomy. He gives definitions and grammat
**

ical explications of technical terms, but does not describe the

modes of computation then, in vogue. After Isidorus there

follows a century of darkness which is at last dissipated by

the appearance of Bede the Venerable (672-785), the most

learned man of his time. He was a native of Ireland, then

the home of learning in the Occident. His works contain

treatises on the Computus, or the computation of Easter-time,

and on finger-reckoning. It appears that a finger-symbolism

was then widely used for calculation. The correct determina

tion of the time of Easter was a problem which in those days

greatly agitated the Church. It became desirable to have at

least one monk at each monastery who could determine the

day of religious festivals and could compute the calendar.

EUROPE DUBINa THE MIDDLE AGES. 121

**school at Rheims and became distinguished for
**

for ten years

**his profound scholarship. By King Otto I. and his successors
**

Gerbert was held in highest esteem. He was elected bishop

of Rheims, then of Ravenna, and finally was made Pope under

the name of Sylvester II. by his former pupil Emperor Otho

III. He died in 1003, after a life intricately involved in many

**political and ecclesiastical quarrels. Such was the career of
**

the greatest mathematician of the tenth century in Europe.

By his contemporaries his mathematical knowledge was con

sidered wonderful. Many even accused Mm of criminal inter

course with evil spirits.

Gerbert enlarged the stock of his knowledge by procuring

copies of rare books. Thus in Mantua he found the geometr^

of Boethius. Though this is of small scientific value, yet it

is of -great importance in history. It was at that time the

**only book from which European scholars could learn the ele
**

ments of geometry. Gerbert studied it with zeal, and is

**generally believed himself to be the author of a geometry.
**

H. Weissenborn denies his authorship, and claims that the

book in question consists of three parts which cannot come,

from one and the same author. 21 This geometry contains

nothing more than the one of Boethius, but the fact that

occasional errors in the latter are herein corrected shows that

the author had mastered the subject. "The first mathemat

ical paper of the Middle Ages which deserves this name,"

**says Hankel, a letter of Gerbert to Adalbold, bishop of
**

"is

Utrecht," in which is explained the reason why the area of a

triangle, obtained

"

geometrically

"

**by taking the product of
**

the base by half from the area calculated

its altitude, differs

**"arithmetically," according
**

to the formula ^a (a + 1), used

by surveyors, where a stands for a side of an equilateral tri

angle. He gives the correct explanation that in the latter

formula all the small squares, in which the triangle is sup-

122 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS.

**posed to be divided, are counted in wholly, even though parts
**

of them project beyond it.

**Gerbert made a careful study of the arithmetical works of
**

Boethius. He himself published two works, Rule of Com

putation on the Abacus, and Small A

Book on the Division of

Numbers. They give an insight into the methods of calcu

lation practised in Europe before the introduction of the

Hindoo numerals. Gerbert used the abacus, which was prob

ably unknown to Alcuin. Beraelinus, a pupil of Gerbert,

describes it as consisting of a smooth board upon which geome

tricians were accustomed to strew blue sand, and then to draw

their diagrams. For arithmetical purposes the board was

divided into 30 columns, of which 3 were reserved for frac

**tions, while the remaining 27 were divided into groups with
**

3 columns in each. In every group the columns were marked

respectively by the letters C (centum), I) (decem), and

S (singularis) or M

(monas). Bernelinus gives the nine

numerals used, which are the apices of Boethius, and then

remarks that the Greek letters may bo used in their place. 8

By the use of these columns any number can be written

without introducing a zero, and all operations in arithmetic

can be performed in the same way as we execute ours without

the columns, but wiJx the symbol for zero. Indeed, the

methods of adding, subtracting, and multiplying in vogue

among the abacists agree substantially with those of to-day.

But in a division there

is very great difference. The early rules

for division appear to have been framed to satisfy the following

three conditions : (1) The use of tho multiplication table shall

be restricted as far as possible; at least, it shall never be

required to multiply mentally a figure of two digits by another

of one digit. (2) Subtractions shall be avoided as much as

possible and replaced by additions. (3) The operation shall

7

proceed in a purely mechanical way, without requiring trials.

EUROPE DUUING THE MIDDLE AG-ES. 123

**That it should be necessary to make such conditions seems
**

strange to us but it must be remembered that the monks of

;

**the Middle Ages did not attend school during childhood and
**

learn xfche multiplication table while the memory was fresh.

Gerbert s rules for division are the oldest extant. They are

so brief as to be very obscure to the uninitiated. They were

probably intended simply to aid the memory by calling to

mind the successive steps in the work. In later manuscripts

they are stated more fully. In dividing any number by another

of one digit say 668 by 6, the divisor was first increased to 10

;

**by adding 4. The process isexhibited in the adjoining figure. 8
**

As it continues, we must imagine the digits

which are crossed out, to be erased and then

replaced by the ones beneath. It is as follows :

600 -*- 10 =

60, but, to rectify the error, 4 x 60,

or 240, must be added 200 -*- 10 = 20, but 4 x 20,

;

**or 80, must be added. We now write for
**

60 + 40 + 80, its sum and continue thus

180, :

100 -T- 10 = 10 ;

the correction necessary is 4 x 10,

or 40, which, added to 80, gives 120. Now

100 -*- 10 =

10, and the correction 4 x 10, to

**gether with the 20, gives 60. Proceeding as
**

before, 60 -s- 10 =6 ;

the correction is 4 X^=

24.

Now 20 -5- 10 = 2,

the correction being 4x2 = 8.

**In the column of units we have now 8 + 4 + 8,
**

or 20. As before, 20-5-10 =

2; the correction

is 2 x4 = 8, which, is not divisible by 10, but

**only by giving the quotient 1 and the re
**

6,

mainder 2. All the partial quotients taken

together give 60 + 20 + 10 + 10 +\6+ 2 + 2 + 1 = 111, and

the remainder 2.

Similar but more complicated, is the process when the

divisor contains two or more digits. Were the divisor 27,

124 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS.

**tlien tlie next higher multiple of 10, or 30, would be taken
**

for the divisor, but corrections would be required for the 3.

He who has the patience to carry such a division through

to the end, will understand why it has been said of Gerbert

that "Begulas dedit, quse a sudantibus abacistis vix intelli-

**guntur." He will also perceive why the Arabic method of
**

division, when introduced, was called the dwisio aurea,

first

**but the one on the abacus, the divisio ferrea.
**

In book 011 the abacus, Bernelinus devotes a chapter to

his

fractions. These are, of course, the duodecimals, first used

by the Eomans. For want of a suitable notation, calculation

with them was exceedingly difficult. It would be so even to

us, were we accustomed, like the early abacists, to express

**them, not by a numerator or denominator, but by the appli
**

cation of names, such as uncia for -^, quincunx for ^, dodrans

for A*

In the tenth century, Gerbert was the central figure among

the learned. In his time the Occident came into secure posses

sion of all mathematical knowledge of the Eomans. During

the eleventh century it was studied assiduously. Though

numerous works were written on arithmetic and geometry,

mathematical knowledge in the Occident was still very insig

nificant. Scanty indeed were the mathematical treasures

obtained from Roman sources.

Translation of Arabic Manuscripts.

**By his great erudition and phenomenal activity, Gerbert
**

infused new life into the study not only of mathematics, but

also of philosophy.Pupils from France, Germany, and Italy

gathered at Eheims to enjoy his instruction. When they

themselves became teachers, they taught of course not only

the use of the abacus and geometry, but also what they had

Through the former. At about the same time flourished Plato of Tivoli or Plato Tiburtinus. and Spain. they plundered the rich coffers of Greek and Hindoo science. The zeal displayed in acquiring the Mohammedan treasures of knowledge excelled even that of the Arabs themselves. under the . and that they possessed translations of Aristotle s works and commentaries thereon. the term sinus was introduced into trigonometry. 125 learned of the philosophy of Aristotle. which proved to be the arithmetic by Mohammed ben Musa in Latin. and braved a thousand perils. Greek texts were wanting. of Euclid s Elements and of the astronomical tables of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. only through the writings of Boethius. About the middle of the twelfth century there was a group of Christian scholars busily at work at Toledo. that he might acquire the language and science of the Mohammedans. mathe matical works also came to their notice. a manuscript was found in the library at Cambridge. He effected a translation of the astronomy of Al Battani and of the SpJicerica of Theodosius. Though some few unimportant works may have been translated earlier. Egypt. This led them finally to search for and translate Arabic manuscripts. and were translated into Latin. The period of his activity is the first quarter of the twelfth century. During this search. He travelled extensively in Asia Minor. from the Arabic. when. too. yet the period of greatest activity began about 1100. But the growing enthusiasm for it created a demand for his com plete works. EUROPE BTTEING THE MIDDLE AGES. His philosophy was known. In 1857. at first. in the eighth century. This translation also is very probably due to Athelard. But the Latins heard that the Arabs. Among the earliest scholars engaged in translating manu scripts into Latin was Athelard of Bath. He made the earliest translations. were great admirers of Peripatetism.

Gerbert could not have learned from the Arabs the use of the abacus. we notice at once the most striking difference. John of Seville was most prominent. Being desirous to gain possession of . drawing from Arabic works. ISTor is it probable that he borrowed from the Arabs the apices. and the abacists. which shows that the two parties drew from. But no points of resemblance are found. The former teach the extraction of roots. If this were the case. 8 A little later than John of Seville flourished Gerard of Cremona in Lombardy. He translated works chiefly on Aristotelian philosophy. not from BoethiuS. leadership of Raymond. but from the Arabs in Spain.126 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. because all evidence we have goes to show that they did not employ it. independent sources. com piled by him from Arabic authors. as do those of John of Seville. dating from the time of Gerbert. use the term algorism. It is argued by some that Ger- bert got his apices and his arithmetical knowledge. the abacistsdo not. that. the former mention the Hin doos. then archbishop of Toledo. The contrast between authors like John of Seville. because they were never used in Europe except on the abacus. then the writings of Gerbert would betray Arabic sources. consists in this. Of importance to us is a liber algorLwii. and that part or the whole of the geometry of Boethius is a forgery. On comparing works like this with those of the abacists. Hence it seems it probable that the abacus and apices were borrowed from the same source. calculate with the zero. then draw an abacus and insert in the necessary numbers with the apices. mathematicians of the tenth and eleventh centuries state an example in Roman numerals. Among those who worked under his direction. and do not employ the abacus. unlike the latter. while the abacists employ the duo decimals of the Romans. they teach the sexagesimal frac tions used by the Arabs. In illustrating an example in division.

and it was through him that we came in posses sion of a new translation of the Almagest. Astronomical tables prepared by these two Jews spread rapidly in the Occident. who translated and compiled astronomical works from Arabic sources. Of mathematical treatises. Giovanni Campano of Novara (about 1260) brought out a new translation of Euclid. the zeal for the acquisition of Arabic learning continued. besides the Almagest. Rabbi Zag and lehuda ben Mose Cohen were the most prominent among them.THE MIDDLE AGES. The Hindoo methods of calculation began to supersede the cumbrous meth- . Foremost among the patrons of science at this time ranked Emperor Frederick II. and others less important* In the thirteenth century. But we mention only one mbre. the 15 books of Euclid. He employed a number of scholars in translating Arabic manuscripts. Another royal head deserving mention as a zealous promoter of Arabic science was Alfonso X. 7 The number of scholars who aided in transplanting Arabic science upon Christian soil was large. a work of Menelaus. 127 the Almagest. ETJKOPE DURING. he went to Toledo. of Hohen- staufen (died 1250). the algebra of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. and con stituted the basis of all astronomical calculation till the sixteenth century. He gathered around Mm a number of Jewish and Christian scholars. Inspired by the richness of Mohammedan literature. He translated into Latin over 70 Arabic works. and which formed the basis of the printed editions. in 1175. which drove the earlier ones from the field. he became familiar with Arabic science. therewere among these. and there. of Castile (died 1284). the astronomy of Dshabir ben AfLah. 7 At the close of the twelfth century. Through frequent contact with Mo hammedan scholars. the Sphcerica of Theodosius. translated this great work of Ptolemy. the Occident was in possession of the so-called Arabic notation. he gave himself up to its study.

its rules for solving linear and quadratic equations. But at the beginning of the thirteenth century the talent and activity of one man was sufficient to assign the mathematical science a new home man was not a monk. His father was secretary at one of the numerous factories erected on the south and east coast of the Mediterranean. The First Awakening and its Sequel* Thus far. in Italy. Greece. The boy acquired a strong taste for mathematics. during his extensive business travels in Egypt. France and the British Isles have been the head quarters of mathematics in Christian Europe. and from the various peoples all the knowl Sicily. but a merchant. The figure of Leonardo of Pisa adorns the vestibule of the thirteenth century. collected edge he could get on this subject. or Gerbert. when a boy. son of Bonaccio. He made Leonardo.e. and other works were now . i. This Alcuin. had been made accessible to the Latins. and. who in the midst of business pursuits found time for scientific study. Of all the methods of calculation. accessible in the Latin tongue. scientific material The talent necessary to digest this heterogeneous mass of knowledge was not wanting. Syria.128 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The geometry of Euclid. Thus a great amount of new had come into the hands of the Christians. no work either on mathematics It is important to notice that or astronomy was translated directly from the Greek previous to the fifteenth century. Leonardo of Pisa is the man to whom we owe the first renaissance of mathematics on Christian soil. he found the Hindoo to be unquestionably the . learn the use of the abacus. like Bede. ods inherited from Borne. He is also called Fibonacci. with. in later years. Algebra. by the enterprising merchants of Pisa. the Sphwrica of Theodo- sius the astronomy of Ptolemy.

A revised edition of this appeared in 1228. 22 Thus. rejected by the learned circles. EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. and the very word abacus changed its meaning and became a synonym for algorism. The reckoning with columns was gradually abandoned. together with the other books of Leonardo. he published. 129 best. Eeturning to Pisa. in the Winter s Tale (iv. at first.". Shakespeare lets the clown be embarrassed by . but. likeother writers of the Middle Ages. and ordered either to employ the Roman numerals or to write the numeral adjectives out in full. This work contains about all the knowledge the Arabs possessed in arithmetic and algebra. the Liber Abaci. The nilnds of men had been prepared for the reception of this by the use of the abacus and the apices. shows that he was not merely a compiler. 3). but that he was an original worker of exceptional power. In France it was used later. zepliirum. his great work. while the monks in the monasteries adhered to the old forms. a slavish imitator of the form in which the subject had been previously pre sented. or. hence our English word cipher. For the zero. The merchants of Italy used it as early as the thirteenth century. This. The calculation with the zero was the portion of Arabic mathematics earliest adopted by the Christians. In 1299. and treats the subject in a free and independent way. and it did not disappear in England and Germany before the middle of the seventeenth century. in 1202. The new notation was accepted readily by the enlightened masses. the Latins adopted the name from the Arabic sifr (sifra = empty ). nearly 100 years after the publication of Leonardo s Liber Abaci. the Florentine merchants were forbidden the use of the Arabic numerals in book-keeping. Arabic notation. He was the first great mathematician to advocate the adop tion of the ". In the fifteenth century the abacus with its counters ceased to be used in Spain and Italy.

each knife is put up in 7 sheaths. Leonardo of Pisa published his l^ractica Geometries. known the square and cube root are explained equations of the first .256. i. which is of historical interest. 1) ". lago (in Othello. either determinate or indeterminate. which contains all the knowledge of geometry and trigonom etry transmitted to him.". In it are set forth the most perfect methods of calculation with integers and at that time.forsooth. expresses his contempt for Michael Casso. How much has each ? The Liber Abaci contains another problem. The following was pro posed to Leonardo of Pisa by a magister in Constantinople. then B 7 s sum . What is the sum total of all named? Ans. The real fact seems to be that the old methods were used long after the Hindoo numerals were in common and general use.". by calling him a ". each mule carries 7 sacks. indeed. 137. 8 In 1220. and second degree leading to problems.counter- caster. says Peacock. appears to have been the practice of this species of arithmetic. So general. each sack contains 7 loaves. the storehouse from which authors got material for works on arithmetic and algebra.130 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. The writings of Euclid and of some other Greek masters were known to him. is seven-fold A s. because it was given with some variations by Ahmes. a great mathematician. The book con tains a large number of problems. are solved by the methods of c single or double position/ and also by real algebra. lie could not do without counters. as a difficult problem If A gets from B 7 denare. either from Arabic . a problem which. for centuries. fractions. 7 mules. then A s : sum is five-fold B s if B gets from A 5 denare. that its rules and principles form an essential part of the arithmetical treatises of that day. with each loaf are 7 knives. 3000 years earlier 7 old women go to Home : each woman has . With such dogged persistency does man cling to the old ! The Liber Abaci was.

whose city was the cradle of the literature and arts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. such as ". Frivol6us questions. completely ignored by the Mo hammedans. Peacock 22 says The Tuscans generally. were dis cussed with great interest. In this respect. simple and com pound interest. not borrowed from Euclid.How many angels can stand on the point of a needle?". however. were in familiar possession of commercial arithmetic long before the other nations of Europe to them we are indebted . and so on. discount. exchange. which fulfils all necessary conditions. but their scientific efforts were vitiated by the method of scholastic thinking.". Arabic algebra approached much more closely to that of Diophantus. for the formal introduction into books of arithmetic. 133 physics and theology. were celebrated for their knowledge of arithmetic and book-keeping. yet the true nature of a mathematical proof was so little understood. fellowship. which were so necessary for their extensive commerce the Italians. which was. that Hankel believes it no exaggeration to say that since Fibonacci. can be found in the whole literature of these ages. of questions in the single and double rule of three. ETJBOPE DURING THI MIDDLE AGES. Among the Italians are evidences of an early maturity of arithmetic. Though they possessed the Elements of Euclid. Indistinctness and confusion of ideas characterised the reasoning during this period. loss and gain. The only noticeable advance is a simplification of numerical operations and a more extended application of them. the works of Leonardo of Pisa appear to us like jewels among quarry- rubbish. There was also a slow improvement in the algebraic nota tion. The writers on mathematics during this period were not few in number. which can scarcely . The Hindoo algebra possessed a tolerable symbolic notation. not a single proof. and the Florentines : in particular. Among the mathematical productions of the Middle Ages. under distinct heads. ".

afterwards re-dis covered by Stevinus. The most trifling numeral properties are treated with nauseating pedantry and prolixity. is the result of a small series of small improvements. and that perfect symbolic language which addresses itself solely to the eye. who wrote a once famous work on the properties of numbers (1496). and Roger Bacon in England. But in the mathematical writings of the monk Luca Pacioli (also called Lucas de Eurgo sepulchri) symbols began to appear. first con ceived a notation of fractional powers. Nicole Oresme.D. Like the Arabs.Our present notation has arisen by almost insensible degrees as conven ience suggested different marks of abbreviation to different authors . and gave rules for operating with them. and enables us to take in at a glance the most complicated relations of quantity. About the time of Leonardo of Pisa (1200 A.". lived the German monk Jordanus Wemorarius. ^ We shall now mention a few authors who lived during the thirteenth and fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth centuries. Leonardo of Pisa possessed no algebraic symbolism. Thus. ". John Halifax (Sacro Boseo. died 1256) taught in Paris and made an extract from the Almagest con taining only the most elementary parts of that work. A practical arithmetic based on the Hindoo notation was also written by him. be said to employ symbols in a systematic way. m for meno (less-). a bishop in Normandy (died 1382). . modelled after the arithmetic of Boethius. such as p for piu (more).). lie expressed the relations of magnitudes to each other by lines or in words. Other prominent writers are Albertus Magnus and George Purbach in Germany. This extract was for nearly 400 years a work of great popularity and standard authority. It appears that here and there some of our modern ideas were anticipated by writers of the Middle Ages. They consisted merely in abbreviations of Italian words. co for cosa (the thing or unknown quantity).134 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. are of interest only as showing that the Hindoo numerals were then known in Greece. studied star-polygons. Proportione et Proportionalita. as we remarked. who lived in the first half of the fourteenth century. a subject which has recently received renewed attention. The first appearance of such polygons was with Pythagoras and his school. 135 His notation was totally different from ours. Mediaeval astrologers and physicians believed them to possess mystical properties and to be a charm against plague. The works of the Greek monk Maximus Planudes. to the Byzantine school. of Bichard of Wallingford. In 1494 was printed the Summa. who. To him appears to be due the introduction into Europe of magic squares. was Moschopulus. and is the first com prehensive work which appeared after the Liber Abaci of Fibonacci. The writings of Bradwardine. both professors at Oxford. like Planudes. first introduced symbols in algebra. algebra.Arabic by Athelard of Bath. It contains little of importance which cannot be . He wrote a treatise on this subject. This contains all the knowledge of his day on arithmetic. Gfeometria. Thomas Brad- wardine. Bradwardine s philosophic writings contain discussions on the infinite and the infini tesimal subjects never since lost sight of. and of Simon Bredon of Wincheeombe. and perhaps to the Hindoos. written by the Tuscan monk Lucas Pacioli. who lived in Constantinople in the early part of the fifteenth century.and trigonometry. when engraved on silver plate. archbishop of Canterbury. Magic squares were known to the Arabs. and John Maudith. de Arithmetica. A writer belonging. To England falls the honour of having produced the earliest European writers on trigonometry. contain trigonometry drawn from Arabic sources. We next meet with such polygons in the geom etry of Boethius and also in the translation of Euclid from the ".

magister matheseos. For the Baccalaureate degree. as is shown by the nickname ". Examinations. and at Cologne^ less work was required.". found in Fibonacci s great work. the first two books of Euclid were read. published three centuries 1 earlier. so famous at the beginning of the twelfth century under the teachings of Abelard. students were required to take lectures on Sacro Boseo s famous work on astronomy. the same requirements were made at these as at Prague in the fourteenth. Pisa. appears that it candidates for the degree of A. and from a commentary on the first six books of Euclid. in the middle of the fifteenth century. The universities of Bologna.M. What was their attitude toward mathematics ? The University of Paris. the last in the first book. had to give an oath that 7 they had attended lectures on these books. Padua. 6 Thus it will be seen that the study of mathematics was . In 1336. founded 1384. as late as the sixteenth century. Lectures were given on the Almagest. More^ attention was paid to mathematics at the Univer sityof Prague. were required not only the six books of Euclid. when held all. and Aris totle s logicwas the favourite study. a rule was introduced that no student should take a degree without attending lectures on mathematics. occupied similar positions to the ones in Germany. Of candidates for the A.136 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Perhaps the greatest result of the influx of Arabic learn ing was the establishment of universities. the daughter of Prague. probably did not extend beyond the first at book. dated 1536. At the University of Leipzig. and. only that purely astrological lectures were given in place of lectures on the Almagest At Oxford. Geometry was neglected. paid but little attention to this science during the Middle Ages. applied to the Theorem of Pythagoras.M. but an additional knowledge of applied mathematics.

the great mathematician and teacher appeared. 137 maintained at the universities only in a half-hearted manner. EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. The genius of Leonardo of Pisa left no permanent impress upon the age. and another ^Renaissance of mathematics was wanted. to inspire !N". .o students. The best energies of the schoolmen were expended upon the stupid subtleties of their philosophy.

but now they began to be studied from original sources and in their own language. which was the characteristic feature of mediaeval learning. The first English translation of Euclid was made in 1570 from the Greek by Sir Henry Billing sley. This contributed vastly to the reviving of classic learning. the Turks battered the walls of this celebrated metropolis with cannon. Up to this time. Near the close of the fifteenth century. they became clearer and stronger. MODERN EUKOPE. WE find it convenient to choose the time of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks as the date at which the Middle Ages ended and Modern Times began. bringing with them precious manuscripts of Greek literature. assisted by John Dee. The pulse and pace of the wrld began to quicken. Greek masters were known only through the often very corrupt Arabic manuscripts. 29 About the middle of the fifteenth century. and finally captured the city $ the Byzantine Empire fell. began to be remedied chiefly by the steady cultiva- 138 . printing was in vented books became cheap and plentiful the printing-press . . soon after. The indistinctness of thought. America was discovered. Calamitous as was this event to the East. Men s minds became less servile. and. to rise no more. it acted favourably upon the progress of learning in the West. the earth was circumnavigated. transformed Europe into an audience-room. In 1453. A great number of learned Greeks fled into Italy.

at a period when Prance and England had. as yet. and resulted in the victory of the new system. The . there can be no leisure for higher pursuits. This remarkable scientific produc tiveness was no doubt due. JRhceticus. Thus it was that. and Tyclio Brake. Dogmatism was attacked. ITepler. The human mind made a vast effort to achieve its Attempts at its emancipation from freedom. Material prosperity is an essential condition for the progress of knowledge. She produced Itegiomontanus. by slow degrees. THE RENAISSANCE. 189 tion of Pure Mathematics and Astronomy. At this time. the minds of men were cut adrift from their old scholastic moorings and sent forth on the wide sea of scientific inquiry. The new and independently in matters desire for judging freely of religion was preceded and accompanied by a growing spirit of scientific inquiry. Church authority had been made before. brought forth hardly any great scientific thinkers. and rendered abortive. The Copernican System was set up in opposition to the time-hon oured Ptolemaic System. Germany led the van in science. The long and eager contest between the two culminated in a crisis at the time of Galileo. there arose a long struggle with the authority of the Church and the established schools of philosophy. THE RENAISSANCE. to the commer cial prosperity of Germany. for a time. Coper nicus. Thus. The first great and successful revolt against ecclesiastical authority was made in Germany. but they were stifled ". With the sixteenth century began a period of increased intellectual activity. to a great extent. to discover new islands and continents of truth. As long as every individual is obliged to collect the necessaries for his subsist ence. Germany had accumulated considerable wealth.

with her bankers and her manufacturers of silk and wool. of Archi medes. Purbach therefore began to make a translation directly from the Greek. Chiefly to him we owe the revival of trigonometry. On the threshold of this new era we meet in Germany with the figure of John Mueller.140 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. For the first great contributions to the mathematical sciences we must. In addition to the translation of and the commentary on the Almagest. whom he followed to Italy. look to Italy and Germany. produced men in art. and that Arabic authors had not remained true to the Greek original. But he did not live to finishit. Thus. The Greeks and afterwards the Arabs divided the radius into 60 equal parts. Italy. Italy. Eegiomontanus and Purbach adopted the Hindoo sine in place of the Greek chord of double the arc. therefore. Eegiomontanus learned the Greek language from Cardinal Bessarion. more generally called Regiomon- tanus (1436-1476). In fact. who shone forth in fullest splendour. literature. too. He studied astronomy and trigonometry at Vienna under the celebrated George Purbach. The latter perceived that the existing Latin translations of the Almagest were full of errors. excelled in commercial activity and enterprise. Italy was the fatherland of what is termed the Eenaissance. need only mention Venice. and science. in Germany to astronomy and trigonometry. and each of these again .We sades. and of the mechanical works of Heron. where he remained eight years collecting manuscripts from Greeks who had fled thither from the Turks. Hanseatic League commanded the trade of the IsTorth. too. and Florence. who went beyond his master. These two cities became great intellectual centres. Close commercial relations existed between Germany and Italy. His work was continued by Eegiomontanus. In Italy brilliant accessions were made to algebr a. whose glory began with the cru ". he prepared translations of the Conies of Apollonius.

con structed one table of sines on a radius divided into 600. The Hindoos expressed the length of the radius by parts of the circumference. were of far- reaching influence throughout Germany.000. and to John Maudith. trigonome try and especially the calculation of tables continued to occupy German scholars. After the time of Purbach and Begiomontanus. In England it was known a century earlier to Bradwardine.000. Following out some ideas of his master. generally called Rhaeticus. he calculated a table of tangents.000 parts. So great was his reputation. who speaks of tangent (umbra recta)and cotangent (umbra versa). to secure greater precision. in its main features. of JSTurnberg for Borne. that Pope Sixtus IV. More refined astronomical instruments were made.600 equal divisions of the latter. to 10".His complete mastery of astronomy and mathematics. Begiomontanus was the author of an arithmetic and also of a complete treatise on trigonometry. He calculated a table of sines with the radius =10. that by Georg Joachim of Feldkirch in Tyrol. to the present day.000 and from 10". Begiomontanus ranks among the greatest men that Germany has ever produced. 141 into 60 smaller ones. called him to Italy to improve the calendar. He emphasised the use of the tangent in trigonom etry.000. it took 3438 to measure the radius. and another on a radius divided decimally into 10. saying that of the 21. containing solutions of both plane and spherical triangles. Begiomontanus left his beloved city where he died in the following year. German mathematicians were not the first Europeans to use this function. Begioniontanus. The form which he gave to trigonometry has been retained.000 divisions. but these would have been useless without trigonometrical tables of cor responding accuracy. . deserves special mention. Of the several tables calculated. THE RENAISSANCE. and his enthusiasm for them.. which gave observations of greater precision .

is indicated by his views on trignoraet- rical lines. That Ehseticus was not a ready calculator only.142 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Up to his time. We shall now leave the subject of trigonometry to witness the progress in the solution of algebraical equations. The work completed by his pupil. Hindoos. but he died before finishing them. It was the practice in those days and for two centuries afterwards to keep discoveries . a professor of mathematics at Bologna. i. began also the con to 10". It was from the right triangle that Ehseticus go this idea of calculating the hypotenuse . and.000. Astronomical tables of so great a degree of accuracy had never been dreamed of by the Greeks. For twelve years he had htfd in continual employment several calculators. who spared no pains to free them of errors. Good work in trigo nometry was done also by Vieta and Komanus. he was the first to plan a table of secants. He struction of tables of tangents and secants. The first step in the algebraic solution of cubics was taken by Scipio Ferro (died 1526). The first comprehensive algebra printed was that of Lucas Pacioli. the trigonometric functions had been considered always with relation to the arc . o&. To do so.e.000. in 1505.. in 1596. who solved the equation o? mx n. This was: indeed a gigantic work. Floridas. he was the first to construct the right triangle and to make them depend directly upon its angles. This remark doubtless stimu lated thought. and proceeding from 10". + = x? + = n mx is as impossible at the present state of science as the quadrature of the circle.000. or Arabs.gt. a monu ment of German diligence and indefatigable perseverance.000. + = Nothing more is known of his discovery than that he imparted it to his pupil. we must quit Germany for Italy. to be carried to the same degree of accuracy. The tables were republished in 1613 by Pitiscus. another with the radius = 1. He closes his book by saying that the solution of the equations 3 mx n. later on.000. Valentine wa*s Otho.

xule for the and he succeeded in it skill to find the equations. Tartaglia found an imperfect method for solvingthis. This prac tice gave rise to numberless disputes regarding the priority of inventions. In 1530. His widowed mother being too poor to in he learned to read and picked up a pay his tuition school. Floridas. 7 The most difficult step was.e. = with making n=t u. but kept it secret. gives at once . that from a deceased master. But this last equality. and fearing that lie would be beaten and in the contest. as he himself modestly says. believ ing him to be a mediocrist and braggart. When a boy of six. Hence he was called Tartaglia. one leading to the equation &+px 2 = q. together (-|m) 3 = tu. in order to secure by that means an advantage over rivals by proposing problems beyond their reach. industry. no doubt. his rival had gotten the method Hearing. He spoke about his secret to proclaim in public and thus caused Ferro s pupil. 1535. public discussion. Placing # = ^-~^. and mathematics by himself. the passing from used in operating from time old. 143 secret. challenged him to a to take place on the 22d of February. Greek. meanwhile. i.mx 3 n. Tartaglia perceived that the irrationals disappeared from the equation re 4. ten days before the appointed date. A second solution of eubics was given by Nicolo of Brescia (1506(?)-1557). the stammerer. Tartaglia put in all the zeal. Nicolo was so badly cut by a French soldier that he never again gained the free use of his tongue. Possessing a mind of extraordinary power. + Tartaglia. he was able to of mathematics at an early age. knowledge of Latin. his own knowledge of the form a? mx*=n. THE RENAISSANCE. of to quadratic irrationals. appear as teacher one Colla proposed him several problems. cubic irrationals.

to com. not solve any of Tartaglia s. Tartaglia studied cubic equations with a will. In 1541 he discovered a general px = q. Tartaglia solved the thirty problems proposed by Floridas in two hours Floridas could. away. pletely annihilate his enemies. The contest began on the 22d. of giving to the world an immortal work which should be the monument of his deep learning and power for original research. he would publish a large algebra containing his method. His most cherished hope. and published in 1545 in his Ars Magna Tartaglia s solution of cubics.14:4 A H13TOBY OJF MATHEMATICS.mx is n. was -suddenly destroyed. The one who could solve the greatest number within fiftydays should be the victor. Each contestant proposed thirty problems. Tartaglia was entreated to make known his method. and after giving the most solemn and sacred promises of secrecy. The news of Tartaglia s victory spread all over Italy. But a scholar from Milan. succeeded in obtaining from Tartaglia a knowledge of his rules. he challenged Cardan and his pupil Lodovico Ferrari to a contest each party should propose : thirty-one questions to be solved by the other within fifteen days. but he declined to do so. Tartaglia became desperate. by transforming it into 3 2 solution for the cubic cc the form a? mx=n. saying that after his completion of the translation from the Greek of Euclid and Archimedes. after many solicitations. His first step was to write a history of his invention but. for the crown intended for his work had been snatched. but the other party did not send in their solution before the expiration . named Eieronimo Cardano (1501-1576). Thus Cardan broke his most solemn vows. Tartaglia solved most questions in seven days. and he knew no better way to crown his work than by inserting the much sought for rules for solving cubics. At this time Cardan was writing his Ars Magna. = On the 13th of February. From now on. This Tartaglia s solution of a? 4. he found a similar solution for cc 3 = mx + n.

In order to give also the right member the form of a complete square he added to both members the expression 2 (y? -f 6) y + y 2. Thus he solved the equation 13 of = + x4 2 x* 2x + + 1 by a process similar to that em ployed by Diophantus and the Hindoos namely. moreover. and his method came to be regarded as the dis covery of Cardan and to be called Cardan s solution. the first impulse was given by Colla. who met with many other disappointments. A replication and a rejoinder followed. The dispute produced much chagrin and heart-burnings to the par ties. all their solutions except one were wrong. but he died before he reached the consideration of cubic equations. in 1556. particular cases as early as 1539. Perrari reduced Colla s 2 equation to the form (o. But Cardan failed to find a general solu tion.to complete squares. Remarkable is the great interest that the solution of cubics excited throughout Italy. in 1540. remained for his pupil Ferrari to prop the reputa it tion of his master by the brilliant discovery of the general solution of bi-quadratic equations. containing a new unknown quantity y. This gave him (a? + 6 + y)* = (6 + 2 y) 01? + 60 x + (12 y + y2) The condition that . Tar taglia began. 145 of the fifth month. by adding . Endless were the problems proposed and solved on both sides. It is but natural that after this great conquest mathematicians should attack bi-quadratic equa tions. -f 6) 2 = 60^ + 6^. both sides 3 of and thereby rendering both numbers ". proposed for solution the equa tion #* 6 v?+ 36 + = 60 x. and to Tartaglia especially. Thus the fondest wish of his life remained unfulfilled the man to whom we owe the . To be sure. Cardan had studied . so here. the right member be a complete square is expressed by the . THE RENAISSANCE. who. greatest contribution to algebra made in the sixteenth century was forgotten. After having recovered himself again. As in the case of cubics. the publication of the work which he had had in his mind for so long.

which. But he did not understand its nature. that with aid of irrationals of higher degrees. calling them fictitious. To Cardan algebra is much indebted. but he is no more the dis coverer of it than Cardan is of the solution called by his name. and thus to lay the foundation of a more intimate knowledge of imagi nary quantities. After this brilliant success in solving equations of the third and fourth degrees. cubic equation (2y + 6) (12 y y )+ 2 900.". finally. there was probably no one who doubted. Imaginary roots he does not consider. while the positive roots are called real. like the quadrature of the circle. he got x 2 6 + + y = x V5~y+~6 + Solving the cubic for y and substituting. Cardan also observed the difficulty in the irre ducible case in the cubics. has since so much tormented the perverse ingenuity of ". who published in 1572 an algebra of great merit. cases where they appear he calls impossible. But all attempts at the algebraic solution of the quintic were fruitless. Abel demonstrated that all hopes of finding alge braic solutions to equations of higher than the fourth degree were purely Utopian. Since no solution by radicals of equations of higher degrees . and. In his ATS Magna he takes notice of negative roots of an equation. Cardan had the pleasure of publishing this discovery in his Ars Magna in 1545. to point out the reality of the appar ently imaginary expression which the root assumes. it re- V2 2/4-6 mained only determine x from the resulting quadratic. = Extracting the square root of the bi-quadratic.146 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Ferrari s solution issometimes ascribed to BombelH. mained for Raphael Bombelli of Bologna. the solution of equations of any degree whatever could be found. It re mathematicians. to Ferrari pursued a similar method with other numerical bi 7 quadratic equations.

employs these symbols also. He studied German and Italian works. which is the first English treatise on algebra. The sign -* for division was firstused by Johann Heinrich Rahn. a teacher at the University of Yienna. in 1659. There is another short-hand symbol of which we owe the originto the Germans. their adoption became universal. In a manuscript published sometime in the fifteenth century. This same symbol was used by Micliael Stifel. So did Stifel. His pupil. He observes an advantage in letting a geometric progres- . symbol for square remarks that the ". The study of the significance of mystic numbers in Eevelation and in Daniel drew him to mathematics. Melanchthon wrote a preface to it. Thus. and afterwards became Protestant minister. by slow degrees./. Our sign of equality is due to Robert Recorde (1510-1558). Micliael Stifel (1486?-1567). the author of The WJietstone of Witte (1557). Its three parts treat respectively of rational numbers. in Latin. and was introduced in England by John Pell in 1668. and published in 1544. a dot is made to signify the extraction of a placed before a number root of that number. He selected this symbol because no two things could be more equal than two parallel lines =. irrational the nu numbers. the greatest German algebraist of the sixteenth century. THE RENAISSANCE. and algebra. designated ". the writer of the first text-book on algebra in the German language (printed in 1525). Here the dot &. This dot is the embryo of our present the root. was born in Esslingen. has grown into a symbol much like our own. and died in Jena. Stifel gives a table containing merical values of the binomial coefficients for powers below the 18th. in his algebra. in his algorithm with the character as y^. a Swiss.radif guadrata is. He was educated in the monastery of his native place. Christoff Rudolff.". who brought out a second edition of HudolfFs Goss in 1553.gt. for brevity. 151 metic of Grammateus. a book entitled Arithmetica Integra. Christoff Rudolff.

". and until the beginning of the seventeenth century. Cardan and Bombelli were far in advance of all writers of the Eenaissance. Pacioli states the rule that times minus gives plus. On this subject Cardan and Bombelli had advanced to about the same point as had the Hindoo Bhaskara.pure minus ". and below which arise when real numbers ". Here are the germs of the theory of exponents. The first algebraist who occasionally places a purely negative quantity by itself on one side of an equation. but ". Stifel.Cossist". ideas.152 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. of a ". ".remained .". speaks ". above zero are subtracted from zero.but these ". ". was an exceedingly slow and difficult process in the development of algebra. Cardan. but did not approve of them. The generalisation of the con ception of quantity so as to include the negative. who saw negative roots. Michael speaks as early as 1544 of numbers which are absurd ". says Hankel.minus applies it really only to the development of the product of (a &) (c d) purely negative quantities do not appear in . Fibonacci seldom uses them. or ". As regards the recognition of negative roots. and arrives at the designation of integral powers by numbers. . In 1545 Stifel published an arithmetic in German. mathematicians dealt exclusively with absolute positive quan tities. at last. sparsely. His edition of Kudolffs Goss con tains rules for solving cubic equations. fictitious zero. Yet even they mentioned these so-called false or fictitious roots only in passing. We remarked above that Vieta discarded negative roots of equations. Indeed. and without grasping their real significance and importance. is Harriot in England. we find few algebraists before and during the Renaissance who understood the significance even of negative quantities.". The great German ".". including Vieta. sion correspond to an arithmetical progression. his work. derived from the the writings of Cardan. (algebraist).

No essential progress was made before the time of Descartes. it made hardly any progress. and others.and derived their properties directly from it. The foremost geometrician of Portugal was Nonius. made translations of geometrical works from the Greek. doubtless. The new form which he gave en to algebra. Prom the notes of Pappus. This mode of Messina of studying the conies was followed by Maurolyctis the (1494-1575). Tartaglia. reached the interesting conclusion that the former He of all cubics in which the radi problem includes the solutions cal in s formula is real. Bartholomew. The greatest gain was a more intimate knowledge of G-reek geometry. but that the latter problem Tartaglia includes only those leading to the irreducible case. Maurolycus. The latter is. THE RENAISSANCE. by representing general quantities by letters. Commandinus of Urbino in Italy. he studied the sections in relation with the geometers cone. before Yieta. Unlike the of old. Xylander of Augsburg. 158 We shall now consider the history of geometry during the Renaissance. The problem of the quadrature of the circle was revived in . His chief work is his masterly and original treatment of the conic sections. abled him to point out more easily how the construction of the roots of cubics depended upon the celebrated ancient prob lems of the duplication of the cube and the trisection of an angle. Begiomontanus. wherein he dis cusses and asymptotes more fully than Apollonius tangents had done. John Werner of Eurnberg published in 1522 the first work on conies which appeared in Christian Europe. was Peter Ramus. and applies them to various physical and astronomi cal problems. of Prance. Vieta possessed great famil iarity with ancient geometry. greatest geometer of the sixteenth century. who perished in the massacre of St. Unlike algebra. he fifth book of Apollonius attempted to restore the missing on maxima and minima.

The for mer carried the value TT to 15. who had the reputation of being a great logician. Joseph Scaliger by Vieta.154 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and Clavius A. His fallacies were exposed to full view by Eegio- montanus. As in this case . Quercu by Peter Metius. Two mathematicians of Netherlands. His performance was considered so extraordinary. places. The yearly determination of the movable feasts had for a long time been connected with an untold . he at once departed for Paris. Peter s church-yard. 25 Eomanus did much toward simplifying spherical trigonometry by reducing. and was zealously studied even by men of eminence this age. to draw a circle touching three given circles. occupied themselves with approximating to the ratio between the circumference and the diameter. The army of circle-squarers became most formidable during the seventeenth century. Eomanus was the one who prppounded for solution that equation of the forty-fifth degree solved by Yieta.Ludolph s number. the latter to 35 . Vieta pro posed to him the Apollonian problem. every quadrator of note raised up an opposing mathematician : Orontius was met by Buteo and Nonius. so in others. Adrianus Eomanus solved the problem ". . On receiving Vieta s solution. Yieta caused him to see this. presented a solution which had all the rigour desirable. The value of TT is therefore often named ". and mathematical ability. in his turn. possess the rigour of the ancient geometry. by the intersection of two hyperbolas but this solution did not . the 28 cases in triangles then considered to only six. and then. at Leyden.". that the num bers were cut on his tomb-stone in St. by means of certain projections. Adrianus Eomanus. to make his acquaintance with so great a master. Among the first to revive this problem was the German Cardinal Mcolaus Cusanus (died 1464). Adrianus Romanus and Ludolph van Ceulen.". Mention must here be made of the improvements of the Julian calendar.

The Gregorian calendar met with a great deal of oppo among sition botji scientists and among Protestants. Jc = 10. passed away with time. reformer were not unprovoked. He worked with great industry and satisfaction on 666. that M (30 ) A^) K^ T (100 ) I (9 ) Is (40 ) L (20) v (2 oo) T (100 ) E (5) . THE BBKAISSANCB. and prelates. Clavius. which is the number of the beast in Revelation (xiii.E (SO ) A (1) constitutes the These attacks on the great number required. The rapid progress of astronomy led and many new calendars to the consideration of this subject.* To rectify the errors of the Julian calendar it was agreed to write in the new calendar the 15th of October immediately after the 4th of October of the year 1582. etc. were proposed. a demonstration 22 which gave Stifel unspeakable comfort. & = 2. who ranked high as a geometer. and many other eminent scientists who lived at a period even later than . The passion for the study of mystical properties of numbers descended from the ancients to the moderns. I etc. Pope Gregory XIII. Much was written on numerical mysticism even by such eminent men as Pacioli and Stifel. = 20.. the reduced the name of the ( impious Martin Luther to a form which may express this formidable number. astronomers. after misspelling the name.. who decided upon the adoption of the calendar proposed by the Jesuit Lilius Clavius.. met the objections of the former most ably and effectively the prejudices of the latter . the most acute and original of the early mathematicians of Germany) exercised an equal ingenuity in showing that the above number referred to Pope Leo X. 155 amount of confusion. Placing a = 1. Maurolycus. for his friend. convoked a large number of mathematicians. It is well known that Cardan. Astrology also was still a favourite study. symbol of Antichrist. He 18). The Numerorum Hysteria of Peter Bungus covered 700 quarto pages. he finds. Regiomontanus. Michael Stifel.

oi. which in the ignorant ages was an unmixed benefit. puF ".. this. The pentagranima gives you pain. but it is not so gen erally known that besides the occult sciences already named.ould now be a loss to Europe. Xapier. like the great Kepler... the ^rench_llhad n.". .. VIETA TO DESCABTES.". Being engaged in religious disputes.156 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. engaged in deep astrological study . people had no leisure for science and for secular literature. demonstrate on one page a theorem on star-polygons. Scholars like Kepler. calls him melancholy proof that there is no folly ". The ecclesiastical power. Albrecht Duerer.a or weakness too great to be united to high intellectual attain 26 ments. down to the time of IV. the theological spirit predominated.The people were comparatively indifferent about .. It is of deep psychological interest to see scientists. no religious wars were waged. ". Hence. Thus. on the other hand. were still resting with the other foot upon the scholastic ideas of preceding ages. Bartholo mew. the destruction of which^. Let our judgment not be too harsh. men engaged in the mystic study of star-polygons and magic squares. while on the next page. in France. 1 Playfair.. with strict geometric rigour. in more enlightened ages became a serious evil. while in the van of progress and planting one foot upon the firm ground of truly scientific inquiry.forth a Henry single work.. says Faust to Mephistopheles. The period under consideration is too near the Middle Ages to admit of complete emancipation from mysticism even among scientists. In England. perhaps. speaking of Cardan as an astrol oger. during the reigns preceding that of Henry IV. he explains their use as amulets or in conjurations.". This is pain fully shown by the massacres of Vassy and of St.

and thereby terminating religious wars. Theologic disputes and religious strife ensued. in the sixteenth century. it. to the throne was followed in 1598 by the Edict of Nantes.. 157 religious strifes . excepting for the discoveries in cubic equations. the shackles of ecclesiastical authority were thrown off by France. in a more advanced state there than elsewhere. and became a mere lax confederation of petty despotisms. But at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Desargues. VIETA TO DESCARTES. but of promoting the interests of the nation.France. and acquired. The first effects of the Eeformation there were salutary. was. they concentrated their ability upon secular matters. and which led England to national greatness. She had been the leader in astronomy and trigonometry. before the time of Vieta. The genius of the French nation now began to blossom. during the reign of Louis XIII. The great changes which revolutionised the world in the sixteenth century. the counterpart of which was found in England in the sixteenth century. The German empire was shattered. It produced that great secular literature. At the close of the fifteenth and during the six teenth century. and Pascal. More gloomy is the picture in Germany. granting freedom of worship to the Huguenots. His age was re markable for the progress of knowledge. led Germany to degradation. Cardinal Richelieu. The ascension of Henry IV. a literature which is immortalised by the genius of Shakespeare and Spenser* This great literary age in England was followed by a great scientific age.set in Germany. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) proved ruinous. The seventeenth cen tury was made by the great French mathema illustrious also ticians. pursued the broad policy of not favouring the opinions of any sect. Fermat. Germany had been conspicuous for her scien tific pursuits. Descartes. Com- . At the close of the sixteenth cen tury. when the sun of science began to rise in ". Eoberval. Algebra also.

Scotland brought forth Napier. - inerce was destroyed national feeling died out. the English became conspicuous for numerical skill. and the English Wallis are the great revo- lutioners of this science. ISTor did Germany recover from this low state for 200 years for in 1756 began another struggle. began to be studied with Success. Thus it followed that at the beginning of the seven teenth century. which tnrned Prussia into a wasted land. and that in the interval of 200 years between Kepler and Gauss. Cambridge. the Seven Years War. which for a long time had been an almost stationary science. and especially in France. After Recorde the higher branches of mathematics began to be studied. Up to the seventeenth century. Permat. or Tartaglia. Art disap . Later. the inventor of logarithms. the great Kepler was the only German mathe matician of eminence. Pascal. He had studied at Oxford. mathematics was cultivated but little in Great Britain. geometry. Eoberval. The foundations were by Permat and Pascal laid for the theory 0f numbers and the theory of probability. The first important irithmetical work of English authorship was published in Latin in 1522 by Cuthbert Tonstall (1474-1559). there arose no great mathematician in Germany excepting Leibniz. But with the time of Eecorde. and in literature there was only a slavish imitation of French artificiality. peared. Desargues. Galileo. Eeprints of his arithmetic appeared in England and Prance. . Stifel. In Italy. 158 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Descartes. During the sixteenth century. Torricelli. she brought forth no mathematician comparable with Yieta. and drew freely from the works of Pacioli and Eegiomontanus. The nations of antiquity experimented thou- . Theoretical mechanics began to be studied. and Padua. We shall first consider the improvements made in the art of calculating. The instantaneous appreciation of their value is doubtless the result of superiority in calculation.

mathematics re ceived one of the most powerful impulses. and failed to invent a suitable notation. before it was perceived that the all-powerful 5 simplicity of the Arabic notation was as valuable and as manageable in an infinitely descending as in an infinitely ^ ascending progression. adds 2n ciphers to the number. and takes this as the numerator of a fraction whose denominator is 1 fol lowed by n ciphers. but for practical purposes inferior to Cardan Orontius Finaeus (died 1555) in--France.". Cataldi finds the square rootby means of continued fractions a method ingenious and novel. and Wil s. presumably in imitation of Hindoo rules.it is curious to think how much science had attempted in physical research and how deeply numbers had been pondered. Simple as decimal fractions appear to us. to strike expedient of the cipher. 159 sands of years upon numeral notations before they happened upon the so-called Arabic notation. the invention of them is not the result of one mind or even of one age.". Thus John of Seville. ". They came into use by almost imperceptible degrees. In the simple ". but it failed to be generally adopted even by his Italian contemporaries for otherwise it would certainly have . VIETA TO DESCARTES. But ". which was introduced by the Hindoos about the fifth or sixth century after Christ.Arabic notation was once thoroughly understood. liam Buckley (died about 1550) in England extracted the". It would seem that after the ". then finds the square root. . decimal fractions would occur at once as an obvious extension of it. square rootfin the same way as Cardan and John of Seville. been at least mentioned by Oataldi (died 1626) in a work devoted exclusively to the extraction of roots. The first mathematicians identified with their his tory did not perceive their true nature and importance. The same method was followed by Cardan. The idea of decimal fractions makes its first appearance in methods for approxi mating to the square roots of numbers.

000. the fraction was attached the corresponding index. $To improvement was made in the notation of decimals tillthe beginning of the seventeenth century. In his La Disme (1585) he describes in very express terms the advantages.". Though he adopted a decimal division of the radius. had no notion whatever of decimal fractions. we owe the first systematic treatment of decimal fractions. decimals were used by Joost Biirgi. and not in fractions. but. who assumes the invention as his own. Strictly speaking. he used a cipher to each place in . they remained a secure posses sion. Thus. he published at Frankfurt on the Main a Logistica . 25 What he lacked was a suitable notation. a man who did a great deal of work in most diverse fields of science. equal to a multiple of 60. . on the ground that instead of placing the sinus totus7*nT". To j$imon_Jtevin of Bruges in Belgium (1548-1620). These though cumbrous in practice. -Not even Stevin innovations were immediately appreciated or at once s accepted.arithmetic.trigonometry. who pre pared a manuscript on arHlmrotic soon after 1592. unlike Oresme s. like the Greeks. are of interest.912 would be 5912 or 59(i)l@2.160 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. not only of decimal fractions. he and his suc cessors did not apply the idea outside of trigonometry and. but it remained wholly unnoticed. this had been done much earlier by Oresme. indices. To Stevin belongs the honour of inventing our present mode of designating powers and also of introducing fractional expo nents into algebra. The invention of decimals is frequently attributed to Regio montanus. a Swiss by birth. the number 5. In place of our decimal point. But here the trigonometrical lines were expressed in integers. because they are the germ of an important innovation. in 0123 his notation. After Stevin. Stevin applied the new fractions to all the operations of ordinary ". and by Joliann Hartmann Beyer. In 1603. but also of the decimal division in systems of weights and measures. indeed. he put it = 100.

He Napier and Briggs.of was made in 1620 by Gunter. of published which 70.000 were calculated by himself. It was carried on by the English Henry Gellibrand. 1619). leaving his work unfinished. arid secants. . the various inventions of Napier to assist the Among of the student or calculator. Briggs and Vlacq published four fundamental works. Briggs innovation remained unrecognised. the results of which have never been ". The first logarithms upon the natural base e were published by John Speidell in his New Logarithmes (London. The first publication of Briggian logarithms trigonometric functions . but owing to the publication by Vlacq of trigonometrical tables constructed on the old sexagesimal division. Gunter was the inventor of the words cosine and cotangent.". He six after the published a rude table of logarithms years of the Canon Mirificus. if not earlier. 165 of Gouda in Holland. Adrian Vlacq in 1628 a table of logarithms from 1 to 100.Napier s rule of memory . a colleague of Briggs. which contains the natural logarithms of sines. YIETA TO DESCABTES. than Napier did his. The only possible rival of John Napier in the invention of logarithms was the Swiss Justus Byrgius (Joost Burgi). and then published by Vlacq. ".the happiest example of artificial memory that is known. tangents. for the solution of spherical right triangles. Briggs divided a degree into 100 parts. but he died in 1631. but it appears that he appearance conceived the idea and constructed that table as early.". It is.circular parts".000. perhaps. But he neglected to have the results published until Napier s logarithms were known and admired throughout Europe. at hisown expense. superseded by any subsequent calculations. is ". who found the loga rithmic sines and tangents for every minute to seven places. of his life to calculating more Briggs devoted the last years extensive Briggian logarithms of trigonometric functions.

He spoke of imaginary quan tities. a Flemish mathematician. century had been the solution of cubic and bi-quadratic equa tions. and first showed how to express the sums of their powers in terms of the coefficients. he failed also to prove that every equation could be thus decomposed. of the products of every two of the roots . their roots have seen that Yieta ". etc. Harriot made some changes in algebraic nota- .We had attained a partial knowledge of the relations between roots and coefficients.of the last term. and was the first who understood the use of negative roots in the solution of geometric problems. a [Frenchman. Like Vieta. He was the first to decompose equations into their simple factors but. a new line of inquiry the prop erties of equations and was gradually opened up. . . All attempts at solving algebraically equations of higher degrees remaining fruitless. He brought the theory of equations under one comprehensive point of view by grasping that truth in its full extent to which Yieta and Girard only approximated viz. that in an equation in its simplest form. the coefficient of the second term with its sign changed is equal to the sum of the roots the coefficient of the third is equal to the sum . As a mathematician. Peletarius. Another algebraist of considerable power was the English Thomas Harriot (1560-1621). He accompanied the first colony sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh to Yirginia. since he failed to recognise imaginary and even negative roots. was Albert Girard (1590-1634). that the root of an equation is a divisor. One who extended the theory of equations somewhat further than Vieta. After having surveyed that country he returned to England. he was the boast of his country. by induction that every equation has as many inferred roots as there are units in the number expressing its degree .166 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS The most brilliant conquest in algebra during the sixteenth. had observed as early as 1558. this ingenious author applied algebra to geometry.

published in his Centro- baryca. The symbols of inequality and &. We shall see that this method excels that of Kepler and Cavalieri in following a more exact and natural course but it has the disadvantage of necessitating the deter . Harriot s work. mination of the centre of gravity. which in itself may be a the more difficult problem than the original one of finding . was published in 1631. Oughtred s ministerial duties lefthim but little time for the pursuit of mathematics during daytime. were introduced by him. &. adopting small letters of the alphabet in place of the capitals used by Vieta.lt.gt. and evenings his economical wife denied him the use of a light. rediscovered the following theorem. which were long used in the universities. Artis Analytical praxis. VIETA TO DESCARTES. Algebra was now in a state of sufficient perfection to enable Descartes to take that important step which forms one of the grand epochs in the history of mathematics. In the eighteenth century Christian Wolf secured the general adoption of the dot as a symbol of multiplication. Paul Guldin (1577-1643). He introduced x as symbol of multiplication. and as that of proportion. though first found in the Mathematical Collections of Pappus : The volume of a solid of revolution is equal to the area -of the generating figure. the determination of the areas of curvilinear figures was diligently studied at this period. 167 tion. By : : him ratio was expressed by only one dot. William Oughtred (1574-1660) contributed vastly to the propa gation of mathematical knowledge in England by his treatises. and the sign for ratio was thereupon changed to two dots. ten years after his death. multiplied by the circumference described by the centre of gravity. which has been named after him. the application of algebraic analysis to define the nature and investigate the properties of algebraic curves. a Swiss mathematician of considerable note. In geometry.

At one time. 11 The Greeks never dreamed that these curves would ever be of practical use .". he was struck by the inaccuracy of the ordinary modes of deter mining the contents of kegs. while purchasing wine. ".". fre quent changes of residence. . yet the conic sections assisted Kepler in tracing the march of the planets in their elliptic orbits. religious persecution.gt. five regular solids The publication of this pseudo-discovery brought him much fame. pecuniary embarrassments. His pursuit of science was repeatedly interrupted by war. Kepler s publications are voluminous.Kepler s laws. in the observatory near Prague. and family troubles. In it he deals first with the &. The relation between the two great astronomers was not always of an agreeable character. He enriched pure mathematics as well as astronomy. Tycho Brahe. Kepler made also extended use of loga rithms and decimal fractions. In 1600 he became for one year assistant to the Danish astronomer. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a native of Wurtemberg and imbibed Copernican principles while at the University of Tubingen. Maturer reflection and intercourse with Tycho Brahe and Galileo led him to investigations and results more worthy of his genius ". Aristseus and Apollonius studied them merely to satisfy their intellectual cravings after the ideal.168 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. It is not strange that he was interested in the mathematical science which had done him so much service. Guldin made some attempts to prove his theorem. This led him to the study of the volumes of solids of revolution and to the publication of the Stereometric Doliorum in 1615. volume.if Kepler could not have superseded Ptolemy. but Cavalieri pointed out the weakness of his demonstration. when he thought he had discovered a curious relation between the and the number and distance of the planets. for the Greeks had not cultivated conic sections. and was enthusiastic in diffusing a knowledge of them. His first attempt to explain the solar system was made in 1596.

This idea Hoberval extended to all curves. . We have already mentioned his quadra ture of the cycloid. E. may be generated by a point acted upon by two forces. He was the first to apply motion to the resolution of this important problem. Eoberval is best known for his method of drawing tangents. He studied law at Toulouse. a definition not valid for curves of higher degrees. and reached its highest development after the invention of the differential calculus. His method is allied to Newton s principle of fluxions. yet his new idea was a great step in advance.ober- val did not always succeed in doing this. Plane curves. and called one of its sides produced a tangent. and centres of gravity. The subject of tangents received special attention also from Permat. VIETA TO DESCARTES. If at any point of the curve the resultant be resolved into its components. nor apt even in curves of the second degree to bring out the properties of tangents and the parts they may be made to play in the generation of the curves. Barrow considered a curve a polygon. and in 1631 was made . volumes. and also of a ~~ m = m ~n n parabola y a x . Permat and Descartes defined tangents as secants whose two points of intersection with the curve coincide. A profound scholar in all branches of learning and a mathe matician of exceptional powers was Pierre de Fennat (1601- 1665).then the diagonal of the par allelogram determined by them is the tangent to the curve at that point. He broke off from the ancient definition of a tangent as a straight line having only one point in common with a curve. Descartes. Archimedes con ceived his spiral to be generated by a double motion. and are the resultant of two motions. The greatest difficulty connected with this ingenious method consisted in resolving the resultant into components having the proper lengths and directions. as for instance the conic sections. 173 areas. He effected the quad rature of a parabola of any degree y m = am lx. and Barrow.

who could never be brought to render due justice to his merit. Kepler had first observed that the increment of a variable. itwas maintained by Lagrange. is evanescent for values very near a maximum or a minimum value of the variable. was severely attacked by his great contemporary. the father. the ordinate of a curve. which. and Hardy supported Descartes. Unlike Descartes and Pascal. that Fermat may be regarded as the first inventor of the differ ential calculus. Fermat obtained his rule for maxima and minima. If e be taken 0. Since Fermat introduced the conception of infinitely small differences between consecutive values of a function and ar rived at the principle for finding the maxima and minima. Developing this idea. Desargues. he studied with irresistible passion. A great contribution to geometry was his De maximis et minimis. Owing to a want of explicitness in statement. councillor for the parliament of Toulouse. then the roots of this equation are the values of x. Fermat found two zealous defenders in Eober- val and Pascal. In the ensuing dispute. and Fourier. This point is not well taken. Fermat has left the impress of his genius upon all branches of mathematics then known. Fermat s method of maxima and minima. The main difference between it and the rule of the differential calculus is that introduces the indefinite quantity e instead it of the infinitely small dx. Fermat was in possession of this rule in 1629. making the function a maximum or a minimum. for instance. Descartes. Fermat made it the basis for his method of drawing tangents. and of tangents. His leisure time was mostly devoted to mathematics. while Midorge. he led a quiet and unaggressive life.174 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. About twenty years earlier. Laplace. He substituted x+ e for x in the given function of x and then equated to each other the two consecutive values of the function and divided the equation by e. as. as will be seen .

for example. was Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). Starting with the bare fact that mathematics taught the means of making figures infalli bly exact. rather than in the use which may be made of these infinitely small variations in the solution of one or two isolated prob 3 lems. but did not wish his son to study it until he was perfectly acquainted with Latin and Greek. whose genius excelled even that of the great Fermat. He gave names of his own to these figures and then formed axioms.that it was the method of making figures with exactness. came to make perfect demonstrations. In 1626 his father retired to Paris. and was answered. All mathematical books were hidden out of his sight. and. for he would not trust his education to others. The father now gave . himself a Frenchman. His father was well skilled in mathematics. and of finding out what proportions they relatively had to one another.". he employed his thoughts about it and with a piece of charcoal drew figures upon the tiles of the pavement. who rightly says that the differential calculus ". He was born at Clermont in Auvergne. Blaise Pascal s genius for geometry showed itself when he was but twelve years old. in short. trying the methods of drawing.consists in a system of rules proper for finding the differentials of all functions. YIETA TO DESCABTES. an exact circle or equi lateral triangle. and was so astonished at the sublimity and force of his genius as to weep for joy. where he devoted himself to teaching his son. or ever to think of it. His father caught him in the act of study ing this theorem. 175 from the words of Poisson. He was at the same time forbidden to talk any more about it. But his genius could not submit to be confined within these bounds. in general. A contemporary mathematician. The boy once asked his father what mathematics treated of. In this way he arrived unaided at the theo rem that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. ".

Yet he continued working. Like Boberval. His regular studies being languages. Pascal s illness increased. This treatise never published. and he thus discovered . which. But at times he returned to the favourite study of his youth. By him the answer to the objection to Cavalieri s Method of Indivisibleswas put in the clearest form. he. some thoughts un- designedly came into his head concerning the roulette or cycloid one idea followed another . without assistance. Leibniz saw it in Paris and reported on a portion of its contents. This continued strain from overwork resulted in a k permanent indisposition. Being kept awake one night by a toothache. and he would sometimes say that from the* time he was eighteen. he wrote a treatise upon conies. and he died at Paris at the early age of thirty-nine 30 years.". the boy employed only his hours of amusement on the study of geometry. properties of this curve even to demonstration. Mm Euclid s Elements. mastered easily. and at nineteen invented his famous machine for performing arithmetical operations mechanically. A corre spondence between him and Fermat on certain problems was the beginning of the theory of probability. at the age of six teen. to mean. which passed for such a surprising effort of genius.176 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. that it was said nothing equal to it in strength had been produced since the time of Archimedes. the sum of infinitely small rectangles. Descartes refused to believe that it was written by one so young as Pascal. but the constant application at so tender an age greatly impaired his health. His Pro vincial Letters against the Jesuits are celebrated. and is ". The precocious youth made vast progress in all the sciences.was now lost. yet he had so ready and lively a penetration that. ". he explained ". At the age of twenty-four he resolved to lay aside the study of the human sciences and to consecrate his talents to religion. he never passed a day free from pain. the sum of right lines ". Pascal greatly advanced .

being pressed for time.involution of the six points. a friend of Descartes. the former. Fermat found the area generated by an arc of the cycloid. Two important and beautiful theorems were given by Desargues The one is on : the ". and Fermat solved some of the questions. but who succeeded in greatly simplifying many prolix proofs of Apollonius. But it remained for Girard Desargues (1593-1662) of Lyons. Only Wallis and A. Though not competing for the prizes. and. Paul s Cathedral in London. the celebrated architect of Si.". Huygens invented the cycloidal pendulum. finally. in 1658. La Louere com peted for them. Wren. YIETA TO DESCARTES. and for Pascal. were the rectification of a cycloidal arc and the determination of its centre of gravity. the volume generated by it revolving around its base or around the axis . with the errors corrected. was Claude Mydorge in Paris (1585-1647). Hence Desargues and Pascal conceived the treatment of the conic sections as projections of circles. to all mathematicians that famous challenge offering prizes for the first two solu tions of these problems. published his. made numerous mistakes : neither got a prize. 177 the knowledge of the cycloid. One who treated conies still by ancient methods. too. Wal lis. in which a transversal . the centres of gravity of these volumes. He determined the area of a section produced by any line parallel to the base . which produced a great sensation among scientific men. he sent. Before publishing his results. Pascal then published his own solutions. The beginning of the seventeenth century witnessed also a revival of synthetic geometry. They intro duced the important method of Perspective. All conies on a cone with circular base appear circular to an eye at the apex. to leave the beaten track and cut out fresh paths. The chief discoveries of Christopher Wren (1632-1723). and also of half these volumes cut by planes of symmetry. The latterwas quite unequal to the task. Huygens.

then their sides meet in three points lying. meets a conic and an inscribed quadrangle . In the theory of numbers no new results of scientific value had been reached for over 1000 years. wish to ". and that paral lels differ from other pairs of having their points lines only in of intersection at infinity.". lasttheorem has been employed in recent times by Branchion. of his beautiful theory of hoinoligical figures. the subject was almost entirely neglected until the present century. lie on three lines meeting in a point. at the age of sixteen and now lost. on and conversely. and also that celebrated on the mystic hexagon. a plane. inscribed in a conic intersect in three points which are col- linear. Poncelet made it the basis Sturm.". first found in Pappus. extending from the . This theorem formed the keystone to his theory. to his writings. We owe to Desargues the theory of involution and of transversals . He himself said that from this alone he deduced over 400 corol laries. but owing to the absorbing interest taken in the analytical geometry of Descartes and later in the differential calculus. known as proposition ". embracing the conies of Apollonius &nd many other results. Pascal greatly admired Desargues his Essais pour les Coniques).178 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.I results. viz.Pascal that the opposite sides of a hexagon s theorem. saying (in that I have discovered on acknowledge that I owe the little 3 this subject. also the beautiful conception that the two extremities of a straight line may be considered as meeting at infinity. PascaTsTnd Desargues writ contained the fundamental ideas of modern synthetic ings In Pascal s wonderful work on conies. the other is that.gt. Gergonne. This Hnej &. written geometry. situated either in space or in if the vertices of two triangles. and Poncelet. Thus the genius of Desargues and Pascal uncovered several of the rich treasures of modern synthetic geometry. were given the theorem on the anharmonic ratio.

while it took an extraordinary genius to dis cover laws from phenomena. Though he formulated the fundamental principle of statics. who employed their mental powers toward the destruction of old ideas and the up-building of new ones. and afterwards more fully by Galileo.fell vertically to the ground. of acceleration and of the independence of different motions. yet he did not fully recognise its scope. Though he professed orthodoxy in faith all his yet in science he was a profound sceptic. he established the first law of motion . The first contributor to the science of mechanics after Galileo was Descartes. ranks Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Galileo the founder of the science of dynamics. yet they had discovered nothing . having obtained a clear notion . 183 heavier . He found that the world s brightest thinkers had been long exercised in metaphysics. determined the laws of falling bodies and. and gave a correct definition of momentum. life. Up to his time was believed that a cannon-ball moved it forward at first in a straight line and then suddenly ". DESCARTES TO NEWTOH. but Lagrange claims that his astronomical discoveries required only a telescope and perseverance. was able to prove that projectiles move in parabolic curves. DESCABTES TO NEWTOK Among the earliest thinkers of the seventeenth and eigh teenth centuries. The principle of virtual velocities was partly conceived by Guido Ubaldo (died 1607). Among is his contemporaries it was chiefly the novelties he detected in the sky that made him celebrated. known as the parallelogram of forces. Galileo had an understanding of centrifugal forces. which we see constantly and of which the true explanation escaped all earlier philosophers.

which has for its . had even flatly contradicted each other. Desargues puts me under obligations on account of : ". This led him to the gigantic resolution of taking nothing whatever on authority. certain. The certainty of the conclusions in geometry and arithmetic brought out in his mind the contrast between the true and false ways of seeking the truth. that is to say. according to new methods of inquiry. he dared to hope that the secrets of both could. but of subjecting everything to scrutinous exam ination. . of nature with the laws of mathematics. it may be fairly questioned whether his claim to be remembered by posterity as a mathematician is not greater.built Great as was Descartes celebrity as a metaphysician. but the ana lytical geometry of Descartes will remain a valuable possession forever. He thereupon attempted to apply mathe-* matical reasoning to all sciences. His years of soldiering were years of leisure. but I have resolved to quit only abstract geometry. in order to study another kind of exercise the geometry.". You know that all my physics is nothing else than geometry. in which he had time to pursue his studies. In a letter to Mersenne. At that time mathematics was his favourite science.184 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.object the explanation of the phenomena of nature. Hamilton is in error when he states that Descartes considered mathematical studies absolutely pernicious as a means of internal culture. and this. nay. Descartes enlisted in the army of Prince Maurice of Orange. Sir William. . the consideration of questions which serve only to mind. the pains that it has pleased him to have in me. . in that he shows that he is sorry that I do not wish to study more in geom etry. Comparing the mysteries ". Thus he up a system of philosophy called Cartesianism. His philosophy has long since been superseded by other systems. But in 1625 he ceased to devote himself to pure mathematics. Descartes says M. 77 The years between 1629 and . At the age of twenty-one. ". be unlocked with the same key.

The term abscissa occurs for the first time in a Latin work of 1659.". written by Stefano degli 3 Angeli (1623-1697). together with the algebraic idea of two variables in one equa tion having an indefinite number of simultaneous values. which enabled him to represent curves by alge braic equations. In 1637 he published his Discours de la Methode&. It is frequently stated that Descartes was the first to apply algebra to geometry. The new step that Descartes did take was the introduction into geom etry of an analytical method based on the notion of variables and constants.gt. This geometric idea of co-ordinate representation. which is admirable for the generality of Thus the entire conic sections its solutions. of physics and metaphysics. veyors for parallel lines. An edition appeared subsequently with notes by his friend De Beaune. fur nished a method for the study of loci.analytical geometry/ partly . for Yieta and others had done Even the Arabs some this before him. His Geometry is not easy reading. used by Descartes comes from the expression linece employed by Eoman sur ordinatce. but with Descartes it became a very fruitful conception. The Latin term for ".ordite&.gt. 185 1649 were passed by him in Holland in the study. In the Greek geometry. of Apollonius is wrapped up and contained in a single equa tion of the second degree. These distances varied with every change of position in the point. which were intended to remove the dif ficulties. a professor of mathematics in Rome. DESCARTES TO NEWTON". His residence in Holland was during the most brilliant days of the Dutch state. the idea of motion was wanting. This statement is inaccurate.. 3 Descartes geometry was called ". By him a point on a plane was determined in position by its distances from two fixed right lines or axes. times used algebra in connection with geometry. containing among others an essay of 106 pages on geometry. principally.

The first important example solved by Descartes in his geometry is the ". to show that there were omissions in the geometry. of designating by the term analysis the calculus with general quantities. or more generally. and. Of all the problems which he solved by his geometry.186 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in which case the locus of the point turns out to be a conic section. . drawn from the point to the given lines. Descartes gave a third method. The methods of drawing tangents invented by Boberval and Fermat were noticed earlier. viz. and sent his own treatise on maxima and minima ". By Descartes it was solved completely. who wrote objections to the former. and it afforded an excellent example of the use which can be made of his analytical method in the study of loci. . Another solution was given later by Newton in the Principia. in the sense that the word is used in logic . straight lines at given angles. ". and partly because the practice had then already arisen. Of this celebrated problem. unlike the synthetic geometry of tie ancients. to find the locus of a point such that the perpendiculars.". Given several straight lines in a plane. the Greeks solved only the special case when the number of given lines is four. none gave him as great pleasure as his mode of constructing tangents. on that account. it is actually analytical. ". It is profound but operose. Descartes thereupon made an attack on Fermat s method of tangents. because. The essays of Descartes on dioptrics and geometry were sharply criticised by Fermat. inferior to Fermat s. of which he bears the honour of invention. problem of Pappus ". shall satisfy the condition that the product of certain of them shall be in a given ratio to the product of the rest. Indeterminate coefficients were employed by him also in solving bi-quadratic equations. His solution rests on the method of Indeterminate Coefficients.

Descartes was charged by Wallis with availing himself. viz. of Harriot s theory of equations. particularly his mode of generating equations but there seems to be no good ground . On s intimating that he had been assisted by a Boberval knowledge of the solution. yet he continued the controversy with obstinacy. and as many roots as there are permanencies of signs. Descartes improved it by the systematic use of exponents and by the full interpretation and construction of negative quanti ties.". As an abstract science. 187 Descartes was in the wrong in tins attack. on account of its beautiful proper ". which had cost the genius of Des cartes but a moderate degree of attention. He new curves. and challenged Roberval and Fermat to do the same. Wallis also claimed that Descartes failed to observe that the above rule of signs is not true whenever the . The application of algebra to the doctrine of curved lines reacted favourably upon algebra. Its quadrature by Eoberval was generally considered a brill iant achievement. He then sent a short demonstration of his own. DESCARTES TO NEWTON.". without acknowl edgment. This curve has been called the Helen of geometers. ". but Descartes commented on it by saying that any one moderately well versed in geometry might have done this. He had a controversy also with B-oberval on the cycloid. the number of positive and negative roots . for the charge. but Eoberval never succeeded in solving this problem. Celebrated is his rule of signs for determining ". cartes. ITermat accomplished it. now called ovals of. Des studied some ". Descartes also established some theorems on the theory of equations. which were intended by him to serve in the con struction of converging lenses. but which yielded no results of practical value. an equation may have as many + roots as there are variations of signs. ties and the controversies which their discovery occasioned. Descartes constructed the tangent to the curve.

upon the enemy ". After much hesitation he accepted the invitation in 1649. His life had been one long warfare against the prejudices of men.". and on some points strongly opposed Descartes. the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus. They continued in investi gations of their own. correctly stated One most devoted pupils of Descartes was the learned of the Princess Elizabeth. His second royal follower was Queen Christina. Ferrnat. His statement of the first and second laws of motion was an improvement in form but his third law is false in substance. and Huygens. Pascal.188 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. erroneously given by Descartes. ". problem. It is true that Descartes does not consider the case of irnagi- but further on in * naries directly. The motions of bodies in their direct impact was imperfectly understood by Galileo. It was in the youthful universities of . The indiscreet temper of Descartes alienated the great contemporary French mathema ticians. He died at Stockholm one year later. She urged upon Des cartes to come to the Swedish court. equation has imaginary roots but Descartes does not say that . She applied the new analytical geometry to the solution of the Apollonian ". the equation always has. and first by Wren. .". his Geometry he gives incontestable evidence of being able to handle this case also. but that it may have so many roots. Roberval. ". and Descartes simply threw himself". daughter of Frederick Y. Descartes can hardly be said to have advanced beyond Galileo. than by foreigners. The universities of France were under strict ecclesiastical control and did nothing to introduce his mathe matics and philosophy. The latter had overthrown the ideas of Aristotle on this subject. that had already been put to the rout. In mechanics. It is most remarkable that the mathematics and philosophy of Descartes should at first have been appreciated less by his countrymen.Wallis.

but with aid of the Cartesian analysis. In the Netherlands a large number of distinguished mathema ticians were at once struck with admiration for the Cartesian geometry. celebrated as a statesman and for his tragical end. With Hudde. Rene Francois de Sluze (1622-1685) and Johann Hudde (1633- 1704) made some improvements on Descartes and Fermat s methods of drawing tangents. He is the author of an ingenious rule for finding equal roots. We illustrate it by the equation. 1. professor of mathematics at Leyden. was an. DESCARTES TO NEWTON.ardent geometrician. 3 cc . y and Hudde. brought out an edition of Descartes geometry. = 0. Van Schooten (died 1660). 189 Holland that the effect of Cartesian teachings was most immediate and strongest. John de Witt van Heuraet. He contributed to the theory of equations by considering for the first time the upper and lower limits of the roots of numerical equations. His chief work is his Hxercitationes Mathematics. grand-pensioner of Holland.^ Taking an arithmetical progression 3. The only prominent Frenchman who immediately followed was De Beaune (1601-1652). Sluze. we find the first use of three variables in analytical geometry. and on the theory of maxima and minima. 2. The noble-hearted Johann de ".Witt. This mode of inquiry has been called the inverse method of tangents. Foremost among these are van Schooten. together with the notes thereon by De Beaune. inwhich he applies the analytical geometry to the solution of many interesting and difficult problems. He conceived a new and ingenious way of generating conies. He treated the subject not synthetically. of which the highest term is equal to the degree of . 2 as 8# 12 -}. 0. which is essentially the same as -that by protective pencils of rays in modern synthetic geometry. in the footsteps of the great master He was one of the first to point out that the properties of a curve can be deduced from the properties of its tangent.

and that the one can be reduced to the other. and one of the greatest scientists of theseventeenth century. Vincent (1584-1667) on the subject of quadratures.190 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Thus he carried the rectification of the hyperbola back to the quadrature of the hyperbola. The semi-cubical parabola y 8 = ao? 2 was the first curve that was ever rectified absolutely. Had there been no common divisor. Hudde 24 gave a demonstration for this rule. According to Wallis the priority belongs to ISfeil. a native of the Hague. equal roots. In 1660 and 1663 he went to Paris and to London. we get 3^-2^-8^ = 0. Heinrich van Heuraet must be mentioned as one of the earli est geometers who occupied themselves with success in the. Eminent as a physicist and astronomer. This appears to have been accomplished independently by Van Heuraet in Holland and by William Neil (1637-1670) in Eng land. This last equation is by one degree lower than the original one. the equation. He observed in a general way that the two problems of quadrature and of rectification are really identical. he was a worthy predecessor of Sir Isaac Newton. The prince of philosophers in Holland. and multiplying each term of the equation respec tively by the corresponding term of the progression. This is x 2 hence 2 is one of the two . [Find the G.D. He himself gave a remarkably close and convenient approximation to the length of a circular arc. or 3a2 = 2x 8 0. member of the French . was Christian Huygens (1629-1695).Wren and Fermat. He studied at Ley den under the younger Van ScJwoten.C. The perusal of some of his earliest theorems led Descartes to predict his future greatness. rectification of carves. then the original equation would not have possessed equal roots. of the two equations. as well as mathematician. In 1666 he was appointed by Louis XIV. Soon after. In 1651 Huygens wrote a treatise in which he pointed out the fallacies of Gregory St. the cycloid was rectified by ".

". He solved the problem of the catenary. when he returned to his native city.". Newton always speaks of him as the ". 1673) is a work that ranks second only to the Principia of Newton and constitutes 13 historically a necessary introduction to it. culminating in the brilliant discovery that the cycloid is the tautochronous curve. he always showed like his illustrious friend. Newton and Huygens the were kindred minds.was from that time until 1681. DESCARTES TO NEWTON. Then follows a treatment of accelerated motion of bodies falling free. Then comes the complete general discussion of the centre of oscillation. partly for consideration of his health and partly on account of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In Huygens assumption that the common centre . of which Huygens is the inventor.evolutes. 191 Academy He of Sciences. determined the surface of the parabolic and hyperbolic and discovered the proper conoid. To the theory of curves he added the important theory of ". or sliding on inclined planes. To the two curves (cubical parabola and cycloid) previously rectified he added a third. and had the greatest admiration for each other. Newton. ties of the logarithmic curve and the solids generated by it. After explaining that the tangent of the eyolute is normal to the involute. Sir Isaac partiality for Greek geometry. or on given curves. Thus. This subject had been proposed for investigation by Mersenne and discussed by Descartes and Eoberval. and showed by simple reasoning that the evolute of this curve is an equal cycloid. though at times he used the geometry of Descartes or of Cavalieri and Fermat. The book opens with a description of pendulum clocks. he applied the theory to the cycloid.Summus Hugenius. The majority of his profound discoveries were made with aid of the ancient geometry. the cissoid. Huygens De Jwrologio osdllatorio (Paris. induced to remain in Paris ".

With more efficient instruments he determined the nature of Saturn s appendage and solved other astro nomical questions. We have . This theory aided Newton in discovering the law of gravita tion. afterwards called of vis viva* 2 The thirteen theorems at the close of the work relate to the theory of centrifugal force in circular motion. Huygens Opuscula posthuma appeared in 1703. we meet there one of the most original mathematicians of his day John Wallis (1616-1703). In this work Wallis speaks of Descartes in the highest terms. but as curves of the second degree. Passing now from Holland to England. Huygens and his brother improved the telescope by devising a better way of grinding and polish ing lenses. But his genius was employed chiefly in the study of mathematics. and are treated analytically by the Cartesian method of co-or dinates. His Conic Sections is the earliest work which these curves are no longer considered in as sections of a cone. In 1649 he was appointed Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford. but no higher. He was educated for the Church at Cambridge and entered Holy Orders. oscillating about a horizontal axis. Wallis thoroughly grasped the mathematical methods both of Cavalieri and Descartes. He was one of the original members of the Eoyal Society. which was founded in 1663. is expressed for the first time one of the most beautiful principles of the principle of the conservation dynamics. but was revived and successfully worked out by Young and Fresnel a century later. accuses Descartes of plagiarising from Harriot. but in his Algebra he. This theory was long neglected.192 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He first proposed the wave-theory of light and with great skill applied geometry to its development. of gravity of a group of bodies. Huygens wrote the formal treatise on probability.without good reason. rises to its original height. .

Extraordinary confidence came to be placed in the power of the human mind. Dominic Cassini from Italy. Huygens from Holland. or those of Lagrange to Germany. This lack of great scientific thinkers during the reign of Louis XIV. It has been seen that in France prodigious scientific progress was made during the beginning and middle of the seventeenth century. but. They were in possession of a brilliant reputation before going to Paris. may be due to the simple fact that no great minds were born . 199 But a : e = the ordinate : the sub-tangent . or those of Euler and Poncelet to Eussia. hence p : 2 Vpx = Vp# : sub-tangent. NEWTON TO EULEE. according to Buckle. sur rounded himself by eminent foreigners. Bonier from Den mark.^this method dif giving 2 x for the value of 31 fers from that of the differential calculus only in notation. Louis XIV. In the absence of great French thinkers. Then followed a night of mental effeminacy. was accompanied by intense intellectual activity. and Louis XIII. We . The toleration which marked the reign of Henry IV. KEWTOK TO ETJLER. that work belongs no more to France than the dis coveries of Descartes belong to Holland. and to the lack of toleration. The bold intellectual conquests of Descartes. we behold the sunset splendour of this glorious period. / the sub-tangent. and Pascal enriched mathematics with of the reign imperishable treasures. which marked the policy of Louis XIV. Simply because they performed scientific work in Paris. it was due to the paternalism. were the mathematicians and astronomers adorning Ms court. to the spirit of dependence and subordination. Fermat. During the early part of Louis XIV.

During fifty years preceding this era several of the brightest and acutest mathematicians bent the force of their genius in a direction which finally led to the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus by Newton and Leibniz. There are certain focal points in history toward which the lines of past progress converge. and from which radiate the advances of the future. Roberval. The age of poetry was soon followed by an age of science and philosophy. A strong intellectual movement took place. Yet this darkest period of Germany s history produced Leibniz.France for the great scien tific men of the latter part of the seventeenth century. and advancing considerably in material pros perity. became king of Eng land. and so near was their approach toward the invention of the infinitesimal analysis. Cavalieri. was not so much an individual discovery as the grand result of a succession of discoveries by different minds. to be the true inventor of it. and others had each contributed to the new geometry. Fermat. one of the greatest geniuses of modern times. that both Lagrange and Laplace pronounced their countryman. So great was the advance made. Fermat. In two successive centuries England produced Shakespeare and Newton ! Germany still continued in a state of national degradation. which was unwittingly supported by the king. The Thirty Years War had dismembered the empire and 5 brutalised the people. Des cartes. Wallis. Such was the age of Newton and Leibniz in the history of mathematics. About the time when Louis XIV. Indeed. assumed the direction of the French government Charles II. and though those of Newton will . therefore.200 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. At this time England was extending her commerce and navigation. no great discovery ever flashed upon the mind at once. The dif ferential calculus. must look to other countries than ".

He con structed a water-clock. a carriage moved by the person who sat in it. the little Isaac received a severe kick ".". and that. and in his twelfth year to the public school at G-rantham. one day. At firsthe seems to have been very inattentive to his studies and very low in the school. Cambridge was the real birthplace of Newton s genius. a wind-mill. Isaac showed a decided taste for mechanical inventions. c Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was born at Woolsthorpe. 33 At Grantham. induced her to send him back to Grantham. where he remained till his eighteenth year. HEWTON TO EULBR. but when. and he expressed to Dr. and all was light. 201 influence mankind to the end of the world. God said. He afterwards regarded this neglect of elementary geometry a mistake in his mathematical studies. Some idea of his strong intuitive powers may be drawn from the fact that he regarded the theorems of ancient geometry as self-evident truths. : ".upon Ms stomach from a boy who was above him. the same year in which Galileo died. Nature and Nature s laws lay hid in night . poetic fancy ". From that time he continued to rise until he was the head boy. he laboured hard till he ranked higher in school than his antagonist. when he entered Trinity College. but his great dislike for farm- work and his irresistible passion for study. At his birth he was so small and weak that his life was despaired of.he had applied himself to the works of Descartes and other algebraic writers before he had . without any prelimi nary study. he made himself master of Descartes Geometry. Cambridge (1660). When he had attained his fifteenth year his mother took him home to assist her in the management of the farm. and other toys. Let Newton be. Pemberton his regret that ". in Lincolnshire. yet it must be admitted that Pope s lines are only a ". His mother sent him at an early age to a village school.

Barrow. Newton s study of quadratures soon led him to another and most profound invention. Newton introduced the system of literal indices. how Newton attacked the problem. such as that of the circle. and the works of Wallis. Besides Descartes Geometry. Schooten s Miscellanies. the binomial could at once be expanded into a series.202 A HISTOBY O^ MATHEMATICS. with a higher power than his masters 3 .". effected the interpolation. who had been elected professor of Greek in 1660. a treatise fraught with rich and varied suggestions. We have seen how Wallis attempted but failed to interpolate between the areas thus calculated. which was sent . which afforded a much easier and direct access to the quadrature of curves than did the method of interpolation. the works of Vieta. and was made Lucasian professor of mathematics in 1663. Barrow s Lectures. Newton had the good fortune of having for a teacher and fast friend the celebrated Dr. moved onward into wider fields. considered the Elements of Euclid with. The mathe matics of Barrow and of Wallis were the starting-points from which Newton. the areas of other curves.". Wallis had effected the quadrature of curves whose ordinates are expressed by any integral and positive power of (1 #2 ). when lie placed in the hands of Barrow a tract. of Wallis. for even though the binomial expression for the ordinate be raised to a fractional or negative power. Newton did not com municate the invention to any of his friends till 1669. that attention which so excellent a writer deserves. entitled De Analyst per ^Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. and the quadrature of each separate term of that series could be effected by the method. He himself says that in 1665 and 1666 he conceived the method of fluxions and applied them to the quadrature of curves. He was particularly delighted with Wallis Arithmetic of Infinites. Kepler s Optics. and discovered the Binomial Theorem. ". he studied Oughtred s Clams.

who greatly admired it. in which he aimed to represent Ms method as an independent calculus and as . ITor a long time Newton s method remained unknown. dated December 10th.. or rather corollary. is one particular. 1672. etc. prevented his compliance. Supposing the abscissa to increase uniformly in proportion to the time. In a letter to Collins. of ". if not cxilpable. which the excess. 203 by Barrow to Collins. In this treatise the principle of fluxions. nor is it (as Hudden s method of Maximis and Minimis) limited to equations which are free from surd quantities. is only partially developed and explained. was certainly in the present instance very unfortunate. but also to the resolving other abstruser kinds of problems about the crookedness. or anyhow respecting right lines or other curves. NEWTON TO ETJLER. These last words relate to a treatise he composed in the year 1671. Newton states the fact of his invention with one example. 26 Had this tract been published then. Barrow urged Newton to publish this treatise 5 but the modesty of the author. he looked upon the area of a curve as a nascent quantity increasing by continued fluxion in the proportion of the length of the ordinate. to which Wallis rule was applicable. areas. The expression which was obtained for the fluxion he expanded into a finite or infinite series of monomial terms. though distinctly pointed out.". whether r geometrical or mechanical.". of a general method. ex cept to his friends and their correspondents. by reducing them to infinite series. entitled Method of Fluxions. This method I have inter woven with that other of working in equations. without any troublesome calculation. lengths. and then says This : ". which extends itself. instead of forty-two years later. centres of gravity of curves. not only to the drawing of tangents to any curve lines. there would probably have been no occasion for that long and deplorable controversy between Newton and Leibniz.

any time proposed. so to speak.I my theory of light that I blamed my own imprudence for parting with so substantial a blessing as my quiet to run after a shadow. which he had undertaken to publish. translated by J.204 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in the ". by increasing with an uniform celerity x. He then proceeds to the solution of the two fol lowing mechanical problems. measures and exhibits as described: then 2 xx will represent the celerity by which the space y. But the fear of being involved in ". or perhaps the wish to render it more complete. The length of the space described being continually (i. find the length of the space described at any time proposed. 34 His re searches on light were severely criticised. a stibject which.". a complete system.". was first published in 1736. if = y represents the length of the space at any time described. or sixty-five years after it was written. in his first years of study. received the most careful attention. Newton says Thus. . : equation y x 2 . and he wrote in 1675: was so persecuted with discussions arising out of ". first the expansion into series of fractional and irrational quantities. at all times) given to find the velocity of the motion at . which constitute the pillars.I. disputes about this new discovery. of the abstract calculus : ". II. Excepting two papers on optics. Colson from New ton s Latin.". which (time) another space x. This tract was intended as an introduc tion to an edition of Kinckhuysen s Algebra. induced him to aban don this design. The velocity of the motion being ". all of his works appear to have been published only after the most pressing solicita tions of his friends and against his own wishes. continually given to . Preparatory to the solution. The Method of Fluxions.e. or to have the sole advantage of employing it in his physical researches. In it he explains.

respectively. or simply velocities. and contrarywise. These as defined and infinitely small quantities. I shall represent by the same letters pointed. and z. and so for the celerities of the other quantities x. to be increased by an equable fluxion. x. and z. . The moments of fluxions. are substantially the differen tials of Leibniz. no regard to time formally considered. it may not improperly receive the name of time. and besides. moments. x. . I shall put x. as it were to time . z. y. In this statement of Newton there is contained a satisfactory answer to the objection which has been raised against his method. y. to which the rest may be referred. thus. ties by which every fluent is increased by its generating motion (which I may call fluxions. any far ". v. Now those quantities which I consider as gradually and indefinitely increasing. y. That is. or flowing quantities. and also their velocities of increase and decrease therefore. therefore. and z and the veloci . But whereas we need not consider the time here. 205 at the same moment of time. for the celerity of the quantity v I shall put v. Newton continues : ". . it A quantity thus increasing by uniform fluxion. is what we now call an independent variable. v.". whereas only quantities of the same kind can be compared together. and shall represent them by the final letters of the alphabet. but I shall suppose some one of the quantities proposed. ". or celerities). by way of analogy. are ".".". De Morgan points out that no small amount of confusion has arisen from the use of the word fluxion and the . used in the Method of Fluxions. y.". proceeds to be described . and. that introduces into analysis the foreign idea of motion. being of the same kind. I shall hereafter call fluents. ther than it is expounded and measured by an equable local motion. in what follows I shall have . 57 It must here be observed that New ton does not take the fluxions themselves infinitely small. NEWTON TO EtJLEB. a term introduced further on.

y. be given. even in the Gommercium Eplstolicum the wordsmoment and fluent appear to be used as synonymous. by xty. they are continually increased) are as the velocities of their flowing or increasing. and z. and zO are to each other as v. After showing by examples how to solve the first problem . and there will arise a? 3 + 3a. as between x and y so that x xO and y -j. Wherefore.e. Newton proceeds to the demonstration of his solution : moments of flowing quantities (that is. $0. 0. will be repre sented by 0. a. y. . by the product of its celerity x into an infinitely small quantity (i. the moments of the others. as xQ and $0. z. xQ. after any indefinitely small interval of time. their indefi ".The nitely small parts.206 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and substitute x + xO for x. in stead of x and Thus let any equation Xs ax2 + axy yB = y. V. except ing Newton and Cheyne.0 + SxxQxQ + 2 3 3 ax* 2 axxO axOxO + axy + ayxQ + a0#0 = 0. zO-j because i)0. x and y. will as well express the relation between x + xO and y + $0. and y + yQ for y. it follows that those quantities. become x -4. Now since the moments. are the indefinitely little accessions of the flowing quantities x and y. by which those quantities are increased through the several indefinitely little intervals of time. in infinitely small portions of time. which at all times indifferently expresses the relation of the flowing quan tities. x. if the moment of any one (as x) be represented ". + be substituted in the same equation for those quantities. 35 Strange to say. and therefore the equation. by the accession of which. xO and y + 2/0. ". in the sense of an infinitely small in crement.$0 may . notation x by all the English writers previous to 1704.

there will remain 3x2x 2 axx + ayx -f axy 3y*y + 3 #&cO axdto + a� 3 yyyQ + 3()0 ^00 = 0.". $ ax? + axy y 5 = 0. Much greater than in the first problem were the difficulties encountered in the solution of the second problem. is applicable. Newton assumed homogeneity with respect to the fluxions and then considered three cases : (1) when the equation contains two fluxions of quantities and but one of the fluents.). NEWTON TO EtJLEJB. ions of three or more quantities. In the general solution of his second problem. The second case de manded nothing than the general solution of a dif less ferential equation of the first order. to which ax his ". (2) when the equation involves both the fluents as well as both the flux ions (3) when the equation contains the fluents and the flux . 207 ". that it may represent the moments of quantities. which there fore. Those who know what efforts were afterwards needed for the complete exploration of this field in analysis. Now. the terms that are . will not depreciate Newton s work . Newton gives first a special solution to the second problem in which he resorts to a rule for which he has given no proof. But whereas zero is supposed to be infinitely little. The first case is the easiest since it requires simply the integration of -^=/(a.multiplied by it will be nothing in respect of the rest (termini in earn ducti pro niliilo possunt liaberi cum aliis collati) . and there remains 3x2x 2 axx + ayx + axy 3y y = 0. Newton here uses infinitesimals.special solution". involving. inverse operations which have been taxing the skill of the best analysts since his time. as it does. being expunged and the remaining terms being divided by 0. 2 as above in Example I. by supposition. there fore I reject them.

even though. and in substance like that of Leibniz. this much distinctly appears.Particulae sunt momenta sed quanti- finitse tates ipsse ex momentis genitse. In the first edition of the Principia (1687) the description of fluxions is likewise ". Intelligenda sunt principia jamjam nascentia finitorum magnitudinum. of the first edition we read : ". the radius of curvature of curves. but its peculiar notation did not appear until published in the second volume of ". Cave tamen intellexeris particulas finitas.Wallis Algebra in 1693.". moments are infinitely small quantities. All this was done previous to the year 1672. The fundamental principles of the fluxionary calculus were first given to the world in the Principia. The rest of the treatise is devoted to the determination of maxima and minima. the original conception of the calculus in England. it rests on infinitesimals. that in the first. and other geometrical applications of his fluxionary calculus. In Book II. as well as on the Continent. Newton s third case comes now under the solution of partial differential equations.founded on infinitesimals.". Itmust be observed that in the Method of Fluxions (as well as in his De Analysi and all earlier papers) the method employed by Newton is strictly infinitesimal. Thus. Through the difficulty of the phrases in both extracts. What else they are in the second is not clear. was based on infinitesimals. Finiri enim repugned aliquatenus perpetuo eorum incremento vel decremento. he resorted to solutions in form of infinite series.208 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. He took the equation 2 a* z -f xy = and succeeded in finding a particular integral of it. The exposition given in the Algebra was substantially a contribution of Newton. but in the second (1713) the foundation is somewhat altered. Momenta quam primum finitce sunt magnitudiniSj desinunt esse momenta. Lemma II. 85 In the . In the second edition the two sentences which we in italics are replaced by the print following: non ".

". as given in the introduction to his Quadrature of Curves. (errores quam minimi in rebus mathematicis non sunt contemnendi) . holding to the conception of velocity or fluxion.Eluxions are. for in the Quadrature of Curves he remarked that ". Newton seems to have felt this. though ever so small. and thereby generated. equal and as small as possible. not by the apposition of parts. and to speak accurately. this rejection cannot be made without affecting the result. consider mathematical quantities in this place not as ". superficies by the motion of lines.". but as described by a continued motion. . used the infinitely small increment as a means of determining it. solids by the motion of superficies angles by the rotation of the sides portions of . The early distinction between the system of Newton and Leibniz lies in this. This reasoning evidently erroneous is for as long as . and are daily seen in the motion of bodies. These : geneses really take place in the nature of things. The difference between the two rests mainly upon a difference in the mode of generating quantities.I consisting of very small parts. . they are in the prime ratio of nascent increments . the infinitely small quantity is completely abandoned. . NEWTON TO EULEB. because they are infinitely small compared with other terms. but by the continued motion of points . is a quantity. yet they can be expressed by any lines whatever. time by continual flux and so on in other quantities. 35 We give Newton s statement of the method of fluxions or rates. as the increments of fluents generated in times. which are proportional to them. in math ematics the minutest errors are not to be neglected". . It lias been shown that in the Method of Fluxions Newton rejected terms involving the quantity 0. Lines are described. as near as we please (quam proxime). while with Leibniz the relation of the infinitely small increments is itself the object of determination. . 209 Quadrature of Curves of 1704. that Newton.

EC is abso lutely equal to E T. so that the point c exactly co T X* 3 incides with the point (7. and the lines GE. there are formed three small triangles. the sides of the triangle GET. is coincident with the tangent OH. AO. of the triangle VBO similar thereunto. The right line Oc being produced to K.into the place BO. Of these. will stand apart by a small angle from the tangent CH. OK. in the last form. and its evanescent sides GE. and Oc the increment of the curve. and CT. and therefore the curve Cc. But when CK coincides with GH. Newton exemplifies this last assertion by the problem of tangency : Let AB be the abscissa. are to the sides of the triangle GET. and the last the greatest. BO the ordinate. and the mixtilinear evanescent triangle CEc is. which pro duced meets FjETat T.". then the points G and c accurately coincide and are one and the same. BG. however small. being in the last ratio of their evanescent increments. the mixtilinear CEc. which ia proportional all one. cG reach their ultimate ratios. The doctrine of infinitely small quan- . Hence it follows that the fluxions of the lines AB. the line OJt".210 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and the rectilinear GET. the rectilinear GEc. or. As long as the points G and c are distant from each other by an interval. the first is evidently the smallest. VCH the tangent. EC. EC the increment of the ordinate. EC. Now suppose the ordinate be to move. Newton then adds that et in mathematics the minutest errors are not to be This is plainly a neglected. rejection of the postulates of Leibniz. Cc will be } proportional to CE. similar to the triangle GET. ET.

2 are to one another as 1 to nx". In the same time that x. in the method of fluxions. by the method of infinite series xn + nQ x". nascent or evanescent. straight or curved. Though. 1 + ^-^ O 2 xn ~* + etc. and equal when they have reached their ultimate form in one and the same point.- 1 + ^=2 xn ~ 2 + etc. and the increments o n~ ~~ n ~2 and nQ xn ~ l + O 2 xn + etc. the dangers of a Scylla stare us in the face. We are required to believe that a point may be considered a triangle.. Thus it appears that Newton s doctrine was different in different periods. that three dissimilar triangles become similar . it is not .". or that a triangle can be inscribed in a point nay. the 71 n powers becomes (#+0) . and to investigate prime and ultimate ratios of finite quantities. the Charybdis of infinitesimals is safely avoided. by flowing. is in harmony with the geometry of the ancients . and their last proportion will be 1 to nxn ~ l hence the fluxion of the quantity x is to : the fluxion of the quantity xn as 1 nxn ~~l : . as also the fluxions of superficies. angles. and I have endeavoured to show that.e. ". can be obtained in the same manner by the method of prime and ultimate ratios.. would lead one to suppose that Newton had never held it himself. NEWTON TO EULER. ". and other quantities. i. The fluxion of lines. in all cases what ever. But to establish in this way the analysis of infinite quantities. 211 titles is here renounced in a manner which. In the introduction to the Quadrature of Curves the fluxion n of x is determined as follows : ".Let now the increments vanish. in the above reasoning. becomes x + 0.

Quantities and the ratios of quantities. the variable does not actually reach its limit.212. = nxn l which needs further. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. is encumbered with difficulties and objections. and at the expense. The first lemma of the first book has been made the foundation of the method of limits : ". But it is now generally agreed that in the clearest statements which have been made of the theory of limits. A second edition was brought out in 1713 with many altera tions and improvements. Among the ablest admirers of Newton. All he did was to establish in his Principia certain principles which are applicable to that method.". When becomes ~ nothing. In this. and before the end of that time approach nearer the one to the other than by any given difference. the method Newton. ultimate ratios. become ultimately equal. The full title of Newton s Principia is Philosophic Natura- lis Principia Mathematica. as well as in the lemmas following this. is so-called frequently attributed to Newton. Edmund Halley. which in any finite time converge continually to equality. but the pure method of limits was never adopted by Mm as his method of constructing the calculus. of Dr. It was printed in 1687 under the direction. and accompanied by a preface from . there have been obstinate dis putes respecting his explanation of his method of prime and ". then we get the ratio .method of limits".". Indeed. though the variable may approach it as near as we please. necessary to introduce into geometry infinitely small quanti This mode of differentiating does not remove all the ties.". as delivered by of himself. but which he used for a different purpose. there are obscurities and difficulties. the subject. elucidation. difficultiesconnected with. The ". Newton appears to teach that a variable quantity and its limit will ultimately coincide and be equal.

The great principle underlying this memor able work is that of universal gravitation. Halley. if Kepler s third law was true (its absolute accuracy was doubted at that time). 34 The third and last edition which appeared in England during Newton s lifetime was published in 1726 by Henry Pemberton. R the distance of the the earth. was sold out in a few months. much more extended elabora It is only a sketch of a tion of the subject which he had planned. Huygens. Wren. NEWTON TO EULEB. but a It pirated edition published in Amsterdam supplied the demand. 1686. if the- law is true. r be the earth s radius. In 1666 Newton reasoned. and a a degree at the equator. The Principia consists of three books. Newton. the second book was finished. In the third book is drawn up the constitution of the universe as deduced from the fore going principles. but which was never brought to completion. in substance. Cotes. constituting the great bulk of the work. The first book was completed on April 28. of which the first two. T the time moon from of lunar revolution. treat of the mathe matical principles of natural philosophy. namely. But the proof of the truth or falsity of the guess was wanting. . The third book is the result of the next nine or ten months labours. Its discovery envelops the name of Newton in a halo of perpetual glory. that. The law of gravitation is enunciated in the first book. the laws and conditions of motions and forces. and others. then the attraction between the earth and other members of the solar system varied inversely as the square of the distance. that if g represent the acceler ation of gravity on the surface of the earth. After the remarkably short period of three months. The current version of the discovery is as follows it : was conjectured by Hooke. 218 Mr. then.

Newton acknowl edged his indebtedness to Huygens for the laws on centrifugal force employed in his calculation. It looked as though the law of inverse squares were not the true law. Thus the law of inverse squares was verified.4 T = 2. that the assumed law of gravity was verified by the figures. he requested Newton to deter mine what the orbit of a planet would be if the law of attrac tion were that of inverse squares. he found a figure for g which corresponded to the known value. but a only 60 instead of 69 J English.360. The perusal by the astronomer Adams of a great mass of unpublished and manuscripts of Newton forming the letters Portsmouth collection (which -remained private property until 1872. though for long distances he might have claimed that yielded close approximations. and replied at once that it . and obtained a more accurate value for the earth s radius. This wrong value of a rendered the calculated value of g smaller than its true value. He could not have asserted. therefore. The data at Newton s command gave E = 60. seconds. His letters to Halley show that he did not suppose the earth to attract as though all its mass were concentrated into a point at the centre. when its owner placed it in the hands of the University of Cambridge) seems to indicate that the difficul ties encountered by Newton in the above calculation were of a different nature. and Newton laid the calculation aside: In 1684 he casu ally ascertained at a meeting of the Royal Society that Jean Picard had measured an arc of the meridian. but Newton had not been able to determine what the attraction of a spherical shell upon an external point would be.214 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Newton had solved a similar problem for Hooke in 1679. According to Adams.628 r. Newton s numerical verification was fairly complete in 1666. as known from actual measurement. it When Halley visited Newton in 1684. Taking the cor rected value for a. In a scholium in the Prmcipm. miles.

but is demonstrated by him twice in a draft 34 of a letter to David Gregory. the famous construction in Book II. and was able to show that if the distances between the bodies in the solar system were so great that the bodies might be considered as points. Newton unpublished manuscripts in the Portsmouth col s lection show that he had worked out. The papers in that col lectionthrow light upon the mode by which Newton arrived at some of the results in the Principia. It is chiefly upon the Principia that the fame of Newton rests. for a moment. by means of fluxions and fluents. to the comments of Laplace.the human reason.. After Halley s visit. which . In 1685 he completed his discovery by showing that a sphere whose density at any point depends only on the distance from the centre attracts an external point as though its whole mass were concentrated 34 at the centre. and he was oftentimes forced to give mere hints. of Oxford. Let us listen. but the development of its consequences and advantages has been the work of the successors of this great mathematician. The imperfection of the infinitesimal calcu lus. 25. which is unproved in the Principia. when first discovered.". with Picard s new value for the earth s radius. 215 was an ellipse. did not allow him completely to resolve the difficult problems which the theory of the universe offers . the foremost among those followers of Newton who grappled with the subtle problems of the motions of planets under the influence of gravitation ". then their motions were in accordance with the assumed law of gravitation. Prop.Newton has well estab : lished the existence of the principle which he had the merit of discovering. for instance. his lunar calculations to a higher degree of approxima tion than that given in the Principiay but that he was unable to interpret his results geometrically. reviewed his early calcula tion. as. Brewster calls it brightest page in the records of ". NEWTON TO EULER. Newton.

His theorem on the sums of powers of roots is well known. Sylvester established a remarkable general theorem which includes Newton s rule as a special case. His inventive genius is grandly displayed in his rule for determining the inferior limit of the number of imaginary roots. but according to some authorities its publication was a breach of confidence on his part.". were always uncertain till confirmed by rigorous analysis. and the superior limits for the number of positive and negative roots. imaginary roots always occur in pairs. and the most interesting points of natural phi losophy. Newton s rule always gives as close. This work was pub lished by Mr. Newton showed that in equations with real coefficients. Thoxigh less expeditious than Descartes 7 . Newton Arithmetica Uhiversalis. the importance and the generality of his discoveries respecting the system of the universe. Whiston. We are not accurately informed how Mr. were published in 1707. Newton did not prove his rule. consisting of algebraical s lectures delivered by him during the first nine years he was professor at Cambridge. or more than thirty years after they were written. which were all pre sented with much elegance.216 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. until. limits to the number of positive and negative roots. will insure to the Principia a last ing pre-eminence over all other productions of the human mind. which have been the origin of the most brilliant discoveries of the mathematicians of the last century. Notwithstanding these unavoidable defects. at last. and generally closer. The AritJimetica Uhiversalis contains new and important results on the theory of equations. It awaited demonstration for a century and a half. The treatise on Method of Fluxions contains Newton s method . the great number of profound and original views. Whiston came in possession of it.

104-143). f(x y) } = 0. for which his com names genera and classes. An account of the four holograph man on this subjecthas been published by W. pp. and afterwards added by Stirling. in the Transactions of the London Mathematical Society (vol. The same treatise contains Newton s ". It has been the subject of frequent conjecture how Newton deduced his Eecently we have results. In 1704 was published. the Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. give by their projection every cubic curve whatever. much of the analysis used by Newton gotten at the facts. or their figure at multiple points. since and a few additional theorems have been discovered among the Portsmouth papers. NEWTON TO EULER. in an parallelogram/ 5 equation. by Kaestner and 37 Cramer. Newton divides cubics into seventy- two species. as soon as the law was mining the form . The great utility of this rule lay in its deter of the series for. Newton as to how he discovered it. which enabled Mm. the tract contains no proofs. known by which the exponents in the series vary. This is simply the method of Vieta improved. He enunciates the remarkable theorem that the five species which he names ". gave no proof for it. 217 of approximating to the roots of numerical equations. as an appendix to the OpticTcs. recognising fourteen of the former and seven (or four) of the latter. independently. It is interesting to observe how Newton begins Ms research on the classification of cubic .divergent parabolas". nor any clue The proof was supplied half a century later. and Cramer. W.". which contains theorems on the theory of curves. He overlooked six species demanded by his principles of classification. then the the method of indeterminate expansion could be effected by coefficients. Murdoch. The rule is still used in determining the infinite branches to curves. to find a series in powers of x equal to the variable y. Eouse uscripts Ball. ". ". As a rule. xx. arranged in larger groups.. mentators have supplied the ".

of the mint. but. finding it laborious. Though he recovered his tranquillity and strength of mind. and afterwards returns 36 again to analysis. attacks the problem geometrically. the time of great discoveries was over he would study out questions . Space does not permit us to do more than merely mention Newton s prolonged researches in other departments of science. Some thought that he laboured under temporary mental aberration. but no longer did he by his own accord enter upon new fields of research. He explained ". The last of a number of papers on optics.". and entered upon geological speculations. which office he held until his death. The most noted investi gation after his sickness was the testing of his lunar theory by the observations of Flamsteed. propounded to him. elaborates the theory of fits.". In 1695 he was appointed warden. curves by the algebraic method. By him were invented the reflecting telescope and the sextant (afterwards re-discovered by Thomas Godfrey of Philadelphia 2 and by John Hadley) . and the law of cooling. He deduced a theoretical expression for the velocity of sound in air. engaged in experiments on chemistry. the decomposition of light and the theory of the rainbow. bearing an inscription ending with. where in 1731 a magnificent monument was erected. the astronomer royal. 1687. and in 1699 master. His body was interred in ".Sibi generis decus. magnetism. Newton suffered from insomnia and nervous irritability.218 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. elasticity. gratulentur mortales tale tantumque exstitisse humani ". the second and independent inventor . which he contributed to the Boyal Society. He conducted a long series of experiments in optics and is the author of the corpuscular theory of light. We pass to Leibniz. It is not true that the Binomial Theorem is also engraved on it. During the two years following the close of 1692.Westminster Abbey.

He there became incidentally acquainted with the mathematician Pell. Leibniz attended. The higher mathematics was not taught at all. No period in the history of any civilised nation could have been less favourable for literary and scientific pursuits than the middle of the seventeenth century in Ger many. and remained there from January till March. in which he does not pass beyond the rudiments of mathematics. but that his lectures were so obscure that none except Leibniz could understand them. at Jena. he applied himself with great diligence to every branch of knowledge. Later on. Yet circumstances seem to have happily combined tobestow on the youthful genius an education hardly other wise obtainable during this darkest period of German history.a method he had found on the summation of series of numbers by their differences. He was brought early in contact with the best of the culture then existing. He there formed the acquaintance of the most distinguished men of the age. 219 of the calculus. Though law was Ms principal study. We are told that a certain John Kuhn lectured on Euclid s Elements. In 1672 he was sent by Baron Boineburg on a political mission to Paris. NEWTON TO BULEB. Pell told him that a similar formula had been published by Mouton . A fortunate circumstance led Leibniz abroad. who presented a copy of his work on the oscillation of the pendulum to Leibniz. De Arte Combinatoria. the lectures of Erhard Weigel. a philosopher and mathematician of local reputation. In 1673 Leibniz went to London. In his fifteenth year he entered the University of Leipzig. In 1666 Leibniz published a treatise. for a half-year. to whom he explained. and first led the gifted young German to the study of higher mathematics. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was born in Leipzig. Other theses written by him at this time were metaphysical and juristical in character. Instruction in German universities was then very low. Among these was Huygens.

Vincent. He studied the geometric works of Descartes. and Pascal. The more important parts of it were embodied in articles published later in the Acta Eruditorum. as early as 1670. The direct problem had been solved by Descartes for the simplest curves only. A careful study of infinite series led him to the discovery of the following expression for the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of the circle : This elegant series was found in the same way as Mercator s on the hyperbola.* which was similar to Pascal s.220 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Leibniz investigated both problems for any curve he constructed what he called . Huygens was his principal master. and the differences of the ordinates and abscissas. In the study of Cartesian geometry the attention of Leibniz was drawn early to the direct and inverse problems of tan gents. written before he left Paris in 1676. Leibniz entered into a detailed study of the quadrature of curves and thereby became intimately acquainted with the higher mathematics. Honorarius Fabri. Among the papers of Leibniz is still found a manuscript on quadra tures. he had the leisure to study mathematics more systematically. . With indomitable energy he set about removing his ignorance of higher mathematics. Gregory St. and then called his attention to Mercator s work on the While in London.After his return to Paris. tne triangulum characteristicum an infinitely small triangle between the infinitely small part of the curve coinciding with the tangent. rectification of the parabola. but which was never printed by him. but more efficient and perfect. while the inverse had completely transcended the power of his analysis. Huygens was highly pleased with it and urged him on to new investigations. Leibniz exhibited to the Koyal Society his arithmetical ma chine.

the ordinate of the point of contact. He saw also that the latter could be carried back to the quadrature of curves. 221 A curve is liere considered to be a polygon. Thus. NEWTON TO EULER. meaning omnia.It will be useful to write \ for omn.=*yL But the summation of these rectangles from zero on gives a right triangle equal to half the square of the ordinate. and the sub- tangent.. All these results are contained in a manuscript of Leibniz. = omn. . omn.2 (omn. normal. such as . Jj But y = omn. as f I for omn. The trianyulum characteristicum is similar to the triangle formed by the tan gent. this he deduced the simplest integrals. [From it Leibniz observed the connection existing between the direct and inverse problems of tangents. I. all) . pa = omn. the sum of the Z s ". I . but appears to have been reinvented by Leibniz. pa. using Cavalieri s notation. he then writes the equation thus : a. written in 1673. and sub-normal. Erom. or in symbols. yl = &. I .e. Z a This equation is especially interesting. as well as to that between the ordinate. It was first employed by Barrow in Eng land. 7. One mode used by him in effecting quadratures was as follows The rectangle formed by a sub-tangent p and : an element a (i. hence 2 I omn. infinitely small part of the abscissa) is equal to the rectangle formed by the ordinate y and the ele ment I of that ordinate. He says: ". since it is here that Leibniz first introduces a new notation. he gets omn. that is.

he J concluded that the opposite calculus. The d symbol d was at first placed by Leibniz in the denominator. Leibniz nowhere explains the significance of dx and dy. 1675.till ten in the Acta Eruditorum. but always difference.222 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. This. It is worthy of remark d that in these investigations. did he give further explanations of these sym bols. Thus. then. except at one place in a marginal note: ". id est. because the lowering of the power of a term was brought about in ordinary calculation by division. He found the cubical parabola to be the solution to the following: To find the curve in which the sub-normal is reciprocally proportional to the ordinate. It may be a consolation to students wres tling with the elements of the differential calculus to know that it required Leibniz considerable thought and atten- .or does he use the term differential. Not years later. The correctness of his solution was tested by him by applying to the result Sluze s method of tangents and reasoning backwards to the original supposition. Leibniz proceeded to apply his new calculus to the solution of certain problems then grouped together under the name of the Inverse Problems of Tangents. differentia inter duas x d proximas. J TO. if \ I = then I = ^.".Idem est dx et -. E". was the memorable day on which the notation of the new calculus came to be. would lower them. The manuscript 39 giving the above is dated October 29th. What he aimed at principally was to determine the change an expression undergoes when the symbol f or d is placed before it. or that of differences d. In the solution of the third problem he changes his notation from to the now usual notation dx. a notation which contributed enor mously to the rapid growth and perfect development of the calculus. Since tlie symbol of summation raises the dimensions.

Leibniz returned to Hanover by way of London and Amsterdam. Before his depasture. TO ETJLEK. 223 tion 39 to determine whether dxdy is the same as d(xy}. KEWTCXN". a most elegant way by which the problems of the inverse methods of tangents are solved. or. 1676. and that thereby a more general solution than that of Descartes could be obtained. he found the equation ydx^dHcy xdy. the progress in the evolution of the new calculus made by Leibniz during his stay in Paris. and thereby led to the solution of the problem under considera tion. Of these we mention only the celebrated problem proposed to Descartes by De Beaune. who showed him . in October. ". which he observed to be true for all curves. in other words. by the integral calculus. He succeeded also in eliminating dx from a differential equation. In London he met Collins. inverse problems of tangents could be solved by quadratures. He succeeded in solving all the special problems of this kind. In course of a half-year he discovered that the direct problem of tangents. to find the curve whose ordinate is to sub-tangent as a given line is to that part its of the ordinate which lies between the curve and a line drawn from the vertex of the curve at a given inclination to the axis. yielded to the power of his new calculus. which had been left unsolved by Descartes. Ten days later. From Paris. he concluded that the expressions were not the same. too. in a manuscript dated November 21.Behold. he found himself in possession of the most elementary rules and formulae of the infinitesimal calculus. After considering these questions at dy y the close of one of his manuscripts. so that it contained only dy. and the same as d~. in brief. though he could not give the true value for each. 1675. giving an expression for d(xy^). or at least are reduced to quadratures Thus he saw clearly that the ! ". Such was. viz.

by which tangent planes to surfaces could be found. since it could be extended to three variables. which consists principally of subject-matter com municated by Leibniz to Tschirnhaus during a controversy which they had had on this subject. He had given the differentials of a few negative and fractional powers. and roots. -. Leibniz gave correct rules for the differentiation of sums. at last. to make public the fruits of his inventions. and who was familiar with the new analysis of Leibniz. In 1684. but even more. or nine years after the new calculus first dawned upon the mind of Leibniz. Of this we shall speak a part of later. ^ given j its correct value. and became satisfied that his own method of constructing tangents not only accomplished all that Sluze s did. a journal usually known by the name of Leipzig Acts. Fearing that Tschirnhaus might claim as his own and publish the notation and rules of the differential calculus. Tschirnhaus. : 2 one place the wrong value. For d Vcc he had given the erroneous value and in another place the value 4ar^ for d-z occurs in V-r. quotients. but had made some mistakes. Leibniz was a frequent contributor. products. 1676. In 1682 was founded in Berlin the Acta jEruditorum. since neither irrationals nor fractions prevented the immediate application of his method. published in the Acta Eroditorum a paper on quad ratures. Ms scientific correspondence. while a few lines lower is 3 . who had studied mathematics in Paris with Leibniz. . It was a partial imitation of the French Journal des JSavans (founded in 1665). as early as November.224 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.In Amsterdam he discussed mathematics with Sluze. 1677. powers. In a paper of July 11. Leibniz decided. and nineteen years after Newton first worked at fluxions. and especially. and the literary and scientific review published in Germany.

in a few words. In Germany no one comprehended . Leibniz published. He was unwilling to give to the world -all his treasures. made little impression upon the mass of mathematicians. This epoch-making paper f( of only six pages bears the title ISTova methodus pro maxiinis : et minimis. The quantities dx and dy are there treated as infinitely small. and then closes his article by giving his solution. now made public by his The articles in the Leipzig Acts. in what way a ray of light passing through two differently refracting media. It has been inferred from this that Leibniz himself had no definite and settled ideas on this subject. great invention of Leibniz. in the Leipzig Acts.. Leibniz then ascertains. 5 The rules of calculation are briefly stated without proof. but chose those parts of his work which were most abstruse and least perspicuous. et singulars pro illis calculi genus. We now call any line : ". y * x* + J V205 \ . itemque tangentibus. Are dy and dx finite or infinitesimal quantities ? At first they appear. by dy. to have been taken as when he says finite. of De Beaune s problem. paper on the Ms first differential calculus. He showed that by the use of his notation. which is the difference of ?/. selected at random dx. Thus the equation r &B = -V2x . indeed. HEWTON TO ETJLEB. 225 and three years before the publication of Newton s Principia. quae nee fraetas nee irra- tionales quantitates moratur. Two years later (1686) Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorwm.". the properties of curves could be fully expressed by equations. can travel easiest from one point to another .and the meaning of dx and dy is not made clear. a paper containing the rudiments of the integral calculus. by his calculus. 88 characterises the cycloid. then we designate the line which is to dx as y is to the sub-tangent.

the Scotchman TJiomas Craige. singular solution. He wrote on osculating curves. Leibniz carried on an extensive correspondence with them. so that this letter remained unanswered till 1^)0. that the integral calculus be improved by reducing integrals back to certain fundamental irreducible forms. The integration of logarithmic expressions was then studied. first instance of a ". and laid the foundation to the theory of envelopes in two papers.". and the Swiss James Bernoulli. cinct to make the calculus generally understood. among other things. James Bernoulli succeeded. who remained indif ferent to The author s statements were too short and suc it. laid the foundation of analysis in situ. Leibniz was then travelling abroad. and anticipations of since prominent methods. meanwhile. he explicitly assumed the principle of continuity he gave the . by close application.226 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. They applied themselves to the new science with a success and to an extent which made Leibniz declare that it was as much theirs as his. The writings of Leibniz contain many innovations. He resorted to the device of breaking up certain fractions into the sum of other fractions for the purpose of easier integration . introduced the first notion of determinants in his effort to simplify the expression arising in the elimination of the unknown quantities from a set of linear equations. the new calculus except Tschirnhaus. one of which contains for the first time the terms co-ordinate and axes of co-ordinates. In a letter to John Bernoulli he suggests. The latter wrote Leibniz a letter in 1687. He and his brother John proved to be mathematicians of exceptional power. but his paper contained the . The first to recognise its importance and to take up the study of it were two foreigners. in un covering the secrets of the differential calculus without assist ance. wishing to be initiated into the mysteries of the new analysis. as well as with other mathematicians. Thus he made use of variable parameters.

We suspect from this that Leibniz had read Barrow s lectures. nor is it claimed that he did by his opponents. Magnetica. did Leibniz invent it independently of JSTewton. Mechanica. . Under G-eo- metrica he says only this : ". They are headed ". Medica. Of his many papers on mechanics. while those devoted to mathematics have very few notes. or was he a plagiarist ? We must begin with the early correspondence between the parties appearing in this dispute. Figurarum geometricarum explicatio per motum puncti in moto lati. 41 In 1669 Barrow sent Collins Newton s tract. etc. The sections given to Chymica.". Anatomica. Tangentes omnium figurarum. De Analysi per Equationes. Botaniea. some are valuable. Fewfcon had begun using his notation of fluxions in 1666. 227 error (pointed out by John Bernoulli. but not admitted by Mm) that an osculating circle will necessarily cut a curve in four consecutive points. Miscellanea. 1673. He was in the habit of com mitting to writing important scientific communications received from In 1890 Gerhardt discovered in the royal library others. Observata Philoso- phica in itinere Anglicano sub initium anni 1673. NEWTON TO EULEB. The first visit of Leibniz to London extended from the llth of January until March. Before tracing the further development of the calculus we shall sketch the history of that long and bitter controversy between English and Continental mathematicians on the inven tion of the calculus. Evidently Leibniz did not obtain a knowledge of fluxions during this visit to London. Well known is his theorem on the nth differential coefficient of the product of two functions of a variable.". while others contain grave errors. The question was. contain extensive memoranda. at Hanover a sheet of manuscript with notes taken by Leibniz 40 during this journey. Newton is referred to only under Optica. The sheet is divided by horizontal lines into sections.

".Data sequatione quotcunque fluentes quantitates involvente fluxiones invenire. that he possessed very general analytical methods.) Surely this anagram afforded no Leibniz wrote a reply to Collins. and others.228 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Various -letters of Newton. The sentence was. hint.Having quantities. up to the beginning of 1676. wrote to the former the celebrated letters of June 13 and October 24. notation. Newton in his second letter just men tioned explains the way in which he found the Binomial Theorem. and also communicates his method of fluxions and fluents in form of an anagram in which all the letters in the sentence communicated were placed in alphabetical order. The death of Oldenburg brought this correspondence to a . Thus Newton says that his method of drawing tangents was Gaccdce IBejf 7i 31 9n 40 4qrr 4s 9t 12vx. Collins. Leibniz in reply speaks in the highest terms of what Newton had done. and vice versa. by which he had found theorems of great importance on the quadrature of the circle by means of series. but nothing ters relating to infinite series directly on the method of fluxions. in which. Leibniz desired to have these methods communicated to him. et vice versa. state that Newton invented a method by which tangents could be drawn without the necessity of freeing their equations from irrational terms. to find the fluxions. which extended to the circle. without any desire of concealment. any given equation involving never so many flowing (". he explained the principle. then secretary of the Eoyal Society. In answer. and requests further explanation. The first contained the Binomial Theorem and a variety of other mat- and quadratures. ". and Newton. and the use of the differential calculus. at the request of Oldenburg and Collins. Oldenburg stated Newton and James Gregory had also discovered methods of quadratures. 1676.". Leibniz announced in 1674 to Oldenburg.

so that while Newton s claim to the priority of invention must be admitted by all. In 1695 Wallis informed Newton by letter that he had heard that his notions of fluxions passed ". 1687. and communicated his method. 7. preface to a volume of his works that the calculus differen- . when Leibniz published his first paper on the differential calculus in the Leipzig Acts. as yet. G-. and the like. plain and obvious meaning. In letters which went between me and that most excellent geometer. scholium) : ". Book II. we shall see that Newton was after wards weak enough. Leibniz. it must also be granted that Leibniz was the first to give the full benefit of the calcu lus to the world. first edition. while Newton s invention remained a secret. ten years ago. of drawing tangents. Nothing material happened till 1684. Newton expressed a very favourable opinion of Leibniz s inventions. except in his forms of words and symbols. etc.. known to him through the above correspondence with Oldenburg. above cited).". No rivalry or hostility existed. when I signified that I was in the knowledge of a method of determining maxima and minima. as De Morgan says First. in the following celebrated scholium (Prmci- pia. between the illustrious scientists. the calculus of Leibniz was spreading over the Continent. that most distinguished man wrote back that he had also fallen upon a method of the same kind. in Holland with great applause by the name of Leibniz s Calculus Differentialis. and when I concealed in transposed letters involving this sentence (Data it gequatione. and secondly. to omit it entirely from the third edition of the Principia. which hardly differed from mine. and Marquis de PHospital.^ On the Continent. Prop. G. Thus. 229 close. NEWTO2ST TO EULEB. communicated only to a few friends. to deny the : ". As regards this passage. Accordingly Wallis stated in the ". the brothers James and John Bernoulli.. great progress was made in the calculus by Leibniz and his coadjutors.

during his second visit to London in 1676. which contained appli cations of the fluxionary method.Excerpta ex tractatu Newtoni Msc. review A of Wallis works. whether Leibniz. a Swiss. but no systematic develop ment or explanation of it. excepting those De Resolutions cequa- tionum qffectarum. the other parts did not particularly impress him. adding that. stated in a mathematical paper. His memoranda discovered by Gerhardt in 1849 in the Hanover library fill two sheets. of which there is an almost complete copy. tialis was Newton s method of fluxions which had been communicated to Leibniz in the Oldenburg letters. This part was evidently new to him. For years Leibniz had enjoyed unchallenged the fifteen honour of being the inventor of his calculus. During the week spent in he took London.". The notes are very brief. If he examined Newton s entire tract.. This was letters the first distinct It would seem that insinuation of plagiarism. the English mathematicians had for some time been cherishing suspicions unfavourable to Leibniz.230 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. presented to the Royal Society. in the Leipzig Acts for 1696. had or might have seen among the papers of Collins Newton s Analysis per cequationes. the second inventor. Leibniz certainly did see at least part of this tract. From it he seems to have gained nothing per taining to the infinitesimal calculus. 40 The one bearing on our question is headed ". had borrowed anything from the other. de Analysi per sequationes numero terminorum infinitas. who had settled in England. By the previous intro- . his con viction that Newton was the first inventor. he would leave to the judgment of those who had seen the and manuscripts of Newton. etc. note of whatever interested him among the letters and papers of Collins. reminded the reader of Newton s own admission in the scholium above cited. A feeling had doubtless long prevailed that Leibniz. But in 1699 Fato de Duillier.

231 duction of his own algorithm he had made greater progress than by what eaine to his knowledge in London. Duillier s insinuations lighted up a name of discord which a whole century was hardly sufficient to extinguish. professor of astronomy at Oxford. for the first time. Leibniz thereupon complained that the charge was now more open than . the name and the mode of notation being changed. and complained to the Royal Society of the injustice done him. Nothing mathematical that he had received engaged his thoughts in the immediate future. This he did in a long letter. Leibniz. on the contrary. In a paper inserted in the Philosophical Transactions of 1708. Here the affair rested for some time. Keill was not made to retract his accusation. was authorised by Newton and the Eoyal Society to explain and defend his statement. but this interpretation was always strenuously resisted ]by Leibniz. stating that Newton uses and always has used fluxions for the differences of Leibniz. who had never contested the priority of Newton s discovery. In 1T05 appeared an unfavourable review of this in the Leipzig Acts. Leibniz complained to the secretary of the Royal Society of bad treat ment and requested the interference of that body to induce Keill to disavow the intention of imputing fraud. In the Quadrature of Curves. he claimed that Newton was the first inventor of fluxions and ". ELeill. published 1704. under took with more zeal than judgment the defence of Newton.". HEWTON TO EULEB. and who appeared to be quite satisfied with Newton s admis sion in his scholium. that the same calculus was afterward published by Leibniz. This was considered by New ton s friends an imputation of plagiarism on the part of their chief. for on his way back to Holland he com posed a lengthy dialogue on mechanical subjects. a formal exposition of the method and notation of fluxions was made public. He made an animated reply in the Leipzig Acts. now appears for the first time in the controversy.

Yet there runs throughout the document a desire of proving Leibniz guilty of more than Leibniz protested only in they meant positively to affirm. Leibniz. Commerdum Hpistolicum. April 9. before. with a Eecensio prefixed. but whether Leibniz had The committee had not formally ventured to assert their belief that Leibniz was a plagiarist.He [Leibniz] pretends that in my . Keill replied. This report.232 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Leibniz again reminded Newton of the admission he had made in the scholium. The Eoyal Society. Leibniz also states that he desirous of always believed Newton. seeing him connive at accusations which he must have known to be false. In a letter to Conti. thus appealed to as a judge. and additional notes by Keill. is as decidedly unfair towards Newton as the friends of the latter had been towards Leibniz. But this was not to the point. and then Newton and Leibniz appear as mutual accusers in several letters addressed to third parties. Wallis. appointed a committee which collected and reported a upon large mass of documents mostly letters from and to etc. but that. John Bernoulli. This paper Newton to the of gives the following explanation pertaining scholium in question: ". Collins. and appealed for justice to the Eoyal Society and to Newton himself. the proceeding of the Eoyal Society. it was natural that he (Leibniz) should begin to doubt. called the Newton. The final conclusion in the Commerdum Epistolicum was that Newton was the first inventor. which he was now disavowing. in a letter to Leibniz. but circulated some remarks among his which he published immediately after hearing friends of the death of Leibniz. Newton did not reply to this letter. 1716. which was published later in an anonymous tract. The question was not whether Newton was the first stolen the method. inventor. appeared in the year 1712 and again in 1725. November 14. private letters against declaring that he would not answer an argument so weak. 1716.

NEWTON TO BTJLBE.". But in the paragraph there referred unto I do not find one word to this purpose. is through the challenge problems by which each side attempted to annoy its adversaries. until about 1820. which point out a gradual and natural evolution of the rules of the calculus in his own mind. In the third edition of the Principm. I. this invention to myself is contrary to .". remained. The English adhered closely to Newton s methods and. . ignorant of the brilliant mathematical discoveries that were being made on the Continent. The loss in point of scientific advantage was almost entirely on the side of Britain. Gerhardt. a digested method with general rules. This controversy is to be regretted on account of the long and bitter alienation which it produced between English and Continental mathematicians. 233 book of principles I allowed him the invention of the calculus differentialis. 1849- 1860). There was through ". says De Morgan. independently of my own and that to attribute . in most cases.". that Leibniz really was an independent inventor. Perhaps the most tell ing evidence to show that Leibniz was an independent inven tor is found in the study of his mathematical papers (collected and edited by C. my knowledge there avowpd. 1725. that is. out the whole dispute. The only way in which this dispute may be said. a confusion between ". in appear. in a small measure. It stopped almost completely all interchange of ideas on scientific subjects. Berlin. National pride and party feeling long prevented the adoption of impartial opinions in England. in six volumes. Newton omitted the scholium and substituted which the name of Leibniz does not in its place another. the knowledge of fluxions or differentials and that of a calcu lus of fluxions or differentials . but now it is generally ad mitted by nearly all familiar with the matter. to have furthered the progress of mathematics.

It was resolved by its Huygens. on that account. to describe a curve which shall cut them all at right angles) had been long proposed in the Acta Eruditorum. de PHospital. . This may be considered as the first defiance problem pro fessedly aimed at the English.". criticised by Bernoulli as being of no value. The recurring practice of issuing challenge problems was inaugurated at this time by Leibniz. proposed by him to the Cartesians in 1687. and John Bernoulli. but ended by using very reprehensible language.ex ungne The problem of orthogonal trajectories (a leonein. to find the curve (the cycloid) along which a body falls from one point to another in the shortest possible time. His solution. In 1697 John Bernoulli challenged the best mathematicians in Europe to solve the difficult problem. Newton s appeared anony mously in the Philosophical Transactions. It was again proposed in 1716 by Leibniz.284 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and was. as published.tanquam. Leibniz solved the day he received it. to feel the pulse of the English mathema ticians. ". it Newton. Brook Taylor undertook the defence of it. Newton solved it the same evening on which it was delivered to him. They were. ". Leibniz. James Ber noulli proposed in the Leipzig Journal the question to find the curve (the catenary) formed by a chain of uniform weight suspended freely from ends. not intended as defiances. although he was much fatigued by the day s work at the mint. and solved by James Bernoulli. and himself. but John Bernoulli recognised in it his powerful mind. but merely as exercises in the new cal culus.". Such was the problem of the isochronous curve (to find the curve along which a body falls with uniform velocity). he says. himself. and the two Bernoullis gave solutions. at first. was a general plan of an investigation rather than an actual solution. system of curves described by a known law being given. but failed at first to receive much attention.

The selection was injudicious. Not long afterwards Taylor sent an open de fiance to Continental mathematicians of a problem on the integration of a fluxion of complicated form which was known to very few geometers in England and supposed to be beyond the power of their adversaries. For that reason it met with opposition from several quarters. The problem was to find the path of a projectile in a medium which resists proportionally to the square of the velocity. as given by Newton and Leibniz. 235 Bernonlli was not to be outdone in incivility. Without first making sure that he himself could solve it. provided Keill would do the same. and Bernoulli abused him and cruelly exulted 26 over him. It served only to display the skill and augment the triumph of the followers of Leibniz. In the interpretation of dx and dy Leibniz vacillated. for Bernoulli had long before explained the method of this and similar integrations. These objections Leibniz was not able to meet satisfactorily. Keill boldly challenged Bernoulli to produce a solution. Suspecting the weakness of the adversary. In 1694 Bernard Nieuwentyt of Holland denied the existence of differentials of higher orders and objected to the practice of neglecting infinitely small quantities. At one time they appear in his writings as finite lines . In his -^ in geometry could be expressed reply he said the value of as the ratio of finite quantities. then they are called infinitely small . The latter resolved the question in very short time. he re peatedly offered to send his solution to a confidential person in London. NEWTON TO ETJLEB. lacked clearness and rigour. but to any power of the velocity. and made a bitter reply. Keill never made a reply. The explanations of the fundamental principles of the cal culus. The lastand most unskilful challenge was by John Keill. not only for a resistance proportional to the square.

quantitates inassignabiles. that the fundamental idea of supposing a finite ratio to exist between terms absolutely evanescent ". John. 1654-1705 Nicolaus Johann. the Father Jacob. The family of Bernoullis furnished in course of a century eight members who distinguished themselves in mathematics. 1744-1807 Jacob.236 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. contending.". and again. Among the most vigorous promoters of the calculus on the Continent were the Bernoullis. Berkeley s attack was not devoid of good results. that correct answers were reached by a compensation of ".". We subjoin the following genealogical table : Nicolaus Bernoulli. In England the principles of fluxions were boldly attacked by Bishop Berkeley. as he called them was absurd and unin telligible. errors. Berkeley was the first to point out what was again shown later by Lazare Garnet. In France Michel Rolle rejected the differential calculus and had a controversy with Varignon on the subject. They and Euler made Basel in Switzerland famous as the cradle of great mathematicians. which spring from quantitates assignabiles by the law of continuity. The reply made by Jurin failed to remove all the objections. 1758-1789 Most celebrated were the two brothers Jacob (James) and Johann (John). 1710-1790 Daniel Johann. for was the immediate cause it of the work on fluxions by Maclaurin. 1695-1726 Daniel. quantities. 1700-1782 Johann.the ghosts of de parted quantities. In this approached nearest to last presentation Leibniz Newton. James and . the son of. 1687-1759 Nicolaus. who argued with great acuteness. 1667-1748 Nicolaus. among other things. the eminent metaphysician. and Daniel.

He wrote a work on Ars Conjectandi. and in 1701 published his own solution. 237 John were staunch friends of Leibniz and worked hand in hand with him. (3) acted upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre. and solved the more complicated problems. supposing the string to be (1) of variable density. which is a development of the calculus of probabilities and contains the investigation now called ". formed by an elastic plate or rod fixed at one end and bent by a weight applied to the other end of . Following the example of Archimedes. He studied volaria. 1690. Leibniz had called the integral calculus calculus summatoriuS) but in 1696 the term calculus integralis was agreed upon between Leibniz and John Bernoulli. . In his solution. (2) extensible. while his brother John gave in addition their theory.lintearia. he mastered it without aid from a teacher. In 1696 he proposed the famous problem of isoper- imetrical figures. He determined the shape of the ".". filled with a liquid .". He was the first to give a solution to Leibniz s problem of the isochronous curve. published in the Acta Eruditorum. Becoming interested in the calculus. Of these problems he published answers without explanations. then proved the correct ness of Leibniz s construction of this curve. in the last of which he took particular delight from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions.Bernoulli s theorem and the so-called ". of the ({ a rectangular sail filled with wind. the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals. James proposed the problem of the catenary. he willed that the curve be en graved upon his tombstone with the inscription eadem mutata ". James Bernoulli (1654-1705) was born in Basel. a flexible rectangular plate with two sides fixed horizontally at the same height. elastic curve ".numbers ". NEWTON TO BULEB.". we meet for the first time with the word integral. resurgo. the ". From 1687 until his death he occupied the mathematical chair at the University of Basel.

which are in fact (though not so considered by x 1 Mm) the coefficients of in the expansion of (e I). the latter returned to Basel in 1733. one was printed in 1713. mean. He was a member of almost every learned society in Europe. John Bernoulli (1667-1748) was initiated into mathematics by his brother. His controversies were almost as numerous as his discoveries. of Bernoulli. He treated trigonometry by the analytical method. of nl his collected works. where he assumed the chair of experimental philosophy. but unfair. where he met Malebranche. De Lahire. His first mathematical publi- . but was blind to those of Newton. Of and Daniel were appointed professors his sons. Yarignon. and de PHospital. After his brother s death he attempted to substitute a disguised solution of the former for an incorrect one of his own. John admired the merits of Leibniz and Euler. and violent toward all who incurred his dislike even his own brother and son. For ten years he occupied the mathematical chair at Groningen and then succeeded his brother at Basel. and its beautiful relation to the path described by a ray passing through strata of variable density. in three volumes. The former soon died in the prime of life. the line of swiftest descent. He had a bitter dispute with James on the isoperimetrical problem. Nicholas of mathematics at the same time in the Academy of St. Cassini. He was ardent in his friendships. Among his discoveries are the exponential calculus. Several times he was given prizes by the Academy of Science in Paris. He afterwards visited France.". James convicted him of several paralogisms. . Petersburg. He immensely enriched the integral calculus by his labours. He was one of the most enthusiastic teachers and most successful original inves tigators of his time. studied caustic curves and trajectories. the other two in 1744.238 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

Petersburg. to determine how much inoculation lengthens the average duration of life. ". Jofcann Bernoulli (born 1710) succeeded his father in the professorship of mathematics at Basel. and afterwards director department of the Academy. Hewrote a work on hydrodynamics. a pupil . He proposed the theory of moral expectation. Johami Bernoulli (born 1744) at the age of nineteen was appointed astronomer . and the prizes (on the capstan. His brother Jacob took upon himself the duties of the chair of experimental physics at Basel. one ever makes use of it. which he thought would give results more in accordance with our ordinary notions than the theory of mathematical prob ability. He showed how the differential calculus could be used in the theory of probability. but no ". He captured three the propagation of light. Brief mention will now be made of some other mathemati cians belonging to the period of Newton. He and Euler enjoyed the honour of having gained or shared no less than ten prizes from the Academy of Sciences in Paris. His moral expectation has become classic. He applies the theory of probability to insurance to determine the mortality caused by small-pox . magnet) from the Academy of Sciences at Paris. Micolaus Bernoulli (born 1687) held for a time the mathematical chair at Padua which Galileo had once filled. GuiUaume Francois Antoine 1 Hospital (1661-1704). TO EULEB. His investiga tions on probability are remarkable for their boldness and originality.of the mathematical royal at Berlin. and later was appointed mathematical professor in the Academy at St. 239 cation was solution of a differential equation proposed by tlie Baccati. previously performed by his uncle Jacob. and the elder Bernoullis. Leibniz. at a given age from a given number of births . at various stages of life to determine the number of survivors .

This skilful geometer wrote in 1740 a work on analytical geometry. served to stimulate his more distinguished successor. His innovations stand in close relation with modern synthetic geometry. a pupil of Desargues. but differs from ancient treatises in deducing the properties of conies from those of the circle in the same manner as did Desargues and Pascal. the which was to show that most investigations on curves object of could be carried on with the analysis of Descartes quite as easily as with the calculus. asymptotes. Jean Paul de Gua (1713-1785) gave the demonstration of Descartes rule of signs. This contains for the first time the method of finding the limiting value of a fraction whose two terms tend toward zero at the same time . Joseph Saurin (1659-1737) solved the delicate problem of how to determine the tangents at the multiple points of algebraic curves. De Moivre. and various singular points of curves of all degrees. His work on conic sections is purely synthetic. on . in which he finds the sums of a considerable number of interesting series. He wrote also on roulettes. now given in books. He helped powerfully in making the calculus of Leibniz better known to the mass of mathematicians by the publication of a treatise thereon in 1696. particularly spherical epicycloids. and proved by perspective that several of these points can be at infinity. Francois Nicole (1683- 1758) in 1717 issued the first systematic treatise on finite differences.240 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He wrote on roulettes. of John Bernoulli. Another zealous French advocate of the calculus was Pierre Varignon (1654-1722). Also interested in finite differences was Pierre Raymond de Montmort (1678-1719). A mathematician who clung to the methods of the ancients was Philippe de Lahire (1640-1718). has already been mentioned as taking part in the challenges issued by Leibniz and the Bernoullis. His chief writings. on the theory of probabil ity. He shows how to find the tan gents. and their rectification.

Of Italian mathematicians. and on magic squares. NEWTON TO EULER. Jacopo Francesco. conchoids. whose difference is expressible by a right line. Eiccati and Fagnano must not remain unmentioned. that two arcs of an ellipse can be found in an in definite number of ways. and gave us a method of transform ing equations named after him. Count Riccati (1676- 1754) is best known in connection with his ? problem. epicycloids. Christian Wolf (1679-1754). In Germany the only noted contemporary of Leibniz is Ehrenfried Walter TscMrnhausen (1631-1708). published in the Acta Eruditorum in 1724. who discovered the caustic of reflection. 241 graphical methods. algebra. Michel Rolle is the author of a theorem (1652-1719) named after him. pedantic scholasticism. 7r =2nog^_^1 in which he anticipated Euler -j- in the use of imaginary and logarithms. Count de Fagnano (1682-1766). for instance. but he forced the ingenious ideas of Leibniz into a ". He showed. and . After the death of Leibniz there was in Germany not a single mathematician of note. He discovered the fol lowing formula. he concluded that in the researches relating to the properties of curves the calculus might as well be dispensed with. exponents His studies on the rectification of the ellipse and hyperbola are the start ing-points of the theory of elliptic functions. A geometrician of remarkable power was Giulio Carlo. professor at Halle. experimented on metallic reflectors and large burning-glasses. and had the unenviable reputation of having presented the elements of the arithmetic. Believing that the most simple methods (like those of the ancients) are the most correct. called Eiccati s equation. was ambitious to figure as successor of Leibniz. He succeeded in integrating this differential equation for some special cases.

Newton exclaimed. of course only in outward form. It was at the request of Dr. We have refer ence to Cotes. was suggested by the following theorem contained in it If on each radius vector. We are told that at the death of Roger Cotes (1682-1716). In this work progress was made in the application of logarithms and the properties of the circle to the calculus of fluents. added a new branch to mathematics.The title of the work. If Cotes had lived. To Cotes we owe". His mathematical papers were published after his death by Eobert Smith. 24-2 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. London. 1715-1717. The quarrel between English and Continental mathematicians caused them to work quite independently of their great contemporaries across the Channel. thing. He made many important applications of it. Brook Taylor (1685-1731) was interested in many branches of learning. then the locus of R will be a straight line. through a fixed point : 0. a theorem in trigonometry which depends on the n forming of factors of x 1. there be taken a point It. for into the spirit of them he was quite unable to penetrate. Maclaurin. we might have known some ". and Be Moivre. Methodus incrementorum directa et inversa. Har- monia Mensumrum. his successor in the Plunibian pro fessorship at Trinity College. par ticularly to the study of the form of movement of vibrating . Taylor.". I6 The contemporaries and immediate successors of Newton in Great Britain were men of no mean merit. ences. and in the latter part of his life engaged mainly in religious and philosophic speculations.". His principal work. Chief among the admirers of Newton were Taylor and Maclaurin. analysis developed since the time of the Renaissance in the form of Euclid. Bentley that Cotes undertook the publication of the second edition of Newton s Principia. such that the reciprocal of OR be the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of OE^ 2} OE OEn . now called finite differ ".".

Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746) was elected professor of mathe matics at Aberdeen at the age of nineteen by competitive examination. known by his name. culminating in the remarkable theorem that if a quadrangle has its vertices and the two points of intersection of its opposite sides upon a curve of the . inspired by Newton s discoveries. and at these points tangents be drawn. and in 1725 succeeded James Gregory at the Uni versity of Edinburgh.. first work contains also ". containing a new and remarkable mode of generating conies. and. The first rigorous proof was given a century later by Cauchy. like his other writings. a treatise which. A second tract. then S -=S . OM OT This and Cotes theorem are generalisations of theorems of Newton. he published in 1719 his Geometria Organica. He enjoyed the friendship of Newton. At the age of twenty-three he gave a remarkable solution of the problem of the centre of oscillation. He wrote also a work on linear per spective. It is based upon two theorems : the first is the theorem of Cotes . His claim to prioritywas unjustly disputed by John Bernoulli. published in 1714. This strings. suffers for want of fulness and clearness of expression. De Linearum geometricarum Proprietatibus. 243 reduced to mechanical principles by Mm. Maclaurin uses these in his treatment of curves of the second and third degree. Taylor s work contains the first correct explanation of astro nomical refraction. 1720. and is quite worthless. is remarkable for the elegance of its demonstrations. FBWTON TO EULER.. and if any other line through cut the curve in JS13 R% etc.Taylor s theorem/ the importance of which was not recognised by analysts for over fifty years. the second is Maclaurin s : a line be drawn meeting If through any point the curve in n points. and the system of n tangents in r1? r2 etc. untilLagrange pointed out its power. His proof of it does not consider the question of convergency.

in which he employs ancient methods with such consummate skill as to induce Clairaut to abandon analytic methods and to attack the problem of the figure of the earth by pure geometry.. He deduced independently Pascal s theorem on the hexagram. Newton had given this theorem without proof. which reduces to mnp when the fixed points all lie on a straight line.. was pre viously given by James Stirling. Maclaurin wrote on pedal curves. etc. Maclaurin in vestigated the attraction of the ellipsoid of revolution. 1735) If a polygon : move so that each of its sides passes through a fixed point. and but a particular case is of Taylor s theorem. and explained their use in the theory of multiple points. ". The following is his ex tension of this theorem (Phil Trans.244 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. then the free summit moves on a curve of the degree 2 mnp . The Fluxions contained for the first time the correct way of distinguishing between maxima and minima. and if all its summits except one describe curves of the degrees m. p. answer such attacks as Berke ley s that the doctrine rested on fals$ reasoning. and thus. and showed that a homogeneous liquid mass revolving uniformly around an axis under the action of gravity must assume the form of an ellipsoid of revolution. The object of his treatise on Fluxions was to found the doctrine of fluxions on geometric demonstrations after the manner of the ancients. he induced his countrymen to neglect analysis and to be indifferent to the . ". for. Appended to the treatise on Fluxions isthe solution of a number of beautiful geometric. mechanical. n. the tangents drawn at two opposite vertices cut each other on the curve. respectively. by his example. by rigorous exposition.Maclaurin s theorem". third degree. His solutions com manded the liveliest admiration of Lagrange. and astronomical problems. then. his influence on the progress of mathematics in Great Britain was unfortunate.". He is the author of an Algebra. Not withstanding the genius of Mac laurin.

It remains for us to speak of Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754). His work on the theory of probability surpasses anything done by any other mathematician except Laplace. 1716. and Ms papers in the Philosophical Transactions. which he was in the habit of giving at a tavern in Martin s Lane. but was compelled to leave France at the age of eighteen. he slept exactly twenty-four hours and then passed away in his sleep. the Miscellanea Analytica. . The day after he had reached the total of over twenty-three hours. He revolutionised higher trigonometry by the discovery of the theorem known by his name and by extending the theorems on the multiplication and division of sectors from the circle to the hyperbola. who was of Erench descent. where he gave lessons in mathematics. His subsistence was latterly dependent on the solution of questions on games of chance and problems on probabilities. on the Revocation of the Edict of Kantes. NEWTON TO ETJLER. De Moivre enjoyed the friendship of ISTewton and Halley. He lived to the advanced age of eighty-seven and sank into a state of almost total lethargy. He settled in London. declared that was necessary for him to sleep ten or twenty it minutes longer every day. 1730. Shortly before his death he St. His principal contributions are his investigations respecting the Duration of Play. His power as a math ematician lay in analytic rather than geometric investigation. 42 His chief works are the Doctrine of Chances. 245 wonderful progress in tlie Mglier analysis made on tlie Con tinent. his Theory of Recurring Series. and his extension of the value of Bernoulli s theorem by the aid of Stirling s theorem.

Laplace. Building on the broad foun dation laid for higher analysis and mechanics by jSTewton and Leibniz. and Laplace lay in higher analysis. to some extent. LAGKANGE. her . which brought forth nothing of value. Lagrange and Laplace scrupulously adhered to this separation. Euler. England and Germany. which during the unproductive period in France had their JSTewton and Leibniz. During the preceding period the effort of mathematicians not only in England. even on the conti nent. The mediocrity of French mathematics which marked the time of Louis XIV. and the results of calculation were usually reduced to geometric form. The labours of Euler. Among them the direction of original research was ill-chosen. binatorial school. Lagrange. The former adhered with excessive partiality to ancient geometrical methods the latter produced the com . on the other hand. Mathematical studies among the English and German people had sunk to the lowest ebb. with matchless fertility of mind. EULEB. A change now took place. but. very brightest periods of all history. erected . ]STo previous period had shown such an array of illustrious names. During the epoch of ninety years from 1730 to 1820 the French and Swiss cultivated mathematics with most brilliant success. At this time Switzerland had her Euler France. was now followed by one of the. and Monge. AND LAPLACE.246 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and this they developed to a wonderful degree. Euler brought about an emancipation of the analytical calculus from geometry and established it as an independent science. could now boast of no great mathematician. France now waved the mathematical sceptre. Lagrange. Legendre. By them analysis came to be completely severed from geometry. had been directed toward the solution of problems clothed in geometric garb.

perhaps. Spherical Harmonics by La place and Legendre. we observe an important difference. Lagrange developed the infinitesimal calculus and placed analytical mechanics into the form in which we now know it. Among the analytical branches created during this period are the calculus of Varia tions by Euler and Lagrange. could not last permanently. and were thus led to general propositions. Comparing the growth of analysis at this time with the growth during the time of Gauss. Indeed. EULER. AND LAPLACE. The Combinatorial School in Germany carried this tendency to the greatest extreme . and thus. mathematicians did not always pause to discover rigorous proofs. Placing almost implicit confidence in results of calculation. La place applied the calculus and mechanics to the elaboration of the theory of universal gravitation. 247 an elaborate structure. Cauchy. and recent mathe maticians. There are few great ideas pursued by succeeding analysts which were not suggested by Euler. they worshipped formalism and paid no attention to the actual contents of formulae. but with more comprehensive genius and profounder reasoning. largely ex tending and supplementing the labours of ISTewton. or of which he did not share the honour of invention. brought about by the master minds of this period. a much-needed rigour of demon stration. a . and of Lagrange in his earlier works. During the former period we witness mainly a development with refer ence to form. With. less exuberance of invention. The ostracism of geometry. some of which have since been found to be true in only special cases. He also wrote an epoch-marking work on Probability. But in recent times there has been added to the dexterity in the formal treatment of problems. gave a full analytical discussion of the solar system. LAGRA3TG-E. A good example of this increased rigour is seen in the present use of infinite series as compared to that of Euler. and Elliptic Integrals by Legendre.

wondered how so distinguished a scholar should be so timid and reticent. Lagrange would not permit a single diagram to appear in his M&canique analytique. to invite their friend Euler to St. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was bom in Basel. in 1733. When John Bernoulli s two sons.". a minister. one is hanged. Monge published his epoch-making Gr&ometrie descriptive. In 1766 he with difficulty obtained permission to depart from Berlin to accept a call by Catha rine II.248 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. which re ceived the second prize from the French Academy of Sciences. In his nineteenth year he composed a dissertation on the masting of ships. ! caused the gentle Euler to shrink from public affairs and to devote all his time to science. His father. but this did not stop his wonderful literary productiveness. Madam. But the effort threw him into a fever and deprived him of the use of his right eye. which continued for seventeen years. until the . where he became a favourite pupil of John Bernoulli. in 1727. where Daniel. was assigned to the chair of mathematics.. new geometric school sprang into existence in France before the close of this period. went to Russia. After his call to Berlin by Frederick the Great in 1747. In 1735 the solving of an astrono mical problem. to St. gave him his first instruction in mathematics and then sent him to the University of Basel. the queen of Prussia. who received him kindly. Petersburg. they induced Catharine I. for which several eminent mathematicians had demanded some months time. Petersburg. Soon after his return to Eussia he became blind. ". was achieved in three days by Euler with aid of improved methods of his own. Euler naively replied. proposed by the Academy. but thirteen years before his death. it is because I come from a country where. With still superior methods this same problem was solved later by the 47 illustrious Gauss in one hour The despotism of Anne I. when one speaks. Daniel and Nicolaus.

1772. 1744. though purely elementary. a subject which had hitherto never been presented in so general and systematic manner Institutiones calculi differentialis. is meri torious as one of the earliest attempts to put the fundamental processes on a sound basis. and the . displaying an amount of mathematical genius seldom rivalled. Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas maximi minimive proprietate gaudentes. which. We proceed to mention the principal innovations and inven tions of Euler. 249 day of Ms He dictated to Ms servant Ms Anleitung death. and contained not only a full summary of everything then known on this subject. C. 1744. 1748. TJieoria motus lunce. TJieoria motuum lunfje. introduced (simultaneously with Thomas Simpson in England) the now current abbreviations for trigonometric functions. but also the Beta and Gamma Func tions and other original investigations . and Institutiones calculi integraliSj 1768-1770. and simplified formulae by the simple expedient of designating the angles of a triangle by A. contained his researches on the calculus of variations to the invention (a subject afterwards improved by Lagrange). the Theoria motuum plane- tarum et cometarum. He treated trigonometry as a branch of analysis. and the theory of geodesies (subjects which had previously engaged the attention * of the elder Bernoullis and others) . the brachistochrone in a resisting medium. ETJLER. : a work that caused a revolution in analytical mathematics. B. . Euler wrote an immense number of works. which. 1753. 1770. 45 zur Algebra. AND LAPLACE. LAGRANGE. 1770. of which Euler was led by the study of isoperimetrical curves. was a work which enjoyed great popularity. Ses lettres ct une princesse d Allemagne sur quelques sujets de Physique et de Philosophic. chief of which are the following Introductio in analysin injtnitorum. 1755. which were the most complete and accurate works on the calculus of that time. are his chief works on astronomy .

He then explained how 2 2 log (a) might equal log(+a) . &. No clear notions existed as to what constitutes a convergent series. In a paper of 1737 we first meet the symbol IT to denote 3. gave a methodic analytic treatment of plane curves and of surfaces of the second order. Leibniz and John Bernoulli once argued the question whether a negative number has a logarithm. but is nevertheless very careless himself. respectively. Bernoulli claimed that since ( a) 2 = (+&) 2 . He was the first to discuss the equation of the second degree in three variables. He pointed out tlie relation between trigonometric and exponential functions. c. Neither Leibniz nor Jacob . with the = + + hope that it would lead him to a general solution of algebraic equations. and all except one when a is positive. 14159 -. Far reaching are Euler s researches on logarithms. The rigid treatment to which infinite series are subjected now was then undreamed of. and to classify the surfaces represented by it. The method of elimination by solving a series of linear equations (invented independently by Bezout) and the 20 method of elimination by symmetric functions.250 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and finally log ( Euler proved that a has really an infinite number of loga rithms. and yet log (a) not equal log (+a). He warns his readers occasionally against the use of divergent series. He devised a method of.solving bi quadratic equations by assuming x Vp V# Vr. 21og( a) = 2 log(+ a). we have log( a) = log(+a) and 2 2 a) = log (+ a). By criteria analogous to those used in the classification of conies he obtained five species. opposite sides by a. To his researches on series we owe the creation of the theory of definite integrals by the development of the so-called Eulerian integrals. are due to him. 21 Euler laid down the rules for the transformation of co-ordinates in space. all of which are imaginary when a is negative. The subject of infinite series received new life from Mm.

The very paper in which Euler cautions against divergent series contains the proof that + -n + 1 4. Euler developed the calculus of finite differences in the first .. but &.gt.j&.gt. Euler finally succeeded in converting Mcolaus Bernoulli to his own erroneous views. LAGEAISTGE. The looseness of treatment can best be seen from examples. EULER. but out that for special values of its letters. this series represented nearly all functions then.n + n + 2 .lt.f&..-f- + . the nephew of John and Jacob.lt.gt. A remarkable development. Guido Grandi went so far as to conclude from this that ^ = -}.. and even of Euler. and no one objected to such results excepting Nicolaus Bernoulli. the summation of which he observed to be dependent upon the integration of a linear differential equa it remained for Gauss to point tion of the second order. + 3 sin 3 4 sin 4 -)---.In the treatment of series Leibniz advanced a meta physical method of proof which held sway over the minds of the elder Bernoullis. 46 The tendency of that reasoning was to justify results which seem to us now highly absurd..= 0. basis Euler sproof the binomial formula for negative and of fractional exponents. AND LAPLACE. At the present time it is difficult to believe that Euler should have confidently written sin &. known.j&..=0. Euler has no hesitation to write 1 3 + 5 7 -\---.lt.lt.of 1 scientific of certain parts of analysis at that time. is what he named the hypergeo- metric series. is faulty. 2 sin 2 &. 251 and John Bernoulli had entertained any serious doubt of the correctness of the expression | = 1 1 + 1 !-{-. such examples afford striking illustrations of the want. Strange to say. due to Euler. = as follows : n2 1 % n n2 n1 these added give zero. &. which has been reproduced in elemen tary text-books of even recent years.

and Euler about the same time observed criteria of integrability. which states that every prime of the form 4n +l is expressible as the sum of two squares in one and only one way. Leibniz. The powers of Euler were directed also towards the fascinating subject of the theory of probability. a subject which had received the attention of Newton.". and the Bernoullis. and edges of certain polyhedra. as was supposed by Fermat.by c.252 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. a law independently discovered by Legendre. The celebrated addition-theorem for elliptic integrals was first established by Euler. chapters of his Institutiones calculi differentialis. and contributed largely to the theory of differential equations. A third theorem of Fermat. he pointed out that this ex pression did not always represent primes. Clairaut. He invented a new algorithm for continued fractions. = We now know that substantially the same solution of this equation was given 1000 years earlier. By giving the factors of the number 2 2 ". but was still undeveloped. 2. Fontaine. in which he solved some difficult problems. which. however. giving the relation between the number of vertices. known by his name. 48 Euler enunciated and proved a well-known theorem. appears to have been known to Descartes. He established a theorem on homogeneous functions. that xn + yn = zn . has no integral solution for values of n greater than was proved by Euler to be correct when n = 3.Fermat s theorem. The principles on which the criteria rested involved some degree of obscurity.faces. which he employed in the solution of the indeterminate equation ace 4. but Euler in addition showed how to employ them to determine integrating factors. Euler discovered four theorems which taken together make out the great law of quadratic reciprocity. and to a second theorem of Fermat. and then deduced the differential calculus from it. He first supplied the proof to ". .1 +1 when n = 5. by the Hindoos.

253 Of no little importance are Eider s labours in analytical mechanics. established the general equations of motion of a free body. AKB LAPLACE. in case of two planets. It has . and the general equation of hydrody namics. on reading Virgil s lines. n He worked out the theory of the rotation of a body around a fixed point. LAGRANGE. for down to 1818 the volumes usually contained one or more papers of his. He had engaged to furnish the Petersburg Academy with memoirs in. which arose in his mind on all occasions.The person who did most to give to analysis the generality and symmetry which are now itspride. He laid a sound basis for the calculation of tables of the moon. He was one of the first to take up with success the theory of the moon s motion by giving approximate solutions to the problem of three bodies. which captured two prizes. were carried on while he was blind. Astronomy owes to Euler the method of the variation of arbitrary constants.".". By it he attacked the problem of per turbations. Petersburg. Says Whewell: ". was also the person who made mechanics analytical . He wrote also on tides and on sound. Erom 1728 to 1783 a large portion of the Petropolitan transactions were filled by his writings. About the same time as paniel Bernoulli he published the Principle of the Conservation of Areas and defended the principle of ". I mean Euler. the secular vari ations of eccentricities.". ". sufficient number to enrich its acts for twenty years a promise more than fulfilled. Thus. etc. nodes.least action.The anchor drops. and in those of the Academy at Berlin. Most of his memoirs are contained in the transactions of the Academy of Sciences at St. He solved an immense number and variety of mechan icalproblems. explaining. EULER. These researches on the moon s motion. advanced by Maupertius. the rushing keel 5 is staid/ he could not help inquiring what would be the ship s motion in such a case. with the assistance of his sons and two of his pupils. ".

It enabled the laws of motion and the reason- . near the Notre-Dame in Paris. In 1743 appeared his Traitt de dynamique. rather than. His mode of working was. then to solve separately all problems growing out of the first.ewton. like Euler. founded upon the important general principle bearing his name : The impressed forces are equivalent to the effective forces. 3 been said that an edition of Euler s complete works ". when an infant. his mother sent for him. We are not surprised to see almost the opposite in Lagrange. the glazier s wife is my my mother. D Alembert entered upon the study of law. D Alembert gave it a clear mathematical form and made numerous appli cations of it. but received the reply. by his mother in a market by the church of St. D Alembert s principle seems to have been recognised before him by Fontaine. The great French man delighted in the general and abstract. Jean-le-Rond D Alembert (1717-1783) was exposed. ISTo one excelled him in dexterity of accommodating methods to special problems. The material would soon grow to such enormous proportions as to be unmanageable. His writings are con densed and give in a nutshell what Euler narrates at great length. first to con centrate Ms powers upon a special problem. that law was soon abandoned. in the special and concrete.000 quarto pages. It is easy to see that mathematicians could not long continue in Euler s habit of writing and publishing.would fill 16. He was brought up by the wife of a poor glazier.You are only step-mother. His father provided him with a yearly income.254 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. ". It is said that when he began to show signs of great talent. his great successor. Jean-le-Rond. and in some measure by John Bernoulli and !N".". At the age of twenty-four his reputation as a mathematician secured for him admission to the Academy of Sciences. from which he derived his Christian name. but such was his love for mathematics.

In both these treatises. he gave as the general solution. as also in one of 1747. the its generality. in analytical language. starting with a particular integral given by Brook Taylor. Euler denied on the ground that. on the same day with Clairaut. which had baffled the talents of the best minds. doubtful conclusion would follow that the above series repre sents any arbitrary function of a variable. This had become a question of universal inter- . LAGRANGE. and showed that there is only one arbitrary function. To the equation ^f = a2 ^3 arising in the problem of vibrat ing chords.cos. Daniel Bernoulli. was the complete solution of the problem of the precession of the equinoxes. 255 ings depending on them to be represented in the most general form. if true. He was a leader among the pioneers in the study of such equations. discussing the famous problem of vibrating chords. showed that this differential equation is satisfied by the trigonometric series . 46 it A most beautiful result reached by D Alembert. on the ground that involved divergent series. he was led to partial differential equations. These doubts were dispelled by Fourier. ETJLBB.+ 0sin -cos + --^ i If V and claimed this expression to be the most general solution. but D Alembert rightly objected to his process. in 1746 to a treatise on the general causes of winds. AND LAPLACE. a solution of the problem of three bodies. He sent to the French Academy in 1747. with aid of his principle. which obtained a prize from the Berlin Academy. Lagrange proceeded to find the sum of the above series. D Alembert applied it in 1744 in a treatise on the equilibrium and motion of fluids. if y be supposed to vanish for x= and x = I.

Thus far. Alexis Claude Clairaut (1713-1765) was a youthful prodigy. which he had ready for the press when he was sixteen. but the dimculty arises in their integration.the moon around the earth.solutions". disturbing the motion of. The general differential equations of motion were stated by Laplace. His criticisms were not always happy. the complete solution of this has transcended the power of analysis. In the discussion of the meaning of negative quantities. had been completely solved by Newton. of the fundamental processes of the calculus. asks for the motion of three bodies attracting each other according to the law of gravitation. vied to outdo all others. D Alembert paid some attention to the philosophy of mathematics. to undertake the education of her son. or where a planet moves under the influence of the sun and another planet. in which. of three bodies ". D Alembert declined. In 1754 he was made permanent secretary of the French Academy. each. In 1731 he gave a proof of . hitherto given are merely convenient methods of approximation in special cases when one body is the sun. which was begun by Diderot and himself. and of the theory of probability. The problem of two bodies. During the last years of his life he was mainly occupied with the great French encyclopaedia. est to mathematicians. He made a visit.256 A HISTORY OJF MATHEMATICS. It was a work of remark able elegance and secured his admission to the Academy of Sciences when still under legal age. The problem ". Frederick the Great pressed him to go to Berlin. an invitation of Catharine II. in 1762. In 1731 was published his Hecherches sur les courbes & double courbure. but declined a permanent residence there. He read PHospitaPs works on the infinitesimal calculus and on conic sections at the age of ten. The ". requiring the determination of their motion when they attract each other with forces in versely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

though the form is different. EULEB.times the fraction expressing the centrifugal force at the equator. the unit of force being represented by the force of gravity at the equator. that the sum of the fractions expressing the ellipticity and the increase of gravity at the pole is equal to 2J. named after Clairaut. This contained analysis . 257 the theorem enunciated by Newton. LAGRANGE. in 1743. Glairaut formed the acquaintance of Maupertius. This theorem is independent of any hypothesis with respect to thelaw of densities of the successive strata of the earth. TMorie de la figure de la Terre. To decide between the conflicting opinions. Todhunter says that the figure ". Petersburg Academy for his paper on Thforie de la Lune. and the subject remains at substantially as he left it.and showing that Newton was right. measurements were renewed. which was based on the Maclaurin on homogeneous results of ellipsoids. whom he accompanied on an expe dition to Lapland to measure the length of a degree of the meridian.in of the earth no other person has accomplished so much as Clairaut. On his return. About 1713 Dominico Cassini measured an arc extending from Dunkirk to Perpignan and arrived at the startling result that the earth is elongated at the poles. his work in Lapland ". It contains a remarkable theorem.". that every cubic is a pro jectionof one of five divergent parabolas. that time the shape of the earth was a subject At of serious disagreement. Clairaut published a work. AND LAPLACE. in which for the first time modern is applied to lunar motion. present The splendid analysis which Laplace supplied. It embodies most of Clairaut s researches. by disprov ing the Cassinian tenet that the earth was elongated at the poles. adorned but did not really alter the theory which started from the creative hands of Clairaut. In 1752 he gained a prize of the St. Newton and Huygens had concluded from theory that the earth was flattened at the poles. Maupertius earned by earth flattener the title of ".

left unexplained by Newton. often far from friendly. While working at his father s trade. he reached results agreeing with observa tion. then expected to return. born at Muhlhausen in Alsace. a date which turned out to be one month too late. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777). In his travels with his pupils through Europe he became acquainted with the leading mathematicians.258 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. when. He received a small pension. 1759. and enjoyed the society of Euler and Lagrange. hindered his scientific work in the latter part of his life. and later became editor of the Berlin JSphem- em. The motion of the moon was studied about the same time by Euler and D Alembert. In 1764 he settled in Berlin. In his Oosmological Letters he made some remarkable prophe cies regarding the stellar system. seemed to Mm at first inexplicable by Newton s law. His many-sided scholarship reminds one of Leibniz. Clairaut predicted that ". where he was a great favourite. the explanation of the motion of the lunar apsides. The grow ing ambition of Clairaut to shine in society. tak to a higher degree ing the precaution to carry his calculation of approximation. In mathematics he made several discoveries which were extended and overshadowed by his great contemporaries. In their scientific labours there was between Clairaut and D Alembert great rivalry. He was the first to detect singular solutions in differential equations of the first order but of higher degree than the first. he acquired through his own unaided efforts a knowledge of elementary mathematics. and he was on the point of advancing a new hypothesis regarding gravitation. His first research on pure mathe- .Halley s Comet. At the age of thirty he became tutor iii a Swiss family and secured leisure to continue his studies. would arrive at its nearest point to the sun on April 13. where he became member of the Academy. was the son of a poor tailor. This motion.".

1759 and 1773. To the genius of Lambert we owe the intro duction into trigonometry of hyperbolic functions. and particularly Lagrange. His Freye Perspective. Lagrange. AND LAPLACE. In 1761 Lambert communicated to the Berlin Academy a memoir. John Landen (1719-1790) was an English mathematician whose writings served as the starting-point of investigations by Euler. who found that a function of a root of a_x + &. stimulated Euler. and Legendre. and that also the sums of the radii vectores.". then the sectors formed in each ellipse by the arc and the two radii vectores are to each other as the square B roots of the parameters of the ellipses. Landen s capital discov ery.f&.= Since each equation of the form aaf boo 8 d + = can be reduced to x m px g in two ways. he effort to simplify the calculation of was led geometrically to some remarkable theorems on conies. 259 matics developed in an infinite series the root x of the equation # j^px q. contains researches on descriptive geometry. contained in a memoir of 1755. for instance this If in two ellipses having:a common ". where it is extended to ?r 2 . one or the + other= of the two resulting series was always found to be convergent. was that every arc of the is immediately rectified by means of two arcs of an hyperbola ellipse. Lagrange s Oalcul . LAGRANGE. and entitle him honour of being the forerunner of Monge. major axis we take two such arcs that their chords are equal. drawn respectively from the foci to the extremities of these arcs. he attempted to obviate the metaphysical difficulties of fluxions by adopting a purely des Fonctions is based algebraic method. of Legendre s Gfeometrie. (x) = can be expressed by the series bearing his name. EULER. cosh x. to the In his cometary orbits.lt. and to give a value of x. In his ". This proof is given in Note IV.gt. Lambert s results who extended the method to an equation of four terms. in which he proves that TT is irrational.residual analysis". are equal to each other. etc. which he designated by sinli x.

by which the successive coefficients of a development are derived from one another when. The notation D y for ~ is due to x him. ". first published by him in a memoir of 1764.) was a French writer of popular mathematical school-books. distinguished as a linguist. without. upon this idea. in which he uses determinants. Etienne Bezout (1730-1783. Louis Arbogaste ^1759-1803) of Alsace was professor of mathematics at Strasburg. who hac . one of the greatesl mathematicians of all times. the expression is complicated. line. Landen showed how the algebraic expression for the roots of a cubic equation could be derived by applica tion of the differential and integral calculus. In his TMorie gn6rale des Equa tions Algflbriqu&s.gt. and philosopher. entering upon their theory. Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799) of Milan.witch of Agnesi or versiera is a plane curve containing a straight ". ) Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). 1779. which was translated into English in 1801. The ". He was of French extraction. His chief work. filled the mathe matical chair at the University of Bologna during her father s Sickness.he gave the method of elimination by linear equations (invented also by Euler) This method was .260 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. was born at Turin and died a1 Paris. cc = 0. In this book for the first time are the symbols of operation separated from those of quantity. A beautiful theorem as to the degree of the resultant goes by his name. De Morgan has pointed out that the true nature of derivation is differentiation accompanied by integration. however. Most of the time of this suggestive writer was spent in the pursuits of active life. mathematician. the Calcul des Derivations^ 1800^ gives the method known by his name. In 1748 she published her Instituzioni Analiticlie&. His father. ". and a cubic f ^ +1=-.

At the age of nineteen he communicated to Euler a general method of dealing with ". was once wealthy. but Lagrange of the curve to be removed this restriction and allowed all co-ordinates of the curve to at tlie same time. As it came from Euler it lacked an analytic foundation. so that the youthful Lagrange might complete his investigations and claim the invention. Euler introduced in 1766 the vary . Euler had assumed as fixed the limits of the integral. Lagrange did quite as much as Euler towards the creation of the Calculus of Variations. While at the college in Turin his genius did not at once talfe its true bent. but the perusal of a tract of Halley roused his enthusiasm for the analytical method. EULEK. known now* as the Calculus of Variations. but lost all he had in speculation. In the first five volumes of its transactions appear most of his earlier papers. Cicero and Vir gil at first attracted him more than Archimedes and Newton. Lagrange considered this loss his good fortune. the extremities determined.". Without assistance or guidance he entered upon a course of study which in two years placed him on a level with the greatest of his contemporaries. AND LAPLACE. LAGRANGE. isoperimetrical problems. and this Lagrange supplied. With aid of his pupils he established a society which subsequently developed into the Turin Academy. in the development of which he was des tined to reap undying glory.e. He soon came to admire the geometry of the ancients. He separated the principles of this calculus from geometric considerations by which his predecessor had derived them. This commanded Euler s lively admiration. He now applied himself to mathematics. 261 charge of the Sardinian military chest. and he courteously withheld for a time from publication some researches of his own on this subject. and in his seventeenth year he became professor of mathematics in the royal military academy at Turin. for otherwise he might not have made math ematics the pursuit of his life. i.

By considering only the particles which are in a straight line. argu that in order to determine the position of a point of the ing chord at a time t. more than the one of three bodies previously solved difficult by Clairaut. In 1764 the Trench Academy proposed as the subject of a prize the theory of the libration of the moon. Lagrange. Lagrange overcame the difficulties. D Alembert. but the shortness of time did. D Alembert maintained the negative against Euler. cess encouraged the Academy to propose as a prize the theory of the four satellites of Jupiter. and though his physicians induced him to take rest and exercise. the young mathemati cian appears as the critic of Newton. on the principle of universal gravitation. and finally Lagrange. the initial position of the chord must be continuous. In his papers on this subject in the Miscellanea Taurinensia. the same Lagrange secured the This suc phase to the earth. The general integral of this was found by D Alembert to contain two arbitrary functions. and he was thenceforth subject to fits of melancholy. Another subject engaging the attention of Lagrange at Turin was the propagation of sound. and Euler. a problem of six bodies. with but slight variations. But his intense studies had seriously weakened a constitution never robust. Daniel Bernoulli. By constant application during nine years. why the moon always turns. and the arbiter between Euler and D Alembert. at the age of twenty-six.262 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he reduced the problem to the same partial differential equation that represents the motions of vibrating strings. name ". It demanded an explanation. Lagrange settled the question in the affirmative. calculus of variations/ and did much. to improve this science along the lines marked out by Lagrange. not permit him to . and the ques tion now came to be discussed whether an arbitrary function may be discontinuous. stood at the summit of European fame. prize. his nervous system never fully recovered its tone.

During the twenty years in Berlin he crowded the transac tions of the Berlin Academy with memoirs. Finding all his colleagues married. on Kepler s problem. The union was not a happy one. twenty years. There are two methods of solving directly algebraic equa tions. but he fell dangerously ill after a dinner in Paris. He called the enriched algebra by researches on the solution of equations. The . Lagrange visited Paris. His wife soon died. Later astronomical investigations of Lagrange are on coinetary perturbations (1778 and 1783). D Condor cet. EULEE. AND LAPLACE. where he enjoyed the stimulating delight of conversing with Clairaut. He worked no longer each day than experience taught him he could without breaking down. and he pointed out Lagrange as the only man capable of filling the place. that of substitution and that of combination. Aleinbert. LAGEANGE. cian at his court. and being - assured by their wives that the marital state alone is happy. Lagrange went to Berlin. Being anxious to make the personal acquaintance of leading mathematicians. and wrote also the epoch-making work M6canique Analytique. and was compelled to return to Turin. he married. Frederick the Great there upon sent a message to Turin. Frederick the Great held him in high esteem. 263 exhaust the subject. and frequently conversed with him on the advantages of per fect regularity of life.the greatest king of Europe to have the greatest mathemati ". His papers were care fully thought out before he began writing. In 1766 Euler left Berlin for St. and staid there ". D Alembert recom mended him at the same time. the Abbe Marie. and wfren he wrote he did so without a single correction. This led Lagrange to cultivate regular habits. Petersburg. He had planned a visit to London. expressing the wish of ". and on a new method of solving the prob lem of three Bodies. Twenty-four years afterwards it was completed by Laplace. ". and others.

In a note to the above work Lagrange uses Fermat s theorem and certain suggestions of Gauss in effecting a complete alge braic solution of any binomial equation. In 1769 he gave a solution in integers of indeterminate equations of the second degree. Lagrange traced all known algebraic solutions of equa tions to the uniform principle consisting in the formation and solution of equations of lower degree whose roots are linear functions of the required roots. In the method of combination auxiliary quantities are substituted for certain simple combinations (".types". His researches on the theory of equations were continued after he left Berlin. a theorem which appears before this to have been considered self-evident. Tchirnhausen. John Wilson. In the Resolution des equations num6riques (1798) he gave a method of approximating to the real roots of numerical equa tions by continued fractions. Other proofs of this were given by Argand. Euler. it contains also a proof that every equation must have a root. Lagrange. 20 In the method of substitution the original forms are so transformed that the determination of the roots is made to depend upon simpler functions (resolvents).".264 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Bezout. in 1771. and Lagrange the latter by Vandermonde and . and auxiliary equations (resolvents) are obtained for these quantities with aid of the coefficients of the given equa tion. enunciated by an Englishman. and first published by Waring in his Meditationes Algebraicce . Vieta. and Cauchy. its resolvent being of the sixth degree. While in Berlin Lagrange published several papers on the theory of numbers. He showed that the quintic cannot be reduced in this way.Wilson s theorem. . he investigated in 1775 under what conditions 2 and 5 (1 and 3 having been discussed by Euler) . and of the roots of unity. ". Among other things.) of the unknown roots of the equation. which resembles the Hindoo cyclic method he was the first to prove. Gauss. former method was developed by Ferrari.

and Lagrange. LAGRANGE. he gave a solu tion of partial differential equations of the first order (Berlin Memoirs. 265 are quadratic residues. He generalised Euler s researches on total differential equa tions of two variables. He never. if a -j- 2 then ab is not a . and spoke of their singular solutions. Lagrange established criteria for singular solutions (Calcul des Fonctions. the greatest of his works (Paris. Euler. He was the first to point out the geometrical significance of such solutions. which are. of squares. . and of the ninth order . Lessons 14-17). AND LAPLACE. square. yet more than other branches of mathematics did they resist the sys tematic application of fixed methods and principles. Laplace). dealt explicitly and directly with determi nants. however. with aid of the calculus of variations. EULER. has already been referred to in our account of D Alembert. D Alembert. While in Berlin. 5 = e 2 2 also Fermat s theorem that. erroneous. or non-residues of odd prime numbers. From the principle of virtual velocities he deduced. the whole system of mechanics so elegantly and . The discussion on partial differential equations of the second order. Though the subject of contemplation by the greatest mathematicians (Euler. and demonstrated that the square of a determinant is itself a determinant. carried on by D Alembert. 1773. 1788). Lagrange. Lagrange wrote much on differential equations. In his memoir on Pyramids. q he proved in 1770 Meziriac s theorem that every integer is . Lagrange wrote the t M&cJianiqueAncdytique". Clairaut. equal to the sum of four. 1772 and 1774). Lagrange made consider able use of determinants of the third order. or a less number. He proved Ferinat s theorem on xn + yn = zn for the case n = 4. however. he simply obtained accidentally identities which are now recognised as relations between determinants. extending their solution in Memoirs of 1779 and 1785 to equa tions ofany number of variables.

. \l/.. then the form dt __ dg d . ^. The two divisions of mechanics statics and dynamics are in the first four sections of each carried out analogously. y. Lagrange formulated the principle of least action. . &. 49 Lagrange was anxious to have his Mfoanique Analytique published in Paris. (Preface).lt. and then only with the condition that after a few years he would pur chase all the unsold copies.lt. The work was edited by Legendre.. the equations of motion involve the co-ordinates x. of one and the same function V. &.266 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The equations of motion may now assume the form ddT dT.. y. . determining the position of the point at the time. In their original form. To him falls the honour of the introduction of the potential into dynamics. . z.lt. But x. fa whatever. With Lagrange originated the remark that mechanics may be regarded as a geometry of four dimensions. but not till 1788 could he find a publisher. These may be taken to be independent. . A. The work was ready for print. are in general not independent. a kind of scientific poem. in 1786. of the different particles m or dm of the system. On ne trouvera point de figures ".". It is a most consummate example of analytic generality. in Sir William Kowan Hamilton s words. or when H. Geometrical figures are nowhere allowed. and each is prefaced by a historic sketch of principles. harmoniously that it may fitly be called.. are the partial differential coefficients with respect to . z. dans cet ouvrage". ".. d A The latter is par excellence the Lagrangian form of the equa tions of motion. &. and Lagrange introduced in place of them any variables .

weights and measures even after it had been purified by the Jacobins by striking out the names of Lavoisier. when the school was closed. and lodging was procured for him in the Louvre. EULEB. The earliest triumph of this institution was . Her devotion to him constituted the one tie to life which at the approach of death he found it hard to break.. His additions to the algebra of Euler were prepared at this time. He was made one of the commissioners to establish weights and measures having units founded on nature. For two years his printed copy of the Mtcanique. to migrate to Paris. but at the establishment of the Ecole Normale in 1795 in Paris. and planned to return to Berlin. AND LAPLACE. and insisted upon marrying him. men of science were no longer respected in Germany. The French queen treated him with regard. About this time the young and accomplished daughter of the astronomer Lemonnier took compassion on the sad. Laplace. with Lagrange as one of the professors. the general idea of which was obtained from a work of Thomas Williams. Lagrange took alarm at the fate of Lavoisier. 1788. Through Lavoisier he became interested in chem istry. century. he was induced to accept a professorship. that he was retained as presi dent of the commission on. London. 267 After the death of Frederick the Great. fresh from the the work of a quarter of a press. LAGBANGE.as crisis of the French Kevolution aroused him again to activity. lonely Lagrange. and Lagrange accepted an invitation of Louis XVI. The disastrous ".". Lagrange strongly favoured the decimal subdivision. and such the universal respect for him. which he found easy as algebra. lay unopened on his desk. and others. Such was the moderation of Lagrange s character. But he was seized with a long attack of melancholy which destroyed his taste for mathematics. Scarcely had he time to elucidate the foundations of arithmetic and algebra to young pupils. In 1797 the Ecole Polytechnique was founded.

In the differential calculus of Euler they were treated as absolute zeros. Legons a treatise on the same lines as the preceding (1801). nor after vanishing. D Alembert taught that a variable actually reached its limit. the germ of which is found in a memoir of his of 1772. was unknown to him. for though ceive the ratios of two quantities. fonctions analytiques (1797). the restoration of Lagrange to analysis. The chord and arc were not taken by Newton as equal before That vanishing. as long as they remain finite. Lagrange attempted to prove Taylor s theorem (the power of which he was the first to point out) by simple algebra. and the Resolution des equations numeriques (1798). the inconvenience of con method. to be quantities . but he died before its completion. said Lagrange.has the in which so to sidering quantities in state they cease. great ". aimed to place the principles of the calculus upon a sound foundation by relieving themind of the difficult conception of a limit or infinitesimal. professing a similar object.". we can always well con speak. but when they vanish. there is neither arc nor chord. In Newtonlimiting ratio. The TJieorie des fonctions. In 1810 he began a thorough revision of his Mecanique analytique. mind no clear and precise idea. When Lagrange . His mathematical activity burst out anew. He brought forth the Theorie des sur le calcul des fonctions. the magnitudes of which it s is the ratio cannot be found. that ratio offers to the become both nothing at the same time. for at the moment when they should be caught and equated. as soon as its terms D Alembert s method of limits was much the same as the method of prime and ultimate ratios. ".". and then to develop the entire calculus from that theorem. John Landen s residual calculus.268 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The infinitesimals philosophic of Leibniz had no satisfactory metaphysical basis. The principles of the calculus were in his day involved in difficulties of a serious nature.

The algebra of his day. he avoided the whirlpool of Charybdis only to suffer wreck against the rocks of Scylla. LAGRANGE. as it was called. has been gen erally abandoned. its defects were fatal. Lagrange s mathematical researches extended to subjects which have not been men- . AND LAPLACE. but itwas inconvenient. In the further development of higher analysis a function became the leading idea. in the Gakul de fonctions he gives his theorem on the limits of Taylor s theorem. Though Lagrange s method of developing the calculus was at firstgreatly applauded. 269 endeavoured to free the calculus of its metaphysical difficulties. ISTo correct theory of infinite series had then been established. In the treatment of infinite series Lagrange displayed in his earlier writings that laxity common to all mathematicians of his time. D But his later articles mark the beginning of a period of greater rigour. in which he used infinitesimals. and was abandoned by him in the second edition of his Mecanique. Weier- strass. as handed down to him by Euler. and to-day his ". apart from geometrical or mechanical considerations. but its secondary results were far-reaching. labours under serious defects. But he used infinite series without ascertaining that they were con vergent. He introduced a notation of his own. EULEB. and his proof that f(x + h) can always be expanded in a series of ascending powers of h. Thus. It was a purely abstractmode of regarding functions. Eiemann. and others.method of derivatives. and Lagrange work s may be regarded as the starting-point of the theory of functions as developed by Cauchy. by resorting to common algebra. was founded on a false view of infinity. The primary object of the Theorie des fonctions was not attained. Lagrange proposed to define the differential coefficient of /(a?) with respect to x as the coefficient of h in the expansion of f(x + Ji) by Taylor s theorem. excepting Mcolaus Bernoulli II. and Alembert.". and thus to avoid all reference to limits.

who was then at the height of his fame. which brought the following enthusiastic response: ". and even timid in conversation. ascend ing continued fractions. my position at the Ecole Militaire of Paris as professor of mathe- . finite differences. spent in poverty. Lagrange was an extremely modest man. He spoke in tones of doubt. but young Laplace. The letters remained -unnoticed. and his first words generally were.". but his great contemporary. You needed no introduction . At eighteen he went to Paris.270 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. Everywhere his wonderful powers of generalisation and abstraction are made manifest. ". Some rich neighbours who recognised the boy s talent assistedhim in securing an -education. D Alembert secured him a . Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827) was born at Beaumont- en-Auge in Normandy. When fame he was loath to speak at the height of his of his boyhood. Laplace. and the only ones that were secured were sketched without his knowledge by persons attending the meetings of the Institute. tioned liere such as probabilities. eager to avoid controversy. where at an early age he became teacher of mathematics.Je ne sais pas. you have recommended your self support is your due. As an extern he attended the military school in Beaumont. In that respect he stood without a peer. and some of the most important researches of Laplace (particularly those on the velocity of sound and on the secular acceleration of the moon) are im plicitly contained in Lagrange s works. surpassed him in practical sagacity. undaunted. elliptic integrals. wrote the great geometer a letter on the principles of me chanics.". He would never allow his portrait to be taken. Lagrange was content to leave the application of his general results to others. armed with letters of recommendation to D Alembert. His father was a small farmer. Yery little is known of his early life.

of the earth s orbit had been perpendicular to the equinoctial line. and the following year he became mem ber of the Academy of Sciences. He was made president of the Bureau of Longitude j he aided in the introduction of the decimal system. mathematics in the Ecole Normale. His career was one of almost uninter rupted prosperity. there arose a cry for the reform of everything. according to his calculation.30 degrees to be located east of Paris of the centesimal division of the quadrant. for by this meridian the beginning of his proposed era fell at midnight. as a most Laplace was justly admired throughout Europe for his repu sagacious and profound scientist. The political career of this eminent scientist was stained by and suppleness. The year was to begin with the vernal equinox. During the succeeding fifteen years appeared most of his original contri butions to astronomy. Laplace suggested the adoption of an era beginning with the the major axis year 1250. EULEB. during the Bevolution. and he entered upon those profound researches which brought him the title of ". Laplace s ardour for republican principles suddenly gave way to a great devotion to the emperor. with Lagrange. the day when Napoleon was made emperor. After the servility 18th of Brumaire. 271 matics.". But the revolutionists rejected this scheme. With wonderful mastery of analysis.he strove not only after greatness in science. His future was now assured. and taught. when. and made the start of the new era coincide with the beginning of the glorious French 50 Eepublic. and the zero meridian was by 185. . even of the calendar. unhappily tation. AND LAPLACE. Laplace attacked the pending problems in the application of the law of gravitation to celestial motions. In 1784 he succeeded Bezout as examiner to the royal artillery. When. Napoleon rewarded this devotion by giving him the post of minister of the interior. LAGRANGE. but also after political honours. but.the Newton of France.

In 1773 he brought out a paper in which he proved that the mean motions or mean distances of planets are invariable or merely subject to small periodic changes. The first edition of the Syst&me du monde was dedicated to the Council of Mve Hun dred. it must be said that in religion and science Laplace never misrepresented or con cealed his own convictions however distasteful they might be to others. and bestowed various other honours upon him. n avait que des idees problematiques.272 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he cheerfully gave his voice in 1814 to the dethronement of his patron and hastened to tender his services to the Bourbons.aucune question sous son veritable point de vue il cherchait des subtilites . the Mecanique Celeste. In mathematics and astronomy his genius shines with a lustre excelled by few. ". partout. of the Theorie analytique des probability which appeared after the Restoration. but dismissed Mm after six months for incapacity. Besides these he contributed important memoirs to the Prench Academy. This pettiness of his character is seen in his writings. and the Theorie anatytique des probabili ties. the Exposition du systeme du monde. Nevertheless. Though supple and servile in politics. After we are surprised to find in the editions this outburst of affection. Said Napoleon.". that the original dedication to the emperor is suppressed. This was the first . that most precious to the author was the declaration he thus made of gratitude and devotion to the peace-maker of Europe. Laplace ne saisissait . To the third volume of the M6canique Celeste is prefixed a note that of all the truths contained in the book. et portait enfin Pesprit des infiniinent petits jusgue dans P administration. We first pass in brief review his astronomical researches. Desirous to retain Ms Napoleon elevated Mm to the Senate allegiance. thereby earning the title of marquis. Three great works did he give to the scientific world.

This paper was the beginning of a series of profound researches by Lagrange and Laplace on the limits of variation of the various elements of planetary orbits. and the moon upon the earth. These. He also discovered cer tain very remarkable. so different in intensity. EULEJEt. AHD LAPLACE. It looked as though Saturn might eventually leave the planetary system.) nary periodic perturbations. as those in the solar system. Laplace s first paper really grew out of researches on the theory of Jupiter and Saturn.great belonged to the class of ordi inequality". depending upon the law of attrac tion. that these variations (called the ". were pub lished in the Memoirs prfaentis par divers savans.and Lagrange without receiving satisfactory explanation. 51 To Newton and also to Euler it had seemed doubtful whether forces so numerous. as well as the other papers here mentioned. LAGRANGE. The cause of so influential a perturbation was found in the commensurability of the mean motion of the two planets. in a paper of 1784-1786. these bodies was completed in papers of 1788 and 1789. simple relations between the movements of those bodies. in which the two great mathema ticians alternately surpassed and supplemented each other. Laplace was enabled to determine the masses of the moons. 273 and most important step in establishing the stability of the solar system. while Jupiter would fall into the sun. His theory of ". The behaviour of these planets had been studied by Euler ". Laplace finally succeeded in showing. known as Laws of Laplace. In the study of the Jovian system. The year . Observation revealed the existence of a steady acceleration of the mean motions of our moon and of Jupiter and an equally strange diminution of the mean mo tion of Saturn.". so variable in position. could be a capable of maintaining permanently condition of equilibrium. Newton was of the opinion that a powerful hand must inter vene from time to time to repair the derangements occa sioned by the mutual action of the different bodies.

Books XIII. Books XI. and XII. on celestial mechanics. The first two volumes contain the general theory of the motions and The third and fourth volumes figure of celestial bodies. The uni versal validity of the law of gravitation to explain motion all in the solar system was established. give special theories of celestial motions. and so complete. A similar theory had been previously proposed by Kant in 1755. The result was the Mtcaniq ue C&leste. XIV. That system. without deriving from observation any but indispensable data. In this work he enunciates for the first time his celebrated nebular hypothesis. Clairaut. 1787 was made memorable by Laplace s announcement that the lunar acceleration depended upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth s orbit. Laplace conceived the idea of writing a work which should contain a complete analytical solution of the mechanical prob lem presented by the solar system. This removed all doubt then existing as to the stability of the solar system. Euler. treating particu larly of motions of comets. In 1796 Laplace published his Exposition du syst&me du monde. ending with a sketch of the history of the science. in 1824. Lagrange.. a then known..274 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. and of Laplace himself. were published in 1823. that Laplace s successors have . the fourth in 1805. The Mcanique C&leste was such a master-piece. Of the fifthvolume. and of other satel lites. The volume opens with a brief history of celestial fifth mechanics. in 1825. of our moon. the third appeared in 1802. and then gives in appendices the results of the author s later researches. and by Swedenborg but Laplace does not . which is a systematic presentation embrac ing all the discoveries of Newton. The first and second volumes of this work were published in 1799 . and Book XVI. D Alembert. XV. a non-mathematical popular treatise on astronomy. was at last found to be a complete machine. appear to have been aware of this.

Laplace. solar system was stable. ETJLEB. questions arising in the mechanics of the Thus. est facile de voir.". and lets the reader infer that theorems and formulae due to a predecessor are really his own. The M6canique C6leste is not easy reading. 1800-1802. as subject itself as in the want of verbal explanation. But Laplace frequently neglects to properly acknowledge the source from which he draws. ". that he once asked Laplace some explanation tells of a passage in the book which had been written not long before. it naturally contains a great deal that is drawn from his pred ecessors. Karl Burk- hardt.II Notwithstanding the impor tant researches in the work. and appeared in Berlin. AND LAPLACE. Newton expressed the . ". The general part of the work was translated into German by Joh. and being unable to show that the suspecting in fact that it was unstable. LAGBANGE. It is. Nathaniel Bowditch brought out an edition in English. 1829-1839. Biot.". written this large book on the system of the universe.M. which are due to Laplace himself. We are told that when Laplace presented Napoleon with a copy of the Mcamque Ctteste. taken literally. The a rule. n avais pas besoin de cette hypothese-la. 275 been able to add comparatively little. and that Laplace spent an hour endeavouring to recover the reasoning which had been carelessly suppressed with the remark. is impious. the organised result of a century of patient toil. they tell me you have ". compli A cated chain of reasoning receives often no explanation what ever. but may it not have been intended to convey a meaning somewhat different from its literal one ? Newton was not able to explain by his law of gravitation all heavens. in Boston. This assertion.Je Creator. and have never even mentioned its Laplace is said to have replied bluntly. who assisted Laplace in revising the work for the press.". not so much in the difficulties lie. the latter made the remark. with an extensive com mentary. in fact.

but all proofs contain some . Gauss had used it still earlier. to the theory of probability. The first book contains the theory of generating functions. He published a series of papers. from time to time. Philadelphia. Hagen. 3STow Laplace was able to prove by the law of gravitation that the solar system is stable. 1812. in the second book. The first deduction of the law of probability of error that appeared in print was given in 1808 by Eobert Adrain in the a journal published by himself in 2 Analyst. and others. We now proceed to researches which belong more properly to pure mathematics. Proofs of this law have since been given by G-auss. of a powerful hand was necessary to preserve order. One of the most important parts of the work the application of probability to the method of least is squares. The introduction was published separately under the title. Ivory. The first printed statement of the principle of least squares was made in 1806 by Legendre. Of these the most conspicuous are on the theory of probability. Laplace gives in his work on probability his method of approximation to the values of definite integrals. Herschel. without demonstration. and in that sense may be said to have felt no necessity for reference to the Almighty. Laplace has done more towards advancing than this subject any one other investigator. which are applied. opinion that tlie special intervention. Essai philosopliique sur les probability and is an admirable and masterly exposition without the aid of analytical formulee of the principles and applications of the science. the main results of which were collected in his TMorie anatytique des probabiliUs. The solu tion of linear differential equations was reduced by him to definite integrals. but did not publish it until 1809. The third edition (1820) consists of an introduction and two books. which is shown to give the most probable as well as the most convenient results.276 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.

277 point of difficulty. constitute a powerful analytic engine in the theory of attraction. The notion of potential was. The analytical processes are by no means clearly established or free from error. par Laplace ticularly the part on the method of least squares. the most important is the one published in 1785. (Be Morgan). Laplace failed to make due acknowledgment of this. Spherical harmonics. however. The theory of spherical harmonics for two dimensions had been previously given by Legendre.No one was more sure of giving the result of analytical processes correctly.a feeling more than coldness. ". The honour of that achievement belongs to La- 49 grange. ". Amongthe minor discoveries of Laplace are his method of solving equations of the second. The potential function. is much used by Laplace. and magnetism. and is shown by him to satisfy the partial differential equation 5i dx? + -11- 2 + _- dz* = 0. LAGRANOE. third. It gives an exhaustive treatment of the general problem of attraction of any ellipsoid upon a particle situated outside or upon its surface. V. Of Laplace spapers on the attraction of ellipsoids. in electricity. and there existed. Ms . and fourth degrees. his memoir on singular solutions of differential equations. in con sequence. form which it assumes in polar co-ordinates.". This is known as Laplace s dy and was first given by him in the more complicated equation. AND LAPLACE.". and no one ever took so little care to point out the various small considerations on which correctness depends". s work on probability is very difficult reading. Laplace s proof is perhaps the most satis factory. and to a great extent reprinted in the third volume of the M6canique Celeste.Laplace s coefficients. or the so-called ". EULER. not introduced into analysis by Laplace. between the two great men.

Laplace s writings stand out in bold contrast to those of Lagrange in their lack of elegance and symmetry. where he pursued his studies with his usual vigour until his death. Laplace looked upon mathematics as the tool for the solution of physi cal problems. he spent littletime in explaining the various steps of his analysis. and may. the determination of the complete integral of the linear differen tial In the Mecaniqite Celeste he equation of the second order. the estab lishment of the expansion theorem in determinants which had been previously given by Vanderrnonde for a special case. lisez Euler. his explanation of astronomical refrac tion . 20 . and would often say.". He was a great admirer of Euler.278 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. c est notre maitre a tous. researches in finite differences and in determinants. his formulae for measuring heights by the barometer. ". his researches on the theory of tides . He and Lagrange originated the method of combinations in solving equations. The true result being once reached. through which any one could become a composer with the aid of mathematics. He was the t first to give a connected and logical exposition of the theory of determinants. Adrien Marie Legendre (1752-1833) was educated at the . s We mention here his correction of Newton s formula on the velocity of sound in gases by taking into account the changes of elasticity due to the heat of compression and cold of rarefac tion . Abnit-TfceopMle Vandermonde (1735-1796) studied music during his youth in Paris and advocated the theory that all art rested upon one general law. therefore. The last years of his life were spent mostly at Arcueil in peaceful retirement on a country-place. made a generalisation of Lagrange s theorem on the develop ment of functions in series known as Laplace s theorem.Lisez Euler. his mathematical theory of capillarity . Laplace investigations in physics were quite extensive. or in polishing his work. almost be regarded as the founder of that theory.

). designated by . issued in two volumes in 1825 and 1826. In 1780 he resigned his position in order to reserve more time for the stiidy of higher mathematics. which captured a prize offered by the Eoyal Academy -of Berlin. and Lagrange had left it. Landen. His mathematical genius secured for him theposition of professor of mathematics at the mili tary school of Paris.F(&. He was then made member of several public commissions. He took up the subject where Euler. . and !!(&. second only to Laplace and Lagrange. Owing to his timidity and to Laplace s unfriendliness toward him. 279 College Mazarin in Paris. ). positions. and for forty years was the only one new branch of analysis. mainly on elliptic integrals. He also undertook the prodigious task of calculating tables of arcs of the ellipse for different degrees of amplitude and eccentricity. As an analyst. theory of numbers. The most important of Legendre s works is his Fonctions elliptiques. and least squares.). LAGRANGE. which supply the means of integrating a large number of differentials.lt. wliere lie began the study of mathe matics under Abbe Marie. In 1795 he was elected professor at the E". EULEB. Legen- dre enriched mathematics by important contributions.ormal School and later was appointed to some minor government". until at last Jacobi and to cultivate this Abel stepped in with admirable new discoveries.lt. attraction of ellip soids. AND LAPLACE. 52 Legendre imparted to the subject that connection and arrangement which belongs to an independent science. but few important public offices commensurate with his ability were tendered to him. the radical being expressed in the form =Vi ^sin2 ^. While there he prepared an essay on the curve described by projectiles thrown into resisting media (ballistic curve) . Starting with an integral depending upon the square root of a polynomial of the fourth degree in x. he showed that such integrals can be brought back to three canonical forms.

in which he treats also at length of the two classes of definite integrals named by him Eulerian. One of the earliest subjects of research was the attraction of spheroids. An earlier publication which. The two household gods to which Legendre sacrificed with ever-renewed pleasure in the silence of his closet were the elliptic functions and the theory of numbers. 1830. 1817). contained part of his researches on elliptic functions was his Oalcul integral in three volumes (1811. entitled TIi6orie des nombres. Its crowning pinnacle the theorem of quadratic reciprocity. His memoir was presented to the Academy of Sciences in 1783. on the treatment of the spherical triangle as if it were a plane triangle. by applying . Legendre calculated all the tri angles in France. Other memoirs on ellipsoids appeared later. but Legendre showed that in order to determine the attraction of a spheroid on any external point to cause the surface of another spheroid described it suffices upon the same foci to pass through that point. While acting as one of the commissioners to connect Green wich and Paris geodetically. and published in two large quarto volumes.280 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. which suggested to Legendre the function n) P named after him. together with the numerous scattered fragments on the theory of numbers due to his predecessors in this line. were arranged as far as possible into a systematic whole. but for the 48 first time clearly enunciated and partly proved by Legendre. 1816. His researches on the latter subject. The researches of Maclaurin and Lagrange suppose the point attracted by a spheroid to be at the surface or within the spheroid. is previously indistinctly given by Euler without proof. Before the publication of this work Legendre had issued at divers times preliminary articles. He tabulated the values of log T(p) for values of p between 1 and 2. This furnished the occasion of establishing formulae and theorems on geodesies.

which enjoyed great popularity. published for the first time by him without demon stration in 1806. This great modern rival of Euclid passed through numerous editions the later ones containing the elements of trigonom . EULER. In the earlier editions of the Elements. Assuming space to be infinite. Mark. Legendre wrote an Elements de G-eometrie. 1794. attention was given by Legendre to the subject of parallel lines. of the Memoirs of the Institute is a paper by Legendre. 281 certain corrections to the angles. to show that this sum cannot be less than two right angles. He became an orphan in his eighth year. he proved satisfactorily that it is impossible for the sum of the three angles of a triangle to exceed two right angles. but his proofs did not satisfy even himself. XII. In Vol. his application was answered thus: f Fourier. his demonstration neces sarily failed. LAGRANGE. not . then the theory of is parallels could be strictly deduced. and on the method of least squares. Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) was born at Auxerre. containing his last attempt at a solution of the problem. He there prosecuted his studies. He wished to enter the artillery.". particularly mathematics. Through the influence of friends he was admitted into the military school in his native place. then conducted by the Benedictines of the Convent of St. ". then the same must be true of all triangles. being of low birth (the son of a tailor). If it could be granted that the sum of the three angles always equal to two right angles. and that if there be any triangle the sum of whose angles istwo right angles.". etry and a proof of the irrationality of ir and 2 Much -jr . but. He then attempted to demonstrate that ". with surprising success. being generally adopted on the Continent and in the United States as a substitute for Euclid. AND LAPLACE. in central France.axiom. But in the next step. he made direct appeal to the senses for the correctness of the parallel-axiom.

This* work contained Fourier s theorem". along with Monge and Berthollet. These brilliant results were eclipsed by the theorem of Sturm. on the number of real roots between ". Napoleon founded the Institute of Egypt. In Egypt he engaged not only in scientific work. Budan had published this result as early as 1807. of which Fourier became secretary.282 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. He lectured upon it in the Polytechnic School he developed. it on the banks of the Nile it constituted a part of a work . published in 1822 in his work entitled La Theorie Analytique de la Ohaleur. The reformation of the weights and measures was planned with grandeur of con ception. could not enter the artillery. 53 He was soon appointed to the mathe matical chair in the military school. toaccompany Napoleon on his campaign to Egypt. but discharged important political functions. This work marks an epoch in the history of . then lecturer. although he were a second Newton. After his return to France he held for fourteen years the prefecture of Grenoble. which was an improvement on Newton s method of approximation. His brilliant success secured him a chair in the Polytechnic School. At the age of twenty- one he went to Paris to read before the Academy of Sciences a memoir on the resolution of numerical equations. Fourier took a prominent part at his home in promoting the Eevolution. being noble. During this period he carried on his elaborate investigations on the propagation of heat in solid bodies. Under the French Eevolution the arts -and sciences seemed for a time to flourish. This investigation of his early youth he never lost sight of. but there is evidence to show that Fourier had estab lished it before Sudan s publication. which was in press when death overtook him. the duties of which he afterwards quitted. of which Fourier became at first pupil. entitled Analyse des equationes determines (1831). two chosen limits.". The Normal School was created in 1795. published in 1835.

The trigonometric = eo series S (an sin nx ft=0 + b n cos nx) represents the function I /*7T &. (#) for every value of x. The British began to deplore the very small progress that science was making inEngland as compared with its racing progress on the Continent. LAGRANGE. This struggle ". Sir William Thomson.j&. and the fact established that any arbitrary function can be represented by a trigonometric series. Charles Bab- bage. was formed at Cambridge. This took place during the first quarter of this cen tury.D-ism. not on account of any great superiorityof the Leibnizian over the Newtonian notation. By this research a long controversy was brought to a close. if the coefficients an =. In 1827 Fourier succeeded Laplace as president of the council of the Polytechnic School. modern writers find . 7T*x JT and &n be equal to a similar integral.lt. the Leibniziau notation in the calculus against those of or of the Newtonian notation. AND LAPLACE.gt. 283 mathematical physics. \ &. Tait. the principles of pure ".". dx was a great step in advance.Analytical Society". ".(V) sinnxdx.Fourier s series". The weak point in Fourier s analysis lies in his failure to prove generally that the trigonometric series actually converges to the value of the function. ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the notation the exclusion of the fluxional notation This ^.".dot-age. and a few other Cambridge students. This was a small club established by George Peacock. and some other". constitutes its gem. In 1813 the ". to promote. The first announcement of this great discovery was made by Fourier in 1807. to y.lt. John Herschel. before the French Academy. that is. but because the adoption of the former opened up to English students the vast storehouses of continental discoveries. EULER. Before proceeding to the origin of modern geometry we shall speak briefly of the introduction of higher analysis into Great Britain. as it was humorously expressed.

He advances. and on the history of mathematics.principle of the permanence of equivalent forms. His chief publications are his Algebra. . 1830 and 1842. It was never finished. Of the three founders of the ".Analytical Society.".". and Babbage translated. and to fully recognise its purely symbolic character. Cambridge. from the French. F. the ". Babbage became famous for his invention of a calculating engine superior to Pascal s. dean of Ely. owing to a misunderstanding with the government. He was one of the first to study seriously the fundamental principles of algebra. which brought out clearly the commutative and distributive laws. John Herschel. and a conse quent failure to secure funds. Lacroix s treatise on the differential and integral calculus. which was the first of several valuable summaries of scientific progress printed in the volumes of the British Association. Gregory wrote a paper ". Peacock. and in articles contributed to cyclopaedias on light. in 1816. and his Report on Recent Progress in Analysis. About this time D. though somewhat imperfectly. became Lowndean professor there. These laws had been noticed years before by the inventors of symbolic methods in the calculus. It was Servois who introduced the names commutative and distributive in 1813. on meteorology.". and later. It assumes that the rules applying to the symbols of arithmetical algebra apply also in symbolical algebra. Hersehel. George Peacock (1791-1858) was educated at Trinity College. it frequently convenient to use both. Lacroix s was one of the best and most extensive works on the calculus of that time.284 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Peacock afterwards did most work in pure mathematics. and added in 1820 two volumes of examples. the eminent astronomer. displayed his mastery over higher analysis in memoirs communicated to the Koyal Society on new applica tions of mathematical analysis. notations.on the real nature of symbolical algebra.

and to open up new avenues of progress. and gave three proofs of the principle without recourse to probability . and almost the only one in Great Britain previous to the organisa tion of the Analytical Society who was well versed in conti nental mathematics.". beginning in 1804. but they are far from being satisfactory. James Ivory (1765-1845) was a Scotch. efforts to revive synthetic methods made by Desargues.. held the mathematical chair in the Eoyal Military College at Marlow (now at Sand hurst). the analytical treatment of geometry was brought into great prominence Notwithstanding the for over a century. By the researches of Descartes and the invention of the cal culus. AND LAPLACE. He was essentially a self-trained mathematician. 1809) in which the problem of the attraction of a homogeneous ellipsoid upon an external point is reduced to the simpler problem of the attraction of a related ellipsoid upon a corresponding point interior to it. and Maclaurin. the one to represent by drawings geometrical magnitudes was brought to a high degree of perfection before the time of . 285 Peacock s investigations on the foundation of algebra were considerably advanced by De Morgan and Hankel. He with undue severity Laplace s criticised solution of the method of least squares. EULER. Pas cal. LAG-BANGE. The Origin of Modern Geometry. It was reserved for the genius of Monge to bring synthetic geometry in the foreground. Of the two leading problems of descriptive geometry. Of importance is his memoir (Phil. mathematician who for twelve years. His Gom6trie descriptive marks the beginning of a wonderful development of modern geometry.Ivory s theorem. ISTewton. Trans. This is known as ". the analytical method retained almost undisputed supremacy. De Lahire.

286 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he was obliged to say. But it remained for Monge to create descriptive geometry as a distinct branch of science by imparting to it geometric generality and elegance. ". I could have . In 1768 he was made professor of mathemat ics at Mezi&res. The con struction of a plan of his native town brought the boy under the notice of a colonel of engineers. many advantages were 54 gained. which the commandant at first refused even to look at. who procured for him an appointment in the college of engineers at Mezieres. In 1780. F. he could not receive a commission in the army. He introduced the line of intersection of the horizontal and the vertical plane as the axis of projection. Being of low birth. when conversing with two of his pupils. His most noteworthy predecessor in descriptive geometry was the Frenchman Frezier (1682- 1773). so short was the time in which it could be practised . Monge. G-aspard Monge (1746-1818) was born at Beaune. it was received with avidity. Monge developed these methods further and thus created his descriptive geometry. when once examined. he sub stituted a geometrical method. Owing to the rivalry between the French military schools of that time. Lacroix and G-ayvernon in Paris. All problems previously treated in a special and uncertain manner were referred - back to a few general principles. All that I have here done by calculation. S. he was not permitted to divulge his new methods to any one outside of this institution. Observing that all the operations connected with the construction of plans of fortifi cation were conducted by long arithmetical processes. but he was permitted to enter the annex of the school. tlie other to solve problems on figures in space by constructions in a plane had received considerable at tention before Ms time. By revolving one plane into the other around this axis or ground-line. where surveying and drawing were taught.

The method was published by Monge himself in the same year. He gave the differential of curves of curvature. for that reason. deprived of all his honours by Louis XVIII. EULER. He introduced into analytic geometry the me thodic use of the equation of a line. first in the form in which the short hand writers took down his lessons given at the Normal School.After an ephemeral existence of only four months the Normal School was closed in 1795. and published them in 1795. The next edition occurred in 1798-1799. established a general theory of curvature. Mongers numerous papers were by no means confined to de scriptive geometry. 1805 . in the estab lishing of which Monge took active part. LAGRANGE. discovered the processes. Mxmge published the following books: Statics.". a hidden relation which threw new light upon both subjects. 287 done with. in the Journal des 6coles normdles. He found that the validity of solutions was not impaired when imaginaries are involved among subsidiary quantities. where he had been elected professor. Applica- . 1786 i Applications de I alg&bre a la g6om6trie. In the same year the Polytechnic School was opened. He taught there descriptive geometry until his departure from France to accom pany Napoleon on the Egyptian campaign. He made important contributions to surfaces of the second degree (previously studied by Wren and Euler) and discovered between the theory of surfaces and the integration of partial differential equations. the ruler and compass.His analytical discoveries are hardly less remarkable. in revised form. and then again. Monge was a zealous partisan of Napoleon and was. This and the destruction of the Polytechnic School preyed heavily upon his mind. but I am not allowed to reveal these secrets to you. AND LAPLACE. and applied it to the ellipsoid. He did not long survive this insult. But Lacroix set himself to examine what the secret could be. He was the first president of the Institute of Egypt.

as we have seen. professor in Karlsruhe. He entered the army. Lazare Nicholas Marguerite Carnot (1753-1823) was born at ISTolay inBurgundy. and he gathered around him a large circle of pupils. was transferred to Germany at the foundation of technical schools there. Schreiber.Dupin s theorem. Brianchion. was the first to spread Monge s geometry in Germany by the publication of a work thereon in 1828-1829. in which is introduced the conception of conjugate 55 tangents of a point of a surface.288 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Descriptive geometry. In 1822 he published his Traite de geometrie descriptive. Crozet wrote the first English work on the subject. which arose. tion de Vanalyse a la g6omtrie. Surfaces of the second degree and descriptive geometry were successfully studied by Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette (1769- 1834). the gigantic task of organising fourteen . for many years professor of mechanics in the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris. in 1793. containing the earliest proof that kinetic energy is lost in collisions of bodies. who became professor of descriptive geometry at the Polytechnic School after the departure of Monge for Rome and Egypt. Servois. G. in technical schools in France. Biot. puhlished in 1813 an important work on Developpements de gfometrie. and wrote in 1784 a work on machines. but continued his mathematical studies. Hachette. among which were Dupin. The last two contain most of his miscellaneous papers.". once a pupil at the Polytechnic School in 2 Paris. launched against France a million soldiers. It contains also the theorem known as ". With the advent of the Eevolution he threw himself into politics. Charles Bupin (1784-1873). 54 In the United States descriptive geometry was introduced in 1816 at the Military Academy in West Point by Claude Crozet. and when coalesced Europe. and of the indicatrix. and Poncelet. Monge was an inspiring teacher. and educated in his native province.

and in 1822 published the work in question. he began to study mathematics from its elements. entitled. Chasles. and reduced to the remembrance of what he had learned at the Lyceum at Metz and the Poly technic School. He died in Magdeburg. where he had studied with predilection the works of Monge. which have since been pushed to great extent by Poncelet. and others. 1803. a work still frequently quoted. His Geom6trie de position. the ". took part in the Eussian campaign. While in prison he did for mathematics what Bunyan did for literature. a native of Metz. was abandoned as dead on the bloody field of Krasnoi. which has remained of great value down to the present time. 289 armies to meet the enemy was achieved by him. On the restoration he was exiled. AKD LAPLACE. which. De prived there of all books. Reflexions sur la Metaphysique du Oalcul Infinitesimal. where he issued. and his Essay on Transversals.irrecon cilable enemy of kings. of to-day. produced a much-read work. Carnot. Jean Victor Poncelet (1788-1867). are important contributions to modern geometry. After the Eussian campaign he offered to fight for France. 1806.Traiti des Proprietes projectives des figures. He entered upon original researches which afterwards made him illustrious. however. is different from ". By his effort to explain s the meaning of the negative sign in geometry he established a geometry of position. and Brianchion. in 1797.Geometric der Lage". and taken prisoner to Saratoff.". The refugee went to Geneva. He invented a class of general theorems on projective properties of figures. though not for the empire. While Monge revelled mainly in three-dimensional geometry. LAGBANGE. He returned to Prance in 1814. He was banished in 1T96 for opposing Napoleon s coup d etat. He declared himself as an ". entitled. In it he investigated the properties of figures which remain un- .". Carnot confined himself to that of two. ETJLEB.

and succeeded the latter in the chair at Edinburgh. which on the Continent were ap proached analytically with greater success. Physical and Mathe matical. His genius was ill- directed by the fashion then prevalent in England to ignore higher analysis. and in 1763. and Lam bert. as with Monge. Pascal. Stewart extended some theorems on transversals due to Giovanni Ceva (1648-1737). Thus perspective projec tion. In his Four Tracts.". To him we owe the Law of Duality as a consequence of reciprocal polars. altered by projection of the figures. was elevated by him into a fruitful geometric method. 1761. The projection is not effected here by parallel rays of prescribed direction. but by central projection. efforts were made in England to revive Greek geometry by Robert Simson (1687-1768) and Matthew Stewart (1717-1785). As an independent principle due to G-ergonne. of which only five are accompanied by demonstrations. Newton. and Gergonne into a regular method the method of ". who published in 1678 at Mediolani a work con taining the theorem now known by his name. In the same way he elaborated some ideas of De Lahire. He published. his Propositions geo metries more veterum demonstrator. During the eighteenth century he and Maclaurin were the only promi nent mathematicians in Great Britain. It gives many interesting new results on the circle and the straight line. . Servois. General Theorems. Stewart was a pupil of Simson and Maclaurin. The former work con tains sixty-nine theorems.reciprocal polars. In 1838 the Faculty of Sciences was enlarged by Ms election to the chair of mechanics. in 1746. used before him by Desargues. an Italian.290 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. While in France the school of Monge was creating modern geometry. it is Poncelet wrote much on applied mechanics. he applied geometry to the solution of difficult astronomical problems.

Dirichlet. the achievements of 291 . Jacobi. the French and Swiss. RECENT TIMES. wood. as in no other science. Italy with Cremona Hungary with her two Bolyais . and hosts of more recent men .While epoch carried the torch of progress. J is not the right one I mean extent crowded witjj.". It is pleasant to the mathematician to think that in his. Eussia entered the arena with her Lobatchewsky. Germany awoke from her lethargy by bringing for ward G-auss. besides champions who are still living. with Benjamin Peirce. the United States . says Professor Cayley. been confined to one or two countries. Great Britain produced her De Morgan. modern writers has been enormous. have continued to develop mathematics with great success. The productiveness of 56 ". the vast extent of modern This word extent mathematics. rock. but which will bear to be rambled through and studied in every detail of hillside and valley. not an extent of mere uniformity such as an object less plain. ". Boolq. and flower. from other countries whole armies of enthusiastic workers have wheeled into the front rank. Hamilton. more zealously and successfully lias mathematics been cultivated than in this century. to give an idea of It is difficult. Nor has progress. stream. beautiful : detail. who alone during the preceding ". as in previous periods.but of a tract of beautiful country seen at first in the distance. Norway with Abel.".

new discoveries seldom disprove older tenets . for instance. it at present difficult to see how they are ever to become appli cable to questions of common life or physical science. we know neither the day nor the hour when these abstract developments will find application in the mechanic arts. 57 researches/ says Spottiswoode. has its use in astronomy.and general theorems in integration offer advantages in the study of electricity and magnetism. A in favour of the pursuit of advanced mathematics. The great characteristic of modern mathematics is its gln- eralising tendency. is this. or that the calculus of operations would have helped us in any way towards the figure of the earth ? second reason ". ". would have supposed that the calculus of forms or the theory of substitu tions would have thrown much light upon ordinary equations . or in other branches of mathematics. Nowadays little weight is given to iso lated theorems. or that Abelian functions and hyperelliptic transcendents would have told us anything about the properties of curves . Hamilton s principle of varying action". even when there is n^ promise of practical application.292 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. deserves cultivation for its own sake. ". the whole subject of graphical statics. seldom is anything lost or wasted. like meteorites detached from some . For example. except as affording hints of an unsuspected ".can in no case be discounted. was made to rest upon von Staudt s Geometrie der Lags. general inte grals. like poetry and music. complex quantities. If it be asked wherein the utility of some modern exten sions of mathematics must be acknowledged that it is lies. But our inability to do this should not be urged as an argument against the pursuit of such studies. or even imagined beforehand. new sphere of thought. svery age remai-i possessions forever . in physical science. that math ematics. Who. so useful to the practical engineer. The utility of such ". In the first place.

The development of the notion of continuity plays a leading part in modern research. of. no subject is considered in itself alone. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. and in the stimulating influence of the one upon the other. 293 undiscovered planetary orb of speculation. corollaries. and problems. porisms. or an outgrowth. Lagrange prided himself that in his Mecanique Ana- lytique he had succeeded in avoiding all figures but since his . In algebra the modern idea finds expression in the theory of linear transformations and invari ants. and the theory of projec tion constitute the fundamental modern notions. The conflict between geometry and analysis which arose near the close of the last century and the beginning of the present has now come to an end. and in the recognition of the value of homogeneity and symmetry. not in the suppression of either. itthen bore rich fruits at the hands of Mobius and Steiner in Germany. the idea of correspondence. The greatest strength is found to lie. as in all true sciences. but in the friendly rivalry between the two. In geometry the principle of con tinuity. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. but always as related to. and was finally developed to still . In mathematics. Synthetic geometry wa^ first cultivated by Monge. and Switzerland. Carnot. Neither side has come out victorious. It seemed to be the outgrowth of a desire for general^methods which should serve as threads of Ariadne to guide the student through the labyrinth of theo rems.". and Poncelet in France. Continuity asserts itself in a most striking way in relation to the circular points at infinity in a plane. Modern synthetic geometry was_created by several investi gators about the same time. time mechanics has received much help from geometry. other things.

and Cremona in Italy. the next year extraordinary professor of astronomy. Similarly for triangles and tetrahedra. . and in 1844 ordinary professor. B. The remark that it is always possible to give three points A 9 J3. His calculus is the beginning of a quadruple\lgebra. 1827. They appeared in Crelle s Journal. In Leipzig he became. /3. As the name indicates. is expressed by the equation (a + & + c + d) S = aA + IB + cO + dD. C 9 D respectively. b. d placed at the points A. This position he held till his death. privat-docent. such weights a. In desig nating segments of lines we find throughout this work for the firsttime consistency in the distinction of positive and nega tive by the order of letters AB. Mgher perfection by Chasles in France. He generalised spherical trigonometry by letting the sides or angles of tri angles exceed 180. Thus. and in his celebrated -work entitled Der BarycentriscJie Calcul. y that any fourth point M in their plane will become a centre of mass. for example.By this algorithm he found by algebra many geometric theorems expressing mainly invariantal properties. Augustus Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868) was a native of Schulpforta in Prussia. BA. The most important of his researches are on geometry. He studied at Gottingen under Gauss. in 1815. the theorems on the anharmonic relation.294 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. this calculus is based upon 58 properties of the centre of gravity. yon Staudt in Ger many. and that of a line by co-ordinates. led Mobius to a new system of co-ordinates in which the position of a point was indicated by an equation. and con tains the germs of Grassmann s marvellous system. also at Leipzig and Halle. c. Mobius wrote also on statics and astronomy. Leipzig. that the point S is the centre of gravity of weights a.

At eighteen he became a pupil of Pestalozzi. in 1826. Steiner and Abel became leading contributors.the greatest geometrician since 3 the time of Euclid/ was born in Utzendorf in the Canton of Bern.". 295 Jacob Steiner (1796-1863) . Berlin in 1834.like Fermat s theorems. the celebrated mathematical journal bearing his name. Steiner dis covered synthetically the two prominent properties of a sur face of the third order. riddles to the present and future generations. Not only did he fairly complete the theory of curves and surfaces of the second degree. but Cremona finally proved them all by a synthetic method. In an article in Orelle^s Journal on Allgemeine Eigenschaften Alge- braischer Curven he gives without proof theorems which were declared by Hesse to be ". that it contains twenty-seven straight lines and a pentahedron which has the double points for its vertices and the lines of tlie Hessian of the given sur- . In 1832 Steiner published his Systematische Entwickelung der AWiangigkeit geometrischer Qestalten von einander. In his Systematische Entwickelung en.". for the first time. ". which occurred after years of bad health. This book and von Staudt s lay the foundation on which synthetic geometry in its present form rests. In his hands synthetic geometry made prodigious progress. New discoveries followed each other so rapidly that he often did not take time to record their demonstrations. Later he studied at Heidelberg and* Berlin. When Orelle started. This position he occupied until his death. viz. is the principle of duality introduced at the outset. Hedid not -learn to write till he was fourteen. the chair of geometry was founded for him Li. Analytical proofs of some of them have been given since by others. but he made great advances in the theory of those of higher degrees. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. Through the influence of Jaeobi and others.in by which the most diverse phenomena (Erscheinungeri) in the world of space are united to each other. which is uncovered the organism ".

Schroter. 60 Steiner s researches are confined to synthetic geometry.- circles. Schellbach (1809-1892) and Cayley. in 1803. 55 The first property was discovered ana lytically somewhat England by Cayley and Salmon. August^ L. This problem was reduced to another. Steiner made investi gations by synthetic methods on maxima and minima. and by Clebsch with the aid of the addition. proposed the problem. Michel Chasles (1793-1880) was bom at Epernon. which he later gave up that he might devote all his time to scientific pursuits. now generally known 7 as Malfatti problem: to inscribe three circles in a triangle s that each circle will be tangent to two sides of a triangle and to the other two Malfatti gave an analytical solution. and arrived at the solution of problems which at that time alto gether surpassed the analytic power . If. H. face for its edges. engaged afterwards in business. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris in 1812. but Steiner gave without proof a construction. Steiner s Gesammelte WerTce were published in Berlin in 1881 and 1882. In 1841 he became professor of geodesy and mechanics at the Polytechnic School. Steiner s work on this subject was the starting-point of important researches by H. This general prob lem was solved analytically by C. and R. Sturm. and solved the analogous problem for three dimensions. remarked that there were thirty-two solutions. . theorem of elliptic functions. generalised the problem by replacing the three lines by three circles. He hated analysis as thoroughly as Lagrange disliked geometry. He generalised the Jiexagrammum mysticum and also MalfattPs problem.296 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. to cut three cylindrical holes out of a three-sided prism in such a way that the cylinders and the prism have the same altitude and that the volume of the cylinders be a maximum.of the calculus of varia tions. 59 Malfatti. Cremona. later. earlier in and -the second by Sylvester.

as an appendix. of the Kalkul der Abzahl- This enden Geometrie by Hermann Schubert of Hamburg.". the in a plane. for instance. then. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. He was a voluminous writer on geometrical sub jects. by his ". G. Halphen (1844-1889). in 1879. Numerous original memoirs of Chasles were pub lished later in the Journal de VEcole Polytechnique. work contains a masterly discussion of the problem of enumer ative geometry.". viz. H. to determine how many geometric figures of given definition satisfy a sufficient number of conditions. con et le taining a history of geometry and. The application of the principle A.in the Comptes rendus. H. number of intersections of two curves mined. a treatise ". Chasles introduced the term axih^^ corresponding to the German Doppelver- Mltniss and to Clifford s cross-ratio. .sur deux principes generaux de la Science. Brill. A. G. of articles in which he solves method and the principle of cor ". The Apergu historique is still a standard historical work. Chasles and Steiner elaborated independently the modern synthetic or projective geometry. that the five curves from which others can be projected are sym all metrical with respect to a centre. and others. The method of characteristics contains the basis of of enumerative geometry. ". H. different from Newton s in this. 297 Professeur de Geometric suprieure & la Faculte des Sciences de Paris. He gave a reduction of cubics. In 1864 he began the pub lication. The full value of these principles of Chasles was not brought out until the appearance. He deter respondence". of characteristics an immense number of problems. Schubert extended Ms enumerative geometry to n-dimensional 55 space. Schwarz. Zeu- correspondence was extended by Cayley. the appendix contains the general theory of Homography (Collineation) and The name duality is due to Joseph of duality (Reciprocity). In 1837 lie published Ms admirable Apergu historique sur Vorigine developpement des metliodes en geometric. Diaz Gergonne (1771-1859).

however. IT. Nurnberg. both on the real line through the point. 1847. and.Wurfe. Maximilien Marie. The author cut loose from algebraic formulae and from metrical relations. Eepresentation of an imaginary point is sought in the combination of an involution with a determi nate direction. and then created a geometry of position. and planes in pro jective geometry. von Staudt s method is intimately related to the problem of representing by actual points and lines the imaginaries of analytical geometry. at his death.was 1835. In his theory of what he calls ". H. lines. who worked. by synthetic geometry. His great works are the Geometric der Lage. Eemarkable is his complete solution. This was sys tematically undertaken by C. The labours of Chasles and Steiner raised synthetic geometry to an honoured and respected position by the side of analysis. in 1846. Karl Georg Christian von Staudt (1798-1867) was born in Eothenburg on the Tauber. An independent attempt lias been made recently (1893) by P. independent of all measure ments. This accomplished analytically by Poisson in ". To Chasles we owe the introduction into projective geometry of non-pro jective properties of figures by means of the infi 61 nitely distant imaginary sphere-circle. of the difficultquestion of the attraction of an ellipsoid on an exter nal point. While purely projective. particularly the anharmonic ratio of Steiner and Chasles.". which is a complete science in itself. 1856- 1860. The Beitrdge contains the first complete and general theory of imaginary points. was professor in Erlangen. and his Beitrdge zur Geometric der Lage. Loud of Colorado . He shows that projective properties of figures have no dependence whatever on measurements. on entirely different lines. and can be estab lished without any mention of them. he even gives a geometrical definition of a number in its relation to geometry as determining the posi tion of a point.298 A HISTOliY Olf MATHEMATICS.

Zurich. who rests his graphical statics upon the work of von Staudt. professor in the University of Borne. surfaces of the second order. Curtze. He deduces this relation without leaving the plane of the two figures. An interpreter of von Staudt was at last found in Theodor Eeye of Strassburg. 1864. The theory of the transformation of curves and of the corre spondence of points on curves was extended by him to three dimensions. no doubt. 62 Cul mann is the first to undertake to present the graphical calculus as a symmetrical whole. published an epoch-making work on Die grapMsche Statik. professor at the gymnasium in Thorn. Synthetic geometry has been studied with much success by Luigi Cremona. E. who wrote a Geometric der Lage in 1868. and the general theory of surfaces have received much attention at his hands.Before Culmann. professor at the Polytechnicum in Zurich. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. because Ms book is extremely condensed. and not of modern geometry. Karl Culmann. But if the polygons be regarded as pro jections of lines in space. space-curves of the third order. His writings have been translated into German by M. An impulse to the study of this subject was given by Culmann. He makes use of the polar theory of reciprocal figures as expressing the relation between the force and the funicular polygons. B. mainly. holding the same relation to the new geometry that analytical mechanics does to higher analysis. Gousinery had turned his attention to the graphical calculus. Kuled surfaces. these lines may be treated as recipro- . 299 College. In his Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica dette curve plane he developed by a uniform method many new results and proved synthetically all important results reached before that time by analysis. Yon Staudt s geometry of position was for a long time disregarded.which has rendered graphical statics a great rival of analytical statics. but he made use of perspective.

the two straight lines shall be parallel to one another. de la Gournerie) was soon studied also in other countries. Hachette. The theory of shades and shadows was first investigated by the French writers just quoted. and par ticularly Fiedler. 27) that if a straight ". by some ". La Statique grapliique. This was done by Clerk Maxwell in 1S64. Olivier. was issued by Maurice Levy of Paris.". in geometry the axioms have been searched to the bottom. During the present century very remarkable generalisations have been made. and in Germany treated most 62 exhaustively by Burmester. and the conclusion has been reached that the space defined by Euclid s axioms is not the only possible non- contradictory space. Schlessinger. 1874. In algebra the laws of operation have been ex tended. . and elaborated further by his successors. Pohlke. and elaborated further by Cremona. MoTir of Dresden to the elastic line for continuoiis spans. gives graphical solutions of problems on the maximum stresses in bridges under concen trated loads.". of the Eose Polytechnic Institute. Descriptive geometry (reduced to a science by Monge in France.".". Euclid proved (I. Nullsystem. The French directed their attention mainly to the theory of surfaces and their curvature the Germans . J. Henry T. Dupin. interwove projective and descriptive geome try. Being unable to prove that in every other case the two lines are not parallel. Bellavitis in Italy worked along the same line.* The graphical calculus has been applied by 0. and Swiss. elementary algebra and geometry. which reach to the very root of two of the oldest branches of mathematics. Eddy. he assumed this to be true in what is generally called the 12th axiom. with aid of what he calls ". line fallingon two other straight lines make the alternate angles equal to one another.300 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.reaction polygons. A standard work. cal elements of a ". through Schreiber.

". 301 But this so-called axiom is far from axiomatic. Kussia. While Legendre still endeavoured to establish the axiom by rigid proof. that through a point an indefinite number of lines can be drawn in a plane. and which was the first of a series of articles destined to clear up obscurities in the fundamental concepts. none of which cut a given line in the same plane. the work remained unknown to foreigners. and then in the Gelelirte Schriften der Universitdt Jasan. under the Tew Elements title.imaginary geometry. Transylvania. with a complete theory of Parallels.". and to greatly extend the field of geometry. Being in the Baissian language. and from 1827 to 1846 was professor and rector of the University of Kasan. in Mschni-lSFowgorod. In 1840 he published a brief statement of his researches in Berlin. studied at Kasan. After centuries of desperate but fruitless attempts to prove Euclid s assumption. ". but even at home it attracted no notice. Mcholaus Ivanovitch Lobatchewsky (1793-1856) was born at Makarief.". SYNTHETIC GEOMETBY. he went to .quite simple. which has been described by Clifford as ". Wolfgang Bolyai de Bolya (1775-1856) was born in Szekler- Land. After studying at Jena. the bold idea dawned upon the minds of several mathematicians that a geometry might be built up without assuming the parallel-axiom.". A similar system of geometry was deduced independently by the Bolyais in Hungary. and first printed in the Kasan Messenger for 1829. 1836-1838. of Geometry.absolute geometry. A remarkable part of this geometry is this. Lobatchewsky constructed an ". Lobatchewsky brought out a publication which assumed the contradictory of that axiom. as he called it. His views on the foundation of geometry were first made public in a discourse before the physical and mathe matical faculty at Kasan. merely Euclid without the vicious assumption. who called it ".

in memory of the three apples the two of Eve and Paris. Clad in old-time planter s garb. introducendi. where for forty-seven years he had for his pupils most of the present professors of Transylvania. remained in almost entire oblivion. No monument. entitled Tentamen juventutem studiosam in elementa matJieseos puree . which made hell out . 64 His son. in 1867. only an apple-tree. . as also Lobatchewsky s researches. Gauss used to say that Bolyai was the only man who fully understood his views on the metaphysics of mathematics. Its twenty-six pages make the name Johann Bolyai immortal. The chief mathematical work of Wolfgang Bolyai appeared in two volumes. and that of Newton. . where lie became intimate with. then nine teen years old. Bolyai became professor at the Reformed Col lege of Maros-V^sarhely. which elevated the earth again into the circle of heavenly bodies. said he. and distinguished himself as a profound mathematician. He published nothing else. he was truly mode of thinking. Gottingen. should stand over his grave. called attention to the wonderful researches. and he vanquished them all. was educated for the army. an impassioned violin- player. The first publications of this remarkable genius were dramas and poetry. Gauss. He once accepted the challenge of thirteen officers on condition that after each duel he might play a piece on his violin. 1832-1833. It is followed by an appendix composed by his son Johann on The Science Absolute of /Space. Johann Bolyai s Science Absolute of . of earth. original in his private life as well as in his He was extremely modest. of but he left behind one thousand pages of manuscript which have never been read by a competent mathematician His ! father seems to have been the only person in Hungary who really appreciated the merits of his son s work. Finally Eichard Baltzer of the University of Giessen.302 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. For thirty- five years this appendix. and an expert fencer. Johann Bolyai (1802-1860).

Halsted has pointed out that in 1766 Lambert wrote a paper Zur Theorie der Parallel- ". 303 Space and Geometrical Researches on the Lobatchewsky s Theory of Parallels (1840) were rendered easily accessible to American readers by translations into English made in 1891 by George Bruce Halsted of the University of Texas. (2) In order to make intuitive &. a Jesuit father of Milan. copy of A the Tentamen reached Gauss. still firmer. there is an absolute measure (Bolyai s natural unit for length).". (3) In a space with the angle-sum differing from 2 right angles. G. within the next thirty years he arrived at the conclusion reached by Lobatchewsky and Bolyai.". space has also a reality beyond our mind of which we cannot fully foreordain the laws a priori. The term non- Euclidean geometry is due to Gauss. stating that his ". in 1733 anticipated Lobatchewsky s doctrine of the parallel angle. In 1829 he wrote to Bessel.conviction that we cannot found geometry completely a priori has become. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. . B. the elder Bolyai s former room mate at Gottingen. if possible. of an ". and this Nestor of German mathematicians was surprised to discover in it worked out what he himself had begun long before. Moreover. It has recently been brought to notice that Geronimo Saccheri.if mind. As early as 1792 he had started on researches of that character. The Kussian and Hungarian mathematicians were not the only ones to whom pangeometry suggested itself. only to leave it after him in his papers.gt. published in the Leipziger Magazin fur reine und angewandte MathematiJc.lt.".imaginary sphere". His letters show that in 1799 he was trying to prove a priori the reality of Euclid s system but some time . (pseudo-sphere). 1786. linien. and that number is merely a product of our ". a geometry with angle-sum 2 right angles we need the aid &. in which: (1) The failure of the parallel-axiom in surface-spherics gives a geometry with angle-sum 2 right angles .

in 1835. He taught us to distinguish between unboundedness . In 1854. Some writers Bellavitis. and now professor at Borne. on the assumption that every line may be measured by every other. Italy. Biernann applied his ideas to space. This period marks the beginning of lively discussions upon this sub ject. Eugenio Beltrami.e. Helmholtz popularised the subject in lectures.? and ". and H. or diseased outgrowths of mathe matics..". welche der Geometrie m Grunde liegen. Grassmann. Euclidean space. like several other papers. at least to high degree of approximation. when it appeared in the Gfottingen AbJiandlungen. that our physical space is. and in articles for various magazines.infinite extent. Plucker. and contained many of the ideas of Biemann. These contributed pow erfully to the victory of logic over excessive empiricism. if not exactly. for example were able to see in non-Euclidean geometry and n-dimensional space noth ing but huge caricatures. 1868. nearly twenty years later. which is analytical (and. born at Cremona. According ". others were published from the pens of HelmJioltz and Beltrami.were we to adhere to a strict separation between synthesis and analysis). i. About the same time with Biemann s paper. G-auss heard from his dissertation carrying the dis pupil. di Matem. wrote the classical paper Saggio di inter- pretazione della geometria non-eudidea (Giorn. Helmholtz s article was entitled Tliatsacken. a marvellous cussion one step further by developing the notion of n-ply extended magnitude. Before this the idea n dimensions had suggested itself under various of aspects to Lagrange.304 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. should be mentioned elsewhere ". He reached the brilliant . Riemann. 6). a notion of non-Euclidean space but we learn by experience . Biemann s pro found dissertation was not published until 1867. and the measure-relations of which a manifoldness of n dimensions is capable. to him we have in our mind a more general notion of space.

Beltramiresearches on non-Euclidean geometry were fol ? s of Felix Klein. educated at Trinity College. and The an incomplete work on the Elements of Dynamic. William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879) was born at Exeter. Veronese of Padua. London. the spherical on a surface of constant positive cur vature. Helinholtz. He studied. the non-Euclidean on a surface of constant negative curvature. was an introduction to the study of n-dimensional space in a direction mainly projective. These researches of Beltrami. and Eiemann culminated in the conclusion that on surfaces of constant curvature we may have three geome tries. a geometrical trinity. Bertini. on Biguaternions. surfaces was generalised by theory of polars of curves and him and by Eeye. Del Pezzo of Naples. His classification of loci. 305 and surprising conclnsion that the theorems of non-Euclidean geometry rind their realisation upon surfaces of constant nega tive curvature. also. C. and the Euclidean geometry on a surface of zero curva ture. He wrote articles On the Canonical Form and Dissection of a Riemann s Surface. E. 1878. lowed. and ended with the interesting theorem that the space of constant positive curvature is contained in the space of constant negative curvature. F. being a general study of curves. Among these are his paper On Classification of Loci and his Theory of Graphs. This study has been continued since chiefly by G. surfaces of constant positive curvature. The three geometries do not contradict each other. Segreof Turin. SYNTHETIC GBOMETEY. The ideas of hyper-space were brilliantly expounded and popularised in England by Clifford. by important investigations . His premature death left incomplete several brilliant researches which he had entered upon. but are members of a system. and from 1871 until his death professor of applied mathematics in University Col lege. P. in 1871. Cambridge. Aschieri.

resting upon Cayley s Sixth Memoir on Quantics. Stringham gave pictures of projections upon our space of regular solids in four dimensions. named by him respectively the elliptic. parabolic. Davis ". H. A. E. Lipschitz of Bonn. Schering of Gottingen. Aschieri. Euclidean. Craig of the Johns Hopkins. Laguerre (1834-1886) of Paris. E. Schlafli of Bern. Stahl of Tubingen. A. and pseudospherical geometries. Hoppe of Berlin. F. F. E.306 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Killing of Minister. I. L. among whom may be mentioned Simon Newcomb of the Johns Hopkins University. and hyperbolic geometries. These are . Battaglini of Naples. R. d? Ovidio of Turin. and by properly choosing the law of the measurement of distance deduced from projective geometry the spherical. A. W. Cayley. Lindemann of Munich. 55 The geometry of n dimen sions was studied along a line mainly metrical by a host of writers. and others. T. Homersham Cox. particularly by G. Ellery W. Enlarging upon this notion. and E. and Schlegel at Hagen constructed models of such projections. W. W. E. Klein showed the inde pendence of projective geometry from the parallel-axiom. The question whether not possible to so express the metrical it is properties of figures that they will not vary by projection (or linear transformation) had been solved for special projections by Chasles. Poncelet. of the University of Nebraska. Eegular solids in n-dimen- sional space were studied by Stringham. Heath and Killing investigated the kinematics and mechanics of such a space. de Paolis of Pisa. Story of Clark University. E. Buchheim. S. Stringham of the University of California. 1859. This sug gestive investigation was followed up by numerous writers. Yoss of Wiirzburg. but it remained for Cayley to give a general solution by denn ing the distance between two points as an arbitrary constant ratio in which multiplied by the logarithm of the anharmonic the line joining the two points is divided by the fundamental quadric.

Klein pointed out that knots could not be tied 5 Veronese showed that a body could be removed from a closed room without breaking the walls C. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY.". Thus INewcomb showed the possibility of turning a closed material shell inside out by sim ple flexure without either stretching or tearing . Berlin. Modern synthetic and modern analytical geome try have much in common. After studying at Bonn. In the preceding chapter we endeavoured to give a flash light view of the rapid advance of synthetic geometry. While in Germany Steiner and von Staudt developed synthetic geome try. he spent a short time in Paris attending lectures of Monge and his pupils. Julius Pliicker (1801-1868) was born at Elberfeld. Brill in Darmstadt.protective geometry. Each has advantages over the other. and may be grouped together under the common name ". Pliicker laid the foundation ofmodern analytic geometry. and thereby aid original research. in Prus sia. Between 1826 and 1836 he held positions successively at Bonn. either rotates about two axes at once. and Heidelberg. but the latter has the advantage in this. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. Peirce proved that a body in four-fold space . It has been pointed out that if a fourth dimension existed. that a well-established routine in a certain degree may outrun thought itself. and Halle. S. 307 among the most curious of a series of models published by L. The continual direct viewing of figures as existing in space adds exceptional charm to the study of the former. certain motions could take place which we hold to be impossible. In connection with hyperspace we also mentioned analytical treatises. Berlin. or cannot rotate without losing one of its dimensions. He then became professor of .

the comparison in the entire subject of modern geometry. But in Germany Plucker s researches met with no favour.Poncelet s paradox. This induced him to relin- .".". by which he was able to explain ". In the second volume the principle of duality is formulated analyti cally. 308 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The System der Analytischen Geometrie. he was no physicist. con tains a complete classification of plane curves of the third order. as ". . and avoided the tedious process of algebraic elimination by a geometric consideration. The Theorie der Algebraischen Curven. In 1828 and in 1831 he published his Anatytisch- GeometriscJie Untersuchungen in two volumes. 1835. Therein he adopted the abbreviated notation (used before in a more Mm restricted way by Bobillier). most important one beyond all ". physics at Bonn. 1839. The result was that many of Plucker s researches were published in foreign jour nals. says Cayley. Until 1846 his original researches were on geometry. based on the nature of the points at infinity.Plucker s equations. Steiner once declared that he would stop writing for Crelle s Journal if 66 Pliicker continued to contribute to it. His method was declared to be unproductive as compared with the synthetic method of Steiner and Poncelet! His rela tions with Jacobi were not altogether friendly. contains.and that his work came to be better known in France and England than in his native country.". The discovery of these rela tionsis. With him duality and homogeneity found expression already in his system of co-ordinates. In the identity of analytical operation and geometric construction Pliicker looked for the source of Ms proofs. The charge was also brought against Plucker that. besides an enumeration of curves of the fourth order. though occupying the chair of physics. the analytic rela tions between the ordinary singularities of plane curves known. The homogenous or tri-linear system used by him is much the same as the co-or dinates of Mobius.

with a twofold relation. nevertheless. one has the whole system of lines in space. Neumann. The theory of complexes of the second degree. and for nearly twenty years to devote Ms energies to physics. relation. Among were Durege. Jacobi. first researches on this subject were laid before the Eoyal Society in 1865. and F. he became decent his pupils at that time extraordinary professor there. Eegarding a right line as a curve involving four arbitrary parameters. But towards the close of his life he returned to his first love. His ". considering space as made up of lines he created By a ". ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. was continued by Felix Klein. and in 1845 degree in 1840. the doctor s Jacobi. so that many investigations already received more general treatment on the part of others. The Konigs for Hesse. Having taken at Konigsberg. Important discoveries on Fresnel s wave-surface. ". who the ideas of his master. much that was fresh and original. and studied at the university of his native place under Bessel. left unfinished by Plucker. and Clebsch. magnetism. Clebsch. spectrum-analysis were made by Mm. Hesse. and enriched it with new discov eries. greatly extended and supplemented Ludwig Otto Hesse (1811-1874) was born at Konigsberg. mathematics.Eichelot. Carl Neumann. 309 quish mathematics.". By connecting them by a single he got a complex of lines by connecting them ". . For many years he had not kept up with the progress of in his last work had geometry. discovery increased his zeal His earliest researches were on surfaces of the second order. edited by Felix Klein. His further investigations thereon appeared in 1868 in a posthumous work entitled Neue Geometric des Maumes gegrundet auf die Betrachtung der geraden Linie als Eaumelement. Every new berg period was one of great activity for still greater achievement. ". Kirchhoff. . The work contained. he got a congruency of lines. Pliicker s analysis lacks the elegance found in Lagrange. new geometry of space.

By linear substitutions. however. called the ". a subject first studied by Cayley. The analogous problem for a conic had been solved by Pascal by means of the hexagram. Pliicker had seen that the main advantage of his special method in analytic geometry lay in the avoidance of algebraic elimina tion. These advances in algebra Hesse applied to the analytic study of curves of the third order. Hesse showed that his determinant gives for every curve another curve. and in 1856 one at Heidelberg.Hessian.310 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. when he accepted a position at a technic school in Munich. In 1855 he accepted a more lucrative position at Halle.". and was led to an important determinant involving the second differential coeffi cient of a form of the third degree. He solved the problem to construct any tenth point of such a surface when nine points are given. showed how by determinants to make algebraic elimination easy. plays a leading part in the theory of invari ants. Here he remained until 1868. such that the double points of the first are points on the second. Hesse s income at Konigsberg had not kept pace with his growing reputation. Similarly for surfaces (Crelle. Many of the most important theorems on curves of the third order are due to Hesse. Hessian ". In his earlier results he was anticipated by Sylvester. and were partly synthetic. or ". 55 The ". 1855) was published at the same time as was a paper by Steiner treating of the same subject. Hesse. A difficult problem confronting mathematicians of this time was that of elimination. which passes through the 56 points of contact of the 28 bi- tangents of a curve of the fourth order. 67 At Heidelberg he revised and enlarged upon his . He determined the curve of the 14th order. 1844). who published his dialytic method of elimination in 1840.Hessian. he reduced aform of the third degree in three variables to one of only four terms. His great memoir on this subject (Crelle. Hardly was he able to support himself and family.

and published in 1861 Ms Vorlesungen uber die Analytiscke Geometrie des Itaumes. Cayley and Salmon in 1849 determined the straight lines in a cubic surface. lead to the conclusion that each higher sin gularity of a curve is equivalent to a certain number of simple singularities. the ordinary cusp. insbesondere uber Flclclien 2. and James MacCullagh (1809-1846). H. Salmon. point in a plane pair of points in a line. Halphen (1844-1889) of the of Paris. Cayley extended Plueker s equations to curves of higher singularities. who was professor of natural philos ophy at Dublin. the double tangent. It may be premised here that among theearly writers on analytical geometry in England was James Booth (1806-1878). More elementary works soon followed. . and Salmon nearly five years earlier. G. De La Gournerie Brill of Tubingen. there corresponds to every gungsprincip. The researches of Plucker and Hesse were continued in Eng- land by Cay ley. Polytechnic School in Paris. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. While in Heidelberg he elaborated a principle. and made some valuable discoveries on the theory of quadrics. 311 previous researches. while Sylvester in 1851 discovered the pentahedron of such a surface. and Sylvester.. whose chief results are embodied in his Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods. Ordnung. A. Nother of Erlangen. In further illustra tion of this. the node. Sylvester. and studied its principal properties. his ". Uebertra- According to this.". we mention that Chasles in France elaborated subjectswhich had previously been disposed of by Steiner in Germany. and the projective a geometry of the plane can be carried back to the geometry of points in a line. The influence of these men on the progress of geometry was insignificant. for the interchange of scientific results between different nations was not so complete at that time as might have been desired. and Steiner published researches which had been given by Cayley. Cayley s own investigations. and those of M.

which have been placed within easy reach of German readers by a free translation. where he worked in conjunction with Paul Gordan (now of Erlangen). Higher Plane Curves. Modern Higher Algebra. inflection. : the calculus of variations and partial differential equations of the first order. Abelian functions and their use in geometry.312 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Flachenabbildung. made systematic use of (Geschlecht) as a funda ". mental principle in the classification of algebraic curves. At the beginning of his career. the theory of invariants. Not only did he apply Abelian . F. Clebsch had shown how elliptic functions could be advantageously applied to Malfatti s problem. He worked successively at the following subjects Mathematical physics. studied at the university of that place under Hesse. He proved theorems on the pentahedron enunciated by Sylvester and Steiner he .deficiency". the general theory of curves and surfaces. of higher transcendentals in the study of geometry.". made by Wilhelm Fiedler of the Polytechnicurn in Zurich. The study of Salmon s works led him into algebra and geometry. Kichelot. and remained there until his death. a curve of the fourth order. Rudolf Friedrich Alfred Clebsch (1833-1872) was born at Konigsberg in Prussia. and the Sylvester studied the twisted Cartesian. Geometry of Three Dimensions). and ".". In 1863 he accepted a position at the University of Giesen. In 1868 Clebsch went to Gottingen. Salmon helped powerfully towards the spreading of a knowledge of the new algebraic and geometric methods by the publication of an excellent series of text-books (Conic Sections. the use therein. From 1858 to 1863 he held the chair of theoretical mechanics at the Polytechnicum in Carlsruhe. with additions. ". Neumann. The notion of deficiency was known before him to Abel and Eie- mann. The idea involved viz. led him to his greatest discoveries. The next great worker in the field of analytic geometry was Clebsch.

Felix Klein. Korndorfer. Other surfaces have been studied in the same way by recent writers. H. John Casey of Dublin (died 1891). Mother of Erlangen. 1) correspondence upon This and the analogous question for curves was studied by have been Clebsch. The repre sentation of a sphere on a plane is an old problem which drew the attention of Ptolemaeus. A fundamental question which has as yet received only a partial answer is this What surfaces can be : a given surface ? represented by a (1. Jean Gaston Darboux of Paris. Caporali. thus represented on a plane the that of geometry of quadrie surfaces Clebsch and Cremona. 1) correspondence. another with a view of more easily arriving at its properties. Chasles. but his solution was given in inconvenient form. pro fessor at the Sorbonne in Paris. Armenante. H. Its importance in the construction of maps is Gauss was the first to represent a surface upon obvious. Zeuthen of Copenhagen. Cayley. Clebsch s investigation thereon is a most beautiful piece of analysis. W. Plucker. Clebsch made liberal use of determinants. Scliroter (1829-1892) . . Lambert. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. Gauss. thoroughly studied for the first time by Clebsch. Surfaces of the lin. Gerard Mercator. W. cubic surfaces. 313 functions to geometry. G. His study of curves and surfaces began with the determination of the points of contact of lines which meet a surface in four consecutive points. Higher correspondences between surfaces investigated by Cayley and ISTother. The theory of surfaces has been studied also by Joseph Alfred Serret (1819-1885). Salmon had proved that these points lie on the inter section of the surface with a derived surface of the degree H w _24. but conversely. Lagrange. so that they have a (1. particularly M. Roberts of Dub of Breslau. R. he drew geometry into the service of Abelian functions. representation of one surface upon another (Fldchenab- The was bildung).

Gauss s measure of curvature. is a particular case of Kummer s quartic surface. professor in Greifswald). Euler. was answered by F. Then followed the researches of Monge and Dupin. with sixteen canonical points and sixteen singular tangent planes. the measure of curva ture remains unaltered at each point. The question whether two surfaces having the same curvature in corresponding points can be unwound. that the arithmetical mean of the radii of curvature of all normal sections through a point is the radius of a sphere which has the same measure of curvature as has the surface at that point. The case of variable curvature is difficult. J. and Meunier (1754-1793) of Paris. but they were eclipsed by the work of Gauss. fourth. Ossian Bonnet of Paris (died 1892).Minding in the affirmative only when the curvature is constant. and was studied by Minding. Liouville (1806-1882) of the Poly technic School in Paris. and EresnePs wave-surface. one upon the other. 69 Gauss obtained an interesting theorem that if one surface be developed (abgewickelt) upon another. order were investigated by Kummer. Gauss s deduction of the formula of curvature was simplified through the use of deter minants by Heinrich Ricliard Baltzer (1818-1887) of Giessen. His treat ment is embodied in the Disquisitiones generales circa super ficies curvas (1827) and Vhtersuchungen uber gegenstdnde der Jidheren Geodasie of 1843 and 1846. studied by Hamilton. From this flows the theorem of Johann August Grunert (1797-1872 . 56 The infinitesimal calculus was first applied to the determi nation of the measure of curvature of surfaces by Lagrange.314 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. gave an impetus to the study of differ- . who disposed of this difficult subject in a way that opened new vistas to geometricians. He defined the measure of curvature at a point to be the reciprocal of the product of the two principal radii of curvature at that point. expressed a$ a function of cur vilinear co-ordinates.

Lie. F.analysis situs. Sir James Cockle.topo- logic Tait was led to the study of knots by Sir studies. In continuation of his work. The subject was first investigated by Leibniz. and was later treated by Gauss. edited by Ferdinand Lindemann. William. E. now of Munich Frost s . Dingeldey. 0. Durege s Ebene Ourven dritter Ordnung. S. Solid Geometry. and elaborated into a general theory by Beltrami. the growth of the theory of equations. Gregory in connection with the fundamental laws of algebra. or differential-parameters. ALGEBRA. Listing. . Of geometrical text-books not yet mentioned. Thomson s theory of vortex atoms. which have been investigated by Jaeobi. and others in their ".Walter Dyck of Munich wrote on the analysis situs of three-dimensional spaces. ". reference should be made to Alfred Clebsch Vorlesungen uber Geome- s trie. Neumann. Beltrami showed also the connection between the measure of curvature and the geometric axioms. Much was done in this line by De Morgan. and the development of what is called modern higher algebra. ALGEBBA.". We have already spoken of George Peacock and D. and others. In the hands of Eiemann the analysis situs had for its object the deter mination of what remains unchanged under transformations brought about by a combination of infinitesimal distortions. Halphen. 315 ential-invariants. The progress of algebra in recent times may be considered under three principal heads the study of fundamental laws : and the birth of new algebras. C. whose theory of knots (VerschUngungen) has been employed recently by J. Various researches have been brought under the head of ".". Simony. B.

and taught there until 1867. He felt keenly the lack of close reasoning in mathematics as he received it. The authorship of ". No subject was too insignificant to receive Ms attention.316 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the logical sect puts out the mathematical eye. he wrote a Formal Logic as well as a Double Algebra^ and corresponded both with Sir William Hamilton. Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) was bom at Madura (Ma dras). and studied the logical analysis of the laws. manly character.Cocker s Arithmetic". degree. Cambridge. the metaphysician. and contains much that is original with the author. and educated at Trinity College. from 1831-1835. is still a standard work. For the Encyclopaedia Metropolitans he wrote on the calculus of functions (giving principles of symbolic reasoning) . and pre-eminent as a teacher. His scru ples about the doctrines of the established church prevented him from. We know that mathematicians care no more for logic than logicians for mathematics. De Morgan saw with both eyes. He said once : ".A. The two eyes of exact science are mathematics and logic : the mathematical sect puts out the logical eye. and from sitting for a fellowship. proceeding to the M. He analysed logic mathematically. In 1828 he became professor at the newly established University of London. and the work of circle-squarers was investigated as minutely as was the history of the invention of the calculus. Numerous arti cles of his lie scattered in the volumes of the Penny and Eng lish Cydopcedias. and operations of mathematics . each believing that can see better with one eye than with it two. and Sir William Rowan Hamilton. De Morgan was a unique. 1842. the mathematician.". symbols. Few contemporaries were as profoundly read in the history of mathematics as was De Morgan. The value of his original work lies not so much in increasing our stock of mathematical knowledge as in putting it all upon a thoroughly logical basis. except for five years. His Differential Calculus.

we have seen the negative and the imagi nary. The first to give it a geomet the ric picture.?) of Geneva. The ideas of Peacock and Be Morgan recognise the possibility of algebras which differ from ordinary algebra. Phil Soc. and construed 1 as V the mean proportional between 1 and + 1. and it down the last opposition to the imaginary. 70 The writings of Kuhn and remained for Gauss to break Argand were little noticed. but the latter was still regarded as an algebraic fiction. accepted as numbers. number. and equal to a in length. geometry. and 1847). During the times of Descartes. The notion of required a visual representation what we now call vectors was growing upon mathematicians.". 1844. He published memoirs On the Foundation ". This same idea was developed further. interpretation of imaginaries. analogous to the geometric interpretation of negative. who wrote a System der Mathematik in 1822. In Germany symbolical algebra was studied by Martin Ohm. 1842. (Trans. in a remarkable Essai (1806) . so as to give a geometric interpretation of a-f V^. . like non-Euclidean of them were slow in finding recognition. Kuhn. ". Bellavitis s. He represented aV^l by a line perpendicular to the line a. He introduced i as an independent unit co-ordinate to 1. 817 and on the theory of probability. of Algebra". and a as a complex + ft&. was H. aid in the further study of symbolic algebra. The mind to aid it. Newton. Such algebras were indeed not slow in forthcoming. and Euler. but Hamilton s quaternions met with immediate These algebras offer a geometrical appreciation in England. some This is true of Grassmann s. The connection between complex numbers and constituted a powerful points on a plane. Celebrated is his Budget of Paradoxes. but. in a publication of 1750-1751.gt.. of Gam. a teacher in Danzig. 1872. by Jean-Robert Argand (1768. ALGEBRA. V 1. and Peirce s dis coveries. though artificial. 1841.

but rather as the science of order of progression. carried on at home. the calculus. Then followed papers on the Prin ciple of Varying Action (1827) and a general method of dynamics (1834-1835). Laplace s Mecanique Celeste. After reading that. Dublin. At the age of thirteen he is said to have been familiar with as many languages as he had lived years. The capital discovery of Hamilton is his quaternions. Hence his defini tion of algebra as science of pure time. His early papers were on optics.". About this time he caine across a copy of Newton s Universal Arithmetic. He regarded algebra as being no mere ". nor language. At last. about the same time. he was appointed to the chair of astronomy.the It was the subject of years meditation for him to determine what he should regard as the product of each pair of a system of per pendicular directed lines. on the 16th of October. and others. G-rassmann.318 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. . In 1832 he predicted conical refraction. he took up succes sively analytical geometry. the numerical solution of differential equations. In 1835 he published in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy his Theory of Algebraic Couples. in which his study of algebra culminated. He wrote also on the solution of equations of the fifth degree. was mainly in languages. a discovery by aid of mathe matics which ranks with the discovery of Neptune by Le Yerrier and Adams. nor primarily a science of quantity. while he was still an undergraduate. His early education. At the age of eighteen he published a paper correcting a mistake in Laplace s work. In 1824 he entered Trinity College.". William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865) was born of Scotch parents in Dublin. art. Newton s Principia. and in 1827. the hodograph. Time appeared to him as the picture of such a progression. fluctuating functions. and tlie geometric addition of vectors in space was discovered independently by Hamilton. ".

But there has been little progress in recent years. and Tait advanced the subject somewhat by original contributions. a month later. Quaternions were greatly admired in England from the start. and he then engraved with his knife on a stone in Brougham Bridge the fundamental formula i =/ = If = ijJc = 2 1. 319 1843. An account of the discovery was given the following year in the Philosophical Magazine. delivered in Dublin. At the general meeting of the Irish Academy. nor has the application of quaternions to physics been as extended as was predicted. Cay ley. of two Each gives a definition of his own for the product vectors. ALGEBRA. Hamilton displayed wonderful fer tility in their development. In order to meet more adequately their wants. His Lectures on Quaternions. the discovery of quaternions flashed upon him. G. His Elements of Quaternions appeared in 1866. P. Tait s Elementary Treatise helped powerfully to spread a knowledge of them in England. were printed in 1852. The change in notation made in France by Houel and by Laisant has been considered in England as a wrong step. J. while walking witii Ms wife one evening. except that made by Sylvester in tjjp solution of quaternion equations. but in such a way that the square of a vector is positive. . Clifford. A third system of vector analysis has been used by Oliver Heaviside in his electrical researches. but the true cause for the lack of progress is perhaps more deep-seated. but on the Continent they received less attenttion. have each suggested an algebra of vectors with a new notation. along the Koyal Canal in Dublin. Wl Gfibbs of Yale Uni versity and A. Macfarlane of the University of Texas. There is indeed great doubt as to whether the quaternionic product can claim a necessary and fundamental place in a system of vector analysis. Physicists claim that there is a loss of naturalness in taking the square of a vector to be negative. he made the first communication on quaternions.

attended a gymnasium at Ms native place (where his father was teacher of mathematics and physics) . but complained of the strange terminology and its ".320 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. had it been published in China. and becoming thor oughly convinced of the importance of his new analysis. and of religion in a school there. the sciences.Baumlehre". An article in Crelle s Journal. It now became his ambition to secure a mathematical chair at a university. who had written two books on ". decided to devote himself to it. and out of fashion in its mode of exposition. Bretschneider of Gotha was said to be the only man who had read it through. Hermann Grassmann (1809-1877) was bora at Stettin.". but a new book of Schleiermacher drew him again to theology. But now he made his acquaintance with the works of Lacroix. and so general. and Laplace. but in this he never succeeded. In 1840 he had made consic|jrable progress in its development. In 1844 appeared his great classical work. 71 Up to this time his knowledge of mathematics was pretty much confined to what he had learned from his father. philosophische Allgemeinheit. but returned to Stettin in 1836 to assume the duties of teacher of mathematics. In 1834 he succeeded Steiner as teacher of mathematics in an industrial school in Berlin. and Mobius glanced over it.". Eight years afterwards. the Lineale Ausdehnungslelire. and Grossenlehre. which was full of new and strange matter. praised it. Lagrange. In 1842 he resumed mathematical research. in which Grassmann eclipsed the geometers of that . ". Gauss. that it could hardly have had less influence on European mathematics during its first twenty years. Grunert. and to apply it in the study of tides. abstract. and he proceeded to elaborate this abridged method. He was thus led to a new geometric analysis. He noticed that Laplace s results could be reached in a shorter way by some new ideas advanced in his father s books. and stndied theology in Berlin for three years.

to polities. to Schleiermacher s pMlosophy. 321 time by constructing. infinite series. and resembling Mobius s Barycentrische Calculj in which the point is the fundamental element. articles by him continued to appear in Crelle s Journal. while with Grassmann we find in addition to the algebra of vectors a geometrical algebra of wide application. Peirce gave a representation of Grassmann s system in the logical notation. The last we now call ". S.". with heavy heart. a matrix. gave up mathematics.inter nal product. and which vie in splendour with those in mathematics. aid of Ms method. C. W. .external product. and the differential and integral calculus. and in 1862 came out the second part of Ms Ausdehnungslehre. Only in recent years has the wonderful richness of his discoveriesbegun to be appreciated. and the open product. the function of two vectors represented in qua ternions by Saft and Fa/3. remained again unnoticed. having no limitation to any particular number of dimen sions. this wonderful man. and directed his energies to the study of Sans krit. Hyde of the University of Cin cinnati wrote the first text-book on Grassmann s calculus in the English language. ALGEBRA.". A second edition of the Ausdehnungslehre of 1844 was printed in 1877. The quaternion is peculiar to Hamilton. Need we mar vel if G-rassinann turned Ms attention to other subjects. geometrically any algebraic curve. At the age of fifty-three.". His Ausdehnungslehre has very great extension. and the linear vector functions. But the second part was no more appreciated than the first. Grass mann developed the idea of the ". and E. but by treating also of algebraic functions. by considering not only geo metric applications. the ". achieving in philology results which were better appreci ated. Common to the Ausdehnungslehre and to quaternions are geo metric addition. with. It was intended to show better than the first part the broad scope of the Ausdehnungslehre. to philology ? Still.

and were applied by the author to the theory of elimination in the same way as had been done earlier by Grassmann. was a self-taught mathematician of much power. who published in 1867 his Vorlesungen uber die Complexen Zahlen. and behind an unfinished work thereon. then decent in Leipzig. which in part covered those of Grassmann and Hamilton. as are those of Hamilton and Grass- . by Cauchy.alternate numbers".Venant (1797- 1886). of Hankel are sub ject to his law of combinatorial multiplication. Schlegel was at one time a young colleague of Grass- maun at the Marienstifts-Gyrrmasiuin in Stettin. were made by Saint. 65 Bassano. Multiple algebra was powerfully advanced by Peirce. for many years professor at Padua. Hankel was a close student of mathe matical history. whose ". Discoveries of less value. had been in correspondence with Grassraann. who published in 1835 and 1837 in the Annali delle Scienze his calculus of sequipollences. His Com- plexe Zahlen was at first little read. by Justus Bellavitis (1803-1880). Bellavitis. In consider ing the foundations of algebra Hankel affirms the principle of the permanence of formal laws previously enunciated incom pletely by Peacock. Encouraged by Clebsch.322 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. were units subject to combinatorial mul tiplication. that he might give his time to science. who in his thirty-eighth year laid down a city office in his native place. The ". The first impression of G-rassmann s ideas is marked in the writings of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873). whose theory is not geometrical. left Before his death he was professor at Tubingen. and we must turn to Victor ScMegel of Hagen as the successful interpreter of Grass mann. and the addition of vectors and oriented areas. Schlegel wrote a System der Baumlehre which explained the essential conceptions and operations of the Ausdehnungslehre. who described the multiplication of vectors. Hankel.clefs algebriques ".

Charles S. on up to sextuple. published a series of college text-books on mathematics. a position which he retained until his death. B. the orbit of Neptune. making in all 162 algebras. being such that every binary combination ft. ALGEBBA. and for which he had devised a simple notation. Peirce works out the multiplication then of double algebras. young helped in reading the proof-sheets. etc. ji. j. ij. Lithographed copies of a memoir were distributed among friends in 1870. but under the restriction of 56 satisfying the associative law. The first of several papers thereon was read at the first meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1864. He was made professor at Harvard in 1833. Jc. together with Sears C. IV. with coefficients which are ordinary ana lytical magnitudes. Eo. Mass.. first of single algebras. etc. 2 When Bowditch was preparing his transla tion and commentary of the Mecanique Peirce Ctteste. and calculated. Peirce. real or imaginary. mann. an Analytical Mechanics. and one of the foremost writers on mathe matical logic.. 2). Profound are his researches on Linear Associative Algebra. etc. and graduated at Harvard College. etc.. a son of Benjamin Peirce. which he shows to be possible on the consideration of symbols A.y Vol. but so small seemed to be the interest taken in this subject that the memoir was not printed until 1881 (Am. and so tables.. is equal to a linear function of the letters. the letters i. j. 1855. Jour. I. Matli. showed that these algebras were all defective forms of quadrate algebras which he had previously discovered by logical analysis. Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880) was born at Salem. having as undergraduate carried the study of mathematics far beyond the limits of the college course. Walker of Washington.. Of these quadrate algebras quaternions is a simple .. which are linear functions of a determinate number of letters or units i. Eor some years he was in charge of the Nautical Almanac and superintendent of the United States Coast He Survey.

axisymmetric determinants/ . The originator of matrices is really Hamilton. from which the imaginary scalar is excluded. C. Lectures on multiple algebra were delivered by J.. ". Chapman. The theory of matrices was developed as early as 1858 by Cayley in an important memoir which. and he gave brilliant proof of its power. He introduced the name determinant. S. and G. and introduced the use of determinant brackets. C. They treat largely of the algebra of matrices.alternants. ". He showed that his father s algebras are operational and matricular. In 1826 Jacobi began using this calculus. Cauchy. originated by Cauchy. or the familiar pair of upright lines. H. pub lished in his Lectures on Quaternions. Sylvester at the Johns Hopkins University. and quaternions.. ordinary double algebra. in the opinion of Sylvester. In 1841 he wrote extended memoirs on determinants in Qrelle s Journal. Binet in Prance but they were forestalled by . which rendered the theory easily accessible.. and published in various journals. have been developed by Jacobi. the great master of this subject. More recent researches on determinants appertain to special forms. example . Trudi. de Vecole Polyt. IX. Sylvester. ushered in the reign of Algebra the Second. Taber. The latter makes no reference to Hamilton. Nagelbach. a term previously used by Gauss in the functions considered by him. H.". Peirce showed that of all linear associative algebras there are only three in whieh divis ion is-unambiguous. The theory of determinants 73 was studied by Hoene Wronski in Italy and J.Continuants". Garbieri ".324 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. but his theory. carried the investigations much further. nonions is another. In England the study of linear transforma tions of quantics gave a powerful impulse. 16) Cauchy developed several general theorems. N". These are ordinary single algebra. are due to Sylvester. Clifford. . is less general than that of Cayley. In a paper (Jour. Cayley developed skew-determinants and Pfafftans. J. H.

he accepted the offer of that chair. first used by WronskL V. both of Munich. Frobenius discovered the properties of Wronskians. L. 74 He came out Senior Wrangler in 1842. Text-books on determinants were written by Spot tiswoode (1851). and E.showed. Liege. He then devoted some years to the study and practice of law. Catalan of ". thus giving up a profession promising wealth for a very modest provision. B. Spottiswoode (1825-1883). Cayley began his mathematical publi cations in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal while he was still an undergraduate. have been studied by V.W. treatise. Scott (1880). in Surrey. Sylvester. Dostor (1877). Baltzer (1857). ALGEBBA. Its development is mainly the work of Cayley and Sylvester. Brioschi (1854).". Gunther (1875). Muir (1882). Giinther. born at Eichmond. but most important is his creation of a new branch of analysis by his theory of invariants. we are ". E. pointed out relations between determinants and con tinued fractions Scott uses HankePs alternate numbers in his . F. There is hardly any subject in pure mathematics which the genius of Cayley has not enriched. Zehfuss. Scott. and particularly of Boole. Nachreiner and S. Modern higher algebra is especially occupied with the theory of linear transformations. . but which would enable him to give all his time to mathematics. and Hesse eirculants are due to E. Gauss. Christoffel of Strassburg and G. J. Cambridge. indebted to G. Glaisher. ". Some of his most brilliant discoveries were made during the time of his legal practice. A. in 1821^ was educated at Trinity College. Arthur Cayley. who . Lebesgue. Germs of the principle of invariants are found in the writ ings of Lagrange. Hanus (1886). in 1841. that invariance is a property of discrimi- . for centre-symmetric determinants". On the foundation of the Sadlerian pro fessorship at Cambridge. W. 325 firstused by Jacobi.

and other subjects mentioned elsewhere. 1837. 1864 and 1873). at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. and they stimulated each other by frequent oral communications. multiple algebra. the dis- . nants generally. He became professor of natural philosophy at University College. followed his researches on invariants. Peaucellier. James Joseph Sylvester was born in London in 1814. His printed paper was on first Then Fresnel s optic theory. At that time Cay- ley and Sylvester were both residents of London. It has often been difficult to determine how much really belongs to each. and made the subject of close studyby A. University of Virginia. at the Eoyal Military Academy in Woolwich.326 A H1STOBY OF MATHEMATICS. hyper-determinants possessed it. and who applied it to the theory of orthogonal substitution. vester began his papers in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathe matical Journal on the Calculus of Forms. and educated at St. discoveries followed in rapid succession. After this. the theory of numbers. in 1845. professor of geometry at Oxford. Capitaine du Genie & Nice (published in Nouvelles Annales. and was called to the bar in 1850. About 1874 he took part in the development of the geometrical theory of link- work movements. the theory of equations. theory of partitions. Cayley set himself the problem to determine a priori what functions of the coefficients of a given equation possess this property of invariance. B. Kempe. Cambridge. Boole made a number Then Syl of additional discoveries. since 1883. He came out Second Wrangler in 1837. To Sylvester is ascribed the general statement of the theory of contravariants. and found. In 1846 he became a student at the Inner Temple. professor of mathematics at the . successively. that the so-called ". Johns College. to begin with. originated by the beautiful discovery of A. His Jewish origin incapacitated him from taking a degree. ". London then. and is.

which remain unaltered by the interchange of x and y. One of the earliest in the field was Siegfried Heinrich Aronhold (1819-1884). are his. discriminant. In the American Journal of Mathe matics are memoirs on binary and ternary quantics. Among other writers on invariants are E. which ranks by the side of Salmon s treatise and those of Clebsch and Gordan. Chris- . F. by David Hilbert of Konigs- berg. McMahon of Woolwich. treating of the func tions of a dependent variable y and the functions of its differ ential coefficients in regard to x. and Italy. 327 covery of the partial differential equations satisfied by the invariants and oo variants of binary qualities. The great theory of invariants. who demonstrated the existence of invariants. for the many names he has introduced into mathematics. with the aid of symbolic methods. In Italy. Sylvester has opened up a new subject. of the ternary cubic. and others. the theory of reciprocals. elaborated partly with aid of F. Jacobian. Franklin. France. Forsyth of Cambridge. Brioschi of Milan and Fa& de Bruno contributed to the theory of invariants. Hessian. came to be studied earnestly in Ger many. Hermite discovered evectants and the theorem of reciprocity named after him. Hammond of Oxford. and has been developed further by J. A. Paul Gordan showed. the (1825-1888) latter writing a text-book on binary forms. Clebsch proved this to be true for quantics with any number of variables. This theory is more general than one on differential invariants by Halphen (1878). At Oxford. S and T. E. and the subject of mixed concomitants. Syl vester playfully lays claim to the appellation of the Mathe matical Adam. ALGEBBA. now professor at the Johns Hopkins University. developed in England mainly by Cayley and Sylvester. Thus the terms invariant. A very much simpler proof of this was given in 1891. E. that the number of distinct forms for a binary quantic is finite.

gave a second solution in which was obtained a simple resolvent of the sixth degree. and applied the results to geometry. A. which were criticised by his countryman Malfatti. W. had printed proofs of the insolvability. The modern higher algebra has reached out and indissolubly connected itself with several other branches of mathematics geometry calculus of variations. Emory McClintock of N ew York. Burckhardt. in 1858. 1866). 76 A transcendental solution of the quintic involving elliptic integrals was given by Hermite (Compt Rend. 1826). 1865. In the theory of equations Lagrange. and brought out in a publication of the University of Lund.. believed that his method furnished a general any degree. Clebsch. Clebsch extended the theory of binary forms to ternary. Paolo Euffini (1765-1822). Though inconclusive. Before Abel. Abel proved rigorously that the general algebraic equation of the fifth or of higher degrees cannot be solved by radicals (Crelle. reduced the quintic to the trinomial form by an extension of the method of Tschirnhausen. Argand. a Swede. Weierstrass. This important reduction had been effected as early as 1786 by E. J.328 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. After Hermite s first publication. modiA fication of Abel s proof was given by Wantzel. an Italian physician. 8. L. and Bianchi have used the theory of invariants in hyperelliptic and Abelian functions. McMalion dis covered that the theory of semi-invariants is a part of that of symmetric functions. toffel. in a letter to Hermite. Kronecker. G-laisher of Cambridge. Hamilton made a report on the validity of Jerrard s . Bring. Jerrard. McMahon. in his Mathematical Researches (1832-1835). . Buffings papers are remarkable as containing anticipations of Cauchy s theory of groups. I. mechanics. P. Wilhelm Eiedler. Jerrard. In 1836 Wil algebraic solution of equations of liam B. like Tschirnhausen.. and Gauss furnished proof to the important theorem that every algebraic equation has a real or a complex root. 1858. Klein.

Such equations are the ones discussed Gauss in considering the division of the by circle. who expressed the quintic as the sum of three fifth-powers. Serret (1819- greatly advanced by G.Hamilton s numbers. Abel advanced one step further by proving that an irreducible equation can always be solved in radicals. = and was led to a series of numbers which he named ". Jordan Paris. 1811.the modular equations. provided that the degree prime .". To him are set of due also some valuable results in relation to another in the theory of elliptic equations. presenting themselves functions. A. He carried the investigation as far as i 8. I. 1832). Hesse came upon algebraically solvable equations of the ninth degree. G-alois s labours gave birth to the important theory of substitutions. and showed that by his process the quintic could be transformed to any one of the four trinomial forms. ALGEBKA. Through geometrical con siderations. of two of its the one can be expressed rationally in terms roots. What is the lowest degree Sylvester investigated an equation can have in order that it may admit of being deprived of i consecutive terms by aid of equations not higher than fth degree. Ham ilton denned the limits of its applicability to higher equations. who introduced the notion of a group of substitutions. Abel s proof that higher equations cannot always be solved as to what equations of a given algebraically led to the inquiry degree can be solved by radicals. viz. The subject was powerfully advanced in Paris by the youthful Evariste Galois (born. then the solution depends upon that of equations of lower degree. if. A transformation of equal importance to Jerrard s is that of Sylvester. 329 method. this question. in Paris. if it is not prime. which has been of J. The covariants and invariants of higher equations have been studied much in recent years. of the equation is of the other. Kronecker (1823-1891) of 1885) of the Sorbonne . not included in the previous groups. killed in a duel.

0. Sylow of Fried- richshald. Gr. who contributed to the theory. N. A simple group of 504 substitutions of nine letters. offer together sure and ready means of finding the real roots of a numerical equation. Cayley. Kronecker published. studied by Newton and Waring. Jacobi. discovered by Cole. the Substitu- has been translated into English by F. Switzerland. Salmon. The theory of substitutions has important applications in the theory of differential equations. Sylvester. Cole of tionstheorie. has been shown by E. the solution of numerical equa tions has been advanced by W. the University of Michigan. ". Netto of Giessen. Cayley. a native of Geneva.380 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Mother of Erlangen. Hesse. published -in 1829 his celebrated theorem determining the number and situation of roots of an equation comprised between given limits. E. Sturm tellsus that his theorem stared him in the face in the midst of some mechanical investigations connected with the motion of a compound pendulum. The symmetric functions of the sums of powers of the roots of an equation. and Gordan. A. Since Fourier and Budan. tions. Homer of Bath. L. his Gf-rundzuge einer Arithmetischen Theorie der Algebraischen Gfrossen. Klein of Gottingen. Herniite of Paris. The theory of elimination was greatly advanced by Sylves ter. BrioschL Cayley gives rules for the weight and order of symmetric func ". Eetto s book. Brioschi. Sylvester gave the dialytic method (Philosophical . in 1882. was considered more recently by Gauss. 77 This theorem. and the successor of Poisson in the chair of mechanics at the Sorbonne. Berlin. M. who gave an improved method of approximation (Philosophical Transac tions. 1819). ". Capelli of Naples. Moor of the University of Chicago to belong to a doubly-infinite system of simple groups. H. ". Cauchy. Jacques Charles Francois Sturm (1803-1855). and Homer s method.

he renounced engi neering in favour of pure science. studies. 331 Magazine. Cauchy. probability. Lagrange and Laplace. infinite series. deprived of his positions. Laplace s Analytiques were 7 M&camque C&leste and Lagrange s Fonctions among his book companions there. We find him next holding a professorship at the Polytechnic School. and received his early education from his father. On the expulsion of Charles X. At TMbourg Cauchy resumed his in Switzerland. and the accession to the throne of Louis Philippe in 1830. ANALYSIS. ANALYSIS. in he went into volun consequence. with whom the father came in frequent contact. Under this head we find it convenient to consider the sub jects of the differential and integral calculus. In 1805 he entered the Polytechnic School. tary exile. 1840). 78 Augtistin-Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) was born in Paris. Cayley made a new statement of Bezout s method of elimination and established a general theory of elimination (1852). and two years later the cole des Ponts et Chaussees. foretold the future greatness of the young boy.. Prominent in the development of these subjects was Cauchy. At the ICcole Cent rale du Pantheon he excelled in ancient classical studies. Considerations of health induced him to return to Paris after three years. Yielding to the persuasions of Lagrange and Laplace. and differential equa tions. Cauchy left for Cherbourg in 1810. being exceedingly conscientious. Being. in the capacity of engineer. the calculus of variations. and in 1831 was induced by the king of Piedmont to .in 1852 established a theorem relating to the expression of an eliminant as a determinant. found him self unable to take the oath demanded of him. and .

This gave Cauchy an opportunity to visit various parts of Europe. On his return to Paris in 1838. but Cauchy and Arago were exempt from it. pure and applied. His researches extended over the field of series. and to learn how extensively his works were being read. but declared by the ruling power. Had it been studied more diligently by writers of text-books in England and the United States. a chair in the College de France was offered to him. and the preparation of standard text-books. and in two of his publications staunchly defended the Jesuits. Charles X. of imaginaries. On the establishment of the second empire. Charles X. tions. the oath was re-instated. mathematical astronomy. Encouraged by Laplace and Poisson. a work of great merit. elasticity. theory of func differential equations. many a lax and loose method of analysis hardly as yet eradicated . etc. theory of numbers. Cauchy published in } 1821 his Cours d Analyse de VEcole Royale Polytecfmique. Cauchy was a man of great piety.332 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. In 1833 he obeyed the call of his exiled king. During the political events of ineligible 1848 the oath was suspended. Cauchy was a prolific and profound mathematician.. By a prompt publication of his results. he -exercised a more immediate and beneficial influence upon the great mass of mathematicians than any contemporary writer. light. determinants. covering pretty much the whole realm of mathematics. but the oath demanded of him prevented his acceptance. and Cauchy at last became professor at the Polytechnic School. bestowed upon him the title of Earon.. He was one of the leaders in infusing rigour into analysis. theory of substitutions. especially created for him at the university of Turin. the Duke of Bordeaux. to undertake the education of a grandson. accept the chair of mathematical physics. He was nominated member of the Bureau of Longitude.

presented with great brevity by Jacobi. This subject is now in its essential principles the same as when it came from the hands of Lagrange.and Ostrogradsky of St. In 1837 Jacobi published a memoir. He greatly improved the exposition of fundamental principles of the differential calculusby his mode of considering limits and his new theory on the continuity of functions. Eisenlohr. This important theorem. and Clebsch. In England special attention to the clear exposition of funda mental principles was given by De Morgan. Petersburg in 1834. ANALYSIS. Lebesgue. was awarded a . 383 from elementary text-books would have been discarded over half a century ago. are included in the integrations of the first variation. by which the existence of a maximum or minimum can be ascertained. thus virtually returning to the method of fluxions. C. was elucidated and extended by V. and thus are super fluous. determining in a general manner the number and form of the equations which must subsist at the limits in case of a double or triple integral. Cauchy was the first to publish a rigorous proof of Taylor s theorem. Hesse. Eecent studies pertain to the variation of a double integral when the limits are also variable. Spitzer. E. S. The method of Cauehy and Duhamel was accepted with favour by Houel and others. An important memoir by Sarrus on the question of determining the limiting equations which must be combined with the indefinite equations in order to determine completely the maxima and minima of multiple integrals. Memoirs were published by Gauss in 1829. Poisson in 1831. and the allied notions of velocity and acceleration. without. however. Recent American treatises on the calculus introduce time as an independent vari able. and to variations of multiple integrals in general. Delaunay. showing that the difficult integrations demanded by the discussion of the second variation. A. Cauchy made some researches on the calculus of variations.

and doing for this subject what Sarrus had done for multiple integrals. Dublin. and extended Jacobi s theorem to double integrals. 5 . Meyer. John s College. The following are the more important authors of systematic treatises on the calculus of variations. In 1866 he published a most important research. 1810 . Bierens de Haan of Leiden in his Hxposd de la theorie des integrals d&finieSj Amsterdam. Cam bridge. once Provost of Trinity College. but they had no proper criteria. published his valuablework on the History of the Progress of the Calculus of Variations.334 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. F. developing the theory of discontinuous solutions (discussed in particular cases by Legendre). Mainardi attempted to exhibit anew method of discriminating maxima and minima. Brioschi showed the value of determinants in exhibit ing the terms of the second variation. 1849 Moigno and Lindelof. Mainardi and F. prize by the French Academy in 1845. Strauch in Zurich. Newton and Leibniz felt the necessity of inquiring into the convergence of infinite series. Cambridge. The lectures on definite integrals. 1881. Jellett (1817-1888). 1862. By Euler and his contem poraries the formal treatment of series was greatly extended. excepting the test advanced by Leibniz for alternating series. honourable mention being made of a paper by Delaunay. delivered by Dirichlet in 1858. W. In 1861 Isaac Tod- hunter (1820-1884) of St. The history of infinite series illustrates vividly the salient feature of the new era which analysis entered upon during the firstquarter of this century. which contains researches of his own. Sarrus s method was simplified by Cauchy. 1861. The subject has been treated most exhaustively by D. 1837 John Hewitt . and the dates of publi cation: Eobert Woodhouse. Richard Abbatt in London. Lewis Buffett Carll of Flushing in New York. In 1852 G. have been elaborated into a standard work by G. 1850 G. . Fellow of Caius College.

Their actual contents came to be the primary. The product of two convergent series was not found to be necessarily convergent. is ultimately less or greater than unity. now well known. according as the wth root of the nth term. The criterion devel oped by him settles the question of convergence in every case which it is intended to cover. whose More Analyse Algebrique of 1821 contains a rigorous treatment of series. the doubtful. ANALYSIS. The faults of Ms time found their culmination in the Combinatorial School in Ger many. 335 while tlie necessity for determining the convergence was gen erally lost sight of. The first important and striptly rigorous investigation of series was made by Gauss in con nection with the hypergeometric series. Like Gauss. which has now passed into deserved oblivion. Owing to the strangeness of treatment and unusual rigour. now quite forgotten. or plainly absurd. He showed that series with neg ative terms converge when the absolute values of the terms Leibniz test for alternating converge. results obtained from infinite series stimu lated prof ounder inquiries into the validity of operations with them. and then deduces s series. At the beginning of the period now under consideration. and thus bears the stamp of generality so characteristic of Gauss s writings. Cauchy s theorem that the . and also some very absurd results. Euler reached some very pretty results on infinite series. and finds that series with positive terms are convergent or not. Cauchy established two other tests. To reach some of the cases where these expressions become ultimately unity and fail. Gauss s paper excited little interest among the mathematicians of that time. All series whose sum does not approach a fixed limit as the number of terms increases indefinitely are called diver gent. consideration. he institutes comparisons with geometric series. form a secondary. or the ratio of the (n + l)th term and the nth term. fortunate in reaching the public was Cauchy.

Pringsheim reaches the following interesting conclusions: The product. but a semi-convergent series. every one was found to be convergent! We must not conclude. In his demonstration of the binomial theo rem he established the theorem that if two series and their product series are all convergent. Pringsheim of Munich and A.386 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. multi plied by an absolutely convergent series. We are told that after a scientific meeting in which Cauchy had presented his first researches on series. Mertens of G-raz to be still true if of the two . the new views were generally accepted only after a . only one is abso lutely convergent. The most outspoken critic of the old methods in series was Abel. of two semi-convergent series can never converge absolutely. product of two absolutely convergent series converges to the product of the sums of the two series was shown half a cen tury later by F. Laplace hastened home and remained there in seclusion until he had examined the series in Ms M&oanique C&leste. Since we do not possess such a criterion. The researches of Abel and Cauchy caused a considerable stir. convergent series to be multiplied together. His letter to Ms friend Holmboe (1826) contains severe criticisms. or even a divergent series. however. then the product series will converge towards the product of the sums of the two given series. even to modern students. On the contrary. This remarkable result would dispose of the whole problem of multiplication of series if we had a universal practical criterion of convergency for semi-convergent series. Voss of Wiirzburg which remove in certain cases the necessity of applying tests of convergency to the product series by the application of tests to easier related expressions. may yield an abso lutely convergent product. It is very interesting reading. that the new ideas at once displaced the old. Luckily. theorems have been recently established by A.

or the ratio of the (?i l)th term and + . He established a theorem yielding a test consisting of two parts. Du Bois-Reymond divides criteria into two classes criteria : of the first kind and criteria of the second kind. Bertrand. that he had anticipated the above-named writers in estab lishing logarithmic criteria. term of the series with special functions an. Paul Du Bois-Beyrnond. First in time in the evolution of more delicate criteria of convergence and divergence come the researches of Josef Lud- wig Eaabe (Crelle. nx. The forms of these criteria. ANALYSIS. because they all depend upon a comparison of the nfh. then follow those of De Morgan as given in his calculus. Gr.). The study of general criteria was continued by U. Vol. but Bois-Rey. according as the general nth term. It was the opinion of Bonnet that the logarithmic criteria never fail . The criteria thus far alluded to have been called by Fringsheim special criteria. was Kummer. on which a serious schism exists among mathematicians as to the absolute correctness or incorrectness of results. the first part of which was afterwards found to be superfluous. De Morgan established the loga rithmic criteria which were discovered in part independently by J. culminating in a regular still mathematical theory. I believe it will : ". ". 337 severe and long struggle. Kohn of Minden. of an elementary character. As late as 1844 De Morgan began a paper on divergent series in this style ". IX. etc. Among the first to suggest general criteria.". be generally admitted that the heading of this paper describes the only subject yet remaining. and Pringsheim. ^(logn)*. It appears from Abel s posthumous papers". Du mond and Pringsheim have each discovered series demon- strably convergent in which these criteria fail to determine the convergence. Dini of Pisa. as given by Bertrand and by Ossian Bonnet. are more convenient than De Morgan s. and to consider the subject from a wider point of view.

only to series with never increasing terms. and deduces. Dirichlet s conditions are sufficient. and does not possess an infinite number of maxima and minima. Lipschitz. then Fourier s series converges toward the value of that function at all places. From the general criteria established by Du Bois-Beyrnond and Prings heim respectively. but the ratio of any two terms however far apart. The theory of Pringsheim is very complete. all the special criteria can be derived. but not necessary. analogous to this. Dirichlet made the first thorough researches on this subject (Crelle. however. among others.). two criteria previously given by Kohn and Ermakoff respectively. except points of discontinuity. does not have an infinite number of dis continuities. was invented by Pringsheim. and offers. Vol. term. however. which apply. Difficult questions arose in the study of Fourier s series. in addition to the criteria of the first kind and second kind. Kummer s is a criterion of the second kind. IV. Schlafli of Bern and Du Bois- Eeymond expressed doubts as to the correctness of the mean value. and there it converges toward the mean of the two boundary values. is made the basis of research.In the generalised criteria of the second kind he does not consider the ratio of two con secutive terms. entirely new criteria of a third Mud. which were. They culminate in the result that whenever the function does not become infinite. the nth. But his mode of proceeding was found by Dirichlet to be unsatisfactory. and also generalised criteria of the second kind. not well founded. and . proved that Fourier s series still represents the func tion when the number of discontinuities is infinite. Those of the third kind rest mainly on the consideration of the limit of the difference either of consecu tive terms or of their reciprocals.338 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 79 Cauchy was the first who felt the necessity of inquiring into its convergence. of Bonn. A criterion of the first kind.

He found necessary and sufficient conditions for this. A. The sub ject of uniform convergence was investigated by Philipp Lud- wig Seidel (1848) and Gr. Hankel. Doubts on some of the conclusions about Fourier s series were thrown by the observation. was not found necessarily to exclude them from being represented by Fourier s series. it represents a function having an infinite number of maxima and minima. ANALYSIS. His researches brought to light the fact that con tinuous functions need not always have a differential coeffi cient. Cantor and Du Bois-Beymond. however. gave a new definition. converges toward the value of the function. Stokes (1847). This was done by Heinrich Eduard Heine (1821-1881). G-. whenever it is convergent. It became necessary to prove that a trigonometric series repre senting a continuous function converges uniformly. so that there may be a trigonometric series which. that the integral of an infinite series can be shown to be equal to the sum of the integrals of the separate terms only when the series converges uniformly within the region in question. and has assumed great importance in Weierstrass theory of functions. But this property. made by Weierstrass. Dirich- let s belief that all continuous functions can be represented by Fourier s series at all points was shared by Eiemann and H. Schwarz. Eiemann rejected Cauchy s defini tion of a definite integral on account of its arbitrariness. 339 established a condition on which. Later researches on Fourier s series were made by G. which was shown by Weierstrass to belong to large classes of functions. As compared with the vast development of other mathe- . They do not decide. and then inquired when a function has an integral. whether such a series actually repre sents the function or not. of Halle. but was proved to be false by Du Bois-Keymond and H. Bdernann inquired what properties a function must have.

G-. De Morgan. who proposed the problem. II. by Lexis Harald Westergaard. Quetelet (1796-1874). Appli cations of the calculus to statistics have been made by L. VI. This branch of probability had been worked out by Thomas Bayes (died 1761) and by Laplace (Bk. The only noteworthy recent addition to probability is the subject of probability. to determine the probability that a short needle. were to go to the shore of the Atlantic Ocean and witness on m successive days the rise of the sea. . of Copenhagen and Dusing. or that of all theories proposed for inves tigation one-half are true. solved by himself and Laplace. Putting = 0. J. Edgeworth also accepts it in his Mathematical Psychics.". Meyer (edited by E. who has never heard of the tides. Czuber). he would be entitled to conclude that there was a probability equal to that the sea would rise next day. Improve ments and sirnplications in the mode of exposition have been made by A. Ch.340 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and a few American and French mathematicians. if a man. director of the observatory at Brussels. The earliest problem on this subject dates back to the time of Buffon. By it some logicians have explained induction. . Y. Worthy of note is the rejection of inverse probability by the best authorities of our time. matical branclies . Cournot s and Westergaard s treatment of insurance and the theory of life-tables are classical. then. thrown at random upon a floor ruled with equidistant parallel . the naturalist. A. says Quetelet. it is seen that this view rests upon m the unwarrantable assumption that the probability of a totally unknown event is $. developed by several English local ".. of his TMorie Analytique). and F. A. Bertrand. Boole. W. the theory of probability has made very insignificant progress since the time of Laplace. Jevons in his Principles of Science founds induction upon the theory of inverse proba bility. J. For example. S.

B. In 1873 their reseaches. Weiler. Meyer.". Watson. Seitz in France by C. shall form a re entrant quadrilateral. and others. The treatment of differential equations first full scientific was given by Lagrange and Laplace. the general integration of differ ential equations of any order between two variables. however. Then came Sylvester s four-point problem: to find the probability that four points. he gives first their equations considers the integration of the general integration. E. . A. as known. Afterwards he was with the astronomer Bode. H. Starting from the theory of ordinary differential of the first order in n variables. Jacobi. Crofton of the military school at Woolwich. From the connection. Boole. were presented in text-book form of Gand. J. on partial differential equations of the first order.Pfaffian prob lem. (1831-1866) of Paris. The keen by Paul Mansion. Cauchy. A. E. W. and others. of the University researches of Johann Friedrich Pfatf (1795-1825) marked a decided advance. ANALYSIS. The latter were investi iSmile Bour gated in more recent time by Monge. Wolsten- holme. will fall on one of the lines. By a peculiar method. Later he became professor at Helmstadt. observed by Hamilton. He was an intimate friend of young G-auss at Gottingen. 341 lines. Jordan. G-. Barbier. Pfaff.. Petersburg. but with greatest success by M. A. It was pursued in America by E.Local probability has been studied in England by A. This remark is especially true of partial differential equations. Lemoine. then at Halle. partial differential equations assuming. and then as a particular case of the former. His researches led Jacobi to introduce the name ". Serret. S. Crofton was led to the evaluation of certain definite integrals. E". Clarke. taken at random within a given boundary. between . Pfaff found the general integration of par tial differential equations of the first order for any number of variables. Korkine of St. McColl. Clebsch. Through considerations of local probability. Sophus Lie. R.

the vanishing of the first variation of the integral. J. Allied to the point of view indicated by this theorem is that of Riemann. the integration of which determines the functions. Clebsch considered Pfaff s problem from a new point of view. Bonnet in France. of the series of systems whose successive integration PfafPs method demanded. and Imschenetzky in Eussia. Jacobi materially advanced the theory of differential equations of the first order. which can be established independently of each other without any integra tion. To ascer tain whether the value is a maximum or a minimum. Jacobi drew the conclusion that. This leads to new and difficult differential equations. The problem to determine un known functions in such a way that an integral containing these functions and their differential coefficients. the second variation must be examined. and reduced it to systems of simul taneous linear partial differential equations.342 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. Ber- trand. in the first place. and is developable by Taylor s theorem. all but the first system were entirely superfluous. demands. shall reach a maximum or minimum value. was ingeniously deduced by Jacobi from the integration of the differential equations of the first varia tion. Cauchy gave a method of solving partial differ ential equations of the first order having any number of variables. who regards a function of a single variable as . 0. Jacobi s was perfected by Hesse. This condition leads to differential equations. which was corrected and extended by Serret. a system of ordinary differential equations (in analytical mechanics) and a partial differential equation. while Clebsch solution extended to the general case Jacobi s results on the second variation. which is synectic within a certain circle of convergence. Fundamental is the proposition of Cauchy that every ordinary differential equation admits in the vicinity of any non-singular point of an integral. the integration of which. for the simpler cases. in a pre scribed manner.

including original matter on integrating factors. A standard text-book on Differential Equations. and who has applied this conception to that linear differential equation of the second order. 343 defined by the position and nature of its singularities. This study has been continued by JMouard Goursat of Paris. which is satisfied by the hyper- geometric series. ANALYSIS. The fertility of the conceptions of Cauchy and Rlemann with regard to differential equations is attested by the researches to which they have given rise on the part of Lazarus Fuchs of Berlin (born 1835). and others. and Jordan. He directed his attention mainly to those whose integrals are all regular. was prepared in 1859 by George Boole (1815-1864). Before this. . Fuchs began the study from the more general standpoint of the linear differential equations whose coefficients are not constant. Darboux. Ireland. and a self-educated mathematician of great power. While the general theory of these equations has recently been presented in a new light by Herniite. imposed upon the yalue of the variable. (bom The study of linear differential equations entered a new period with the publication of Fuchs memoirs of 1866 and 1868. singular solutions. Felix Klein of G-ottingen (born 1849). His treatise on and his Laws of Thought (1854) are Finite Differences (1860) works of high merit. He was a native of Lincoln. This equation was studied also by Gauss and Kummer. at one time professor in Queen s University. of Paris. has been considered by J. Tannery. and especially on symbolical methods. linear equations with constant co efficients were almost the only ones for which general methods of integration were known. Cork. Henri Poincare of Paris 1854). who employed Fuchs method of linear differential equations and found all of Hummer s twenty-four integrals of this equation. Its general theory when no restriction is .

W. and not from any analytical expression of the function. the aggregate of all these substitutions being called a group. Forsyth. Logarithms generally appear in the integrals of a group. Albert Briot (1817-1882) and Jem Claude Bouquet (1819-1885). not all of whose integrals are regular. obtained first by solving the differential equation. The nature of the integrals at singular points and at ordinary points is entirely different. (a? ) dx . and Fuchs and Frobenius investigated the conditions under which no logarithms shall appear. Thome of G-reifswald (born 1841). investigators at first contented them selves with the study of the properties in the vicinity of a given point. the dif ferential equations take the form a? = Fuchs JC(oy) . Instead of studying the properties of the integrals of a differential equation for all the values of the variable. has been attacked by G.344 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. we have a certain substitution corresponding to each of the paths. B. The forms of integrals of such equations were examined by Fuchs and by G-. Frobenius of Berlin. Through the study of groups the reducibility or irreducibility of linear differ ential equations has been examined by Frobenius and Leo Konigsberger. made to describe all possible paths enclos If the variable be ing one or more of the critical points of the equation. near a singular point. The researches above referred to are closely connected with the theory of functions and of groups. The theory of invariants associated with linear differential equations has been developed by Halphen and by A. The subject of linear differential equations. Frobenius by independent methods. but the resulting theory of irregular integrals is as yet in very incomplete form. both of Paris. studied the case when. Endeavours have thus been made to determine the nature of the function defined by a differential equation from the differential equation itself. and Poinear6.

Erobenius. what he calls moreover. integral of such an equation be subjected to a certain trans formation. latter may be divided into parallelograms. Klein. group. was able to integrate them by the use of functions named by him Fuch- sians. The attempt to express the integrals hy developments that are always convergent and not limited to particular points in a plane necessitates the introduction of new transcendents.". and Halphen. . as also for partial differential equations of the first order. that Euchsian functions can be expressed as the ratio of two transcendents (theta-fuchsians) in the same way that elliptic functions can be. each representing a . the former may be divided into curvilinear polygons. the result will be the integral of an equation belonging to the same family. Thome*. If. If the ". ANALYSIS. Poincare* tried this plan with linear equations. arrives at Fuchsian groups. instead of linear substitu tions with real coefficients. for the old functions permit the integration of only a small num ber of differential equations. The new transcendents have a great analogy to elliptic functions while the region of the . The extension to non linear equations of the method thus applied to linear equa tions has been begun by Euchs and Poincare. He found. having been studied in the vicinity of given points by Euehs. as employed in the above groups. imaginary coefficients be used. Thus Poincare". The developments for ordinary points were given by Cauchy and Madarae Kowalevsky. which he called Kleinians. then discontinuous groups are obtained. Poincare did the same for the case when the equations are not linear. 345 gave the development in series of the integrals for the partic ular case of linear equations. Confining himself to those with rational algebraical coefficients. which were then the best known. so that the knowledge of the function inside of one polygon carries with it the knowledge of it inside the others. 81 He divided these equations into families. Schwarz. Poincare".

Studies having this end in view have been carried on by Briot and Bouquet. a very special and . and Poincare. P. however. elliptic. that since 1876 Felix Klein. or at least of general occurrence. which since the time of Galois have become the leading concept in the theory of algebraic equations. This has been studied by C. Appel of Paris (born 1858).346 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. H. and others have applied the theory of finite and infinite discontin uous groups to the theory of functions and of differential equations. then the general form of the curve does not appear from the above mode of investigation. does not suffice in the application of differential equations to questions of mechanics. If we con sider the function as defining a plane curve. The mode of integration above referred to. ought to be a phenomenon of universal. or Abelian. We have seen that among the earliest of the several kinds of ". Much interest attaches to the determination of those linear differential equations which can be integrated by simpler functions. Jordan. it is. Poincare. and applied by him to the integration of ordinary linear partial differential equations. often desirable to construct the curves defined by differential equations. The papers prepared by these mathe maticians point out a difficulty as yet unsurmounted whereas : a singular solution. groups ". such as algebraic. and by Poincar& 81 The subject of singular solutions of differential equations has been materially advanced since the time of Boole by G. Darboux and Cayley. It is. The finite continuous groups were first made the subject of general research in 1873 by Sophus Lie. which makes known the properties of equations from the standpoint of the theory of functions. are the finite discontinuous groups (groups in the theory of substitution). on the other hand. now of Leipzig. from the point of view of the integrated equation.

THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. that he might continue his studies . In 1821 he entered the Uni versity in Christiania. Johnson of Annapolis. Abel found the first exercise of his talent in the attempt to solve by algebra the general equation of the fifth degree. Holmboe became lecturer there. and Legendre were closely studied by him. the interest of which is made to centre in the subject of differential equations. and was prepared for the university at the cathedral school in Christiania. is now being published by mile Picard of Paris. An advanced Treatise on Linear Differential Equations (1889) was brought out by Thomas Craig of the Johns Hop kins University. Like Jacobi and other young men who many became eminent mathematicians. instead of the geometric method preferred by Klein and Schwarz. He exhibited no interest in mathe matics until 1818. 847 exceptional phenomenon from the point of view of the differ ential equation. The idea of the inver sion of elliptic functions dates back to this time. THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. 89 A geometrical theory of singular solutions resembling the one used by Cayley was previously employed by W. The works of Euler. W. Mels Henrick Abel (1802-1829) was born at Findoe in Nor way. A notable work. These were richly developed by Abel and Jacobi. and aroused Abel s interest by assigning original problems to the class. We begin our sketch of the vast progress in the theory of functions by considering the special class called elliptic func tions. the Traite $ Analyse. His extraor of a dinary Success in mathematical study led to the offer stipend by the government. He chose the algebraic method of presenta tion followed by Hermite and Poincare. when B. Lagrange.

Cauchy. was elaborated in greater detail. Abel remained ten months in Paris. Legendre. and published in the first volume. in Hamburg. He had already published several important memoirs in Crelle s Journal. A similar feeling was entertained by him later against Cauchy. 1826. and others . He met there Birichlet. and met Steiner. where he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle (1780-1855). Abel began to put some of his work in shape for print. and served . Leaving Norway in 1825 Abel vis . and difficult of apprehension. the study of functions. but by the French this new periodical was as yet hardly known to exist. ited the astronomer. but was little appreciated. Crelle started his journal in 1826.348 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The obscurities everywhere encountered by him owing to the prevailing loose methods of analysis he endeav oured to clear up. and Abel was too modest to speak of his own work. Encouraged by Abel and Steiner. His proof of the impossibility of solving the general equation of the fifth degree by radicals. This slight. to which Gauss never paid any attention. and it was there that he made researches on hyperelliptic and Abelian functions. where he had fewer interruptions to work. of which he gave in Grelle s Journal a rigid general investigation). and a haughtiness of spirit which he associated with Gauss. first printed in 1824 in a very concise form. In July. Tor a short time he left Berlin for Prei- berg. Schumacher. and spent six months in Berlin. He entered also upon the subject of infinite series (particularly the binomial theorem. and of the integral calculus. Pecuniary embarrassments induced him to return home after a second short stay in Berlin. prevented the genial Abel from going to Gottingen. Abel left Germany for Paris with out having met Gauss !Abel had sent to Gauss his proof of 1824 of the impossibility of solving equations of the fifth degree. At Christiania he for some time gave private lessons. in Germany and Prance.

These two discoveries were the foundations upon which Abel and Jaeobi. This led Jacobi to inquire of Legendre whafr had become of it. 1829. Legendre s favourite subject. Abel developed the curious expressions representing elliptic func tions by infinite quotients of infinite products. In a brief statement of the discoveries in question. and a few months later also by Jacobi. erected beautiful new structures. A few months after his arrival in Paris. so long neglected. 349 as decent. published by Abel in Crette s Journal. 82 At nearly the same time with Abel. A second fruitful idea. reference is made to that memoir. elliptic functions had both sorts of periods. and exponential only an imag inary. they were eclipsed by his researches on what are now called Abelian functions. Le- . THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. each in his own way. Crelle secured at last an appointment for at Mm Berlin . series or Great as were the achievements of Abel in elliptic functions. the most general of these being that in his M6moire sur une propriety gen&rale d une classe tr&s-6tendue de fonctions transcendentes (1826). Abel submitted it to the French Academy. Jacobi published articles on elliptic functions. was be enriched by some extraordinary at last to discoveries. For it was shown that while trigonometric functions had only a real period. but said nothing about it until after Abel s death. The his tory of this memoir is interesting. Cauchy and Legendre were appointed to examine it . Abel s theorem on these functions was given by him in several forms. also arrived at independently by both. The advantage to be derived by inverting the elliptic integral of the first kind and treating it as a function of its amplitude (now called elliptic function) was recognised by Abel. but the news of it did not reach Norway until after the death of Abel at Proland. is the introduction of imaginaries leading to the observation that the new functions simulated at once trigonometric and expo nential functions.

y) = 0. The memoir remained in Canchy s . Abelian integrals depend upon an irrational function y which is connected with x by an algebraic equa tion F(x } y) = 0.". Hermite. By a singular mis hap.350 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS.gt. It was shown later that p is the defi ciency of the curve F(x. Two editions of Abel sworks have been published the first : by Holmboe in 1839. Abel s theorem was pronounced by Jacobi the greatest dis covery of our century on the integral calculus. he penetrated new fields of research. are special cases of Abelian integrals whenever _p= or &. The reduction of Abelian to has been studied mainly by Jacobi. Bolza of the University of Chicago. and proved by him to possess multiple periodicity. In its form. y) = 0. Goursat. and 0. The addition theorems of elliptic integrals are deducible from Abel s theorem. Abel s theorem asserts that a sum of such integrals can be expressed by a definite number p of similar integrals. the contents of the memoir belongs to the inte gral calculus. 3. In the Disqidsitiones Arithmeticce he observed . Brioschi. elliptic integrals Konigsberger. called it ". E. the development of which has kept mathematicians busy for over half a century. Picard. gendre says that the manuscript was so badly written as to be illegible. hands. and that Abel was asked to hand in a better copy. The hyperelliptic integrals introduced by Abel. who greatly admired Abel s genius. The aged Legendre. and the second by Sylow and Lie in 1881. which he neglected to do. the manuscript was lost before the proof-sheets were read.where p depends merely on the properties of the equation F(x.mon- umentum aere perennius. During the few years of work allotted to theyoung Norwegian. It was not published until 1841. Some of the discoveries of Abel and Jacobi were anticipated by Gauss.

and particularly to the transcendents dependent on the integral /dx _^__. He read Legendre s Exercises. Like many other mathematicians he was initiated into mathematics by reading Euler. Many of his discoveries in elliptic func tions were made independently by Abel. at tended the meetings of the British Association. and Legendre. his ideas flowed all the richer afterwards. Courier. besides the circular. In 1842 he and his colleague. 351 that the principles which he used in the division of the circle were applicable to many other functions. Though slow at first. where they made the acquaintance of English mathematicians. in Paris. After giving lectures in Berlin for two years. partial differential equations. Bessel. and two years later to the ordinary professorship there. but that this time he had not been led to a single origi nal thought. When he returned the book to the library. After the publication of his Fimdamenta Nova he spent some time in travel. he was depressed in spirits and said that important books generally excited in him new ideas. he was elected extraordinary professor at Konigsberg. which give an account of elliptic integrals. In 1829. where he pursued his mathematical studies independently of the lecture courses. Le- gendre s coefficients. His early researches were on Gauss approximation to the 7 value of definite integrals. Carl Gustav Jacob Jacob! M (1804-1851) was born of Jewish parents at Potsdam. The papers in the collected works of Gauss confirm this con clusion. in 1825. At the Univer sity of Berlin.D. meeting Gauss in Gottingen. THEOEY OF FUNCTIONS. Jacobi communicated his first researches to Crelle s Journal. he took the degree of Ph. Poisson. Erom this Jacobi 83 concluded that Gauss had thirty years earlier considered the nature and properties of elliptic functions and had discovered their double periodicity. and cubic residues. at the age .

v). = He was also e". Jacobi s work on dynamics. and Poincare*. and he moved to Berlin. taken each separately with two different arguments are the four (single) theta-functions designated by the 1? 2 3. which Jacobi especially considers. X(u . defined by the equation q /*. v).v ). In 1842 Jacobi visited Italy for a few months to recuperate his health. By r r r the memoirs of Abel and Jacobi it may be considered that the notion of the Abelian function of p variables was established and the addition-theorem for these functions given. but functions of p variables.** led by it two new functions to consider the and which H .v ). where the last years of his life were spent. In a short but very important memoir of 1S32. \i(u. v) } each of two variables. terms of the functions X(u. . 4 56 . a transcendental function of the modulus. it is shown that Abel s theorem has reference to two functions X(u. and differential equations. Eecent studies touching Abelian functions have been made by Weier- strass. en. v). 56 = Thus in the case p 2. At this time the Prussian government gave Mm a pension. E. This work at once secured for him a wide reputation. He then made a closer study of theta-functions and lectured to his pupils on a new theory of elliptic functions based on the theta-functions. X^u u yV v ) algebraically in r . such as the elliptic sn. of twenty-five. He developed a theory of transformation which led him to a mul titude of formulae containing g.352 A HISTORY OP MATHEMATICS. Xi(u . determinants. he shows that for the hyperelliptic integral of any class the direct functions to which Abel s theorem has reference are not functions of a single variable. . the theory of numbers is mentioned elsewhere. which contains in condensed form the main results in elliptic functions. dn. and gives in effect an addition-theorem for the expression of the functions X(u + + + + u v v ). Picard. Xi(u. Madame Kowalevski. he published Ms Fundaments Nova Theories Functionum Ellipticarum.

but the development of this subject devolved upon later investigators. L. .o connected with it by the equation q e*. These functions have been studied also by Cauchy.gt.lt. This he called an omega-function.gt. E.". Hermite of Paris. as a function of co. Schlani of Bern (bom 1818) * Legendre s method of reducing an elliptic differential to its normal form has called forth many investigations.(o&. L. introduced in place of the variable q of Jacobi a new variable &. H.lt.gt.*&. Konigsberger of Heidelberg (born 1837). In 1858 Charles Hennite of Paris (born 1822). 0.). E. Konigsberger. Alfred Enneper of Gdttingen (1830-1885).lt. A general formula for the product of two theta-functions was given in 1854 by H. J. Gtitzlaff. xW? are n^ s modular &. Johann Georg Eosenhain of Konigsberg (1816-1887). The algebraic transformations of elliptic functions involve a relation between the old modulus and the new one which Jacobi expressed by a differential equation of the third order. functions. Joubert of Angers. Eichelot of Konigsberg (1808- 1875). These equations have become of importance in the theory of algebraic equations. xW. and = o&. Researches on theta-functions with respect to real and imaginary arguments have been made by Meissel of Kiel. E.modular equation. Schroter of Breslau (1829-1892). The notion of modular equations was familiar to Abel. ij/ (&. Henry Smith regarded a theta-function with the argument equal to zero. 353 The researches on functions mentioned thus far have been greatly extended. Schlani.(&.lt. and also by an algebraic equation. while the three functions ^(w). THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. ML Gudermann of Cleve. Thomaeof Jena.o). Mathieu. Betti of Pisa (died 1892). so that =ik /k. most impor tant of which are those of Eichelot and of Weierstrass of Berlin. Schroter. S.lt. 56 was led to consider the functions &. called by him ". and have been studied by Sohnke.). Francesco Brioschi of Milan.

a type of operations lying between the two extreme types. . based in part upon geometrical interpretation. He did not. Applications of these functions have been given also by A.354 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. and is the basis of his beautiful theory of elliptic functions. and arrived at results which have been greatly simplified in form by the theory of primary factors. Felix Klein of G-ottingen has made an extensive study of modular functions. The elliptic functions were expressed by Abel as quotients of doubly infinite products. Greenhill. 1884. and others. A certain function involving a doubly product has been called by Weierstrass the infinite sigma-function. His researches embrace the theory of mod ular functions as a specific class of elliptic functions. inquire rigorously into the convergency of the products. Eobert Fricke. Eisenstein discussed by purely analytical methods the general doubly infinite product. Heinricli Durtye of Prague (1821-1893). by Konigsberger. Standard works on elliptic functions have been published by Briot and Bouquet (1859). Generalisations analogous to those of Weierstrass on elliptic functions have been made by Felix Klein on hyper elliptic functions. the statement of a more general problem as based on the doctrine of groups of operations. dealing with. In 1845 Cayley studied these products. known as the theory of substi tutions and the theory of invariants and covariants. The bolder features of it were first published in his Ikosaeder. however. and the further development of the subject in connection with a class of Bieniann s surfaces. which he made the basis of the whole theory of elliptic functions. H. The first systematic presentation of Weier strass theory of elliptic functions was published in 1886 by G. due to Weierstrass. Cayley. and found for them a complete theory. Halphen in hisTMorie des fonctions elliptiques et des leurs applications. Klein s theory las been presented in book-form by his pupil. G.

professor in a gym nasium near Potsdam. 355 Jacobinswork on Abelian and theta-functions was greatly extended by Adolpk Gopel (1812-1847). . Pryin of Wtirzburg. made by Cayley. and mechanical prob lems. Finally. were extended to quadruple theta-functions by Thomas Craig of the Johns Hopkins University. the functions of two variables. Weber of Marburg. notwithstand ing the fact that the double theta series came to be of increasing importance in analytical. Gopel in Ms Theories transcendentium primi ordmis admnbratio levis (Crelle. treating of the representation of Kummer s surface by Gopel s biquadratic relation between four theta-functions of two variables. and worked out in connection with them the theory of the Abelian functions of two variables. Eesearches on double theta-functions. Hiemann shows that the Abelian functions are algebraically connected with theta-functions of the proper arguments. 1847) and Rosenhain in several memoirs established each independently. on the analogy of the single theta-functions. THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. the investigations of C. W. and that Hermite and Konigsberger had considered the subject of transformation. 56He rests the theory of the multiple theta-functions of a upon the general principles of the theory of functions complex variable. Adolf Krazer. the general term de pending on p variables. Eiemann defined the theta-functions of p variables as the sum of a p-tuply infinite series of exponentials. The theta-relations established by G-opel and Bosenhain re ceived for thirty years no further development. and presents the theory in the broadest form. Borchardt of Berlin (1817-1880). geometrical. and Johann Georg Rosenhain of Konigs- berg (1816-1887). H. called double theta-functions. 35. Starting with the integrals of the most general form and considering the inverse functions corresponding to these in tegrals (the Abelian functions of p variables). F. and Martin Krause of Dresden led to broader views. and researches of H.

Through the researches of A. But more profound investigations were made in Germany by Blemann. Nother of Erlangen.". Brill of Tubingen. A great revolution in the ideas of a function was brought about by Cauchy when. Before proceeding to the general theory of functions. J. and it becomes necessary to look for possible discontinuities. and Ferdinand Lindemann of Munich. . His researches were continued in France by Puiseux and Liouville. and De Morgan. Cauchy established several fundamental theorems. there need be no -analytical connection between y and x. and gave the first great impulse to the study of the general theory of functions. In functions thus defined. The history of the general theory of functions begins with the adoption of new definitions of a function. W. if there existed an equation between these variables which made it possible to calculate y for any given value of x lying any where between oo and oo. With the Bernoullis and Leibniz. we make mention of the calculus of functions. by C. made in connection with Biemann-Roch s theorem and the theory of residuation. he gave the variables imaginary values. M. + The study of Fourier s theory of heat led Dirichlet to a new definition : y is called a function more definite values for each of certain of x. if y possess one or values that x is assumed to take in an interval x to %. Babbage. there has grown out of the theory of Abelian functions a theory of algebraic functions and point-groups on algebraic curves. Herschel. and when he extended the notion of a definite integral by letting the variable pass from one limit to the other by a succession of imaginary values along arbitrary paths.856 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. studied chiefly ". y was called a function of #. F. in a function as defined by Dirichlet. which was not so much a theory of functions as a theory of the solution of functional equations by means of known functions or symbols.

Later he lectured on Abelian functions to a class of three only. Steiner. Our hearts are drawn to this extraordinarily gifted but shy genius when we read of the timidity and nervousness displayed when he began to lecture at Gottingen. where he made the acquaintance of French mathematicians. After studying for a time under G-auss and Stern. those on functions were profound and far-reaching. Such was his predilection for this science that he abandoned theology. and he accordingly entered upon philological and theological studies at Gottingen. The thesis presented on that occasion. and of his jubilation over the unexpectedly large audience of eight students at his first lecture on differential equations. he was drawn. and Eisenstein. excited the admiration of Gauss to a very unusual degree. B/iemann was made ordinary professor. and was buried at Biganzolo. in 1859. On the death of the latter. THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. and was succeeded by Dirichlet. Schering. Jacobi. Returning to Gottingen in 1850. In 1860 he visited Paris. in which he advanced materially beyond the position of Dirich let. Grundlagen fur eine allgemeine Theorie der Funktionen einer verdnderlichen complexen Grosse. in 1847. he studied physics under Weber. liegen. He laid the foundation for a . Bjerknes. Biemann s was on the Bepresen- Habilitationsschrift tation of a Function by means of a Trigonometric Series. in which shone Dirichlet. to Berlin by a galaxy of mathematicians. 357 Georg Friedricli Berahard Riemann (1826-1866) was born at Breselenz in Hanover. as did also Biemann s trial Ueber die Hypotliesen welche der Geometrie zu Grunde lecture. His father wished him to study theology. Gauss died in 1855. He attended also some lec tures on mathematics. Like all of Biemann s researches. and Dedekind. He died on his last trip at Selasca. The delicate state of his health induced him to go to Italy three times. and obtained the doctorate the following year.

general theory of functions of a complex variable. whilst v is given for one point within the curve. and which. It follows then that w is uniquely determined for all points within a closed surface. in which only the two last of the n leaves are multiply-connected. W.-^2 = Aw = 0. which up to that time had been used only in mathematical physics. Liiroth of Ereiburg and of Clebsch. The 7i-valued function w becomes thus a one-valued function. and that the sheet to another is n sheets form together a multiply-connected surface. Eiemann invented the cele brated surfaces. and to observe the conditions about continuity. and only one. and which has for points on the 86 boundary of the area arbitrarily given values. ^2 -j. which must dx dy hold for the analytical function w = u + iv of z x iy. It = + had been proved by Dirichlet that (for a plane) there is always one. In order to treat the more complicated case where w has n values for one value of z. such that the passage from one made at the branch-points. if u is arbitrarily given for all points on the curve.Eiemann s surfaces. 3L Clifford brought Eiemann s surface for algebraic functions to a canonical form. function of x and y. consisting of n coincident planes or sheets. together with its differential quotients of the first two orders. but the same theorem was ". He accordingly based his theory of functions on the f\2 f\2 partial r differential equation. Hurwitz of Zurich discussed the question. A. how far a Eiemann s surface is deter- . was applied by him in pure mathe matics. stated by Green and proved analytically by Sir William Thomson. known as ". which can be dissected by cross-cuts into a singly-connected surface. The theory of potential. and then transformed the surface into the surface of a solid with p holes. is for all values of x and y within a given area one-valued and continuous. Eiemann called this Dirichlet s principle.". which satisfies Aw = 0.". Aided by researches of J.358 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

The latter developed a theory of functions by start ing. as based on Dirichlet s principle (Thom son s theorem). 359 ruinateby the assignment of its number of sheets. THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. but it is sufficient to prove the agreement to a far less extent. not with the theory of potential. Hence the use of these methods will endow the functions with properties which themselves require proof. Both applied their theories to Abelian functions. is not free from objections. Of the three classes of such . In con sequence of this. The theory of functions of one complex variable has been studied since Eiemann s time mainly by Karl Weierstrass of Berlin (born 1815). It has become evident that the existence of a derived function is not a con sequence of continuity. and that a function may be integrable without being differentiable. merely in certain critical points. Gustaf Mittag-Leffler of Stockholm (born 1846). but there Eiemann s work is more gen 86 eral. Objections of this kind to Eiemann s theory have been raised by Kronecker. and his most important theorems are actually proved. and thus defines a function indepen dently of a mathematical expression. and others. 62 Eiemann s theory ascertains the criteria which will deter mine an analytical function by aid of its discontinuities and boundary conditions. and Poincare of Paris. Eiemann stheory. it is not necessary to transform one into the other. it has become doubtful whether Weierstrass. It is not known how far the methods of the infinitesimal calculus and the calculus of variations (by which Dirichlet s principle is established) can be applied to an unknown analytical function in its generality. its branch points and branch-lines. In order to show that two different expressions are identical. but with analytical expressions and operations. attempts have been made to graft Eiemann s rooted methods of Weier speculations on the more strongly strass.

Uniform functions of two variables. P (x y being an entire poly- V aJj nomial of the wfch degree. 81 Functions of the second class. Poincare firstgave an example of such a function. Non-uniform functions are much less developed than the preceding classes. and though . and non-uniform functions) Weierstrass showed that those functions of the first class which can he developed according to ascending powers of x into converging series. functions uniform throughout. can be decomposed into a product of an infinite number of primary factors. Poincar has shown how to generate functions of this class. This classi fication gave rise to many interesting problems studied also by Poincare. except in the interior of a circle or of a domain otherwise bounded. and by Poincare. Picard of Paris.860 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. The Fuchsian and the Kleinian functions do not generally exist. and are therefore examples of functions of the second class. were first pointed out by Weierstrass. even though their properties in the vicinity of a given point have been diligently studied. functions uni form only in lacunary spaces. and at the same time no isolated singular points. called hyperfuchsian functions. and has studied them along the lines marked out by Weier strass. among others. unaltered by certain linear substitutions. A primary factor of the species n the product is (1 e p (x ). Important is his proof that there is no way of generalising them so as to get rid of the lacunae. have been studied by E. A function of the species n is one. These are Fuchsian functions. existing throughout the whole extent. functions (viz. but no singular lines. all the primary factors of which are of species n. uniform only in lacunary spaces. functions having an infinite number of singular points. The first of the three classes of functions of a complex variable embraces.

In transforming by aid of certain substitutions a polygon bounded by circular arcs into another also bounded by circular arcs. and 87 yet does not represent the integral of the first series.Schwarzian derivative. such that x and y are uniform functions of z. a pupil of Weierstrass. his work on hypergeometric series. and which led Sylvester to the theory of reciprocants. Darboux established rigorously the necessary and sufficient condition that a continuous or discontinuous function be susceptible of integration. 361 much. his inquiries on the existence of solu tions to important partial differential equations under prescribed conditions. Formerly it had been generally assumed that every function had a derivative.(u . A. THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. In treating of discontinuous functions.". He gave fresh evidence of the care that must be exercised in the use of series by giving an example of a always convergent and continuous. t). have secured a prominent place in mathematical literature. Ampere was the first who attempted to prove analytically the existence of a derivative. Schwarz of Berlin (born 1845). Poincare proved that if y is any analytical non-uniform function of x. such that the series series formed by the integrals of the terms is always convergent. . H. has given the conform representation (Abbildung) of various surfaces on a circle. he was led to a remarkable differential equation \f. one can always find a variable z. Weierstrass and Darboux have each given examples of con tinuous functions having no derivatives. light has been thrown on them by the use of Bdemann s surfaces. The general theory of functions of two variables has been investigated to some extent by Weierstrass and Poincare. Schwarz s developments on minimum surfaces. f) = \l/(u. With the view of reducing their study to thai of uniform transcendents. but the demonstration (1806) is not valid. where $ (u. t) is the expression which Cayley calls the ".

and Darboux along the lines indicated by the definitions of such integrals given by Cauchy. 83 Gauss is one of the three greatest masters of modern analysis. olutionise the theory of numbers. Gauss is the one whose writings may truly be said to mark the beginning . While the first two belong to the period in mathematical his tory preceding the one now under consideration. A Treatise on the Theory of Functions by James Harlcness and Frank Morley. Of these three contemporaries he was the youngest. Laplace answered.". When the questioner said he should have thought Gauss was. principally. the queen of mathematics. and Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable by A. Du Bois-Reymond. ". The modern theoryof functions of one real variable was worked out by H. Dedekind. Thoniae. Laplace replied. Dedekind and Cantor gave definitions for irrational numbers . Such was the dictum of Gauss. R. When asked who was the greatest mathematician in Ger many. definite integrals were studied by Thomae. Schwarz. THEORY OF NUMBERS. Dini. which was translated into German. Hankel.362 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Schepp. the queen of the sciences. and Darboux. Liiroth and A. Hankel established the principle of the condensation of singularities . and first Heine. Lagrange. Dirichlet. Important works on the theory of functions are the GOUTS de M. and arithmetic. Dini wrote a text-book on functions of a real variable (1873). Du Bois-Reymond. Cantor. PfafF.Pfaff is by far the giuatest mathematician in Germany .". Forsytli. Hermite. but Gauss is the greatest in all Europe. and Eiemann. and then carried further. who was destined fc. by Weierstrass. ". Tannery s TMorie des Fonctions d une variable seule. Laplace. by J. Gauss. G.Mathematics. with additions.

Carl Friedricli Gauss 47 (1777-1855). the first to observe the double periodicity of elliptic functions. He was the first to observe rigour in the treatment of infinite series. that he could reckon before he could talk. to Gottingen. Abraham Gotthelf Kastner. THEORY OF NUMBERS.Wonderful was his richness of ideas one thought fol 5 lowed another so quickly that he had hardly time to write down even the most meagre outline.William. He invented the heliotrope and. Unlike Laplace. then pro fessor of mathematics there. the bifilar magnetometer and the declination instrument. In Mm that abundant fertility of inven tion. and sent him to the Collegium Carolinum. Gauss strove in his writings after perfection of form. the first to arrive at the method of least squares. together with Weber. He used to say. and which the ancient Greeks might have envied. the son. afterwards professor of mathematics at Dorpat. jokingly. who brought him under the notice of Charles ". The duke undertook to educate the boy. and surpasses this great Frenchman in rigour. and make systematic use of determinants and of to imaginaries. to publish his results. Duke of Brunswick. is combined with an absolute rigorousness in demonstration which is too often wanting in their writings. as yet undecided whether to pursue philol ogy or mathematics. His progress in languages there was quite equal to that in mathematics. the first to fully recognise and emphasise the impor tance. The marvellous aptitude for calculation of the young boy attracted the attention of Bartels. At the age of twenty Gauss had overturned old theories and old methods in all branches of higher mathematics but little pains did he take . was born at Brunswick. 363 of our own epoch. He rivals Lagrange in elegance. of a bricklayer. and now chiefly remembered for . In 1795 he went. ". He reconstructed the whole of magnetic science. displayed by mathematicians of the preceding period. and thereby to establish his priority.

who desired to secure him as director of a proposed new observatory at Gottingeni he declined the offer. He had a strong will. his Geschichte der Mathematik (1796). except in 1854. 1801. Leipzig. Gauss had a marked objection to a mathematical chair. Among his small circle of intimate friends was Wolfgang Bolyai. when was opened between Gottingen and a railroad Hanover. but after this he never again left Gottingen. but by the advice of the astronomer Olbers. At the age of nineteen Gauss discovered a method of inscribing in a circle a regular polygon of seventeen sides. He was little communicative. In 1828 he went to Berlin to attend a meeting of scientists. was not an inspiring teacher. In 1807 the Emperor of Eussia offered Gauss a chair in the Academy at St. and at times morose. and his character showed a curious mixture of self-conscious dignity and child-like simplicity. The Disquisitiones Arithmetics . and accepted the place at Gottingen. A new epoch in the theory of numbers dates from the publi cation of his Disquisitiones Arithmeticce. Some of its results had been previously given by Lagrange and Euler. The beginning of this work dates back as far as 1795.364 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He worked quite independently of his teachers. and this success encouraged him to pursue mathematics. He spent his life in Gottingen in the midst of continuous work. After completing his course he returned to Brunswick. but were reached independently by Gauss. and while a student at Gottingen made several of his greatest discoveries. In 1798 and 1799 he repaired to the university at Helmstadt to consult the library. and there made the acquaintance of Pfaff. Petersburg. and preferred the post of astronomer. that he might give all his time to science. Higher arithmetic was his favourite study. who had gone deeply into the subject before he became acquainted with the writ ings of his great predecessors. a mathematician of much power.

Lebesgue. 48 The solution of the problem of the repre sentation of numbers by binary quadratic forms is one of the great achievements of Gauss. A. but met with apparently insuperable difficulties. Kronecker. and the fifth section. was discovered him by ". The great law of quadratic reciprocity. E. In 1808 followed a third and fourth demonstration. and has since been repeatedly elaborated for students. developing the theory of the division of the circle. treating of quadratic forms. Gauss had planned an eighth section. treating of congruences of the second degree. Genocchi. Kummer. Chr. passed over with universal neglect. Busche. In the fifth section Gauss gave a second proof of this gem ". until the time of Jacobi. Eisenstein. then of Breslau. Voigt. were. ". which was omitted to lessen the expense of publication. a fifth and sixth.by induction before he was eighteen. Zeller. in 1817. Proofs were given also by Jacobi. J. THEORY OF NUMBERS. Pepin. was received from the start with deserved enthusiasm. The seventh or last section. The fourth section of the Disquisitiones AritJimeticce. A. but they have since been the starting-point of a long series ofimportant researches. of higher arithmetic. Schering. Afterwards he learned that Euler had imperfectly enunciated that theorem. given in the fourth section of Gauss work. Liouville. Petersen. A standard work on Kreistheilung was published in 1872 by Paul Bachmann. a law which involves the whole theory of quadratic residues. Stern. ISTo wonder that he felt a personal attachment to this theorem. Bouniakowsky. and that Legendre had attempted to prove it. 365 was already in print when Legendre s Theorie des Nombres appeared. His papers on the theory of numbers were not all included in his great treatise. E. He wrote two memoirs on . and was proved by him one year later. and Th. He created a new algorithm by introducing the theory of congruences. M. Some of them were published for the first time after his death in his collected works (1863-1871).

with the object of securing con tinuous observations at fixed times. Gauss researches on the theory of numbers were the start ing-point for a school of writers. the second of which contains a theorem of biquadratic reciprocity. He wrote on the attrac tion of homogeneous ellipsoids. Mobius. and earlier by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre still M (1749-1822) . August Ferdinand Gerling. among the earliest of whom was Jacobi.366 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He discussed the problem of rays of light passing through a system of lenses. In 1809 the name of he published the Theoria motus corporum coelestium. In a memoir on capil lary attraction. made Gauss generally known. now usually called ". Among Gauss pupils were Christian Heinrich Schumacher. In it are found four formulae in spherical trigonometry. He founded the German Magnetic Union. Johann Frantz Encke. but which were published some what earlier by Karl Brandon Mollweide of Leipzig (1774- 1825). it is the earliest example of the solution of such a problem. he solves a problem in the calculus of variations involving the variation of a certain double integral. 1833. Many years of hard work were spent in the astronomical and magnetic observatory. He took part in geodetic observations. and in 1843 and 1846 wrote two memoirs. His determination of the elements of its orbit with sufficient accuracy to enable Olbers to redis cover it. which contains a discussion of the problems arising in the deter mination of the movements of planets and comets from observations made on them under any circumstances.". 1813.Gauss Analogies. Georg Wilhelm Struve. Ueber Gegenstdnde der hoheren Geodesie. giving theorems without proofs. Christian Friedrich Mcolai. the theory of biquadratic residues (1825 and 1831). the limits of integration being also variable . After the . The latter contributed to Crelle s Journal an article on cubic residues. Gauss was led to astronomy by the discovery of the planet Ceres at Palermo in 1801.

Poisson. Dirichlet s acquaint ance with Fourier led him to investigate Fourier s series. Dirichlet gave some . giving the law of biquadratic reciprocity. He became decent in Breslau in 1827. and his treatment of com plex numbers. however. Legendre. Mertens of Graz has determined the asymptotic values of several numerical functions. and then the Jesuit gymnasium in Cologne. Ueber die Bestim- mung der mittleren Werthe in der Zahlentheorie. 6. The facilities for a mathematical education there were far better than in Germany. His first memoir on the impossibility of certain indeterminate equations of the fifth degree was presented to the French Academy in 1825. 367 3 publication of Gauss paper on biquadratic residues. a work which he never ceased to admire and study. More recently F. Legendre s.&. In 1828 he accepted a position in Berlin. The general principles on which depends the aver age number of classes of binary quadratic forms of positive and negative determinant (a subject first investigated by Gauss) were given by Dirichlet in a memoir. and Lame proved it when n = 7. 1849. Fourier. xn y n + = n z .ft = 5. Much in it was simplified by Dirichlet. Euler and Lagrange had proved this when n is 3 and 4. the expounder of Gauss. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet 88 (1805-1859) was born in Duren. cannot exist when . He read in Paris Gauss Disquisitiones Arith- meticce. attended the gymnasium in Bonn. 4. In 1822 he was attracted to Paris by the names of Laplace.lt. Jacobi found a similar law for cubic residues. he was led to beautiful theorems on the representation of numbers by 2. THEOBY OF NUMBEES. and finally succeeded Gauss at Gottingen in 1855. Next come the researches of Dirichlet. Cauchy. Some parts of the analysis are. and 8 squares. He showed that Fermat s equation. where Gauss was the only great figure. and thereby placed within easier reach of mathematicians. and a contributor of rich results of his own. By the theory of elliptical functions.

the existence of limits within which the sum of the logarithms of the primes P. in a celebrated memoir. established. .000. contrasts strongly with Riemann s. must be comprised. by the Association. Ap proaching the problem from a different direction. Sylvester s con traction of Tchebycheff s limits. which involves abstruse theorems of the integral calculus. 1859. Hadamard (awarded the Grand prix of 1892). for instance. of tables for the sixth million marked the completion of tables. and which enable us to resolve into prime factors every composite number less than 9. in that respect. G-auss and Legendre had given expressions denoting approximately the asymptotic value of the number of primes inferior to a given limit. which have the same modulus. L. to give an investigation of the asymptotic frequency of primes which is rigorous.368 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Ueber die Anzakl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Gfrosse. attention to prime numbers. In 1877 the British Association began. under the direction of J. G-laisher. and. and England contributed. admit of a common solution. are among the latest researches in this line. but it remained for Bdemann in his memoir. France. The printing.000. inferior to a given number a?. with reference to the distri bution of primes. The enumeration of prime numbers has been undertaken at different times by various mathematicians. Miscellaneous contributions to the theory of numbers were made by Cauchy. the preparation of factor-tables. He showed. how to find all the infinite solutions of a homogeneous indeterminate equation of the second degree in three variables when one solution is given. Sur les Nombres Premiers. to the preparation of which Germany. Patnutij Tchebyclieffy formerly professor in the University of St. He established the theorem that if two congruences. W. 1850. Peters burg (born 1821). and researches of J. 89 This paper depends on very elementary considerations. Poincare s papers.

but the extension from two to three indeterminates was the work of Eisenstein who. They contain much orig inal matter. Henry John Stephen Smith (1826-1883) was born in Lon 90 don. His first paper on the theory of numbers appeared in 1855. but the chief results of his own discoveries were . The results of ten years study of everything pub theory of numbers are contained in lished on the his Eeports which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 to 1865. Profound researches were instituted by Ferdinand Gotthold Eisenstein (1823-1852). and educated at Eugby and at Balliol College. assigned the weight of any order or genus. in his memoir. relating to the presentation of numbers by sums of squares. defined the ordinal and generic characters of ternary quadratic forms of uneven determinant. who was one of the few Englishmen who devoted themselves to the study of higher arithmetic. investigated (1809-1882). he was led to the discovery of the first covariant ever considered in analysis. Many of the proofs omitted by Eisenstein were supplied by Henry Smith. professor mainly questions on the theory of quadratic forms of two. in case of definite forms. These reports are a model of clear and precise exposition and perfection of form. but after that year he was never absent from Oxford for a single term. Joseph Liouville at the College de France. and. THEORY OF NUMBERS. and at one time attended lectures of Arago in Paris. In 1861 he was elected Savilian professor of geometry. of Berlin. ceases when the number of squares surpasses eight. He showed that the series of theorems. Neue Tkeo- reme der liolieren Arithmetik. But he did not publish demonstrations of his re sults. Before 1847 he travelled much in Europe for his health. In inspecting the theory of binary cubic forms. Oxford. 369 the modulus is a divisor of their resultant. and of a greater number of variables. Ternary quadratic forms had been studied somewhat by Gauss.

Theorems relating to the case of 5 squares were given by Eisenstein. Sylvester. He sent in a dissertation in 1882. This class of theorems is limited to 8 squares. The solu tion of the cases of 2. and other simple quadratic forms are dedueible by a uniform method from the principles indicated in his paper.870 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Instead of the equation x* 1 0. and Liou- ville. 8 squares. introduced by Gauss. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861 and 1867. and of the orders and genera of ternary quadratic forms. His successor at Oxford was J. the prize was awarded to him. and added the corresponding theorems for 7 squares. He wrote also on modern geome try. Min- kowsky of Bonn. Eisenstein used the equation . it involves processes peculiar to the theory of numbers. 4. and next year. This Smith had accomplished fifteen years earlier. He contributed also two memoirs to the Proceedings of the Royal Society of 1864 and 1868. the Academy offered a prize for the demonstration and comple tion of Eisenstein s theorems for 5 squares. the roots = of which yield Gauss units. a month after his death. in the second of which he remarks that the theorems of Jacobi. In ignorance of Smith s Erench investigations. was extended by him. relating to the representation of numbers by 4. but when the number of squares is odd. Eisenstein. 6. 6 squares may be obtained by elliptic functions. is closely identified with the theory of num bers. He established the principles on which the extension to the gen eral case of n indeterminates of quadratic forms depends. professor in the Uni versity of Berlin. Ernst Eduard Kummer (1810-1893). J. They treat of linear indeterminate equations and congruences. but Smith completed the enunciation of them. Dirichlet s work on complex numbers of the form a-M&. another prize being also awarded to H. and Smith completed the group. and Dedekind. The theory of numbers led Smith to the study of elliptic functions. by Eisenstein.

1864. 371 o3 1 = and complex numbers a + (p being a cube root 6/&. his pupil. left unfinished by Abel (LiouviHe s Journal. Following up researches of Hermite. THEORY OF NUMBERS. Kummer passed to the general case xn 1 = and got complex numbers of the form a = a 1A1 + a2A2 + asAs -\ . Petersburg to the solution of a problem of the integral calculus. The problem -of the equivalence of two positive or definite ternary quadratic forms was solved by L. in which he to some extent deviates from the course of Kummer. Vol.). efforts have been made to utilise in the theory of numbers the results of the modern higher algebra. morphics of such forms. where a are whole real numbers. On quadratic . Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891) made researches which he applied to algebraic equations. On the other hand. Zolotareff of St. Euclid s theory of the greatest common divisor is not applicable to such complex numbers. In the effort to overcome this difficulty. and avoids the use of ideal numbers. Paul Bachmann of Munster investigated the arithmetical formula which gives the auto- 89 morphics of a ternary quadratic form. the theory of which resembles that of Gauss num bers. Seeber and that of the arithmetical auto- . Kummer was led to introduce the conception of ". by Eisenstein. Second Series.ideal These ideal numbers have been applied by numbers.".gt. Dedekind has taken the roots of any irreduci ble equation with integral coefficients as the units for his com plex numbers. Gr. and A+ roots of the above t 59 equation. Julius Wttlielm Richard Dedekind of Braunschweig (born 1831) has given in the second edition of Dirichlet s Vorlesungen uber ZahlentJieorie a new theory of complex numbers. and their prime factors cannot be defined in the same as factors of way prime common integers are denned. Attracted by Kummer s investigations. IX. The more difficult prob lem of the equivalence for indefinite ternary forms has been investigated by Edward Selling of Wtirzburg. of unity).

372 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.

**forms of four or more indeterminates little lias yet been done.
**

Hermite snowed that the number of non-equivalent classes of

**quadratic forms having integral coefficients
**

and a given dis

criminant is finite, while Zolotareif and A. HT. Korkine, both

of St. Petersburg, investigated the minima of positive quadratic

forms. In connection with binary quadratic forms, Smith

established the theorem that if the joint invariant of two

**properly primitive forms vanishes,
**

the determinant of either

of them is represented primitively by the duplicate of the

other.

The interchange of theorems between arithmetic and algebra

is displayed in the recent researches

of J. W. L. G-laisher

**of Trinity College (born 1848) and Sylvester. Sylvester gave
**

a Constructive Theory of Partitions, which received additions

from his pupils, If. Eranklin and G. S. Ely.

The conception of number" has been much extended in

"

**our time. With the (keeks it included only the ordinary
**

positive whole numbers

Diophantus added rational fractions

;

**to the domain of numbers. Later negative numbers and
**

imaginaries came gradually to be recognised. Descartes fully

grasped the notion of the negative Gauss, that of the imagi

;

**nary. With Euclid, a ratio, whether rational or irrational, was
**

not a number. The recognition of ratios and irrationals as

numbers took place in the sixteenth century, and found expres

sion with Kewton. By the ratio method, the continuity of the

real number system has been based on the continuity of

space,

but in recent time three theories of irrationals have been

advanced by Weierstrass, J. W. B. Dedekind, G. Cantor, and

Heine, which prove the continuity of numbers without borrow

ing it from space. They are based on the definition of numbers

by regular sequences, the use of series and limits, and some

new mathematical conceptions.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 373

APPLIED MATHEMATICS.

**Notwithstanding the beautiful developments of celestial
**

mechanics reached by Laplace at the close of the eighteenth

century, there was made a discovery on the first day of the

present century which presented a problem seemingly beyond

the power of that analysis. We refer to the discovery of Ceres

**by Piazzi in Italy, which became known in Germany just after
**

the philosopher Hegel had published a dissertation proving a

**priori that such a discovery could not be made. From the
**

positions of the planet observed by Piazzi its orbit could

not

be satisfactorily calculated by the old methods, and it remained

for the genius of G-auss to devise a method of calculating

elliptic orbits which was free from the assumption of a small

eccentricity and inclination. Gauss method was developed

further in his Theoria Motus. The new planet was re-dis

**covered with aid of Gauss data by Olbers, an astronomer
**

who promoted sciencenot only by Ms own astronomical

**studies, but also by discerning and directing towards astro
**

nomical pursuits the genius of Bess el.

of

(1784-1846) was a native

91

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel

Minden in Westphalia. Fondness for figures, and a distaste

for Latin grammar led him to the choice of a mercantile

**career. In his he became an apprenticed clerk
**

fifteenth year

in Bremen, and for nearly seven years he devoted his days to

to

mastering the details of his business, and part of his nights

study. Hoping some day to become a supercargo on trading

**expeditions, hebecame interested in observations at sea. With
**

a sextant constructed by him and an ordinary clock he deter

mined the latitude of Bremen. His success in this inspired

him for astronomical One work after another was

study.

mastered by him, unaided, during the hours snatched from

374 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

**sleep. From old observations he calculated the orbit of
**

Halley s comet. Bessel introduced himself to Gibers, and

submitted to him the calculation, which Olbers immediately

sent for publication. Encouraged by Olbers, Bessel turned

his back to the prospect of affluence, chose poverty and the

**stars, and became assistant in J. H. Schroter s observatory at
**

Lilienthal. Four years later he was chosen to superintend

the construction of the new

observatory at Konigsberg.

92

la

the absence of an adequate mathematical teaching force, Bessel

was obliged to lecture on mathematics to prepare students for

**astronomy. He was relieved of this work in 1825 by the
**

arrival of Jacobi. We shall not recount the labours by which

Bessel earned the title of founder of modern practical astron

**omy and geodesy. As an observer he towered far above
**

G-auss, but as a mathematician he reverently bowed before the

**genius of his great contemporary. Of BessePs papers, the one
**

of greatest mathematical interest is an UntersucJiung des

"

TJieils der planetarischen Sffirungen, welcher aus der Bewegung

**der Sonne ensteht" (1824), in which he introduces a class of
**

transcendental functions, n (#), much used in applied mathe

&lt;/

**matics, and known as "BessePs functions." He gave their
**

principal properties, and constructed tables for their eval

uation. Recently it has been observed that BessePs func

tions appear much earlier in mathematical literature. 98

**Such functions of the zero order occur in papers of Daniel
**

Bernoulli (1732) and Euler on vibration of heavy strings sus

**pended from one end. All of BessePs functions of the first
**

kind and of integral orders occur in paper by Euler (1764) on

the vibration of a stretched elastic membrane. In 1878 Lord

Rayleigh proved that BessePs functions are merely particular

cases of Laplace s functions. J. W. L. G-laisher illustrates

**by BessePs functions his assertion that mathematical branches
**

growing out of, physical

inquiries as a rule "lack the easy flow

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 375

**or homogeneity of form which is characteristic of a mathemati
**

cal theory properly so called." These functions have been

studied by C. Th. Anger of Danzig, 0. Schlomilch of Dresden,

Ku Lipschitz of Bonn (born 1832), Carl Neumann of Leipzig

(born 1832), Eugen Lommel of Leipzig, I. Todhunter of St.

**John s College, Cambridge.
**

Prominent among the successors of Laplace are the follow

ing: Simeon Denis Poisson (1781-1840), who wrote in 1808

a classic M6moire sur les inegalites sfoulaires des moyens mouve-

ments des plan&tes. Giovanni Antonio Amadeo Plana (1781-

1864) of Turin, a nephew of Lagrange, who published in 1811

a Memoria sulla teoria dell

3

attrazione degli sferoidi ellitici, and

contributed to the theory of the moon. Peter Andreas Hansen

**(1795-1874) of G-otha, at one time a clockmaker in Tondern,
**

then Schumacher s assistant at Altona, and finally director of

the observatory at Grotha, wrote on various astronomical sub

jects, but mainly on the lunar theory, which he elaborated in

his work Fundamenta nova investigationes orbitcB verce quam

Luna (1838), and in

perlustrat subsequent investigations

embracing extensive lunar tables. George Biddel Airy (1801-

1892), royal astronomer at Greenwich, published in 1826 his

Mathematical Tracts on the Lunar and Planetary Theories.

These researches have since been greatly extended by him.

August Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868) of Leipzig wrote, in 1842,

Elemente der Mechanik des Himmels. Urbain Jean Joseph Le

Verrier (1811-1877) of Paris wrote, the Eecherches Astrono-

**miqueSj constituting in part a new elaboration of celestial
**

mechanics, and is famous for his theoretical discovery of

Neptune. John Adams (1819-1892) of Cambridge

Couch

divided with Le Verrier the honour of the mathematical dis

**covery of Neptune, and pointed out in 1853 that Laplace s
**

explanation of the secular acceleration of the moon s mean

motion accounted for only half the observed acceleration.

876 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

**Charles Eugene Delaimay (born 1816, and drowned off Cher
**

bourg in 1872), professor of mechanics at the Sorbonne in

Paris, explained most of the remaining acceleration of the

moon, unaccounted for by Laplace s theory as corrected by

Adams, by tracing the effect of tidalfriction, a theory

**previously suggested independently by Kant, Eobert Mayer,
**

and William Ferrel of Kentucky. George Howard Darwin of

Cambridge (born 1845) made some very remarkable inves

**tigations in 1879 on tidal friction, which trace with great
**

certainty the history of the moon from its origin. He has

since studied also the effects of tidal friction upon other

bodies in the solar system. Criticisms on some parts of his

researches have been made by James Nolan of Victoria. Simon

Newcomb (born 1835), superintendent of the Nautical Almanac

at Washington, and professor of mathematics at the Johns

**Hopkins University, investigated the errors in Haiisen s tables
**

of the moon. Eor the last twelve years the main work of the

17. &. Nautical Almanac office has been to collect and discuss

**data for new tables of the planets which will supplant the
**

tables ofLe Verrier. G. W. Hill of that office has contributed

an elegant paper on certain possible abbreviations in the com

putation of the long-period of the moon s motion, due to the

direct action of the planets, and has made the most elaborate

determination yet undertaken of the inequalities of the moon s

motion due to the figure of the earth. He has also computed

certajpHkunar inequalities

due to the action of Jupiter.

x Fhe mathematical discussion of Saturn s rings was taken

up

firstby Laplace, who demonstrated that a homogeneous solid

ring could not be in equilibrium, and in 1851 by B. Peirce,

who proved their non-solidity by showing that even an irregu

lar solid ring could not be in equilibrium about Saturn. The

mechanism was investigated by James Clerk

of these rings

Maxwell in an essay to which the Adams prize was awarded.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 377

**He concluded that they consisted of an aggregate of uncon
**

nected particles.

The problem of three bodies has been treated in various

ways since the time of Lagrange, but no decided advance

towards a more .complete algebraic solution has been made,

and the problem stands substantially where it was left by him.

He had made a reduction in the differential equations to the

seventh order. This was elegantly accomplished in a different

way by Jacobi in 1843. J3. Radau

(Comptes Rendus, LXVIL,

1868, p. 841) and AlUgret (Journal de MatMmatiques, 1875,

p. 277) showed that the reduction can be performed on the

**equations in their original form. Noteworthy transformations
**

and discussions of the problem have been given by J. L. IT.

Bertrand, by Emile Bour (1831-1866) of the Polytechnic School

in Paris, by Mathieu, Hesse, J. A. Serret. H. Bruns of Leipzig

has shown that no advance in the problem of three or of n

bodies may be expected by algebraic integrals, and that we

must look to the modern theory of functions for a complete

solution (Acta Math., XL, p. 43)."

**Among valuable text-books on mathematical astronomy rank
**

the following works Manual of Spherical and Practical Astron

:

**omy by Chauvenet (1863), Practical and Spherical Astronomy
**

by Robert Main of Cambridge, TJieoretical Astronomy by James

C. Watson of Ann Arbor (1868), Traite tlementaire de M&ca-

nique Celeste of H. Eesal of the Polytechnic School in Paris,

Cours d Astronomie de VEcole PolytecJimque by Faye, Trait6

de M6canique Celeste by Tisserandj Lehrbuch der JBahnbestim-

**mung by T. Oppolzer, Mathematische Theorien der Planeten-
**

bewegung by 0. DziobeJc, translated into English by M. W,

Harrington and W. J. Hussey.

During the present century we have come to recognise the

advantages frequently arising from a geometrical treatment of

mechanical problems. To Poinsot, Chasles, and Mobius we

378 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

**owe the most important developments made in geometrical
**

mechanics. Louis Poinsot (1777-1859) , a graduate of the

**Polytechnic School in Paris,, and for many years member of
**

the superior council of public instruction, published in 1804

his EUments de Statique. This work is remarkable not only

as being the earliest introduction to synthetic mechanics, but

also as containing for the first time the idea of couples, which

was applied by Poinsot in a publication of 1834 to the theory

of rotation. A clear conception of the nature of rotary

motion was conveyed by Poinsot s elegant geometrical repre

sentation by means of an ellipsoid rolling on a certain fixed

**plane. This construction was extended by Sylvester so as
**

to measure the rate of .rotation of the ellipsoid on the plane.

A particular class of dynamical problems has recently been

treated geometrically^ by Sir Robert Stawell Ball, formerly

astronomer royal of Ireland, now Lowndean Professor of

Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge. His method is given

in a work entitled Theory of Screws, Dublin, 1876, and in

**subsequent articles. Modern geometry is here drawn upon,
**

as was done also by Clifford in the related subject of Bi-

**quaternions. Arthur Buchheim of Manchester (1859-1888),
**

showed that G-rassmann s Ausdehnungslehre supplies all the

necessary materials for a simple calculus of screws in elliptic

space. Horace Lamb applied the theory of screws to the ques

tion of the steady motion of any solid in a fluid.

Advances in theoretical mechanics, bearing on the in

tegration and the alteration in form of dynamical equations,

were made since Lagrange by Poisson, William Eowan Hamil

ton., Jacobi, Madame Kowalevski, and others. Lagrange had

established the "Lagrangian form" of the

equations of

motion. He had given a theory of the variation of the

arbitrary constants which, however, turned out to be less

fruitful in results than a theory advanced by Poisson." Pois-

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 379

son s theory of the variation of the arbitrary constants and

**the method of integration thereby afforded marked the first
**

onward step since Lagrange. Then came the researches of

Sir William Kowan Hamilton. His discovery that the inte

gration of the dynamic differential equations is connected with

the integration of a certain partial differential equation of the

first order and second degree, grew out of an attempt to deduce,

by the undulatory theory, results in geometrical optics previ

**ously based on the conceptions of the emission theory. The
**

Philosophical Transactions of 1833 and 1834 contain Hamil

ton papers, in which appear the first applications to me

s

**chanics of the principle of varying action and the characteristic
**

function, established by him some years previously. The

object which Hamilton proposed to himself is indicated by

the title of his first paper, viz. the discovery of a function

by means of which all integral equations can be actually

represented. The new form obtained by him for the equation

of motion is a result of no less importance than that which

was the professed object of the memoir. Hamilton s method

of integration was freed by Jacobi of an unnecessary complica

tion, and was then applied by him to the determination of a

**geodetic line on the general ellipsoid. With aid of elliptic co
**

ordinates Jacobi integrated the partial differential equation

and expressed the equation of the geodetic in form of a

relation between two Abelian integrals. Jacobi applied to

differential equations of dynamics the theory of the ultimate

**multiplier. The differential equations of dynamics are only
**

one of the classes of differential equations considered by

Jacobi. Dynamic investigations along the lines of Lagrange,

Hamilton, and Jacobi were made by Liouville, A. Desboves,

Serret, J. C. F. Sturm, Ostrogradsky, J. Bertrand, Donkin,

of a

Brioschi, leading up to the development of the theory

system of canonical integrals.

the third form. in connection with his theory of ignoration of ". and was derived by Bertrand from the principle of virtual velocities. which are the time-variations of the co-ordinates of the system. and a modified form of Lagrange s equations in which. VIII. Bk. By the use of theta-functions of two independent variables she furnished a remarkable example of how the modern theory of functions may become useful in mechanical problems. obtained the doctor s degree at Gottingen. 32). By it one can determine from the performance of a model the action of the machine constructed on a larger scale. studied under Weierstrass. The kinetic energy is expressed in the first form as a homogeneous quadratic function of the velocities. in the second form.". and from 1884 until her death was professor of higher mathematics at the University of Stockholm. She was a native of Moscow. The research above mentioned received the Bordin prize of the French Academy in 1888. A corollary to it. the Hamiltonian. as a homo geneous quadratic function of the momenta of the system.380 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and in other branches of physics. Sec.. Prop. elaborated recently by Edward John Eouth of Cambridge. is of importance in hydro- dynamical problems relating to the motion of perforated solids in a liquid. B. certain velocities are omitted. and by A. co-ordinates. applied in ship-build. There are in vogue three forms for the expression of the kinetic energy of a dynamical system: the Lagrangian.% . which was doubled on account of the exceptional merit of the paper. who discovered a new case in which the differential equations of motion can be integrated. In recent time great practical importance has come to be attached to the principle of mechanical similitude. Basset. An important addition to the theory of the motion of a solid body about a fixed point was made by Madame SopMe de Kowalevski 96 (1853-1891).. The principle was first enunciated by Newton (Principia. II.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 381

**ing, goes by the name of William Ifroude s law, but was enun
**

ciated also by Heech.

The present problems of dynamics differ materially from

those of the last century. The explanation of the orbital and

axial motions of the heavenly bodies by the law of universal

**gravitationwas the great problem solved by Clairaut, Euler,
**

D Alembert, Lagrange, and Laplace. It did not involve the

consideration of frictional resistances. In the present time

the aid of dynamics has been invoked by the physical

sciences. The problems there arising are often complicated

**by the presence of friction. Unlike astronomical problems of
**

a century ago, they refer to phenomena of matter and motion

that are usually concealed from direct observation. The great

**pioneer in such problems is Lord Kelvin. While yet an
**

undergraduate at Cainb ridge, during holidays spent at the

seaside, he entered upon researches of this kind by working

out the theory of spinning tops, which previously had been

**only partially explained by Jellet in his Treatise on the Tlieory
**

of Friction (1872), and by Archibald Smith.

Among standard works on mechanics are Jacobi s Vorlesun-

**gen uber Dynamite, edited by Clebseh, 1866 KirchliolFs Vorle-
**

;

**sungen uber mathematische PhysiJc, 1876 Benjamin Peirce s
**

;

**Analytic Mechanics, 1855; SomofPs TheoretiscJie
**

MechaniJc,

**1879; Tait and Steele s a
**

Dynamics of Particle, 1856; Minchin s

Treatise on Statics; Routh s Dynamics of a System of Rigid

**Bodies; Sturm s Cours de M&canique de VEcole Polytechnique.
**

The equations which constitute the foundation of the theory

of fluid motion were fully laid down at the time of Lagrange,

but the solutions actually worked out were few and mainly

of the irrotational type. A

powerful method of attacking

in fluid motion is that of images, introduced in 1843

problems

by George Gabriel Stokes of Pembroke College, Cambridge.

Tt received little attention until Sir William Thomson s dis-

382 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

**covery of electrical images, whereupon the theory was extended
**

by Stokes, Hicks, and Lewis. In 1849, Thomson gave the

maximum and minimum theorem peculiar to hydrodynamics,

which was afterwards extended to dynamical problems in

general.

A new epoch in the progress of hydrodynamics was created,

in 1856, by Helmholtz, who worked out remarkable properties

of rotational motion in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid,

devoid of viscosity. He showed that the vortex filaments in

such a medium may possess any number of knottings and twist-

ings, but are either endless or the ends are in the free surface

of the medium

they are indivisible. These results suggested

;

**to Sir William Thomson the possibility of founding on them a
**

new form of the atomic theory, according to which every atom

isa vortex ring in a non-frictional ether, and as such must be

**absolutely permanent in substance and duration. The vortex-
**

atom theory is discussed by J. J. Thomson of Cambridge

(born 1856) in his classical treatise on the Motion of Vortex

Rings, to which the Adams Prize was awarded in 1882.

Papers on vortex motion have been published also by Horace

Lamb, Thomas Craig, Henry A. Eowland, and Charles Chree.

The was investigated by Helmholtz, ELirch-

subject of jets

hoff, Plateau, and Rayleigh the motion of fluids in a fluid by

;

Stokes, Sir W. Thomson, Kopcke, G-reenhill, and Lamb the ;

theory of viscous fluids by Navier, Poisson, Saint-Yenant,

**Stokes, 0. E. Meyer, Stefano, Maxwell, Lipschitz, Craig,
**

Helmholtz, and A. B. Basset. Viscous fluids present great

difficulties, because the equations of motion have riot the same

**degree of certainty as in perfect fluids, on account of a defi
**

cient theory of friction, and of the difficulty of connecting

**oblique pressures on a small area with the differentials of the
**

velocities.

Waves in liquids have been a favourite

subject with Eng-

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 383

**lislimathematicians. The early inquiries of Poisson and
**

Cauchy were directed to the investigation of waves produced

by disturbing causes acting arbitrarily on a small portion

of the fluid. The velocity of the long wave was given

approximately by Lagrange in 1786 in case of a channel of

rectangular cross-section, by Green in 1839 for a channel of

triangular section, and by P. Kelland for a channel of any

uniform section. Sir George B. Airy, in his treatise on Tides

and Waves, discarded mere approximations, and gave the exact

equation on which the theory of the long wave in a channel of

uniform rectangular section depends. But he gave no general

solutions. J". McCowan of University College at Dundee

discusses this topic more fully, and arrives at exact and

**complete solutions for certain cases. The most important
**

application of the theory of the long wave is to the explana

tion of tidal phenomena in rivers and estuaries.

The mathematical treatment of solitary waves was first

**taken up by S. Earnshaw in 1845, then by Stokes but the
**

;

first

**sound approximate theory was given by J. Boussinesq in 1871,
**

who obtained an equation for their form, and a value for the

velocity in agreement with experiment. Other methods of

approximation were given by Eayleigh and J. McCowan. In

connection with deep-water waves, Osborne Reynolds gave in

1877 the dynamical explanation for the fact that a group

of such waves advances with only half the rapidity of the

individual waves.

The solution of the problem of the general motion of an

**ellipsoid in a fluid is due to the successive labours of Green
**

(1833), Clebsch(1856), and Bjerknes (1873). The free

motion of a solid in a liquid has been investigated by W.

Thomson, Kirchhoff, and Horace Lamb. By these labours, the

motion of a single solid in a fluid has come to be pretty well

understood, but the case of two solids in a fluid is not devel-

384 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

**oped so fully. The problem has been attacked by W. M.
**

Hicks.

The determination of the period of oscillation of a rotating

**liquid spheroid has important bearings on the question of the
**

origin of the moon. G-. H. Darwin s investigations thereon,

**viewed in the light of Eiemann s and Poincare s researches,
**

seem to disprove Laplace s hypothesis that the moon separated

from the earth as a ring, because the angular velocity was too

**great for stability ;
**

Darwin finds no instability.

The explanation of the contracted vein has been a point of

much controversy, but has been put in a much better light by

the application of the principle of momentum, originated by

Eroude and Eayleigh. Eayleigh considered also the reflection

of waves, not at the surface of separation of two uniform

**media, where the transition is abrupt, but at the confines of
**

two media between which the transition is gradual.

The first serious study of the circulation of winds on the

earth s surface was instituted at the beginning of the second

quarter of this century by H. W. Dov William (7. JZedJield, and }

**James P. Espy, followed by researches of W. Reid, Piddington,
**

and JSlias Loomis. But the deepest insight into the wonder

among the varied motions of the

ful correlations that exist

**atmosphere was obtained by William Ferrel (1817-1891). He
**

was born in Fulton County, Pa., and brought up on a farm.

Though in unfavourable surroundings, a burning thirst for

knowledge spurred the boy to the mastery of one branch after

another. He attended Marshall College, Pa., and graduated

in 1844 from Bethany College. While teaching school he

became interested in meteorology and in the subject of tides.

In 1856 he wrote an article on the winds and currents of the

"

**ocean." The following year he became connected with the
**

Nautical Almanac. A mathematical paper followed in 1858

on "the motion of fluids and solids relative to the earth s

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 385

surface.

"

**The subject was extended afterwards so as to
**

embrace the mathematical theory of cyclones, tornadoes,

water-spouts, etc. In 1885 appeared his Recent Advances in

Meteorology. In the opinion of a leading European meteor

ologist (Julius Hann

of Vienna), Ferrel has "contributed more

to the advance of the physics of the atmosphere than any

other living physicist or meteorologist."

Ferrel teaches that the air flows in great spirals toward the

**poles, both in the upper strata of the atmosphere and on the
**

earth s surface beyond the 30th degree of latitude; while

the return current blows at nearly right angles to the above

spirals, in the middle strata as well as on the earth s surface,

in a zone comprised between the parallels 30 IsT. and 30 S. The

idea of three superposed currents blowing spirals was first

advanced by James Thomson, but was published in very

meagre abstract.

FerrePs views have given a strong impulse to theoretical

research in America, Austria, and Germany. Several objec

tions raised against his argument have been abandoned, or

have been answered by M. Davis of Harvard. The mathe

"W.

**matical analysis of F. Waldo of Washington, and of others,
**

has further confirmed the accuracy of the* theory. The trans

port of Krakatoa dust and observations made on clouds point

toward the existence of an upper east current on the equator,

and Pernter has mathematically deduced from FerrePs theory

the existence of such a current.

Another theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere

was propounded by Werner Siemens of Berlin, in which an

attempt is made to apply thermodynamics to aerial currents.

Important new points of view have been introduced recently

by Helmholtz, who concludes that when two air currents blow

one above the other in different directions, a system of air

waves must arise in the same way as waves are formed on the

386 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS.

**sea. He and A. Oberbeck showed that when the waves on the
**

sea attain lengths of from 16 to 33 feet, the air waves must

attain lengths of from 10 to 20 miles, and proportional depths.

**Superposed strata would thus mix more thoroughly, and their
**

energy would be partly dissipated. From hydrodynainical

equations of rotation Helrnholtz established the reason why

the observed velocity from equatorial regions is much less in

a latitude of, say, 20 or 30, than it would be were the move

ments unchecked.

About 1860 acoustics began to be studied with renewed

zeal. The mathematical theory of pipes and vibrating strings

had been elaborated in the eighteenth century by Daniel Ber

noulli, D

Alembert, Euler, and Lagrange. In the first part of

the present century Laplace corrected Newton s theory on the

**velocity of sound in gases, Poisson gave a mathematical dis
**

cussion of torsional vibrations ; Poisson, Sophie Germain, and

Wheatstone studied Chladni s Thomas Young and the

figures ;

**brothers Weber developed the wave-theory of sound. Sir J.
**

F. W. Herschel wrote on the mathematical theory of sound for

the Encydopc&dia, Metropolitana, 1845. Epoch-making were

Helmholtz s experimental and mathematical researches. In

his hands and Rayleigh s, Fourier s series received due

attention. Helmholtz gave the mathematical theory of beats,

difference tones, and summation tones. Lord Rayleigh (John

William Strutt) of Cambridge (born 1842) made extensive

mathematical researches in acoustics as a part of the

theory of

vibration in general. Particular mention may be made of his

discussion of the disturbance produced by a

spherical obstacle

on the waves of sound, and of phenomena, such as sensitive

flames, connected with the instability of jets of fluid. In 1877

and 1878 he published in two volumes a treatise on TJie

Theory

of Sound. Other mathematical researches on this subject have

been made in England by Donkin and Stokes.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 387

**The theory of elasticity 42 belongs to this century.
**

Before

1800 no attempt had been made to form general equations for

the motion or equilibrium of an elastic solid. Particular prob

lems had been solved by special hypotheses. Thus, James

Bernoulli considered elastic laminae; Daniel Bernoulli and

Euler investigated vibrating rods; Lagrange and Euler, the

equilibrium of springs and columns. The earliest investiga

tions of this century, by Thomas Young Young s modulus of

("

**elasticity in England, J. Binet in France, and Gr. A. A. Plana
**

")

**in Italy, were chiefly occupied in extending and correcting the
**

earlier labours. Between 1830 and 1840 the broad outline of the

modern theory of elasticity was established. This was accom

plished almost exclusively by French writers, Louis-Marie-

Henri (1785-1836), Poisson, Cauchy, Mademoiselle

JSTavier

**Sophie Germain (1776-1831), Felix Savart (1791-1841).
**

Simeon Denis Poisson 94 (1781-1840) was born at Pithiviers.

The boy was put out and he used to tell that when

to a nurse,

his father (a common

soldier) came to see him one day, the

nurse had gone out and left him suspended by a thin cord to a

nail in the wall in order to protect him from perishing under

the teeth of the carnivorous and unclean animals that roamed

on the floor. Poisson used to add that his gymnastic efforts

when thus siispended caused him to swing back and forth, and

thus to gain an early familiarity with the pendulum, the study

of which occupied him much in his maturer life. His father

destined him for the medical profession, but so repugnant was

this to him that he was permitted to enter the Polytechnic

School at the age of seventeen. His talents excited the inter

est of Lagrange and Laplace. At eighteen he wrote a memoir

on finite differences which was printed on the recommendation

of Legendre. He soon became a lecturer at the school, and

continued through life to hold various government scientific

posts and professorships. He prepared some 400 publications,

388 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.

**mainly on applied mathematics. His Traite de Mfaanique,
**

2 vols., 1811 and 1833, was long a standard work. He wrote

on the mathematical theory of heat, capillary action, proba

bility of judgment, the mathematical theory of electricity and

magnetism, physical astronomy, the attraction of ellipsoids,

definite integrals, series, and the theory of elasticity. He was

considered one of the leading analysts of his time.

His work on elasticity is hardly excelled by that of Cauchy,

and second only to that of Saint-Venant. There is hardly a

problem in which he has not contributed, while

elasticity to

many of his inquiries were new.The equilibrium and motion

of a circular plate was first successfully treated by him.

Instead of the definite integrals of earlier writers, he used

preferably finite summations. Poisson s contour conditions

for elastic plates were objected to by Gustav Kirehhoff of

**Berlin, who established new conditions. But Thomson and
**

Tait in their Treatise on Natural Philosophy have explained

the discrepancy between Poisson s and KirchhofPs boundary

conditions, and established a reconciliation between them. .

**Important contributions to the theory of elasticity were
**

made by Cauchy. To him we owe the origin of the theory

of stress, and the transition from the consideration of the

force upon a molecule exerted by its neighbours to the con

sideration of the stress upon a small plane at a point. He

anticipated Green and Stokes in giving the equations of iso-

tropic elasticity with two constants. The theory of elasticity

was presented by Gabrio Piola of Italy according to the prin

ciples of Lagrange s Mtcanique Analytique, but the superiority

of this method over that of Poisson and Cauchy is far from

evident. The influence of temperature on stress was first

investigated experimentally by Wilhelm Weber of Gottingen,

and afterwards mathematically by Duhamel, who,

assuming

Poisson s theory of elasticity, examined the alterations of

he was elected professor of physics at the Polytechnic School. certain want of physical touch sometimes reduces the value of his contributions to elasticity and other physical subjects. Weber was also the first to experiment on elastic after-strain. and known by the name of Lame s func ". Subsequently he held various engineering posts and professorships in Paris. Lame devoted his fine mathemati cal talents mainly to mathematical physics. he employed functions analogous to Laplace s functions. Gabriel Lame 94 (1795-1870) was born at Tours. As a result. In four works : Legons sur les fonctions inverses des transcendantes et Us sur faces isothermes. 389 form which the formulae undergo when we allow for changes of temperature. A problem in elasticity called by Lame s name. of phenomena^ and demanded a more comprehensive theory. while the latter physicist in England and Yicat (1786-1861) in Prance experimented extensively on absolute strength. APPLIED MATHEMATICS. viz. Sur la tMorie math&matique de V elasticity des corps solides (1852) . and in various memoirs he displays fine analytical powers but a . Sur la theorle analytique de la clialeur. On his return.". In considering the temperature in the interior of an ellipsoid under certain conditions. and gradu ated at the Polytechnic School. He was called to Russia with Clapeyron and others to superintend the construction of bridges and roads. . Sur les coordonnees curvilignes et leurs diverses applications. tions. Other important experiments were made by which disclosed a wider range different scientists. a truer theory of flexure was soon pro pounded by Saint-Venant. Vicat boldly attacked the mathematical theories of flexure because they failed to consider shear and the time-ele ment. As engineer he took an active part in the construction of the first railroads in Prance. Poncelet advanced the theories of resilience and cohesion. Set was investigated by Gerstner (1756-1832) and Eaton Hodgkinson. in 1832.

and was now severely criticised by Green and Stokes.390 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. He deserves much credit for his derivation and transformation of the general elastic equations.multi-constancy. to investigate the conditions for equilibrium of a spherical elastic envelope subject to a given distribution of load on the bounding spherical surfaces.". Jellett. if the end-forces are distributed over the end-surfaces by a definite law. Numerous errors committed by his predecessors were removed. and the theory of tor sion by the discovery of the distortion of the primitively plane section. Stokes. in his Lehrbuch der Elasticitat. Clerk Maxwell. The charge brought by practical engineers. the theory of elastic rods of double curvature by the introduction of the third moment. showed that this problem is . Clausius. He corrected the theory of flexure by the considera tion of slide. and the determination of the resulting shifts is the only completely general problem on elasticity which can be said to be completely solved. In case of a rod. 1862. upon the side surfaces of which no forces act. Clebsch. Wertheim. E. Rectangular and triangular mem branes were shown by him to be connected with questions in the theory of numbers. threw new light upon the subject of ". E. E. which has long divided elasticians into two opposing factions. The field of photo-elasticity was entered upon by Lame. His results on torsion abound in beautiful graphic illustrations. ingenieur des ponts et chaussees. Neumann.raii-constancy". The uni-constant isotropy of Navier and Poisson had been ques tioned by Cauchy. Barre de Saint-Venant (1797-1886). like Vicat. and for his application of them to double refraction. he showed that the problems of flexure and torsion can be solved. and ". against the theorists led Saint-Venant to place the theory in its true place as a guide to the practical man. made it his life-work to render the theory of elasticity of practical value.

Saint-Yenant considered problems arising in the scientific design of built-up artillery.". Maurice Levy of Paris. has recently exam ined mathematically the permissible limits of the application of the ordinary theory of flexure of a beam. A. Thomson. Sir William Thomson applied the laws of elasticity of solids to the investi gation of the earth s elasticity. which is an important element in the theory of ocean-tides. J. then its with gravity in opposing deformation elasticity co-operates due to the attraction of the sun and moon. Sir William Thomson combined the two results. and them his solution of differs considerably from Lame s solution. Among the numerous modern writers on elasticity may be mentioned Entile Mathieu (1835-1891). Though often advantageous. Basset. and has not been generally adopted. If the earth is a solid. London. but differ ence of opinion exists on other vital questions. Karl Pearson. and much used by gun-designers. Laplace had shown how the earth would behave if it resisted deformation only by gravity. multi-constancy. professor in University College. and ". APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) of Glasgow. The mathematical theory of elasticity is still in an unsettled condition. 391 reversible to the case of side-forces without end-forces. which was popular isedby Rankine. Lam6 had investigated how a solid sphere would change if its elasticity only came into play. 68 Clebsch extended the research to very thin rods and to very thin plates. and compared them with the actual deformation. and afterwards G-. and others. H. Not only are scientists still divided into two schools of ". In Saint- Venant s translation into French of Clebsch s Elasticitat. Darwin. professor at Besaneon. superintendent of the Kew Ob servatory. rari-constancy ".. Charles Chree. Boussinesq of Paris. computed that the resistance of the earth to . he 4 develops extensively a double-suffix notation for strain and stresses. B. this notation is cum brous.

Riemann s opinion that a science of physics only exists since the invention of differential equations finds corroboration even in this brief and fragmentary outline of the progress of mathe matical physics. illuminated by a luminous point. and it was not until Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827) applied mathematical analysis to a much greater extent than Young had done. Beer. This conclusion has been confirmed recently by Simon NQW- comb. Thomas Young 95 (1773-1829) was the first to explain the principle of interference. the observed period being 430 days. Among text-books on elasticity may be mentioned the works of Lame. and F. W. that the undulatory theory began to carry conviction. . and others belonging to the strictly mathematical school. By their opposition Fresnel was spurred to greater exertion. When polarisa tion and double refraction were explained by Young and Fresnel. attracted little notice. Clebsch. at first disdained to consider the theory. B. but if asrigid as steel. owes much to the power of mathematics : by mathematical analysis its assumptions were worked out to their last consequences. tidal deformation is nearly as great as though it were of steel. Young s explana tions. then Laplace was at last won over. first ad vanced by Huygens. Poisson. not being verified by him by extensive numerical calcu lations. For an ideally rigid earth the period would be 360 days. Ibbetson. hence Laplace. and the first to bring forward the idea of transverse vibrations in light waves. Meyer. Neumann. it would be 441. Poisson drew from Fresnel s formulae the seemingly paradoxical deduction that a small circular disc. Some of Fresnel s mathe matical assumptions were not satisfactory. J. both of light and sound. Winkler. The undulatory theory of light.392 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. Mathieu. from the study of the observed periodic changes in latitude. edited by 0. Arago was the first great convert made by Fresnel.

that the ether might act like a fluid in case of finite disturbances. that Fresnel s formulae are correct. who from his formulae predicted conical refraction. Boussinesq. But. Lommel. Presnel postulated the density of ether to be different in different media. The theory was placed on a sounder dynamical basis by the writ ings of Cauchy. Neumann and McCullagh assume the density uniform and the elasticity different in all substances. W. and Sir William Thomson in his lectures delivered at the . verified experi mentally by Lloyd. but the elasticity the same. Biot. 100 The chief workers in this field are J. and like an elastic solid in case of the infinitesimal disturbances in light propagation. W. and not perpendicular to it. Neumann. McCullagh. E. for the reason that fluids could not propagate transverse vibra tions. In the wave-theory. APPLIED MATHEMATICS. a bright spot in the centre. Helrnholtz. there is another school advancing theories in which the mutual action between the molecules of the body and the ether is considered the main cause of refraction and dispersion. for these prophecies might have been made by other forms of the wave-theory. as taught by Green and others. Green. the luminiferous ether was an incompressible elastic solid. 398 must cast a shadow with. such an elastic solid would transmit a longitudinal disturbance with infinite velocity. C. But this ". Stokes. Hamilton. Ketteler. Sellmeyer. Saint-Venant. Lorenz. Stokes remarked. however. Elrchhoff. These predictions do not prove. while C. and Sir William Thom son. according to Green. Voigt. as in the theory of Eresnel. While the above writers endeavoured to explain all optical properties of a medium on the supposition that they arise from difference in rigidity or density of the ether in entirely the medium. however. On the latter assumption the direction of vibration lies in the plane of polarisation. The theory was taken up by another great mathematician. E.was found to be in accordance with fact. Sarrau.

It will be mentioned again later. A. According to Maxwell s theory. but something occurs in both planes a magnetic vibration in one. HISTORY OE MATHEMATICS. Neither this nor the first-named school succeeded in explaining all the phenomena. Rowland s theory of concave gratings. The first complete method of measure ment was the system of absolute measurements of terrestrial magnetism introduced by Gauss and Wilhelm Weber (1804- 1891) and afterwards extended by Wilhelm Weber and F. A. but greater than Weber s by a factor of 10 7 101 The discussions and labours . became the foundations for a system of measurement. The commission recommended a unit in principle like W. the direction of vibration does not lie exclusively in the plane of polarisation. . to consider the unit of electrical resistance. Michelson s work on interfer ence. and of A. He proposed the electro-magnetic theory. Weber s. In 1861 the British Association and the Royal Society appointed a special commission with Sir William Thomson at the head.394 A. and in magnetism the measurements of Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736-1806). nor in a plane perpen dicular to it. an this subject continued for twenty years. In electricity the mathematical theory and the measure ments of Henry Cavendish (1731-1810). which has received extensive develop ment recently. mention must be made of H. Fitzgerald and Trouton in Dublin verified this conclusion of Maxwell by experiments on electro-magnetic waves. Johns Hopkins University in 1884. For electro-magnetism the same thing was done by Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836). until in 1881 a general agreement was reached at an electrical congress in Paris. and an electric in the other. Kohlrausch to electro-magnetism and electro-statics. A third school was founded by Maxwell. and his application of interference methods to astro nomical measurements. Of recent mathematical and experimental contributions to optics.

Green was a self-educated man who started out as a baker. Sturm. Green s theorem ". and was graduated as Second Wrangler in 1845. Hamilton used The term function is due to Green. Chasles.". It escaped the noticeeven of English mathematicians until 1846. of Scotch descent. 395 A function of fundamental importance in the mathematical theories of electricity and magnetism is the potential. when Sir William Thomson had it reprinted in Crelle s Journal. He and his brother James Ireland. =0 da? dy dz* which was extended by Poisson by writing 4?rfc in place of zero in the right-hand member of the equation. He introduced it into the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism. was first used by Lagrange in the determination of gravita tional attractions in 1773. and xlv. Soon after. 2 . for the treatment of potential. . He was born in 1824 at Belfast. The first to apply the potential function to other than gravitation problems was George Green (1793-1841). It contained what is now known as ". so that it applies not only to a point external to the attracting mass. Cambridge. potential the word force-function. Prom there he entered Cambridge. APPLIED MATHEMATICS. xliv. In 1828 he published by subscrip tion at Nottingham a paper entitled Essay on the application of mathematical analysis to the theory of electricity and magne tism. It ". while Gauss. but to any point whatever. and Gauss. but is studied in Glasgow. general theorems had been Green re-dis- Meanwhile all of s coverecl by Sir William Thomson. who about 1840 secured it the general adoption of the function. called simply potential and magnetism have been Large contributions to electricity made by William Thomson. and at his death was fellow of Caius College. William Thorn- . Laplace gave the celebrated differential equation. vols.

Thomson are a group of great men who were Second Wranglers at Cambridge. In 1845 F. Clifford. William Thomson worked out the electro-static induction in submarine cables. was effect against induction. J. viz. was discovered by him in 1848. We owe to Sir William Thomson new synthetical methods of great elegance. a position which he has held ever* since. Neumann of Konigsberg developed from the experimental laws of Lenz the mathematical theory of magneto-electric induction. W.Dirichlet s principle". In 1855 W. the theory of electric images and the method of electric inversion founded thereon. son. Helmholtz in 1851 gave the mathematical theory of the course of induced currents in various cases. a problem previously considered insolvable. worked out mathematically by Horace Lamb and also by Charles Niven. The entire subject of electro-magnetism was revolutionised . Maxwell. The subject of the screening due to sheets of different metals. At the age of twenty-two W. Weber s chief researches were on electro dynamics. Thomson predicted by mathematical analysis that the dis charge of a Leyden jar through a linear conductor would in certain cases consist of a series of decaying oscillations. and J. and in 1892 was made Lord Kelvin. By them he determined the distribution of electricity on a bowl. somewhat earlier than by Dirichlet. Thomson was elected professor of natural philosophy in the University of Glasgow. His researches on the theory of potential are epoch-making. Gustav Robert Zirchlioff w (1824-1887) investigated the distribution of a current over a flat conductor. This was first established experimentally by Joseph Henry of Washington. Sylvester. and also the strength of current in each branch of a network of linear conductors. E. What is called ". For his brilliant mathematical and physical achievements he was knighted.896 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. The distribution of static electricity on conductors had been studied before this mainly by Poisson and Plana.

J. Eowland. Heaviside. E. Eouth being Senior Wrangler. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physics at the University of Berlin. He was born in 1821 at Potsdam. L. London. published in 1847 his pamphlet Ueber die Erhaltung He became teacher of anatomy in the ". E. Poynting. In 1850 he went to Trinity College. Maxwell then became lecturer at Cambridge. T. 0. H. APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Cambridge. In 1865 he retired to private life until 1871. when he became professor of physics at Cambridge. and der Kraft. at Bonn in 1855. at Heidelberg in 1858. studied at the University of Berlin. He constructed the electro-magnetic theory from general equations. Glazebrook. and which determine the state of the electric field. His first researches thereon were published in 1864. Helmholtz. He was bom near Edinburgh. but established the electro-magnetic theory of light. J. to determine in what direction experiments should be made to . and others. and became a pupil of Kelland and Forbes. and in 1860 professor at King s College. at Heidelberg that he produced his work on Tonempfindwng. The electro-magnetic theory has received developments from Lord Eayleigh. J. and came out Second Wrangler. H. H. since verified experimen tally by Hertz. A. It is a mathematical discussion of the stresses and medium subjected to electro-magnetic strains in a dielectric forces.Academy of Art in Berlin. 397 by James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879). entered the University of Edinburgh. Boltzmann. Maxwell not only translated into mathematical language the experimental results of Faraday. He was elected professor of physiology at Konigs- It was berg in 1849. in 1856 professor at Aberdeen. Hermann von Helmlioltz turned his attention to this part of the subject in 1871. From this time on he has been engaged chiefly on Helmholtz aimed inquiries in electricity and hydrodynamics. In 1871 appeared his great Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Thomson. which are established upon purely dynamical principles.

**398 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.
**

decide between the theories of W. Weber, E. E. Neumann,

Riemann, and Clausius, who had attempted to explain electro-

dynamic phenomena by the assumption of forces acting at a dis

tance between two portions of the hypothetical electrical fluid,

the intensity being dependent not only on the distance, but also

on the velocity and acceleration, and the theory of Faraday

and Maxwell, which discarded action at a distance and assumed

stresses and strains in the dielectric. His experiments favoured

the British theory. He wrote on abnormal dispersion, and

created analogies between electro-dynamics and hydrody

namics. Lord Eayleigh compared electro-magnetic problems

with their mechanical analogues, gave a dynamical theory of

diffraction, and applied Laplace s coefficients to the theory of

radiation. Eowland made some emendations on Stokes paper

on diffraction and considered the propagation of an arbitrary

electro-magnetic disturbance and spherical waves of light.

Electro-magnetic induction has been investigated mathemati

cally by Oliver Heaviside, and he showed that in a cable it is

an actual benefit. Heaviside and Poynting have reached

remarkable mathematical results in their interpretation and

development of Maxwell s theory. Most of Heaviside s papers

have been published since 1882 they cover a wide field.

;

One part of the theory of capillary attraction, left defective

**by Laplace, namely, the action of a solid upon a liquid, and
**

the mutual action between two liquids, was made dynamically

perfect by Gauss. He stated the rule for "angles

of contact

between liquids and solids. A similar rule for liquids was

established by Ernst Eranz Neumann. Chief among recent

workers on the mathematical theory of capillarity are Lord

Hayleigh and E. Mathieu.

The energy was

great principle of the conservation of

establishedby Robert Mayer (1814-1878), a physician in

Heilbronn, and again independently by Colding of Copen-

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 399

**hagen, Joule, and Helmholtz. James Prescott Joule (1818-
**

1889) determined experimentally the mechanical equivalent

of heat. Helmholtz in 1847 applied the conceptions of the

transformation and conservation of energy to the various

branches of physics, and thereby linked together many well-

known phenomena. These labours led to the abandonment

The mathematical treat

of the corpuscular theory of heat.

ment of thermic problems was demanded by practical con

siderations. Thermodynamics grew out of the attempt to

determine mathematically how much work can be gotten out

of a steam engine. Sadi-Carnot, an adherent of the corpuscular

theory, gave the impulse to this. The principle known

first

**by his name was published in 1824. Though the importance
**

of his work was emphasised by B. P. E. Clapeyron, it did not

meet with general recognition until it was brought forward

by William Thomson. The latter pointed out the necessity

of modifying Carnot s reasoning so as to bring it into accord

with the new theory of heat. William Thomson showed in

1848 that Carnot s principle led to the conception of an

**absolute scale of temperature. In 1849 he published "an
**

account of Carnot s theory of the motive power of heat, with

numerical results deduced from B-egnault s experiments." In

February, 1850, Rudolph Clausius (1822-1888), then in Zurich,

(afterwards professor in Bonn), communicated to the Berlin

Academy a paper on the same subject which contains the

Protean second law of thermodynamics. In the same month

William John M. Rankine (1820-1872), professor of engineer

ing and mechanics at Glasgow, read before the Eoyal Society

of Edinburgh a paper in which he declares the nature of

heat to consist in the rotational motion of molecules, and

arrives at some of the results reached previously by Clausius.

He does not mention the second law of thermodynamics, but

in a subsequent paper he declares that it could be derived

**400 A BISTORT OF MATHEMATICS.
**

from equations contained in Ms first paper. His proof of

the second law is not free from objections. In March, 1851,

**appeared a paper of William Thomson which contained a
**

perfectly rigorous proof of the second law. He obtained it

before he had seen the researches of Clausius.- The state

ment of this law,given by Clausius,, has been much

as

**criticised, by Eankine, Theodor Wand, P. G-.
**

particularly

Tait, and Tolver Preston. Eepeated efforts to deduce it from

general mechanical principles have remained fruitless. The

science of thermodynamics was developed with great suc

cessby Thomson, Clausius, and Eankine. As early as 1852

Thomson discovered the law of the dissipation of energy,

deduced at a later period also by Clausius. The latter desig

nated the non-transformable energy by the name entropy,

and then stated that the entropy of the universe tends

toward a maximum.. ITor entropy Eankine used the term

thermodynamic function. Thermodynamic investigations have

been carried on also by G. Ad. Him of Colmar, and Helm-

holtz (monocyclic and polycyclic

systems). Valuable graphic

methods for the study of thermodynamic relations were de

vised in 1873-1878 by J. Willard Gibbs of Yale

College.

Gibbs first an account of the advantages of

gives using

various pairs of the five fundamental

thermodynamic quanti

ties for graphical

representation, then discusses the entropy-

temperature and entropy-volume diagrams, and the volume-

energy-entropy surface (described in Maxwell s Theory of

Heat). Gibbs formulated the

energy-entropy criterion of

equilibrium and stability, and expressed it in a form appli

cable to complicated problems of dissociation.

Important

works on thermodynamics have been

prepared by Clausius

in 1875, by E. Euhlmann in

1875, and by Poincare in 1892.

In the study of the law of

dissipation of energy and the

principle of least action, mathematics and metaphysics met on"

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 401

**common ground. The doctrine of least action was first pro
**

pounded by Maupertius in 1744. Two years later he pro

claimed it to be a universal law of nature, and the first

proof of the existence of God.

scientific It was weakly

sup

ported by him, violently attacked by Konig of Leipzig, and

keenly defended by Euler. Lagrange s conception of the prin

ciple of least action became the mother of analytic mechanics,

but his statement of it was inaccurate, as has been remarked

by Josef Bertrand in the third edition of the Mcanique Ana-

lytique. The form of the principle of least action, as it now

exists, was given by Hamilton, and was extended to electro

dynamics by F. E. Neumann, Clausius, Maxwell, and Helrn-

holtz. To subordinate the principle to all reversible processes,

Helmholtz introduced into it the conception of the "kinetic

"

**potential. In this form the principle has universal validity.
**

An offshoot of the mechanical theory of heat is the modern

kinetic theory of gases, developed mathematically by Clausius,

**Maxwell) Ludivig Boltzmann of Munich, and others. The first
**

suggestions of a kinetic theory of matter go back as far as the

time of the Greeks. The earliest work to be mentioned here is

that of Daniel Bernoulli, 1738. He attributed to gas-molecules

great velocity, explained the pressure of a gas by molecular

bombardment, and deduced Boyle s law as a consequence of

his assumptions. Over a century later his ideas were taken

and Clausius

up by Joule (in 1846), A. K. Kronig (in 1856),

(in 1857). Joule dropped his speculations on this subject

when he began experimental work

his on heat.

Kronig

the kinetic theory the fact determined experi

explained by

that the internal of a gas is not

mentally by Joule energy

altered by expansion when no external work is done. Clausius

**took an important step in supposing that molecules may have
**

in a molecule may move rela

rotary motion, and that atoms

tively to each other. He assumed that the force acting

402 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.

**between molecules is a function of their distances, that tem
**

perature depends solely upon the kinetic energy of molecular

motions, and that the number of molecules which at any

moment are so near to each other that they perceptibly influ

ence each other is comparatively so small that it may be

neglected. He

calculated the average velocities of molecules,

and explained evaporation. Objections to his theory, raised

by Buy s-Ballot and by Jochniann, were satisfactorily answered

by Clausius and Maxwell, except in one case where an addi

tional hypothesis had to be made. Maxwell proposed to him

self the problem to determine the average number of molecules,

the velocities of which between given limits. His expres

lie

**sion therefor constitutes the important law of distribution of
**

velocities named after him. By this law the distribution of

molecules according to their velocities is determined by the

same formula (given in the theory of probability) as the dis

tribution of empirical observations according to the magnitude

of their errors. The average molecular velocity as deduced

by Maxwell differs from that of Clausius by a constant factor.

Maxwell s first deduction of this average from his law of dis

tribution was not rigorous. A sound derivation was given by

0. E. Meyer in 1866. Maxwell predicted that so long as

Boyle s law is true, the coefficient of viscosity and the coeffi

cient of thermal conductivity remain independent of the press

ure. His deduction that the coefficient of viscosity should

be proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature

appeared to be at variance with results obtained from pendu

lum experiments. This induced him to alter the very foun

dation of his kinetic theory of gases by assuming between

the molecules a repelling force varying inversely as the fifth

power of their distances. The founders of the kinetic theory

had assumed the molecules of a gas to be hard elastic spheres;

but Maxwell, in his second presentation of the theory in 1866,

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 403

**went on the assumption that the molecules behave like cen
**

tres of forces. He demonstrated anew the law of distribution

of velocities but the proof had a flaw in argument, pointed

;

**out by Boltzmann, and recognised by Maxwell, who adopted
**

a somewhat different form of the distributive function in a

paper of 1879, intended to explain mathematically the effects

observed in Crookes radiometer. Boltzmann gave a rigorous

general proof of Maxwell s law of the distribution of velocities.

None of the fundamental assumptions in the kinetic theory

of gases leads by the laws of probability to results in very

close agreement with observation. Boltzmann tried to estab

lish kinetic theories of gases by assuming the forces between

molecules to act according to different laws from those pre

viously assumed. Clausius, Maxwell, and their predecessors

took the mutual action of molecules in collision as repulsive,

but Boltzmann assumed that they may be attractive. Ex

periment of Joule and Lord Kelvin seem to support the latter

assumption.

Among the latest researches on the kinetic theory is Lord

**Kelvin theorem of Maxwell and Boltz-
**

s disproof of a- general

**mann, asserting that the average kinetic energy of two given
**

portions of a system must be in the ratio of the number of

degrees of freedom of those portions.

INDEX.

**Abacists, 126. Algebra: Beginnings in Egypt, 15;
**

Abacus, 8, 13, 63, 79, 82, 119, 122, 126, early Greek, 73; Diophantus, 74-77 p

129. Hindoo, 93-96 Arabic, 107, 111, 115 ;

;

Abbatt, 334. Middle Ages, 133, 135 Eenaissance, ;

**Abel, 347, 348; ref. to, 146, 279, 291, 140, 142-150, 152; seventeenth cen
**

312, 328, 336, 337, 350, 353, 371. tury, 166, 187, 192; Lagrange, 267;

Abelian functions, 292, 312, 328, 346, Peacock, 284; recent, 315-331; ori

348, 349, 352, 355-357, 359. gin of terms, 107, 115. See Nota

Abelian integrals, 350, 379. tion.

Abel s theorem, 352. Algebraic functions, 346; integrals,

Absolute geometry, 301. 377.

Absolutely convergent series, 335, 337, Algorithm, origin of term, 106 ;

Mid

338. dle Ages, 126, 129.

Abul Gud, 111 ref. to, 113. ;

Al Haitam, 115 ref. to, 112.

;

**Abul Hasan, 115. Al Hayyami, 112 ref. to, 113.
**

;

**Abul Wefa, 110 ref. to, 112, 113.;
**

Al Hazin, 112.

Achilles and tortoise, paradox of, 27. Al Hogendi, 111.

Acoustics, 262, 270, 278, 386. Al Karhi, 111, 113.

Action, least, 253, 366, 401; varying, Al Kaschi, 114.

292, 318, 379. Al Kuhi, 111; ref. to, 112.

Adams, 375 ;

ref. to, 214. Allegret, 377.

Addition theorem of elliptic integrals, Allman, IX., 36.

252, 350, 396. Al Madshriti, 115.

Adrain, 276. Almagest, 56-58; ref. to, 105, 109, 127,

j3Equipollences, 322. 134, 136, 140.

Agnesi, 260. Al Mahani, 112.

Agrimensores, 80. Alphonso s tables, 127.

Ahmes, 10-15 ;

ref. to, 17, 18, 53, 74. Al Sagani, 111.

Airy, 375 ; ref. to, 383. Alternate numbers, 322.

Al Battani, 109; ref. to, 110, 125. Ampere, 394; ref. to, 361.

Albertus Magnus, 134. Amyclas, 33.

Albiruni, 111; ref. to, 102, 104. Analysis (in synthetic geometry), 30,

Alcuin, 119. 39; Descartes , 186; modern, 331-

Alembert, D

J

. See D Alembert. 334.

Alexandrian School (first) ,

34-54 ; (sec Analysis situs, 226, 315.

ond), 54-62. Analytic geometry, 185-189, 191, 193,

Alfonso s tables, 127. 240, 287, 307-315.

405

tentative. 227. ref. 305. 365. S. Baker. Arabic manuscripts. Beer. ref. Arbogaste. Attains. 315. 159. 269. Arneth. 91. 313. 314. Aronhold. 115. 39. 50. 306. 130. 253. the Venerable. Ben Junus. 125 . 24. 105. Bellavitis. 37. X. 382. 122. Palatine. 158. 283. 239. 28. ref.305. 115. 271-274. Anaximander.. to. 135. 90. 32. ref. Anharmonie ratio. Analytical Society (in Cambridge). 317. XI. 173. 32. to. Hin Anaxagoras. Basset. 126. Arabic. 126. Aristsens. Battaglini. Armemante. 127. 73. 373-3TT. 284. to. 380. 264. 386. 118. Nicolaus (born 1687). 382. 114. 300. . Appel. 98. Ball. 34. 38. 27. Bauer. Arenarins. 178. 371. to. 26 ref. Hindoo. Astrology. 134. to. 173. to. Middle Ages. 10. to. 29. 63. 90-92. 238. 50. 82. 220. Atomic theory. more recent researches. lipsoid. ref. Angeli. 306. 86. to. 302. 161. Nicolaus (born 1695). Bachmann. Axioms (of geometry). 23. 73. to. Ballistic curve. 315. Sir B. Bernelinus. 88. Arithmetical triangle. Apollonius. 332. Attraction. 123. 124-128. 127-129. 182. to. 67-70 . Arabic. 196. 320. 155. 108. Bede. 51. 112. Argand. XI. 401. 27. See Meziriac. 202. 39. 154. See De Beanne. 5-9. Bernoulli. Arago. 150. Archytas. See Bernoulli. 119. Beaumont. Mechanics. 369. 70 . 140. 61. 125. Apices of Boethius. 203. 151. 375. Greek. 31. 356. 54. 212-216. ref. 133. 100-117. 37. 49. 47. ref. to. 294. See Gravitation. to. 18. Greek. 101. 45. 3. 32. Antiphon. ref. 78. 300. 40-45 . Bamngart. 35. 317. 341. 129. 378. 185. Newton. 346. Arabic numerals and notation. conservation of. ref. Arithmetical machine. 43. 113. doo. 73. Bachet de Meziriac. August. 262.406 INDEX. 78. . Platonists. 304. 221. Athelard of Bath. ref. See Astronomy. Arithmetic: Pythagoreans. 392. to. Areas. 279. 45-50 . to. Th. Egyptian. 122. ref. 257. Bernoulli. 66. ref. 18. 54. 119. Bacon. 86 . 61. 236. Aschieri. 106. Euclid. 92. 281. Beltrami. Baltzer. 134. 108. Aryabhatta. De. 87. Assumption. Ball. 103. Athensens. 105. 140. Beha Bddin. to. 217. 283. Berkeley. 75. 327. Applied mathematics. W. 46. to. to. Middle Ages. Barbier. Barrow. Renaissance. 277. 115. 340. 297. 18 ref . 40.. R. 392. 56 . Bayes. 30. Notation. ref . R. El Apollonian Problem. 17. 9. Ausdehnungslehre. Archimedes. 373-403. ref. B. 253. Arabs. 65. 34. 251. 262. Babylonians. 63-77. 18. . 198. 43. 188. 46. Daniel. X.. 35. 51. to. ref. 29 . Anaximenes.. 296. 105. 61. W. Babbage. XI. 100. 366. Anthology.. ref. 378. 321. 304. Aristotle. 144. 260. Eegula falsa. 154. Anger. 20. 322. 102. 120.. 238. 37.. 68. Beaune. 255. 38. 65. 306. 153. 325. Astronomy: Babylonian. 8. 19. See Numbers. 2. See Me chanics. XII.

81. 103. 229. 81 . 146. 355. K. Brachistochrone (line of swiftest de Bernoulli. 112. . Callisthenes. to. ref. 401. 0.. 311. Briggs. Bring. L. 341. Borchardt. Bernoulli s theorem. ref to. to. 86. 237. 311. 149. ref. 181. Bocher. 291. A. Calendar. Tycho. 383. 202. 95. Brill. 334. IX. 305. 92. Bernoulli. 341. to. 342. 344. 121. 378 ref. to. 238 365. Bianchi. 377. 102. Bessel s functions. 9. 275.. 178. John (born 1710). 288. Biquaternions.. C. Boltzmann. 139. Bruno. 323. 271. 182. 97. 306. 344. ref. 282. Bradwardine. 81. 72. 377. 160. to. Booth. 354. Calculating machines. John (born 1744). du. 300. 197. 328. 291. XIIL. 350. 141. Bredon. Bobillier. 239. to. Bessel. 327. Bertrand. Boussinesq. Buffon. 327 . genealogical table of. Bjerknes. 152. 195. Bezout. 118. 351. 163. XII. 250 Boyle s law. 292. See Differential Calculus. 249. ref. INDEX. Budan. ref. 97. 79. 239. 356 Bour. Biirgi. 260 Briot. 154. 87. to. 373-375. 346. 237. Burkhardt. Johann. P.. to. 379. 220. Bretschneider. 340. Bouniakowsky. 275. 40T Bernoulli. Bertini. 340. ref. 232. 356. Faa de. Boethius. Brill. XIII. 284. Caesar. 234. . Buddha. 196. 261. 403. 234. Biquadratic residues. 342. 328. 92-95. 249. Brouncker. Bernoulli. Bernoullis. 239. 229. Canon paschalis. Burmester. Bernoulli. A. 264. Byrgius. 346. ref... 377. 387. 366. 146. 353. scent). Buchheim. to. 356. to. Bezout s method of elimination. J. ref. 397. John (born 1667). Bode. 260. 309. 63. 348. ref. James (born 1758). 243. 365. to. 387. to. Julius. 402. 357. 141. 378. 159. 237. 340. ref. 393. Bombelli. . 251 Buckley. Brans. 393. 391. 89. Bois-Reymond. Bungus. Buy s-Ballot. Biot. Buteo. to. 307. Bowditch. 366. See Biirgi. Billingsley. 325. Betti. 374. 320. 154. 362. 247. H. 251. Wolfgang. 330. 356. 325. Boole. ref. 98. 251. Bryson of Heraclea. 303. 138. 250. of varia Bonnet. 289. 165. tions. 401. ref. 308. 265. 152. 160. 379. Calculus of operations. Bessy. Busche. 314. Calculus. 238. Bolyai. Calculation. 135 . 135. 155. to. James (born 1654) .. 337. ref. 9. 324. 354. Binet. Brioschi. 275. ref. Beta function. XIV. 297. ref. 383. 302. 226. Brahmagupta. 291. 296. 226. 380. Biquadratic equation. 328. Burkhardt. 301. 27. Bouquet. Bhaskara. 343. 236. to. 341. 337. Bolza. 302. Beyer. 168. to.238. 350. 333-334. to. Brahe. 288. 337-339. 331. 364. 110. 135. Bolyai. Brianchion. origin of word. ref. 346. 328. Binomial formula. 134.. 79. 353..

309.. to. 197. 290. 399. 106. 155 ref. to. 19. 223. 317. Arabs. 237. 296-298. 306. 308. 255. 315. 145. E. Computus. 296. 345. 289. ".. theory of. to. 177. 176-178. 294. 7. 191. 309. Ulavius. 289. Chree. 206. Complex of lines. 362. 313. 288. M. Catalan. 368. 328. 52. 346. 214. 353. . 326. 270.~ . Continuity. 388. 356. 241. to. Cattle-problem. Kepler. more re-. D. 366. Centre of gravity. XII. 331-333. Commercium epistolicum.lt. 355. 396. G. 156. X. 185. 257. 238. ChristotM. 319. XII. 152. 271 division of. 101. 334-339. ref. 203. 49. 306. 349. 149. 183. 262. 313. 341. 31. Convergence of /Circle-sguareri 2. Congruencies. Chinese. 296. 226. Chapman. 112. 399. method of. 226. 333. 154. 324. 167. 278. 50. 234. 314. Cantor. 382. 144. 394. 172. 335. ref. aginaries. 293. to. 24-28. 341. . van. 256-258. 297. 253 of energy. ref. 191 . 153. XIV. 319. 338. Cayley. X. Centres of osculation. 398. 244. of oscilla Conchoid. 118. 192. Cauchy. Jlausius. 359. 362. 42. lapeyron. 328. 170. 350. 252. Casting out the 9 s.408 INDEX. 4. Circle. 358. Cole. to. Chladni s figures. See 49. W. 243. Condensation of singularities. Catenary. 330.. Jlifford. 388. to. 39. 92. 191. 305. 236. 325. of. 339. 294. 398. X. Colebrooke.larke. 192. Capelli. to. Greek. 243. 168. 390. 365. Cassiodorius. 309. 398.. 397. ". Casey. Congruency of lines. 311. series.* 334. 381.. olson. 358. ^ Ceva. 55. 291. 387. Conservation of areas. Conic sections. 194 Contracted vein. 342. &. 400- Caporali. 330. first use of term. 383. 383. 159 )lebsch. 313 . 264. to. 297. 252. 372. 297. 391. 83.. 325. Carnot. Cockle. 326. Cantor. 333. 393. Cheyne. 311. Conon.Jomte. Commandinus.jtf. 306. 361. 339. Cataldi. 118. Concentric spheres of Eudoxus. 327. 206. 354. ref. 348. 52. 399. Combinatorial School. ref. ref. Chasles. Cissoid. Centrifugal force. Cavendish. t 324. Chess. 379.40. lairaut.. 32. Continued fractions. 193.. 227. 112. 73. sance. 47 377 cent researches. 315. 1 Co-ordinates. 143. ref. degrees . . 384. 153. Z. 56. Colla. See Ludolph. Sadi. Cassini. 327. 322. to. 322. . See Im- Caustics. 292. 169. 330. IX. 390-392. 293. 91. J^J4. 308. 313. 402. 341. 45-49. Renais Characteristics. 41. 335. 313. to. ref. 154. Carll. Carnot. 204. Conform representation of surfaces. 159. 378. Cardan. 324.50. Geometry. to. 232. Cavalieri. Capillarity. Colburn. Jomplex quantities. 232. Ceulen. ref. 228. 312. Chauvenet. 19. 342. 324. 192. tion. 155. . 390. 398 of vis viva. 330. Jollins. 325. Lazare. 159. 386.. 377. ref. 119. 87. 221. folding.. 362. 180. 372. 329 Contravariants. 230. 193. 247.. 247. ref.

2. Del Pezzo. 177. Cubic curves. 339. Correspondence. 299. Covariants. 333. . I Darwin. 259. 341-347. Desboves. 217. 192. Democritus. 288. E. 333. 254-256 j ref. 371 ref. 376 ref. to. See Devanagari-numerals. Descriptive geometry. 174. ref. 112. 243. 313. 177. Rectification. D Alembert s principle. 173. 240. 391. 226. 340. 240. 111. Delian problem. 299. 161. 306. Cotes. 39. 265. 327. alleged invention by Pascal. 340. 349. 409 Copernican System. 384. principle of. 193. 295. Cridhara. Culmann. 357. 285. 386. 355. Cremona. 180. Crelle s Journal. 239.. See Duplication--^ 300. 87. 290. Crozet. to. 226 quadrature of. etry. 366. 337. Conic sections. 236- Cycloid. 233. 356. Coulomb. 369.. 190. ". 223. 202. Differential equations. 313. 340. Cubic residues. Darnascius. 113. 226. 174.. 258.) . 183-189. 278. 372. 334-339. 318. 317 . 16. to. Delambre. 297. 193. to. Differential calculus. 60. 382. 139. . X. 327. 363. 238. Euler. Davis. 233. 61 . 278. Decimal fractions. ref. Curtze. 152. Craige. philosophy of . 262. 187. 173. Copernicus. 48. 97. 321. 361. Deinostratus. 216. Cube numbers. 321. 171. 254. Curve of swiftest descent. ref. the cube. . rule of signs. Davis. 286-288. 191. 38. 305. Cotangent. ferences. Curves. 312. Curvature. 139. . . 229. 290. 205. Coss. 293. De Morgan. 220. Derivatives. Cosine. See Finite dif Cusanus. De Paolis. 189. . 226. 379. to. 330. 56. 227- Czuber. Descartes. 220. Criteria of convergence. 42. Definite integrals. 96. Geom Dialytic method of elimination. 299. 343. 28 . W. 152. La- 225. 161. 33. Crelle. Cournot. 242 (see Bernoullis. of the cube. 185. 167. 256. ! Darbous:. Differential invariants. XL. 341. Differences. 240. 348. theory 325. 289. 200. 234. 176. to. Cyclic method. 103. grange. osculating. Cousinery. 306. 52. Decimal point. 341. 306. 252. 242 ref to. ref. Determinants. XIII. 333. 234. 153. 4. 306. Cubic equations. ref. etc. See Algebra. to. 223. ref. 260. 300. De Moivre.. 141. 96. 277. Cox. 184. 294-296. 354. Crofton. controversy Cyzicenus. 324. See Duplication 285. M. ref . 346. 362. 104. method of. 165. 394. D Alembert.. 191. 217. 362. to. 351. 333. 72. 142-145. 268-270.W. 265. De Baune. Desargues. 113. to. 1. 297. 285. Dee. Cubic curves. 299. Cramer. 187. Ctesibius. INDEX. M. De Lahire. 314. 300. 159-161. 225. 291. term for algebra. 49. Deficiency of curves. 174. between Newton and Leibniz. 334. Cube. 254. 314. Craig. 243. to. 313. 257. 292. 165. 268. 269. Data (Euclid s). to. 242. 109. measure of. 347. 291. 190. of. finite. Laplace. 334. 240. 70. See Dinostratus. ref.221-227. 385. 334. 362. 189. duplication of. 366. Dedekind. to. 138.-236. 149. 376. 154. 316 . ref. 265. 240. Delaunay.

51. 350. 34. . Inneper. Energy. geometry. 12. Elimination. 329. 379. 31. ~ 32. 379. 362. Dissipation of energy. 25. 16. Directrix. 318. 50. 217. ref. 46. figure of. 241. Diodorus. 7. 61. to. to. 144. 379. Dinostratus. 53. 354. 263. 26. Euclid.. . Duality. 378. 111. 81. XIII. 104. 138. Enumerative geometry. Dyck. 383. 127. 193. 388.410 INDEX. 215. 362. 25. 310. ref. 44. 147. 124. 31. 330. 86. 378-381. 54. 328-331. Dupin. 108. 32. 215. Dusing. 346. Divergent series. 127. size of 214. 315. 149. to. 366. 306. 57. 383. 398. 33. Euclid.~- ". 32. geometry. * Dositheus. Dionysodorus. to. 61. See Diogenes Laertius. . 277. 9.. ref. to. 391. ref. 51. solution of. 40. 292. 46. 367-369. Espy. 396. 22. Durege. Earth. 384. Elements (Euclid s). Edgeworth. 393. Elliptic co-ordinates. to. 298. Euclidean space.. ilastic curve. 71. 35. 189. 156. 36. XII. 50. theory of. . 58. 372. Dynamics. 60. X. 230. 17. 328. 377. Electricity. 367. 128. 357. 49. 30. 257. to. 349. 179. 282. 17. ref. rigidity of 114. 371. 280. 36-39. 297. 125. 133. Duplication of tne cube. Elliptic integrals. 10. to. llasticity. 32. 255. . XHL. 277. Elizabeth. 97. 339. 15. Eudemus. 102. IX. 300. 96. 303. 394-398. Ether. 296. Epicycles. 114. 166. 290. Dirichlet. Diwani-numerals. 105. Dini. 372. Dingeldey. 138. -~-". Errors. 365 Eudoxus. 107. 136. 216. 73. 17. 21. 289 ref. 345. 125. 308. 19. Sly.. Entropy. 353 XIII. 333. 35. 53. Egyptians. geometry. 338.. 309. 69. 387-392.153. 153. 281. 291. 23-25. D Ovidio. Encke. 22. 369. theory 75. 32. Princess. 95. Epping. 285. 247. 30. 179. 31. . 40. Electro-magnetic theory of light. 93. numerical. 33. 325. Dziobek. Eudemian Summary. 35. 394. Duillier. Equations. 70. 371. A. 337. 21. 260. 35-40. 359. 71. Algebra. . 348. motion of. 45. conservation of. to. 188. ref. Theory of numbers. 334. 279. 333. 315. 250. 370. Diihring. 331. Ellipsoid (attraction of). 357. 78. 135. 400. 264. 354. See Least squares. See Non-Euclidean Eddy. 104. 250. 136. 348. 106. Dove. 186. Dubamel. ref. Eisenlohr. 32.50. Donkin. / 250. 300. 74^77 . 347-354. Divergent parabolas. of. E. 42. 356. Diirer. XI. ref. Diocles. Enestrom. 28. Equations. Dronke. 257. 308. 241. 40. 252. 314. 329. 17. 55. 271. 297. 370. Eisenstein. Edfu. to. 384. 363. luminiferous. 366. 280.72. See Diophantus. 340. 110. Earnshaw. ref.. . 365. 162. 45. Duodecimals. 337. 33. 288. See Groups. See Cubic equations. 400. 237. 126. Dostor. 340. See Non-Euclidean Elliptic Division of the circle. Eratosthenes. to. 9-16. 240. ref. 58. Elliptic functions. 315. 278. 397.

ISTDEX. 241. Fluents. 333. 147. XII. Abelian functions. 362. duodecimal. 134. Gases. Galileo. 126. Fagnano. 206. 386. sexagesimal. ^ Bessel s Fine. 92. Garbieri. 276. to. Gauss. 26. Genocchi. 324. 152. 327. 36. 343. 267. 384. Functions. Gamma function. 227-233. 314. 111. 7. 248. 142. XII. 242. 162. 373. 324. 168. Fontaine. 335. 304. 172. 299. 49. continued. Gellibrand. 345. 362. 381. 280. 377. 345. 351. 63. 78. 160. 395. 182. 169. Froude. 249. Greek. theory of. 57. 327. Galois. 344. 198*252. 179-182. Geminus. Sigma function. XII. 354. 286. . 273. Forbes. Evolutes. 251. 283. 251. 264. 246. 389. Gauss Analogies. 278. 278. 366. 65. Scipio. 257. 265. 363-367. to.356-362. Fractions. 205. ISO. 338. 351. 294. to. 139. 372. 49. Flexure. 398. 330. Fermat. Fahri des Al Karhi. Geber. 262. 367. 303. 398. 170. 13. Fuchsian groups. Fermat s theorem. 365. function. 7. 115. 179. ref. 142. 173. 348. Fink. Flamsteed. 187. . 173. 333. 218. Franklin. 197. Fuchsian functions. 339. 65. See Potential. Gamma function. 264. Arithmetic. 165. theory Ferrel. 144. 159. Frezier. 364. Factor-tables. of. 314. 94. 126. 282. ref. Hindoo. 300. Beta Figure of the earth. 124. . 345. 302. 401. 268. See Elliptic functions. 329. Egyptian. 159. 270. Kinetic theory of. 394. function. Fibonacci. 239. 367. 160. 77. 144. Finger-reckoning. ref. 325. Ferro. 343. 360. 356. 158. 312. Babylonian. Eulerian integrals. ref. arbitrary. 356. 411 Euler. 345. to. Fresnel s wave-surface. 281-284. 265. Hyperelliptic Fiedler. 261. 392. 287. ref. XII. 241. functions. Fourier. 53 ref. Four-point problem. 118. 367. 171. 180. Fluxional controversy. ref. 120. Favaro. Falsa positio. 247. 116. 386. 384. 202. 367. 315. Force-function. 325. 258. 314. to. 279. function. Gabir ben Aflah. 345. Potential. 61 ref. 382. 46. Ferrari. 320. to. 240. 262. 334. 77. Frobenius. 259. 350. 65. 328. Fourier s theorem. 344. 313. 343. 252. ref. 280. 270. theory of. Omega Finseus. 177. Flachenabbildung. Finite differences. 264. 43. 401-403. Fuchs. Exponents. 50. Fresnel. Friction. Frantz. 313. See 42. 255. Frost. See Gabir ben Aflah. Exhaustion. Faye. Eoman. Fluxions.96. 159. to. 241. 264. 248-254. 127. XIII. 57. 252. 254. to. 283. 357. Faraday. definition of. Middle Ages. to. 317. 174. 291. 250. to. Theta functions. Fourier s series. Fricke. 341. 46. Geber s theorem. 317. 344. 67. ref. 368. 315. decimal. method of. 161. Floridas. 64. 191. 28. 145 . 252. 170. 387. 268. Focus. Fitzgerald. Eutocius. Forsyth. 376. 397. 188. 202-213. 209. 26. 269. Funicular polygons. ref. 45. 54. 200. 169. 374. 292.. 365. See Leonardo of Pisa. 124. 33. to. 60.

186-189. 390. 353. Hadley. 275. Halley s Comet. 271. 319. 375. 230. 261. to. Glazebrook. 330. Roman. 120-124. Haan. 374. 393. Gerstner. Sophie. 322. XI. 138. 152. Gravitation.. . Gopel. 130. 45. 154. 192. 382. 314. Middle Ages. 379. 325. Grunert. 147. 154. 292. Gergonne. Giovanni Campano.. 96. to. Hammond. Greek. 388. de Guldm. 33. 328. James. X. German Magnetic Union. 127. 31(5. Graphical statics. 161. 103. 387 ref. Goursat. 300. to. 114. 334. to. 397. 218. 184.. 113. 174. 82. 379. Babylonian. 215. 158. Holder (Math. ref. XIV. 316. 320-321 . J. Halphen. theory of. 286-288. Quadrature. 397. Harmonics. ref. 151. fieaviside. 321. XI. 307-315. 104. Dyck (Math. 378. Golden section. 187. ref. XII. 110. Curvature. Harkness. 315. E... 285. Gournerie. ref.. Hanus. 126. 324. 389. 383. to. 292. 350. 233. Giinther. Heat. Halley.. Grassmann. 80. 82. 339. 294. Gerhardt. 293-307. 341. Hardy. 127. 35. Gerbert.. Girard. IX. Hamilton. Gromatici. and 22) and by O. Hagen. 249. 393. Saroun-al-Raschid. 386. 354. 399-401. Hathaway. 368.. 34^-346. Circle. 258. Greeks. Gunter. Gow. . 395. de. 378. 401. IX. 97. 191. 327. ref. 325. 318. 372. scriptive. Renaissance. theory of. 300. to. tioned on p. 134. 214. 319. 345. . See Curves. 374. 20 Geometry. Glaisher. to. Gordan. 377. S. 366. ref. 353. 17-62. ref. 303. 327. Hachette. 358. . Green. 227.291. 398. 395. 1G7. ref. 368. 312. XII. 240. Harriot. 373. Geodesy. R. Hebrews. 104. 55. to. analytic.. modern syn Guderniann. Arabic. 131. thetic. . XII. Hann. 319. See Guldin. Egyptian. 329. Groups. 16-77. Halifax. 344. 125. W.. 311. XL. 171. 354. XIII. 287. 306: Gregory. Harrington. 400. 193. Halsted. 328. 362. to. 327. 103. 362. 355. 290. 8. 318. 311. 59. 228. Gerling. to. Gubar-numerals. Grandi.. IX. Ann. Guldinus. 93. Grammateus. 297. 285-290. Gregorian Calendar. David F. 213. Hamilton s numbers. 121. 320. Gua. 69. Heath. Hamilton. Graham. Gibbs. 317. 10-13. Geodesies. ref. 297 ref to. 80. 108. Godfrey. 325.. Ann. ref. 328-330. X. Surfaces. Papers by W. 166. 218. 366.. to. 317. Gutzlaff. 258. 166.. 34) should have been men 98. 19. Rectification. 251. Hegel. 325. Gregory. 127. Hadamard. 153. 314 . Hankel. Greenhill. 299. theory of. ref. X. 167. to. ref. Germain. W. 300. 276. Haas. to. Hindoo. 288. 343 ref. Gobar numerals. to. ? 28. 284. 243. ref. 128. 315. 240. 366. 266. 136.412 INDEX. 304. Hansen.. 162. 330. 165. Gerard of Cremona. to. 385. 178. 213.

es. 186. 371 origin of term. 10. 372. 22. 330. Infinite products. 306. 348. 170-173. 371. Indivisibles. . 104. ref. 398. 342. 255. Indeterminate equations. to. Hippocrates of CMos. ref. 305. to. 190. to. 308 . 140. 177. Indeterminate coefficients. ref. 25. W. lines. 392. 309-311. Hypergeonaetric series. 63. 131. 189. Indices. 0. Hill. Helicon. Imschenetzky. its value. 355. 171. 397.. Ideler. Hydrodynamics. 296. 22.. 188. 114. Infinitesimal calculus. 176. F. 347. 203. See Hindoos. 382. 37. 213. See Non-Eucli Henrici. 45. Insurance. Hurwitz. 347. to. 72. Homer. 223. Henry. 361. ref. 276. ref. Hermite. 71. Helmholtz. 193. 146. Hippias of Elis. 193. See Mechanics. 386. 84-100 ref. 187. 340. See Exponents. Hessian. to. to. 32. 298. 381. 293. . 178. 327. to. 220. 358. Hippopede. Imaginary quantities. theory of. . 52 . 333. 214. 362. 400. 147. X. 354. Imaginary points. lamblichus. Homological figures. INDEX. 111. Helen of geometers. Hicks. Ibbetson. Heuraet. Hoppe. 56. 328. 240. 329. 330. 283. to. Indian mathematics. 69. Imaginary geometry. 255. 38. 213. 372. 384. 95. Hudde.. 51: ref. See Mechanics. Hypsicles. Ideal numbers. 178. Irrationals. 284. . Heliotrope. 363. Hyperelliptie functions. 363. 361.. 312. etc. 105. 259. Hermotimus. Images. 32. 342. 190-192. 219. 208. 401. ref. Hussey. 234. 193. Hindoos. 44. 356. 396. to. Hexagrammum mysticum. 352. 178. 182. 330. 38. to. Hipparclras. HodgMnson. 125. 293. ref. 208. 327. Herodianic signs. 372. 54. 269. 211. See Arabic numer Holmboe. 51. 413 Heine. 239. 51 ref. 368. 363. 237. 377. Him. See Theory of numbers. 396. 107. 110. 106. 203. Homogeneity. Hyperelliptie integrals. Honein ben Ishak. 393. 104. to. 335. 385. 301. 377. 27. ref. 250. 348. 328. 269. Infinity. Holder. Hypatia. 304. 380. 65. 166. 354. 349. See Differen Hovarezmi. Huygens. Hyde. 80. to. XIII. 381-384. 54. Indeterminate analysis. See Theory of numbers. 101. See Groups. 340. 70. 1-4. 349. 241. Hilbert. Hooke. 304. 310. 207. 348. 127. 50. 135. 135. 350. . 33. 239. 36. 319. 309. 321. 350. Hyperbolic geometry. Hesse. P. 169. 255. 349. 360. 169. 339. 400. 95. See Hippasus. 336. 61 ref. Integral calculus. 28. 111. Incommensurables. 25. 98. 343. Heraclid. Infinite series. lehuda ben Mose Cohen. Indian numerals. 295. 3. to. 295. 257. 101. 287. 386. J. to. 376. 292. Heron the Elder. Ignoration of co-ordinates. 30. Induction. 247. Hyperspace. History of mathematics. 283. Herschel. 362. 305. XIII. 7. Hydrostatics. 380. 304. 353. Infinitesimals. 325. 392. 308. 350. 334r-339. 239. ref. dean geometry. 389. 197. als. 127. Hospital. symbol for. Houel. ref. 382. tial calculus.

to. 280. ref. 344. 291. 376.. 394. Lacroix. 285. to. 343. 359. 285. 248. 261. 259. 231. 386. ref. 372 ref. 396. 392. 328. 270-278. 363. 306. ref. to. 403. 401. Latitude. 324. 382. H. 313. 2*44. 352. 177. Konigsberger. 320. to. 378. 354. 307. 161. Irrationals. to. 276. Kinetic theory of gases. 354. 333. 345. 61. 215. 293. Jacohi. N. XIII. 309. 278. 373. 367. 365. 338.. 235. 255. Laisant. 381. 357. 169. 389. to. Ivory ref. 134. Ketteler. Kempe. 60. 310. 355. 69. 295. 341. 363. . Lame. 347. 277. 351-352. Kaestner. 260-270. Lambert. 375. 236. to. 362. 378. Kelland. Killing. 274. 194. 139. 223. 360. to. Laguerre. ref. 268. Kautimann. 303. ref. 353. Kepler. 279. 10. 394 Landen. Kepler s laws. 395. 279. rause. 287. Jurin.213. Ishak ben Honein. Lagrange. Kuhn.. Laplace s coefficients. to. 395. See Incommensurables. See Mercator. 399. lorkine. Jordan. 320. . . Krazer. 370. 313. 388. 314. to. 246. ref. Lame s functions. 340. 48. 355. to. 389. 189. 4. 22. s theorem. 367. 77. Kronig. 401. 346. 263. 309.283. 314. Inverse probability. 286. 246. Interpolation. ref. 402. 389. 341. 273. 401. 126. 378. 179. Laertius. 158 362. 328. 334. 362. 277. 330. ref. 306. 345. XIII. Kelvin. 346. 393. 328. 107. Isidores of Seville. 387. Joule. 398. 247. 388. 379. 213. 388. 376. 384. 167. See Calculus of variations. Ivory. 118. Jordanus Nemorarius. 325. 344. 345. 386. John of Seville. 223. 254. 372. 330. 168. 383. to. ref . 380 . 51. to. Isoperimetrical figures. BLohlrausch. Invariant. 258-259. 285. 202. 174. 391. inckhuysen. to. to. llein. 315. 249. 353. to . 383. 171. Kant. Latus rectum. 383. 329. 177. ref. Korndorfer. 367. Jevons. 360. 263. Lamb. 296. Konig. 259. 204. 325.343. 381. 399. 220. 256. 349. 365. La Louere. 94. iGeinian groups. 179. 392. Jerrard. 374. 305. 393. to. 329 ref. Kuramer. 159. 309. 279. 377. 401. 313. 81. 403. 383. Joachim. 397. Kuhn. Heinian functions. 353. 279. to. to. 370. Kowalevsky. 382. 156. 309. 355. 363. 354. Lord. 168-170. \V Laplace. 234. Sirchhoff. J. Inverse tangents (problem of). Isochronous curve. 378. 313 Kaffl. 347. Jellet. 337. . 343. ref. 401-403. Irregular integrals. ref. 2. Kerbedz. 392. 183. ref. 340. 26. 245. 358. 308. to. 319. Jets. Lahire. 382. ref. 382. 381. periodic changes in. Jochmann. 217. 371. Involution of points. 237. 347.414 INDEX. 336. Kronecker. 240. 341. 284. 232. 330. ref. 364. 315 ref. 344. to. 219. See Rhseticus. 306. See Thomson. ref. Ionic School. XII. 386. ohn. Joubert. ref. Julian calendar. de. 393. 326. 328. 350. 317.. 355. 381. 293. 365. 396. 400. 290. 340. Johnson. 337. 17-19. Kopcke. 174. 174. 304. 390. 382. 104. 395-396. 396.

***? Leodamas. 197. 367. Lie. 333. method of. 285. McCowan. 33. 278-281. 266. arithmetical. 252. Marie. Local probability. 365. 402. 311. ref. McCullagh. 398. Wallis Wren. Lintearia. Leibniz. 346. 415 Laws of Laplace. Abbe. ref. Laws of motion. to. 237. 153 ref. 321. 268. Limits. . Least squares. 227. 401. 303. Mensechmus. 25. 218. Logarithms. 212. 135 ref. 242. Mansion. 391. 337. La place. 155. 338. 398. 334. 365. 197. 370. jUne. Lindelof 334. 340. 390. ref . L Hospital. Euler. 188. 328. 183. Malfatti s problem.iiroth. Levy. 301. 92. 208. ref . 369. Lewis. 52. Newton. 34. to. J Loria. Logarithmic series. 210. Lemonnier. As Lorenz. 346. 220. 376. 253. 298. . and Galileo. 136. 208. 266. Descartes. 32. 191. 341. Magister matheseos. Huygens. 23. 176. 334. Graphic statics. to. 393. 276. 212-216. X. ics. 291. 239. 2. 319. Maudith. 315. 328. 279. 213. 339. 353. 391 ref. McColl. 353. ref. Leyden jar. 2M. ref. . 396. 377. Leibniz. to. 351. Lemoine. 172. squaring of. Rudolph. Hydrostatics. 280. . Mainardi. 137. 240. . 306. to. 327. 315 . 237. Laws of motion. Magic squares. 200. Maupertius. Matrices. 334.Hydrodynamics. theory of. 158. Logic. 250. X. Listing. 384. 315. 113. 383. to. INDEX. Lagrange. Taylor. 301 . 253. Machine. to. 377. 392. 393. 158. 43 Stevin Logarithmic criteria of convergence. 243. Malfatti. 154. Lebesgue. to. Macmahon. 141. ref. Legendre. Linear associative algebra. 280. 241. 323. 394. 383. 379. 290. ~^ 158. Loomis. Liouville. 324. 133. 341. T 168. 285. 243. 341. Lommel. 234. Least action. 356. 250.. 382. 340. 356. 362. 161-165. McMahon. 376. 229. ref. ref. 188. 365. to. 274. 314. Mayer. 312. ref. 350.. Lucas de Burgo. 356. XL Loud. 4. to. 186. to. Mathieu.. X. to. 49. 244. 135. ref. 401. Lipschitz. 237. 34. 276. Marie. . 375. 46. 382. Lobatchewsky. 281. Light. tronomy. See Dynam Long wave. 31. 377-381. 236. 363. M. Maxima and minima. Mechanics: Greek. 154. Main. 400. 33. 306. 376. Maxwell. 174. 209. 300. 328. 323. 382. ref. 290. 328. Marie. 333. 268. Macfarlane. 401. Leslie. Matthiessen. 219-235. Lloyd. 189. 403. 375 . to. See Pacioli. Lexis. to. 192. Leon. ref. \Iaclaurin. to. D Alembert s principle. Lindemann. ref. Bernoullis. /udolph s number. 251. to.F. 252. 350. 325. 182. 390. 273. 37. MacCullagh. 128 . 253. 238.. Meissel. Manrolycus. 298. Leonardo of Pisa. 311 ref. . 397. 296. 343. C. 349. 396. 393. 257.M. ref. 393. 259. 284. 267. to. 341. 375. more recent work. 398. 358. 393. 353. Legendre s function. to. 241. to. 342. 316. McClintock. 401. Le Verrier. 296. 266. 300. 247.

416 INDEX. 382. ref. . 219. F. J. Navier. Nicomedes. 243. to. ref. 402. 366. 245.. Neptune. X. 377. 394. 233. to. to. 354. Musical proportion. 321. Nicole. Meyer. 336. Montucla. 205. 165. 180. 212-215. 282. 191. ref. 309. Moors. 302. G.. M. 50. 164. 282. Moigno. 242. 110. X. 252. 297. 42. 201-218. MuTLer. Nebular hypothesis. 314. 330. 125. Neumann. 320. 112.. 329. Newton s discovery of universal grav . ref. 206.. 396. 315. 55 ref to. to. j Mercator. 248. 265. Meyer. Niven. E. to. 220. 235. 382. 4. Muir. 335. de. See Tartaglia. Neil. ref. See Algebra. 107. Mydorge. 0. 256. Newton. . 165. 174. 152. to. 227-233. 240. C. 370. 387 . Mollweide. 330. 257. Modular functions. Neocleides. to. 28. laws of. 179. 81. 396. Modern Europe. 294. Moral expectation. 401. 290. 372. Newton s discovery of binomial the 293. 93. 336. Meziriac. 340. 213. 390. Mohr. I Mercator. 146. 163. Moivre. 314. 147. 392. Nicomachus. 390. 372. 381. Nicolo of Brescia. Michelson. A. Moschopulus. 138 et seq. 240. 188. Negative quantities. 317. Napier. to. to. 192. Mittag-Leffler. 182. 161. 115. 309. 376 . 154. Midorge. ref. Minkowsky. 325. 198. 244. Morley. itation. F. 117-137. 106 . 72 ref. 172. Mersenne. ref. X. See Astronomy.. MincMn. Nesselmann. controversy with Leibniz. ref. 196. Mobius. 330. 307. 106. XII. 166. Newton. Nautical almanac. de. 392. 300. 359. 314. 36. 135. 313. 293. 375. 390. 114. 33. 334. 57. N. ref. 376. Negative roots. . Method of exhaustion. 156. 353. 177. 191. 386. casting out the. to. 258. See Algebra. 127. G. 116. Nachreiner. United States. Nicolai. 391. 8. to. 195. 76. Moon. 262. Vusa ben Sakir. 183. 200. Newcomb. 341. 197 ref. 173. Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. Mouton. 239. 50. Nieuwentyt. ref. 169. 213. 187. to. Method of characteristics. Minding. Napier.. 375. 306. Netto. . Motion. 398. to.. orem. Napier s rule of circular parts. 217. 114. Menelaus. 58. Metius. E. 286-288. Nines. Meunier. 33. Meyer.. 162. 93. 157. Monge.. Newton s Principia. 324. 190 . 300. 229. Nagelbach. 191. . discovery of. . Neumann. 60. Meteorology. 366. 392. 380. Multiplication of series. 334. 393. Multi-constancy. 152. 195. Modular equations. 274. Newton s parallelogram. Middle Ages. 341. Miiller. 186. Nasir Eddin. 254. 259. 384r-386. Moments in fLuxionary calculus. Mertens. 334. 375 ref... 268. 125. ref. Moore. 362. 238. 366. 367. 149. 285. 325. 297. 108. Mere. 208. J. to. 312. Montmort. See Regiomontanus.

58-61 . 103. 349. 330. Pascal. 191. 191. 108. calculus. ref. Numerals: Egyptian. See Geometry. Pfaffian problem. 376. 372 the . See Applied 5 Ludolph s. 161. Parallelogram of forces. : . X. C. Pepin.. 150. 205. 219. X. per 287. 134 . 178-182. 182. 154. notation. 220 . 243. 178. Palatine anthology. Orontius. 379. 38. 283. 120. 50. 187. 284. E. 131. Pacioli. 108. to. B. Leibniz s. to. 313. 376. See Apices. 73. 341. 384. 259. 167. . 13. Picard. 46. Pemberton. 55. Hindoo. . 41. Pearson. 249. 73. 39. 151. 33. Perier. Pemter. Operations. 350. Numbers of Bernoulli. trigonometry. Perspective. 195. 42. See Exponents. differential ean geometry. 360. heteromecic. 38. 291. 281 . to. 181. 264. Oughtred. 147. 208.. ref. 252. 353. Periodicity of functions. Oberbeck. Pascal s theorem. 49. Perturbations. Piazzi. 142. 133. 127-129. 178. 341. proved to be transcendental. 269. ref. 372. 342. Oppolzer. Non-Euclidean geometry. 135. 11. mathematical. 155. Parabolic geometry. S. 300. ref. Pfaff. 149. 161. X. to. 292. mathematics. Peirce. 93. 317.. 142. 240. Pherecydes. 78 decimal fractions. 5-7 Egyptian num . 2 Piddington. 196. 379. ref. Perseus.. 37. ref. 301. 68. 280. 385. to. 181. J. 347. Peaucellier. to. 5-7. 158. to. centre of. semi-cubical. ref. 167. 8. to. HSDEX. ?r: values for. 22. 284. ory of numbers. 20. M. Parallels. Peirce. cessive. 154. 183. 373. Greek numbers. Arabic. 119. 341 et seq. Padmanabha. proved to be irrational. 153. 373. 273. 215. Baby Pappus. 65. . 68. 350. 160. 175-177. 283. 159 Koman. 154. 196. 45. J. 321. definitions of numbers. calculus of. 323. ref. 153 ref. 28. 391. M. 87. 315. 87.. 186. 333. 194. 112. 108. triangular. 281. to. Ohm. 68. ref. See Non-Euclid 160. 115 ex Partial differential equations. Brouncker 197. 317. 178. Peacock. 15. 202. 130. ref. 222. Ostrogradsky. s. 64 Arabic Parabola. Notation: in algebra. lonian numbers. brew. Algebra. to. Numbers amicable. Gibers. 112. 133. . 238. 97. 87. bers. selection of letter TT. Babylonian. Peletarius. Petersen. 166. 66. Pendulum. 39. 180. 68. Optics. Arabic. fect. 285. 386. 147. Pell. 323. 365. Oscillation. 151. 342. Picard. 311. Neither. 300-307. 228. Wallis . defective. 260. 303. 221. Egyptian. 177. Olivier. See Geometry. 300. 152. Oresme. Madame. 98. 220. 102. 290.. 55. 364. 68. 160. Omega-function. 134. Fagnano s. Philippus. 306. 250. Partition of numbers. 75. 68. 417 Nolan. 307.. 310. Archime Philonides. 198. dean. Parameter. to. 356. Babylonian and He Philolaus. 19. 214. Physics. to. 377. 365. 102.. OEnopides. 326. 134. 255. 362. 16. ref. 95. . 64. 3. 50. 48. 70. 201. Otho. 362-372. - Nonius. Ovals of Descartes. 190. 35. Oldenburg. Pell s problem. 241. Ohrtmann. 13. 76. Greek. 381.

253. . 34. ref. 351. 36. 397. to.. 333. 3. Poincare. 33. Porisms. 384. 177. Problem of Pappus. 313. Projective geometry. 377. 58. to. 29. 19-23. Poinsot. See Plato of Tivoli. Piola. Regiomontanus. 313. Pythagoras. ref. 190. 372. . 220. Quadratic reciprocity. 134 ref. 180. 397. also see Circle-squarers. 395. 341. 50. 293. 388. 154. 107. 396. 308.135. 33. 10. 290. 24. 381. to. to. 139. 32. 60. ref. 340. 390. Plectoidal surface. 191. 389. 23. 108. Reaction polygons. Quadrature of the circle. 3. 377. 158. TT. 190. Pythagorean School. 319 . 386. Raabe. Redfield. 307-309 ref. 398. 382. 35. 242. 141 ref. 308. to. 178. 182. 38. 95. to. 54. Reech. 39. 212. 403. Regular solids. X M 156. 340 . 212. 365. 398. Progressions. Prym. See Ptolemy. to. 71. ref. 252. signs for. 358. Radiometer. 308. 285. 280. 346. Ptolemaic System. 229. 55. 179. 142. Reciprocal polars. See Curves. X. 237. 387. 39. Regula duorum falsormn.418 INDEX. 151. 277. ref. 400. 68. 375. of. 289. 345. 38. 97. 256. 192. first appearance of arith 149. Pohlfce. 140. 375. 360. 396. 158. 19. 82. . 386 . a. 387. 68. 106. ref. 306. 63. 317. 26. Rectification of curves. 36. 222. Equations. Planudes. 93. Pliicker. 239. Plateau. 300. 16. 355. Platonic figures. 33. to. Rankine. metical and geometrical. 395. 38. Plato Tiburtinus. ref. 54. 188. Quadratic equations. 45. 336-338. Plato. to. 60. 270. 29-31 ref. to. Playfair. 38. ref. to. 160. 368. 17. 49. 112. 120. Puiseux. Reciprocants. . Princess Elizabeth. 347. ref. Pulveriser. Weierstrass theory Ramus. Regula aurea. 119. 377. 98. 399 . 304. 378. to. Poynting. Plus and minus. 115. 354. Quadrature of curves. Pringsbeim. Propositiones ad acuendos iuvenes. 382. Recorde. XIII. Preston. 245. 252. 153. Eeductio ad absurdum. 169. 383. 268. Rayleigh. 109. Rari-constancy. Quercu. 106. 392. Platonic School. Proportion. 35. 22. 374. Primary factors.. Problem of three bodies. 233. 175. 56. Porphyrius. 352. 61 ref. 125. 29-34. Regula falsa. 23. 359. 307. Poncelet s paradox. See Circle. 193. 343. 356. 140. Principia (Newton s). to. 63. . 384. Purbach. Plana. 31. 111. Ptolemy. to. Prime and ultimate ratios. Ratios. 290. 276. 25. 327. 150. 59. 154. Lord. 288. See Falsa positio. 318. ref. 135. 21. 215. to. 151. . 16. 384. Plato of Tivoli. 390. 198. Proclus. Poncelet. 67-70. 139. 337. 153. 60. 9. 106. 240. 34. to. Potential. 17. Probability. Poisson. Pitiscus. 51. Rahn. 7. ref. 56-58. #ee Algebra. 55. 109. 208. 67. Quaternions. ? Ptolemseus. 42. 19-23. M. 400. 300. 400. 387. Raclau. 330. 198.110. 18. 39. 155. 168. 298. . 8. 158. 32. 378. Prime numbers. 76. Quetelet. Quadratrix. 383. 368. 361. 177. 28. 104.

339. Sachse. 241 ref. Riihlmann. H. 142. ref. 245. Semi-cubical parabola. Schwarz. 189 . to. 393. 141. 300. ref. Simpson. 311-313. 202. Secants. 353. 151. 355 . ref. Sellmeyer. 148. 124. Signs. XII. Reynolds. to. 397. to. Fouriet s Saccheri. 309. 374. 384. 7. 347. 142. to. Riemann. 304. Segre. 249. Sectio aurea. 10-15. Schellbach. 366. 379. 139-156. Sexagesimal system. 172 . 290. 297. ref. Seitz. 312. Richelot. Sacro Bosco. 378. 193. Rosenhain. Rosenberger. 300. Routh. 356. 135. to. 368. 397. 92. to. 290. 393. to. 99. ref. 77-83. 371. 341. 139. Absolutely convergent series. XIL. 398. Reye. 371. 382. 328. Roberval. Uniformly convergent series. 288. 342. 341. 357-359. 393. 385. Richard of TTallingford. Salmon. ref. Schmidt. 37. 345. 380. Simony. 61. Serret. ref. 140. 390. Trigonometric series. XIV. Sehlegel. Scaliger. Serenus. 353. 111. Sarrau. 288. Schwarzian derivative. 109. 365. Sine. 295. 322. 284. Seidel. to. ref. Divergent Rule of three. Selling. 377. to. ref. 218. 65. Resal. 193. 191. 312. Schreiber. 116. 336. Scott. 126. 315. Romer. 387. . 384. to. 330. 354. 171. 3(52. XIII. the golden. 190. Series. to. Schroter. INDEX. 302. van. rule of. Section. 361. 306. 303. 297. 239. ref. 125. Schering. Rudolff. Similitude (mechanical). series. 154. 55. 333. . 172. ref. 240. 57. Renaissance. Simplicius. 296. 361. 290. ref. origin of term. Screws. Ruffini. Schumacher. 241 . 33. 67. 313 . to. XIII. 58. ref. Sextus Julius Africanus. 65. 315. Saurin. 348. to. 142. 313. ref. 382. Roman mathematics in Occident. See Rhseticus. 305. 306. Riccati. Schuster. Reiff. See Infinite series. 187.. Sarrus. ref. Semi-convergent series. 357. 39. ref. Schlessinger. Sand-counter. See Halifax. 296. Romanus. H. Romans. 328. Semi-invariants. series. 33. 199. Seeber. Simson. Saint-Venant. to. 342. Rowland. to. 190. Semi-convergent series. Rolle. Schepp. 381. Sextant. 419 Reid. Savart. ref. Sigma-f unction. 400. 154. 376. Rule of signs. Schiaparelli.. 236. ref. Schlomilch. 322. Siemens. 154. Schubert. Riemann s surfaces. 313. 354. XIL Rhseticus. Schooten. 353. 192. 358. 356. 383. 102. Rhind papyrus. 392. 325. to. 32. 394. 377. 380. 305. ref. to.. 355. to. 305. XL Schlafli. 187. 141 . 117. ref. theory of. Servois. 339. 362. to. 375. 306. Saturn s rings. 106. 109. Sehroter. 338. 389. Rheticus. to. 353. to. 339. 398. J. 187. Roulette. Roberts. 90.

347-362. 299. 110. 280. 314. 108. 269. 262. Theory of equations. to. See Equations. Theon of Alexandria. Squaring the circle. See Quadrature Tangents.. Smith. 344. 223 . 381. 328. See Rayleigh. J. 42. 182. 310. 81. 215. 306. 191. to. 265.420 INDEX. Sluze. 35. 95. to. . 368.. Smith. 255. 244. of the circle. velocity of. 400. Steele. XII. 383. Symmetric functions. 312. 178. . 62. 319. 311. 319. 328. 370. Statistics. 330. 353. 149. 55. 190. Thesetetus. 222. theory of. XIIL. 278. 398. 357. See Mechanics. 223. to. Spheroid (liquid) 384. 369. 268. 242. Gregory. Steiner. direct problem of. Star-polygons. 295. 381. 153. 173.. Thales. Taber. 292. 345. 269. Tannery. to. 250. 65. IX. 182. 295. 326. 325. 388. 361. 296 ref. 31. 390. Spirals. ref. 311. Theory of functions. 312. 382. J. ref.. ref. ref. Theon of Smyrna. C. 270. 329. 247. 381. See Functions. 378. 55.. 18 ref. 330. 51. ref. 30. 135. ref. to. 293. Synthetic geometry. 333. (Gerbert). Vincent. Singular solutions. ref. Acoustics. Sylow.E. 250. Smith. 94. 82. 151 ref. Taylor s theorem. 151. 241. Stifel. 70 ref. in trigonometry. to. 189. 339. 357. 320. IL. 76. H. 216. Sound. 92. 152. Tartaglia. Theodorus. 350. Suter. Substitutions. 396. See Von. 340. Sosigenes. Struve. Strassmaier. 366.. 142. Solitary wave. Tabit ben Korra.. 31. to. 330. 381. 292. 381. 108. 75. 252. 226. 264. in geometry. Spottiswoode. Stewart. Sophist School. Sylvester. See Stevin. 324. 25]. Staudt. Kegula falsa. Staudt. 224. 168. to. 54. 310. 162. to. to. to. 156.242. Theory of numbers. Strings. 222. Swedenborg. 290. Tchebycheff.Italy. Stereometry. 37. Spherical trigonometry. theory of. Strauch. inverse problem of. 186. 125. 23-29. ref. Theodosius. 362. 237. Tait. 381. 354. 38. 21. to. Stern. 393. ref. to. 17. to. Somoff. Sturm. ". 242. 353. 325. 33. 56. 243. ref. to. W. Stef ano. 33. 65. . F. 61 . R. Theory of substitutions. 220. 297. 386. . 346. Sturm. to. Spitzer. 197. 189. 160 ref. to. A. 55. 143-145. 127. 226. 306. 372. 33JO. 379. 22. 72. 131. 330. 334. 333. 198. Square root.. 287. ref. 309. 264. 29. 365. 155. 134. 343 . Sturm s theorem. 293-307. 44. Stokes. Statics. Sohnke. Sylvester II. Speidell. Stabl. 70. 348. 280. 234. . 159. Surfaces. Tautochronous curve. 296. 386. 178-182. See Stevin. 224. vibrating. 283. 368. 328. 08. 20. ref. 282. 120-124. 296. 119. 277. 268. Strutt. Taylor. ref. Synthesis. to. ref. to. 383. 362-372. B. Solid of least resistance [Prin. 141. Stirling. 298. . Tentative assumption. St. 105. 342. 324. 165. See 341. Stevimis. 162. 169. X. 115. von. 255. Tangents... Tchirnhausen. 60. 370. 294. 388. 16. ref. 3S2. 36. 274. 306. 108 . Stringhana. Spherical Harmonics. SHI. 58.

Torricelli. Three bodies. Ultimate multiplier. 50. Tonstall. Weber. Vibrating strings. 345. Tycho Brahe. 345. . 114. 283. 292. Voigt. 152. * 238. 352. Walker. 98-100. 140. 375. Weber. E. 202. 334. Wand. 421 Thermodynamics. 87. 389. 388. Vincent. 378. 379. 307. 390. 340. 382. Versed sine. 110. Variation of arbitrary consonants. 57. 318. 397. 382-385. to. 165. 400. to. 161. 197. 299. 73. Tucker. 385. and Prague. 256. 359. 339. 278. 353. Werner. Trajectories. 98. 377. / 154. 305 ref. Volaria. 196. 177. Tides. See Helmholtz. 51. 165. Undulatory theory of light. 259. Theta-functions. 161. 183. 50. 216. to. Kelvin (Lord). . Van Schooten. 379. 396. to. 167.. 393. 387. 383. 242. XI. 262. 278. theory of. Vandernionde. Valson. Vortex motion. ref. 99. Vicat. 110. to.. to. 358. 344 ref.". . 323. Von Staudt. 168. 391. H. Wallis. ref. 283. 353. 255. Weigel. 395. Wantzel. 361. L. 382. 238. 292. Thomae. 190. 396. Whewell. See Undulatory theory. 357. 190. Theudius. Leipzig. . to. Thomson s theorem. to. 142. 264. 139. spherical. 362. See Ludolph. 398. 394. 33. ref. 242. Waltershausen. 395. IX. Watson. 381. 341. Trigonometric series. Victorius. 295. 115. 312. 359. 362. to. Waldo. 29. S. Trigonometry. 400. Ubaldo. 385. Ox Weiler. Warring. 217.. Triangulum characteristicum. J. 136. 394. 79. 388. 160. 280. 219. . 179. 236. See Fourier s series. 264. Gregory St. 153. Weierstrass. 385. 237. ref. Thomson. 394. 386. 202. Veronese. Viviani. 380. Wave theory. 328. 245. Xm. Trudi. Theta-fuchsians. 192. Watson. 396 . 357. 306. 363. 390. to. Thome. to. 56. 171. 339. 197. Widmann. 141. 324. 153. 353. 399. Thomson. 393. 352. ref. 154. 328. Wheatstone. 220. 294. 253. 115. ref. 398-401. ref. Whitney. Varignon. Thomson. 294. 383. Trouton. . ref. ford. 377. Paris. 315. 249. 372. 240 ref. 171.. 355. J. Westergaard. XIIL. H. 147. 355. to. 377. INDEX. ref. 172. 265. 234. 135. 153. 192-195. Ulug Beg.. 202. 359 . 187. 253. 52.. 336. 158. 24. ref. Van Ceulen. Vieta. Trisection of angles. J.. Varying action. 341. 403. Vortex rings. 379. Tisserand. 382. principle of. Timseus of Locri.. Twisted Cartesian. 392-394. Waves. XIII. 339. Venturi. problem of. 229. 109.. W. C. Wertheim. Von Helmholtz. Thymaridas. Whiston. 330. Todhunter. 188. Vlacq. to. Vibrating rods. Voss. 31. to. Virtual velocities. Universities of Cologne. 365. XIII. Sir William. 382. 298. 150. ref. 354. 43. Trochoid. 264. 278 . J. 189 ref. 34. to.

1751-3 . 267. to. 177. 372. 167. term. 213. 324. 88. to. 198. XI. Winds. 83. 392. 384-386. 325. to. 260. 287. Xylander. 188. 392. Wolf. Zeller. 264.. 103. Wolf. Woepcke. Zag. ref. 386. 297. Zeuthen. 387. . 51. 153. Zolotareff.422 INDEX. 29. Woodhouse. Xenocrates. Zehfuss. 241.. Wren. Zeuxippus. Zenodorus. 264. ref. Wittstein. Zahn. 129. 341. 365. to. 371 ref. 313. Witch of Agnesi. 27. XI. C. Winkler. 40. Wronski. origin of Wolstenaolme. Zero (symbol for). Wiener. XII. Wilson. 334. ref. Wilson s theorem. to. Williams. ref. XII. 7. R.. IX. Young. Zeno. 127.

00. HEATH. $1. DALTON. $3. KEY to above. $1.25. i6mo. $2. 8vo. 90 cents. iSmo.00. i . An Introductory Work on Algebra. i2mo. iSmo. M. Fellow of Trinity College. By the Rev. PART II.R. CHEYNE. I2mo. D ALTON : Rules and Examples in Algebra.50. PART I. $1. Algebra for Beginners. With Answers. S PUBLICATIONS ON MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. Two Volumes.25. By W. ALGEBRA. C. B.. I2mo.A. $1.25. HENSLEY The Scholar s Algebra. By W. M. Algebraical Exercises and Examination Papers. M.R. Algebra. KEY to the Exercises. Progressively arranged. 60 cents.10. Kingston. $1. S. By NATHAN F. FAILES. I2mo. Professor of Mathematics in Queen s College.S. TONES and CHEYNE: Algebraical Exercises.) : Elementary Algebra. $2. By T. H. New Edition.00. 8vo. ALDIS. M. : By LEWIS HENSLEY. BALL (W. F.A. M... New Edition. C.10.. M. M.A. A.. Higher Algebra for Schools. T. i2mo. 50 cents.A. ELSEE: By the Rev. iSmo. i6mo. 60 cents.90. DtTPUIS: Principles of Elementary Algebra. i6mo. JONES.A. I2mo. 60 cents. Canada. KEY TO PART I. $1. PART II.A. I2mo. By the Rev.A. $1. $2. By G. 60 cents. and C. New Edition. S. W.10. i6mo. Cam bridge. An Elementary Text-book for the Higher Classes of Secondary Schools and Colleges. : Elementary Algebra for Schools. ALDIS : A Text-book of Algebra. ELSEE. HAYWARD: The Algebra of Co-Planar Vectors and Trigonometry $2.90. CHRYSTAL.A. R. Seventh Edition. PART I. HALL. $7.A. F. KNIGHT. $4. CHRYSTAL : Algebra. MACMILLAN & CO. R. $1. 8vo. and S.75.A. i6mo. HALL and KNIGHT Works by H. M.60. THE SET.90. DUPUIS.S. L. KEY.. HEATH : Diaphantos of Alexandria A Study in the History of Greek : Algebra.

$1. D. Works by CHARLES SMITH. SMITH. : With an Appendix containing Questions on Logarithms and Mensura tion. SOLUTIONS to above. By MARY STEAD MAN ALDIS. 50 cents.60. KEY. MACMICHAEL and SMITH: Progressive Course of Examples in Alge bra. 25 cents. By the Rev. i8mo. M. 121110. $1.A. LL. and S.. PROWDE-SMITH. $1. A Most Elementary Arithmetic for Children. $2. By the Rev.2 MACMILLAN & CO. I2mo. ALDIS The : Great Giant Arithmos. . BRADSHAW: A Course of Easy. W. The Scholar s Arithmetic.60. : M. T. I2mo. i2mo. HALL and KNIGHT Arithmetical Exercises and Examination Papers. BROOK- SMITH. By J. S. i6rno. R.A. $1. 75 cents. i2mo. KEY. BAR NARD SMITH. 60 cents. B. Arithmetical Examples for Beginners.90. TODHUNTER.A. Girton College. F. DALTON Rules and Examples in Arithmetic. PROWDE SMITH. $i.60. Master of Sidney Sussex Col lege.A. Elementary Algebra. A. By J. With numerous systematically arranged examples. Cambridge. $1. i8mo. 1882-89. Stiff covers.Sc. By P. M. Revised. 60 cents. Wi|h Answers.A.R. Go YEN.80. New Zealand. B.. i6mo. 90 cents. New Edition.. Geometrical Drawing. BROOK-SMITH: Arithmetic in Tneory and Practice.A.40. By the Rev. Dunedin. By J. $2. ? Arithmetic for Beginners. by FRANCES HARDCASTLE. Algebra. Euclid. SMITH: Algebra Examples. 60 cents. $2. MACMICHAEL and R. Algebra. BROOK-SMITH. KEY. . J. 11.30. I2mo. Revised. By R.B. With Answers. KNIGHT. ARMY PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION (Specimens of Papers set at the). HALL. and E. in their Principles and Application. DALTON.A.. 10. By H. With Answers to the Mathematical Questions. With Numerous Examples. F. A. $2.25. For the Use of Colleges and Schools. HENSLEY : Figures Made Easy By LEWIS HENSLEY. I2mo. A Supplement to the Usual Treatises by FELIX KLEIN. With Illustrations. 8vo..10. I2mo. : Inspector of Schools. New Edition. New Edition. A Treatise on Algebra.10. Dictation. New Edition.75. $1. M. 13 cents. M.S. ARITHMETIC. I2mo. Geography. French. TODHUNTER. G. $1. English. Algebra for Beginners. I2mo.10. $1. i6mo. ^x ANSWERS to Examples. New Edition. Cambridge. SMITH: Arithmetic and Algebra. With Answers to the Examples. S PUBLICATIONS ON KLEIN On Riemann : s Theory of Algebraic Functions and their Inte grals. M. i2mo. GOYEN Higher Arithmetic and Elementary Mensuration.60. i6mo. I2mo. BRADSHAW. -M. Trans lated from the German with the author s permission. 75 cents. Works by I. Sub jects: Arithmetic.

I2mo.R. Royal 8vo.A. i6mo. Stereo typed. I.) Commercial Arithmetic.A.50. late C.25.10. VOL. SMITH. III. can Schools.R. A. New Edition.50. $1. Third Edition. i8mo. 60 cents. With Illustrations. Works by BARNARD SMITH. M. F. Popular Astronomy. Planets.S. B.25. CHAMBERS.. Assistant Tutor and Lecturer in Gonville and Caius College. JACKSON (S.25. and Comets. : $1. $1.A. Examination Papers in Arithmetic.50. 8vo.A. New Edition. Pictorial Astronomy. Shilling Book of Arithmetic. KEY. KEY. Globe 8vo. By Rev. Algebra.25. Globe 8vo.25. Containing more than 7000 Original Examples. with their Positions for every Tenth Day in the Year. II. $1. ASTRONOMY. $1. M. S. A List of the most remarkable : Celestial Objects visible with small Telescopes. 40 cents. $2. THOMAS Enunciations in Arithmetic. F.A. LOCK and Professor CHARLOTTE A. CHAMBERS. By P. New Edition. $2. CHEYNE. KEY.75. With Answers. FREEMAN. PEDLEY. iSmo.} 8vo. Assistant Master in Sedbergh School.10. With Numerous Illustra tions. $5.B. and other Astronomical Information.00. 8 cents.A. : with a Few Examples and Notes. $1. By C. CLARK and SADLER The Star Guide. School Class-Book of Arithmetic. Euclid. I2mo. CHAMBERS: A Handbook of Descriptive and Practical Astronomy. The Sun. PEDLEY : Exercises in Arithmetic for the Use of Schools.. SMITH. Arithmetic for the Use of Schools.. iSmo. AIRY: Works by Sir G.. LOCK. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. M. F. LOCK and SCOTT: Arithmetic for Schools.A. Adapted for Use in Ameri J. 60 cents. By G. Gravitation. By the : H. formerly Astronomer-Royal. 8vo. F. i8mo. F.10. $1. The Metric System of Arithmetic.00.. With Answers. H. M. A School Class-book of Commercial Arith metic. LOCK.10. . i2mo. CHEYNE An Elementary Treatise on the Planetary Theory. M.A. 60 cents. B. Paper. and Trigonometry. KEY. Cambridge.10. $3. By S. K. $1. New Edition.90. An Elementary Explanation of the Principal Perturbations in the Solar System. 70 cents. {Completing the work. $1. SCOTT. VOL. With 8000 Examples. PENDLEBURY: Arithmetic. B.25. J. $1. $2. By CHARLES PEN- DLEBURY. By GEORGE F. $1. i8mo. VOL.R. $5. The Starry Heavens.S. THOMAS. $1. $1.A.R.25. Bryn Mawr College. SMITH: Arithmetic for Schools. Senior Fellow. A.A. B. M. Fourth Edition. KEY.A. Arithmetic for Beginners. Works by Rev. With Answers. and HERBERT SADLER.C. AIRY.S. Edited by Rev. By LATIMER CLARK. Instruments and Practical Astronomy.

$6. Fourteenth Edi tion. 4to. Third Edition.00. A Treatise on Astronomy. 40 cents. $6. Revised and Enlarged by G. FORBES: The Transit of Venus. i6mo. for the Use of Colleges and Schools. etc. Revised throughout. Revised. H. 8vo. 8vo. $4.A. Stars. 8vo. NORMAN LOCKYER.S.K. SMYTH: A Cycle of Celestial Objects. S PUBLICATIONS ON CLERKE A Popular : History of Astronomy during the Nineteenth. $1. The Meteoritic Hypothesis. Cen tury. W.. Second Edition.C Second Edition. The Chemistry of the Sun. By R. MAIN: An Introduction to Plane Astronomy. GLEDHILL. F. F.A. C. New Edition. etc. HAMILTON and J. and Dis cussed. 30 cents. For the Use of Amateurs. The Evolution of the Heavens and the Earth. M. A Statement of the Spectroscopic Inquiry into the Origin of Cosmical Systems. With a Brief Sketch of the Problem up to the Time of Newton. $1. T. LOCKYER and G.4 MACM1LLAN &. With Numerous Illustrations. Compiled and Arranged by J. 50 cents. . and Nebulse. CROSSLEY. By WILLIAM DURHAM. By B.50. A. 90 cents.S.00. i6mo. WILSON. M. An Elementary Treatise on Lunar Theory. With Numerous Illustrations. GODFRAY: Works by HUGH GODFRAY. HAMILTON and BALL: Book-keeping. 8vo. $1. Observed.00.} The Dawn With Illustrations. With Illustrations. By P.R. F. Revised. N. JOSEPH GLEDHILL.A. By AGNES M. G. By EDWARD CROSSLEY. $4. CLERKE. BOOK-KEEPING. i8mo.R. BALL. MEDHURST.25. Fcap. MEDHURST: Examination Papers on Book-keeping. SEABROKE. DURHAM: Astronomy Sun. B. $1.00. By GEORGE FORBES. With Illustrations. Noon.Sr CO. F. Contributions to Solar Physics. With Illustrations.00.00. Reduced. I2mo. ^So- Elementary Lessons in Astronomy. SMYTH.S.60. and JAMES M. By J. With Illustrations. With Spectra of the Sun.R.R. CHAMBERS. FOSTER : Double Entry Elucidated. FORBES-ROBERTSON. MAIN. Stars. LOCKYER and SEABROKE: Star-gazing Past and Present. 8vo. Sixth Edition. (Nearly Ready-. 50 cents. With Illustrations.lt. FOSTER. $5.A.A. LOCKYER: Works by J. 8vo.) of Astronomy. Revised and Enlarged. Questions on Lockyer s Elementary Lessons in Astronomy for Schools. and Numerous Illustrations. W. $3. I2mo. 8vo. and WILSON: A Handbook of Double Stars. 8vo. Corrections to the Handbook of Double Stars. (In the Press. By Admiral W.S. I2mo. 8vo. F. T.E. By J. 75 cents.25.

B. PART I. $1. $i. M. COCKSHOTT and Rev. $1. F. CUTHBERTSON Euclidian Geometry. I2mo. Enlarged. COCKSEOTT and A Treatise on Geometrical Conies. $3. I2mo. DYER. I2mo. laxno. First Lessons in Book-keeping. Translated by CHARLES LEUDESDORF. I2mo. M. M. F. By N. STABLE. Containing Problems with Help for Solution. By W. and G. and II.. By : T. H. ALDIS (W. i6mo. DAY: Properties of Conic Sections Proved Geometrically. M. $1. G. WALTERS. with numerous Riders and Chapters on Radical Axis. Sixth Edition. $1. i6mo.A.10. and the Theory of Projections. M. EDGAR and PRITCHARD Note-book on Practical Solid or Descriptive : Geometry. S. $1. N. M. Fourth Edition. DREW. $1. DAY. M. I2mo.25.25.fo. The Eclipse.00. SOLUTIONS to the Examples. i6mo. 8vo. By HORACE DEIGHTON. By FRANCIS CUTHBERTSON. S.25. With Examples. and Circle in the Plane.A. 90 cents. . Svo. Elementary Synthetic Geometry of the Point.10. DODGSON Works by CHARLES L. etc. KEY. the Method of Recip rocal Polars.60. M. $1. Fourth Edition.25. Curiosa Mathematica. Second Edition.A. DEIGHTON Euclid. Poles and Polars.50. M. By SAMUEL CON : I2mo. PART I. CONSTABLE Geometrical Exercises for Beginners. LL.) : Solid Geometry. H. THORNTON.A. 60 cents. Line.A.A.A. $1. i2mo. H. $3. M. 70 cents.A. DODGSON. Primer of Book-keeping. Revised Edition. KEY. DYER Exercises in Analytical Geometry. By the Rev. BOOKS I. H. THORNTON: Works by J. CREMONA: Elements of Projective Geometry. By J.D. in WALTERS : accordance with the Syllabus of the Association for the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching. Euclid and his Modern Rivals.10.10.-IV. and part of Book XL Newly translated from the Original Text. H.25. DUPUIS. DTJPUIS. Oblong 410. By J. $1. Transversals. FERRERS A Treatise : on Trilinear Co-ordinates. 75 cents. With Problems. 35 cents. with symbols and abbreviations. EDGAR. FERRERS. W. BESANT (Dr. i2mo. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. By A. i2mo. MEEZE. Plane Loci. i8mo. M. $1. 90 cents. M. I2mo. Books I. EAGLES. PRITCHARD. A New Theory of Parallels. : The Elements. Harmonic Proportion. : i6mo. : Euclid. I2mo.A. With : Illustrations. DREW: A Geometrical Treatise on Conic Sections.A.) : Conic Sections treated Geometrically. By ARTHUR G.10. M. $1. EAGLES Constructive Geometry of Plane Curves. i6mo. By the Rev.75. Centres