Elementary Go Series, Vol.


by Kiyoshi Kosugi and James Davies



Published by the Ishi Press, Inc. CPO Box 2126, Tokyo Copyright 1973 in Japan by the Ishi Press All rights reserved according to international law. This book or any parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publishers. This and any other Ishi Press publication may be ordered from: THE ISHI PRESS, CPO Box 2126, Tokyo, Japan

First printing April 1973 Second printing April 1975 Third printing December 1980 Fourth printing September 1984 Fifth printing February 1989 Printed in Japan by the Sokosha Printing Co., Ltd.


To the beginner, the game of go appears as a jungle of confusion, full of pitfalls past which only Providence could possibly guide him. As he gains experience, he may learn to sort out the events of the middle and end games, recognize patterns, and play rationally, but the opening is apt to remain a mystery to him. Indeed, it remains something of a mystery even to professional go players, and there are no tabulations of go openings comparable to the books on chess openings, which tell how to play from move one onwards. There are, however, patterns which arise in parts of the board again and again during the opening. They occur in especially large numbers in the corners, where the initial fighting of the game generally takes place. These corner formulas, which have been discovered by trial and error, and worked out through centuries of go playing, and are still being added to and discarded, are called joseki. This is intended as a first book on joseki, so it contains only the more common of them. In choosing our material, we have taken pains to avoid the kind of long, complicated sequences that one can spend hours learning, and then go for months without using. We have also decided not to spend time on doubtful or ‘trap’ moves, although occasionally a mistaken play is shown to explain the meaning of a good one. These


commissions will limit this book’s usefulness as a reference work for advanced players, but they should be welcomed by readers at the sub-shodan level, for whom we are writing. There are no major gaps in our coverage of joseki, and we hope that our explanations are clear enough for even beginners to understand. With the exception of chapter four, we have limited ourselves to those joseki in which one player plays a stone in the corner, and before he has a chance to reinforce it with a second stone, his opponent moves in after him. The first stone ordinarily goes on one of these five points: the 3-3 point (san-san) the 3-4 point (komoku) the 4-4 point (hoshi) the 3-5 point (mokuhazushi) the 4-5 point (takamoku) We shall take them in that order, starting with the three-three point and moving out toward the center. We shall stop at the four-five point because, although it is not necessarily bad to start farther out from the corner, it is rather unusual, so there are no joseki built specifically around such moves. The reader of this, or any other joseki book, may be dismayed at the large number of variations it contains. Let him be reassured that he need not worry about forgetting them; in fact, it is a good idea to forget them. Too much dependence on rote learning of joseki stifles a player’s imagination, and blinds his overall vision of the board. It is best to remember pieces of


varying them. 5 . but do not yet really understand. when he plays a stone. Amateurs must learn joseki in the same way. exactly what makes it a good move. but from his general feeling for what moves are good in any given situation. and they are more likely to be thought up on the spur of the moment than to be the product of secret study the night before. like other books. or what is going to follow it. Watching these student professionals. He may pull new surprise moves on his opponents. having read dozens of go books and played and watched thousands of games. He adapts his joseki to the surrounding positions. at the apprentice stage of their development. we can see them using and misusing joseki that they have picked up from their reading. individual moves. no longer studies joseki much. He plays joseki not from memory. not as texts to be learned by heart. starting with sequences they remember from books or from stronger players’ games. joseki books. testing them out in their own games. Even professional players read joseki books. coming to understand them. He may not know. or even criticized in. should be looked upon as sources of ideas. and concepts that can be put to use in many situations. and therefore regularly produces moves not found in. This gives their games an awkward appearance.joseki—shapes of stones. A full-fledged professional. Joseki books. but he is confident that the subsequent moves will bear out his judgment. and finally being able to play on their own with confidence. but relies on his accumulated experience.

most of the diagrams and ideas in it were supplied by Kosugi in a series of consultations stretching from April to October. The text was written by Davies. 1972. we have taken a relatively few number of them and tried to explain them. We are indebted to the Japanese Go Association for the use of their facilities. 1972 Kiyoshi Kosugi James Davies 6 . who also contributed what diagrams he could. Concerning the authorship of this book. Tokyo. and show how they should be altered to meet varied situations. and not taking what he reads to be blanket statements covering all situations. and to Richard Bozulich of the Ishi Press for offering suggestions on parts of the manuscript. applying what appears in one place to positions arising in other places without having to be told. We expect the reader to use his head a little. October.This book has been designed to encourage that development: rather than just compile long lists of joseki.

..............…………………………....................... 3 Chapter 1: 3-3 point joseki . 12 Chapter 2: 3-4 point joseki.... 26 7 .........TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface ...…………........…………... part 1 ..

......………….......Chapter 3: squeeze plays ........ 60 8 ..

.119 Chapter 5: 4-4 point joseki...... invasion and tsuke ………….....Chapter 4: 4-4 point joseki.......... kakari ………..135 9 ..................

.......……….....………............242 10 ......... 226 Glossary of technical terms ..........Chapter 6: 3-5 point joseki . 194 Chapter 7: 4-5 point joseki ..............…………...

go-playing family.ABOUT THE AUTHORS ___________________________________________________ KIYOSHI KOSUGI was born in 1939 in Tokyo into a large. and three of them—his father. In 1970 he came to Japan. only to have a mathematics professor interest him in the game of go. and younger brother— are professional go players. At present he lives in Ota-ku. he likes to read and play mah-jong. Besides go. ____________________________________________________ JAMES DAVIES was born in 1945 in Philadelphia. He now lives with his wife in the suburbs of Tokyo. and 3-dan the year after that. where his go playing has advanced to the amateur 5-dan level. reached 2-dan the next year. he is a regular contributor to Go Review magazine. Under his father’s tutelage. and was promoted to 5-dan. 11 . He is known to foreign go visitors to Japan for his good command of English and his lively sense of humor. He graduated from Oberlin College in 1967 and entered graduate school at the University of Washington. with his wife and two daughters. Besides writing for the Ishi Press. mother. which determines a professional player’s rank. His parents and all six of his brothers and sisters know how to play go. In 1967 he took second place in the second division of the Oteai tournament. Tokyo. he became a professional shodan in 1957.

The drawback of a play on the three-three point is that. the simplest joseki start with a stone on the three-three point. This used to be considered a poor play. but that belief has been dispelled in the present century. as in Dia. where it is harder to find security. 1 is easy to understand: it denies Negru access to the corner. it does not give much help in developing into the center. The virtue of the stone in Dia. The two sections of this chapter will show what happens when Negru approaches the Alb stone in Dia. 12 . he will have to build his position in the center or along one side of the board. If Negru attacks.CHAPTER 1 Three-three point joseki INTRODUCTION Generally speaking. 1. tucked so far back in the corner. when professional players have come to make frequent use of three-three point joseki. 1.

Alb 4. Negru 3. is of great value. and Negru 5 are often played differently. a move which approaches an isolated enemy corner stone from the outside. 2. This is the basic joseki pattern.If Negru does not get around to playing against Alb’s stone. 13 . by adding a stone at 1 or ‘a’ in Dia. We shall examine the meaning of the moves in the basic joseki. and Negru 3 to 5 are the standard continuation. but it is often altered to fit surrounding circumstances. Such a move. reinforcing the corner. while Negru gets a center-facing position. and then look at some of the variations. Alb makes a modest amount of corner territory. SECTION 1 Negru 1 is our first example of a kakari. and preparing for wide extensions on both sides. then sooner or later Alb will want to make a shimari. reaching out into the center. It is worth quite a lot for Alb to push back against this particular kakari with 2. In particular.

This formation is better for Alb than just a shimari would be. then although Alb can still live in the corner. Dia. a move which prepares both to attack the Negru stones and to make territory on the left side. Dia. for if Alb leaves it out and Negru gets a chance to play 3. 14 . 1. then Negru 1 becomes almost useless. Alb 4 is important for the same reason. 2. see section 19. but it does prevent Alb 1 in this diagram. he will be confined much more tightly than before. Therefore Negru 3 in the basic joseki is another important move. 3. If Negru omits 3 and Alb gets to play 4. Alb 2 in the basic joseki is a big move. Negru 5 in the basic joseki is easier to leave out than the three moves which preceded it.The basic joseki Dia.

Dia. After the joseki. To prevent Negru 1 in the last diagram. Alb 4: variations Dia. 15 . preparing to make territory and eye shape on the lower side. Negru 1 here is a big move. leaving Negru to take ‘c’ or some other point. Alb often continues the basic joseki by playing 6. 5.Dia. 6. Here is one variation in the basic joseki. and stopping Alb from enlarging his corner in that direction. Sometimes it is best to play 1 instead of Δ. so Alb usually plays 8 at ‘b’. Negru 7 prepares to wall off the left side at ‘a’. although that gives Negru sente. 4.

Incidentally. Negru makes a one-point jump Dia. but . Dia. Alb can attack the stones Negru has played. Against Alb 5. he cannot get a lot of territory here. taken from a professional game. Alb attacked Negru Δ with 1. giving himself some room for eyes and getting ready to attack Alb Δ. Negru can finish the sequence with 13. After 5.. Instead of following the basic joseki pattern. Compare his prospects in this diagram with what they would be if he could make a shimari at 3. and Alb wedged in at 7.Dia.. Either way is joseki. 9. let’s examine this sequence. and Negru 2 and 4 made a nice reply. Negru 1 is especially appropriate when Alb has made two extensions like Δ from his corner stone. in this situation Alb might well play 4 and so on to take territory on the left side. but unless by some chance he succeeds in actually capturing them. 7. Negru jumped out to 6. this is a situation where Negru might play 5 at ‘a’ for a faster get-away into the center. 16 . By way of introducing some of the other variations in this joseki. 8.

because they could connect to the left hand corner at ‘a’. and it would have been hard for Negru to do much of anything with 6 and Δ. 17 . If Negru had played 6 here Alb would have skipped out to 7. 10. He could not very well attack the Alb stones in the middle of the lower side.Dia.

Dia. even if Alb first played ‘c’. But it would not have been good for Negru to play 8 after Alb 7 here. because then Alb 9 would have taken a large lower side and left Negru Δ very weak. Later Negru could play ‘a’ or ‘b’ in sente. but in the present game that would let Negru get a big point at 8 on the right side. for him to break into the lower side. 12. Dia. 18 . and there would remain ways. such as Negru ‘d’. 11. In one variation of this joseki. Alb plays 7 as shown to take territory on the lower side.

but in these circumstances it would have been an unnecessary addition to his stones on the lower side and an invitation to trouble on the right. So the actual game continued this way. Dia. 19 . Alb 13 looks like the best point. 13. he cannot get the worry-free position he had in Dia.Dia. since Alb does not want to be pushed toward Negru’s strong wall in the lower right. 13. Alb could have secured the lower side territory by playing 11 here—the connection between it and Δ could not be broken—but then Negru would have played 12 and Alb would have been faced with the need to make an invasion on the right side. but however he invades. Next Negru was able to live on the lower side by playing ‘a’ and ‘b’. 14. 11 is a joseki move for Alb.

20 .In conclusion These sequences can be used not only in the corner. but whenever a stone anywhere on the third line is attacked with a shoulder-hitting move like Negru 1. there are other similar kakari which we shall look at. the shoulder-hitting kakari of section 1 is better. ‘c’. instead of Negru 1. ‘b’. Since such shoulder-blows are one of the common ways of reducing large potential territories. instead of attacking at ‘a’. SECTION 2 It often happens that Negru wants to approach Alb’s stone from one side or the other. however. the patterns of this section turn up frequently in the opening and early middle game. When his aim is to destroy Alb territory. or he may choose not to answer Negru 1 at all. Negru should make a kakari like 1 when his purpose is to do something constructive on the left side. or ‘d’ instead of at 2. Alb may answer Negru 1 at ‘a’. As a rule. Also. Depending on the situation. The exchange of Negru 1 for Alb 2 forms a simple joseki.

Ogeima kakari Dia. 1. In this common position Negru 1 is often played. It and Negru 3 give Negru a position on the left side, weakening Alb Δ. 4 is a good point for Alb, but Δ still does not have room to make two eyes on the side, and Negru can attack it with 5. Dia. 2. If Negru played this joseki, then he would be putting much less pressure on Alb Δ; this time, after Alb 6, Negru ‘a’ would pose very little threat to Alb.


Dia. 3. When Alb has made an extension like Δ from his corner stone, Negru 1 may be used to reduce the size of his prospective territory. Compare its size now with what it would be if Alb made a shimari at 1. Here Alb should definitely play 2 on the fourth line, for this builds toward a larger territory than Alb ‘a’ would. Next, ‘b’ is a good point for either player. Dia. 4. The reason Alb does not always play 2 on the fourth line is that Negru can then attack from the other side with 3. This aims at ‘a’, from which point Negru can connect to either 1 or 3.

Dia. 5. In this case Alb might answer 1 at 2 instead of ‘a’. The argument for doing so is that even if Alb extended to ‘a’, Negru would still be able to invade the lower side, at ‘b’ for instance. Since Alb needs two stones to defend the side anyway, 2 and, later, Alb ‘b’ make a well-balanced formation, and 2 makes the corner stronger than Alb ‘a’ would. Other kakari 22

Dia. 6. When Negru approaches Alb Δ from the side, he need not always use the ogeima kakari. The kogeima kakari is possible too, although it must be used with discretion, since it provokes this sequence, in which Alb makes a lot of secure territory on the lower side.

Dia. 7. In this situation Negru 2 would be the correct kakari. Alb could play ‘a’ or ‘b’ instead of 3. Dia. 8. If we move Alb 1 and Negru Δ a line higher, then Negru 2 should be moved accordingly.


Tenuki Dia. 9. When Alb fails to respond to 1, the keima at Negru 3 is the standard play. Alb can slide out to ‘a’ or ‘b’, but he is being pressed into a very low position.

Later on Dia. 10. After the basic joseki, Negru can play kikashi at 1 and 3, useful points because they interfere with Alb’s extending to ‘a’. However, these moves make Alb solid and strong, and Negru should not play them too early, since there are other things he may want to try against the corner.


Dia 11. This shows one of those other possibilities. Negru 1 and 3 aim at exchanging the corner territory for the outside, and might be used if Negru Δ became hard to defend. If Alb played 4 at 7, Negru could play 5 at 4 or ‘a’, and in one way or another it should be possible for him to make eye shape.

In conclusion Generally speaking, Negru’s plays in this section are much more loose and open than his ones in the previous section. For that reason they allow Alb to build toward larger territories than before, but at the same time they leave more possibilities for Negru in the corner itself. Dia. 11 is just one example of the kind of thing that can happen there later on.


Three-four point joseki: part 1
INTRODUCTION The Negru stone in Dia. 1 rests on the 3-4 point, which has long been the most popular starting point in the corner. A stone placed here, like one on the 3-3 point, protects the corner territory, but it is not as likely to be shut in from the outside. If Alb attacks with 1 in Dia. 2, copying the idea of the joseki in section 1 of chapter 1, Negru will be more than happy to reply with 2, 4, and 6, getting a favorable result. Rather than have Negru solidify such a large corner, Alb usually attacks with one of the plays shown in Dias. 3 to 6.

If we think of the Negru stone as a stone on the third line, then Alb 1 in Dia. 3 is a natural way to attack. Alb’s general aim is to establish a position on the right side or in the center, while Negru takes the corner territory. All of the joseki in this chapter illustrate that idea, and most of them start with Alb 1 in Dia. 3.


If we think of the Negru stone as a stone on the fourth line, then Alb 1 in Dia. 4, aiming to slide in to the point ‘a’, is natural. Most of the joseki starting this way have Negru answering with a squeeze play on the right side, and are to be found in chapter 3. In this chapter, (section 7), will be found Negru’s reply at ‘b’. The ogeima kakari in Dia. 5 is used when Alb puts special emphasis on the right side, as opposed to the corner. Section 8 of this chapter and section 18 of the next are devoted to this play. The kakari in Dia. 6 stresses side and center at the expense of the corner. It is sometimes used by those who like a quick opening development, their idea being to ignore whatever reply Negru makes, (‘a’ and ‘b’ are typical replies), and rush on to some other part of the board. We shall forego any further discussion of this kakari.


One of the advantages of playing on the 3-4 point is that a stone there is in an excellent position for making a shimari. Dias. 7 to 10 show the four shimari plays that Negru has available. The one in Dia. 7 defends the corner best. Negru 1 in Dia. 8 is stronger toward the center, and makes a better wall from which to extend along the lower side, but suffers from the disadvantage that Alb can play at ‘a’, threatening to run into the corner at ‘b’. The shimari plays in Dias. 9 and 10 stake out larger territories, but they are a bit open as compared with the previous two. After any of these four shimari, an extension on the lower side becomes a large move for either player. There are special joseki starting from these four shimari, but they are not part of this book. In this chapter we shall see what happens when Alb attacks the single stone on the three-four point and Negru answers by defending his corner. There is another large group of three-four point joseki in which Negru answers Alb’s kakari by counterattacking with a squeeze play, but that is the subject of the next chapter.


in the next section we shall see an alternative choice for 3 which builds more toward the center and lower side.SECTION 3 Alb 1 tries more for a position on the outside than for corner profit. Alb plays 3 if he is interested in the right side. so this joseki is usually called the tsuke-hiki joseki. Alb 5. the spacing of 5 and 7 being Rood. 29 . but of course there are variations. Negru 6. Negru 2 is a tsuke and Negru 4 is a hiki. and in fact Negru can get all the corner territory by playing 2. and Alb 7 are one way to finish it.

Alb 6 gets in of Negru ‘b’. for if Negru cuts at 1 in this diagram Alb can still make a position for himself with 2 and 4. Negru can make a solid connection with 5 and then extend to 7. so the way to build solid as Alb by . however. 3. (or ‘a’). 2.Some variations Dia. If Alb wants sente he can play tenuki after Negru’s hiki. Dia. as shown here. has much greater prospects on the lower side and in the center than before. The basic joseki ends in Alb’s gote. Sometimes Alb plays 6 as shown as to be able to play ‘a’ later. 1. In this situation. and so is suitable if Alb wants territory on the lower side. Negru. The point ‘b’ may become another good extension for Negru later on. aiming at ‘d’ in the corner. By and by Negru may annoy playing ‘c’ himself. 30 here. Dia. keeping the three-line interval between 7 and 5. the spacing between 7 and Δ is also just right. but it is not as Alb ‘c’.

and so Negru could be satisfied. Dia. Dia. Then after Alb 9 he can attack with 10. Negru Δ turns out to be almost completely wasted. but not as much as Alb. 6. 5. building a wall which works beautifully with his shimari. 5. 31 . or 6 and ‘b’). instead of just ‘a’. After the kaketsugi at 5 Alb need not always extend at ‘a’. 4. Negru can play 6 and 8. He must play 6 right after Alb 5 if he wants Alb to answer it at 7. It is futile for Negru to play 1 after Dia. Alb could even apply this sequence in answer to Negru 6 in Dia. and Negru 6 should turn out to be useful in the fighting to come. Thinking of this. Of course Negru is getting territory too. but then Negru Δ would not be on the board. Alb will reply at 2. 4.Dia. In this situation he might choose to make a shimari at 7 instead. (or 6 and ‘a’.

8. Alb need not fear this Negru 6. for example. The loss of Δ costs Alb very little.Dia. 32 . and then he must change his tactics accordingly. Dia. In this situation. he can make shape as shown. and if Negru cuts at ‘a’ and captures another stone. Even if he is unable to capture the cutting stone in shicho. Alb 7 establishes room for two eyes on the right side. Negru takes the vital point at 6. Sometimes Alb is unable to extend up the right side. making a quick escape. When he jumps out to 5. and Negru Δ begins to look very weak. Alb should jump out into the center with 5 instead of playing ‘a’. (Alb 9 at 10). again it is not so important. If Alb were allowed to play there he would make good shape for his stones while destroying a lot of Negru’s lower side territory. 7. while the lower side is still open.

too. Dia. although Negru ‘a’ would be big. 10. happy with the exchange of 13 for ‘c’. since Negru can connect and the hane at ‘a’ still threatens 33 . 9. Alb. The reason that Negru 13 is so big is that it prepares for an invasion at ‘b’. Negru 13 is a big point. It is not so from above with underneath at 5. so maybe Alb should play 14 at ‘a’. gives Negru the chance to invade at good for Alb to reply by pressing 2 and 4. That 1. Of course Alb can defend with ‘c’. Here is one common opening pattern in which the joseki we have just been studying is often played. but then Negru will play ‘a’.A common opening pattern on the right side Dia.

12. Negru had better be sure of his ko threats before starting this fight. 11. leading to a ko. If Negru is determined to make trouble he can play tsuke at 3.Dia. 34 . At the same time. If Negru plays 3 at ‘c’ Alb will play ‘a’. Dia. Alb 2 here is the correct answer to Negru 1. Alb ‘e’ has become a strong move for later on. Now Alb is ready to play either ‘a’ or ‘b’ to connect his position. and if Negru plays 3 at ‘d’ Alb will play ‘b’. Alb can play 8 at ‘a’ or ‘b’.

Alb comes out of it with a higher position. since he gets a strong corner while Alb’s shape is still open to attack. for after it the invasion at ‘a’ is not likely to pose any threat at all. If Alb lacks ko threats he cannot play 4 and 6 in the last diagram.Dia. and it is easier for him to develop a really large territory than it is for Negru. He can still fight in his separated shape. But on the other hand. but it will be hard for him. Thus Alb 1 is quite large. There are many opening situations where it is a reasonable choice for both Players. 35 . so there is nothing unfair about it. but must submit to being cut in two as shown here. 14. In conclusion This is a simple and satisfying joseki for Negru. Dia. 13.

‘b’. After Negru 8. 2.SECTION 4 This joseki starts out like the one in the last section. Negru has four choices for his next play. This joseki is known as the nadare. We shall concentrate on Negru ‘a’ and ‘b’. Dia. while Alb is vulnerable to a hane at ‘b’. but now Alb slides along the top with 3 instead of playing hane at ‘d’. Negru defends his weak point at 6. which means avalanche in Japanese. and he can also play tenuki. No variation is possible in Negru 4 and Alb 5. ‘a’. working toward a large territory across the lower side. 36 . and Alb does likewise at 7. Negru 6: simplest variation Dia. With this shimari in the lower left corner it is a good idea for Alb to make the kaketsugi at 9. It does not stop here. for Negru has a serious weakness in the cutting point at ‘a’. 1. Alb has good plays at ‘a’ and ‘b’. ‘c’. and ‘d’.

Dia. Dia. Now it is obvious that there is too little territory below Alb 9 and too much open space above it. both the Negru and the Alb groups being weak. but now Negru can easily make a position on the side with 10 and 12. Negru will just push out with 10 and 12. With the joseki turned on its side. 4. 37 . Alb must be careful not to play 9 too close to the lower right corner. 5. 3. So Alb may prefer to make a play like 9 here. Negru can attack with 10. Dia. this is the same situation as before. Alb 9 is not a bad move. but the fight is a fair one. except that Alb has only a single stone in the other corner. If he plays it here.

If Negru plays 10 here he leaves a serious weak point at ‘a’ which Alb can exploit if he has a stone further up on the right side. This play enlarges Alb’s wall and. 8. Do you see the relation of ‘a’ to Alb ‘b’? Dia. 7.Dia. Alb can play kikashi at 1. The other key point for Alb is at 9. he should do so at 10. Negru’s best response is 2. 38 . If Negru answers Alb 9. but this exchange by itself hinders Negru in the expansion of his territory along the right side. reduces Negru’s prospects on the right side. 6. If Negru fails to answer Δ. Dia. by preventing Negru ‘a’.

10. this is another possible variation. 9. and after this the joseki continues with a fight involving the weak Negru stones in the center. Negru 12 is a good tesuji and Negru 16 takes the corner. and Alb 11 defends. 39 . 11. Negru 10 threatens to capture all the Alb stones. is the key to this variation. but the cutting point at ‘a’ remains. 12. After Alb 11. Dia.The small nadare joseki Dia. Alb cuts and makes a position for himself on the right side. threatening both ‘a’ and ‘b’. forming the so-called small nadare joseki. Negru attacks with 6 and Alb counter attacks with 7. One idea for Negru’s next move is ‘a’. Dia. Dia. Alb 9.

Alb 11 is impossible. and of course ‘b’ is his sente on the right side. 40 . When the shicho is against Negru. 16. Dia. 14. What happens if Alb plays nobi with 11? The feasibility of this move depends on a shicho. 13. Alb loses everything. Next Alb should take the vital point at ‘a’. then Negru 13 captures the corner stones. he must play as shown here.Dia. and this is not so good for Alb either. If the shicho works. and when Alb cuts at 13 Negru attacks with 14. this diagram is not very good for Negru. So if the shicho favors Negru. Negru can crawl out at 12. taking the corner. and 18. but on the other hand if the shicho favors Alb. If Alb plays 13 at 16.

41 . basically a simple idea. then this diagram shows the simplest way. This move is not as aggressive as the hane at ‘a’. 16. Negru 6 here forms the so-called o-nadare. so Alb will often answer it by playing tenuki.Negru 6: the other two variations Dia. In conclusion Alb is offering Negru a modest amount of corner and side territory in return for a wall. Another idea is to exchange 7 for 8 and then tenuki. without playing 9. but there are many complicated variations to the nadare joseki. (big nadare). Finally there is this double hane variation. 15. including a whole family arising from the o-nadare which we have not mentioned. which leaves Negru with good plays at ‘a’ and ‘b’. If Alb does continue with the joseki. Perhaps you can figure out what happens if Alb does not answer Negru ‘a’. joseki. Dia.

as well as a variation in which Negru plays 5 at ‘c’. (threatening ‘d’). Alb’s position is not solid: Negru can play ‘a’. or he can leave the shape as it is. although there is a difficult variation. 1. Let’s start with the two ways of playing Alb 6. in which Negru plays 3 at ‘a’. the tsuke on the outside is also possible. is sente if played at the right time. not to be found in this book. (if Alb fails to play 10 then Negru can play there himself and completely encircle Alb’s corner). Alb 6: first choice Dia. 42 . The sequence up to Negru 5 is the usual joseki. Alb can continue by playing ‘b’ or ‘c’. threatening to continue with ‘b’. and strength to use on the right side and in the center. and in addition Negru ‘c’. We shall look at all three of these possibilities. After Negru 5. You may be impressed with Alb’s large profit in this sequence. The tsuke at 6 secures the corner territory. but Negru has sente.SECTION 5 In answer to Negru’s kakari at 1.

Alb can still play ‘c’ later on to take the corner. he may push Alb a bit farther. 2. to build up his own strength over the right side. etc. Alb has a higher wall than before. (Negru ‘a’. although 13 at ‘a’. and after Alb 8 Negru typically makes some move on the lower side to reduce the amount of Alb territory there. The sequence may continue this way. Alb ‘b’. Dia. (to take sente). but Negru is also stronger. and 15 at ‘b’ are other possibilities. 43 . The idea behind this Alb 6 is to build a wall over the lower side. Before doing so. Alb can play the double hane shown here if he likes. 3. 2. Instead of 8 in Dia. and he may be able to put Negru 9 to use later.).Alb 6: second choice Dia.

5. 4. if played correctly it ends in Negru’s defeat. which is not finished. If the shicho does not work. 6. and although the ensuing semeai in the corner may be difficult. and Alb 2 to 8 are the correct response. Continuing from the last diagram. In this sequence. Negru can still confine Alb with these plays. Dia. Negru captures two stones in shicho. If Alb lets Negru have the next play after the basic joseki. Alb is confined to a small corner. 44 . but since he gets to play a shicho-breaking move in the upper right corner. Dia. then Negru will play the tsuke at 1.Alb plays tenuki Dia. if Negru plays 7 at 8 then Alb will play 8 at 7. he is not so badly off.

making ‘a’ Alb’s gote. Dia. Alb will get too much territory on the lower side. Here is one situation in which Negru should play 5 instead of ‘c’. After all. This variation of the joseki continues with Alb cutting at 6 and taking the corner. doesn’t that allow him to take sente? 45 . 2 or 3. You may wonder why Alb doesn’t play 10 here. 9. Negru has sente and can build territory on the right side. Alb 10 is a tesuji in this shape. and from Δ he can easily invade the lower side. and Negru 11 an important kikashi. for if he plays ‘c’ and gets into Dia. Dia.Negru 5: variation Dia. 7. 8.

10.(in Dia. but then Negru can play 1 and 3 here sente). which do terrible damage to the corner. makes it difficult for him to form eye space on the lower side gracefully. Negru can play ‘b’. after which this joseki has three variations. SECTION 6 The keima at Negru 2 is a less forcible response to Alb 1 than the tsuke moves we have studied previously. so its basic moves are well worth learning. In conclusion This simple joseki. which is a favorite with the famous professional player Sakata. but then a second attacking move at ‘a’. but it is no less a good move. Therefore Alb usually continues with 3 and 5. or tenuki. Sometimes Alb plays tenuki after it. 46 . but anywhere along the side of the board. Yes. or thereabouts. can occur not only as shown in the corner. or ‘c’.

Dia. 47 . This Negru 6 is suitable for building territory on the right side. 2. then again Negru can attack at ‘a’. 1. and are typical follow-up moves to this joseki. Negru 8 and 10 are consistent with Negru 6. or in the direction of. If Alb fails to extend to.Negru 6: first variation Dia. 7. Later on. since it leaves Negru with no weak points. flattening out Alb’s territory on the lower side while expanding his own area. Negru can play kikashi with 1.

Negru Δ is looking very weak. which threatens Alb ‘c’. 3. and the right side is still open to Alb ‘a’. The idea is to keep Alb weak by interfering with his eye space along the lower edge. but Alb is already out into the center. In comparison with the last diagram Negru has made more corner profit. but with his weak group on the lower side to look after. Alb may never get a chance to exploit this weakness. in line with the general principle of not playing in contact with the stones to be attacked. 48 . as in this diagram. The tsuke at Negru 2 is much less effective. The drawback of Negru 6 is that it leaves the possibility of Alb ‘b’. Dia.Negru 6: second variation Dia. 4. This Negru 6 is more suitable for attack and is especially good when Negru already has stones on the sides. In this particular situation Alb might extend on the fourth line to 7. so as to make a quick march into the center at ‘a’ next. is thought to be a good way to start the attack. for Alb can make excellent shape by following the sequence up to 13. The original keima. (Negru Δ).

Negru should play neither ‘a’ nor 7. Maybe we are pointing out the obvious. Negru ‘a’. There are other ideas in this situation: Alb might be inclined to play 3 at ‘c’ to attack at once. Here is one case in which. 49 . but should play 6 to help his stone Δ. but it would be a mistake for Alb to try to counter. leaving both Alb 7 and the three stones in the corner weak. after Alb 5. This is much better for him than Alb 5. but Negru can defend his position with 8. or for that matter Negru might play 2 at 6. Alb now plays 7 in the corner. 6. to forestall such action. to keep Negru from taking that point and also preparing to play ‘b’ and capture two stones.attack with 7 in this diagram. Alb ‘c’. for then Negru would defend his shape with 8.Negru 6: tenuki Dia. 5. Dia.

and it prepares for a wide extension on the lower side.In conclusion The keima response to Alb’s kakari looks like a quiet move. when you appreciate that fact you will have learned something about go. It has three purposes: it prevents Alb from making another attack on the corner. or some such point. if at all. Alb usually answers it. it makes ready to put pressure on Alb 1. by extending up the right side to ‘a’. Aggressive action often starts slowly like this. the diagonal play at Negru 2 is the simplest reply. but there is nothing peaceful about Negru’s intentions in playing it. ‘b’. 50 . SECTION 7 When Alb makes a kogeima kakari with 1.

but with the strength he has in the upper right. and Negru 1 is urgently needed to keep the Alb territory on the right side from growing too large. and his territory takes on gigantic proportions. then Alb will land on the vital point at 1. 1. 51 . Here is an example of one kind of position in which the diagonal play is particularly necessary. In this case Alb 2 at ‘a’ would be far too timid. Alb has a solid fortress in the upper right corner. In this sequence Alb makes his most ambitious defense. Dia 2.When the diagonal play is needed Dia. If Negru fails to make the diagonal play. but Negru has brought the situation under control. Alb should try for the greatest possible territory by playing 2 as shown. Alb ‘b’ would be better.

4. Alb plays tenuki Dia. Let’s take a closer look at Negru 1 and Alb 2. We have just shown ‘a’. There are two ways for him to attack. If Alb makes the next play after 2. This is not at all good for Alb. Negru will press him with 1. and ‘d’ and ‘e’ are other possibilities. and Negru has a wall to use for building territory over the lower side. The exchange of 1 for 2 by itself is usually good for him. Alb’s strength in the upper right goes completely to waste. 52 . Dia. If Alb plays tenuki after Δ in this position. ‘b’ and ‘c’ are similar. 3. he should play ‘a’.Now let’s see what Negru can do if Alb doesn’t answer his diagonal play. Negru may also play tenuki. Negru has many ways to proceed from this exchange.

If Negru pushes through and cuts. 6. Negru has the corner.Dia. making good shape on the outside. Here Negru 1 and 3 are appropriate. Dia. This is not bad for Alb—note the endgame point left for him at ‘a’. 53 . Alb will usually capture the cutting stone. but he also has gote. Because of the nearness of Negru Δ there is no sense in playing 1 at 2 to build a wall. 5.

4. he will soon have to play ‘a’ to live in the corner. It may be better for him to look for eye space than just to run away into the center. and if so. but he lives comfortably with 4 and 6. Negru can confine him with 3. he should play 2. It is possible for Alb to resist Negru 3 with Alb 4. 54 .Dia. but is not really so smart of him to do so. Sometimes Negru may want to attack from the side instead of playing as in Dia. 7. Against this Negru 1. Dia. but Negru might get to play ‘a’ and Alb could find himself fighting a running battle without any base on the side. 8. Here is one likely setting for such a move. Even though he can fight a little bit on the outside with Δ. Alb could run out at 3 if he had any chance of counterattacking.

Considering that there is still room for Alb to extend upwards from Δ to ‘c’. here it is just one among many possibilities. If he plays 5 to defend against it. which give Negru the cut at ‘a’ to worry about. 55 . If Alb plays 2 on the lower side. which opens up the possibility of a connection underneath at ‘b’. 1 Negru 1 was the only good move. then Alb answers at 6. the diagonal move is of basic importance. If Alb defends on the right side at 2. 1. Whereas in Dia. Alb’s four-line extension to Δ may look unsafe. It would be better for Negru first to play ‘c’ and then think about 1. then Negru can attack on the right side at ‘a’. 9. 10. In conclusion Although most of the joseki stemming from the kogeima kakari involve squeeze plays and are postponed to the next chapter. absolutely necessary in situations like Dia.Another example Dia. then Negru can extend toward the shimari with 3. but it is easy to understand. Dia. he is in no danger. but if Negru invades at 1. Alb has 2 and 4 to play.

than Alb’s side position. 56 . After Alb 3. his corner is larger and safer. Negru can simply defend the corner at 2. so Alb 1 is reserved for situations where Alb has a special need to occupy the right side. Of course in those situations Negru may want to answer Alb 1 by playing at or around 3.SECTION 8 The ogeima kakari at 1 is not usually as good as the other two kakari considered in this chapter. and has more potential for development. but then Alb has an easy way to handle the corner. as we shall see in section 18.

2. Alb 1 and 3 do something to reduce the effectiveness of Negru’s shimari in the upper right corner. Dia. although it is at least temporarily out of style.Dia. Negru 1 to 7 in this diagram would be appropriate if there were an extension like Δ on the board. 1. If he does not play 4. but Negru can still make a good extension to 4. 57 . After 4. looking for profit in the center. after which Negru can neither make much territory in front of his shimari nor attack Alb. however. He can hit them from underneath by playing Negru 1. 3. The ogeima kakari is understandable in this position. making profit on the edge while attacking. Negru has various strong-arm tactics to use against Alb’s two stones. Or he can hit them from the outside. Dia. then Alb will approach closer at ‘a’.

Dia. not 3. If 3 is played on the third line. If Alb played 3 correctly at 5 and Negru played 4. Dia. Negru will lose no time in striking with 4. This time Alb uses 1 and 3 to attack on the right side. Alb would answer with ‘a’. After 6 his stones have better shape than they could possibly get in Dia. and the space between Alb 3 and 5 and Alb Δ is too narrow. 5. There is a good reason for his playing 3 on the fourth line instead of the third. 58 . 4. 4.

59 . he could make territory in the center. 6. Negru 2 is a good reply. If after the basic joseki Alb advances on Negru’s corner with 1 here. Alb’s real intention is usually to provoke a squeeze play. In conclusion The ogeima kakari looks rather lukewarm so far. which we are coming to in section 18. but if Alb were allowed to play at 2 himself. and Negru could not attack. and then he has some good maneuvers.Dia. It is not that Negru’s eye shape is endangered.

Squeeze plays are particularly often used against the kogeima kakari. ‘c’. around 1700. they did not become really popular until the post-World-War II era. (Alb 1 in Dia. Negru ‘c’ was introduced by Dosaku. in fact. 1). ‘d’.CHAPTER 3 Squeeze plays INTRODUCTION In the last chapter we saw what happens when Negru answers Alb’s kakari by defending the corner in one way or another. a famous Japanese professional go player. In this chapter we come to the joseki in which Negru stops that extension with a squeeze play. 1 is one squeeze play. letting Alb extend unhindered along the side. and ‘e’ are others. Which of these is best in any given situation is a hard question—the choice may be more a matter of taste than of anything else. Negru 2 in Dia. was not much played until a year or two ago. 60 . ‘b’. Negru ‘e’. the newest. Negru ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the oldest. and the most thoroughly studied. The squeeze plays on the fourth line are the creations of the present century. and ‘a’.

To keep this chapter from being longer than it is. 1. Sections 14 to 16 contain brief surveys of the joseki starting with Negru ‘a’.Squeeze play joseki are difficult. Negru ‘f is a modern play often made against Alb 1. so we are leaving it out of this book. Negru ‘b’ is too much like Negru 2 to need a separate section. and Negru ‘e’ is too new for us to be able to say much about. (section 17). which is the most representative squeeze play. and ‘c’. and happens to be currently the most popular. is often met with a squeeze play. and that is the subject of the last section of the chapter. ‘d’. (sections 9 to 13). 61 . too. we will concentrate on Negru 2 in Dia. such as Negru 2 against Alb 1 in Dia. but the joseki proceeding from it are not yet really well worked out. The ogeima kakari. and branch out into a large number of variations. since it is played when the side is important. 2. Squeeze plays can also be used against other kakari.

In Dia. 1. If Negru wants to keep Alb from making a large territory on the right side by playing ‘g’ in Dia. without having to worry about his strong stones in the upper right corner. it is better for Negru to play at 1. 62 . 3. where it serves both to attack Alb’s stone and to extend from a Negru position in the other corner. then a squeeze play is no longer so good. where Alb has only one stone in the upper right corner and Negru can aim to attack it. but he can not take away all of Alb’s territory. 4. 5.A squeeze play is most effective in a situation like Dia. he can easily do so. and by attacking Negru ‘g’ Alb can build up strength for use in other directions. as in Dia. a squeeze play would be above criticism. as in section 7. nor make much territory of his own there. Now let’s start sampling the joseki that begin with Alb 1 and Negru 2 in Dia. 4. however. If we reverse the colors up there.

There is not a solid connection between Alb’s two stones. or he can do nothing at all. 63 . he can pressure Negru’s two stones on the lower side. and Negru runs along the lower side with 3—this is one of the most interesting of the squeeze play joseki.SECTION 9 Negru plays 1. Alb jumps between Negru’s stones at 2. but there is a lot of flexibility in his position. After jumping well out into the center with 2. We shall take up these four possibilities one by one after looking at two of the variations in the basic joseki. he can do any of four things: he can attack Negru 1. he can play at the 3-3 point to get eye shape in the corner.

not Negru. and in fact Negru can even allow Alb to play another stone against it. 2. as you will see in the next diagram. If Alb plays ‘a’ Negru can still cause trouble by playing ‘b’. but while he is living in the corner. The Negru stone in the corner is not dead. 1. Alb will play 4. and now it is Alb. If Negru wants to. Alb is getting stronger on the outside. who can make territory on the lower side. he can play these moves after the last diagram. Dia.Two variations Dia. If Negru uses 3 on the right side. 64 . This is a very large shift in circumstances. but sometimes it may be more important for Negru to defend the right side than to play 3 on the lower side.

Instead of playing 3 as in the basic joseki. Dia. a recent invention. Now back to the basic joseki and the four possibilities left after it. in which both sides make good shape. or he can play 6. Negru can slice into Alb’s position this way. 3. There is also this messy continuation. 4. ‘b’. Alb has good points at ‘a’. and ‘c’ but it is Negru’s turn. 65 . and not much is known about it. Dia. After Negru 5 he is ready to cut at either ‘a’ or ‘b’. but the fighting gets difficult. Alb can next play ‘b’. It may be joseki.Dia. 5. This is the usual continuation.

Here is one of them. (or ‘a’. There are several ways in which he can do so.1. Alb 3 prevents the cut. 6. and 8. When Alb has a stone in the upper right corner he need lose no time in playing 1. For example. and the sequence up to 11 is a good way for both sides to continue. making a good extension while attacking. Attack on the right Dia. 8. Dia. 7. or ‘b’). if Alb plays 3. since it threatens to cut Alb. 66 . Negru will cut him with 4. so before jumping further out into the center he must do something to tighten the connection between his stones. 6. Alb should not allow this. Dia. Negru 2 is the usual defense.

and now when Alb attacks with 9 he has a big wall to push Negru’s stone against. Negru does not have to follow the easy course of the previous diagram. for he can push through and cut with 2 and 4 here. then this sequence may follow. but then ‘a’ is a large point for Alb. Of course Negru can play 6 at 9. Before making his attack Alb can play 1. Incidentally. inviting Negru to help himself to some territory along the third line. 67 . then Alb 5 at 4 would give him plenty to worry about. if Negru jumped out too hastily by playing 4 at ‘a’. 9.2. If Negru accepts the invitation by playing 2. Pressure Dia. Dia. 10. Alb 5 is a way of making good shape in this kind of situation.

After this. the fighting follows no set course. After Negru 12. but this play has no merit. 12. Negru cuts at 10. Negru should answer 5 with 6. and Alb can exchange 9 for 10 before running out into the center at 11. Negru has to answer at 8. This kind of thing can go on all the way down the side of the board. Alb plays the same tesuji as before at 13. You may be wondering why Negru does not answer 5 with 6 in this diagram. 11. Dia. but when Alb plays 11 Negru is hardly likely to have any ko threats big enough to fight the ko. with Alb getting tremendous thickness. Alb has to play 7. Dia. Dia. 13.Dia. 68 . Alb counters with 7 and 9. 14.

Defense Dia. 69 . But instead of playing 4 on the 2-2 point. considering that Alb has sente. 16. The exchange up to Negru 10 is a fair one. as in this diagram.3. (If he omits 7. Alb can make eye shape with 5 and 7. Negru usually takes the opportunity to cut off Alb’s center stone. There are times when Alb must think of defense rather than attack. Alb 5 then takes the corner. for if Negru plays 6 at 7. 15. and then 1 and 3 become appropriate. then a Negru stone on that point spoils his shape. Alb can connect by playing ‘a’ and ‘b’. If Negru answers with 2 and 4.) Dia.

In conclusion We have here the basic defense against the squeeze play—Alb jumps up into the center. Next Alb has good points at ‘a’ and ‘b’. Negru attacks Dia. and continues with 3 and 5. he generally begins by playing 1 to block Alb from the corner. If Negru gets to attack Alb’s two stones after the basic joseki. Alb 6 makes good shape. Dia. Alb pushes on with 10.4. If Negru answers at 9. 17. so if Negru plays one of them Alb plays the other and all is well. and after Negru 13 he has ‘a’ on the outside and ‘b’ and ‘c* in the corner to work with. The danger in a diagonal jump is that the opponent will come through the middle of it. but if Negru plays 7 Alb has adequate resources in the tesuji at 8. separating Negru’s stones and preparing to attack on either side. 18. 70 . although it may look a bit strange.

sacrificing solidity for speed of development. getting a good position on the lower side in return. the keima at 1 is a move with a definite purpose. The unique feature of the joseki in this section is that Alb makes a two-space jump. There is another variation in which he gives up his stone on the right side.We shall see this strategy repeated numerous times in the rest of this chapter. a kind of reverse strategy often found in go. We shall explain both of these variations. which left both sides with many options. 71 . It puts heavy pressure on the lower side in preparation for a heavy attack on the right side. SECTION 10 In contrast to the two-point jump of the last section. Negru plays 2 if he is willing to engage in a running battle.

The Negru and Alb groups both lack eyes. then his position would not be so attractive. when he attacks with 5 he is making a good extension from his stone in the upper right corner.Running battle Dia. If the stone up there were Negru instead of Alb. . 9. 72 . Alb should only play the keima when he is in an attacking position on the right side. for instance. Alb has to play 7. Dia. and 11. and so must run out into the center. If Negru just jumps upward with 6 here. . Negru plays 6 to keep Alb from making eye shape. and how it continues from there is up to you. 1 is fairly necessary. In this diagram. 2. This puts him in a strong position because . 1. Negru 6 in Dia. Alb can make shape with 7.

Negru can play 4 this way. forcing Alb 5. and then protect the right side with 6. 3. He is threatening to carry out this sequence. 73 . which gives him a safe group between two vulnerable Negru ones.Dia. but when he does so he is not making territory—he is just defending—and Alb 7 is a big move made in sente. 4. Dia.

It is much easier for Negru to make a fair trade like this than to get involved in an unfavorable fight on the right side. Dia. 74 . Negru 8 is necessary to capture Alb Δ. Dia. Alb 5 is a skillful way of handling Negru’s tactics. Here is another version of the joseki. 5. The joseki ends this way. with both sides getting good positions. Instead of playing as above. it would be more circumspect of Negru to push through and cut with 2 and 4 in this diagram. the alternative mentioned at the head of the section. 7. 6.Exchange Dia.

Dia. he can play 1 here. which we ask you to figure out for your-self. but Negru can dodge around it if he decides it would be best not to get into a running fight. Dia. In conclusion Alb’s keima at 1 is a rather aggressive move. and 11. Alb must give thought to Negru ‘a’. 10. The tesuji of Alb 5 is worth remembering. and this time he gets much the better of it. 8. having two reasonably good side groups while Negru has just a small corner and some weak stones in the center. Alb should defend with 13. and Negru should do likewise with 14. 75 . 5. Whether or not Negru can successfully push through there and cut or not depends on a shicho. But if the shicho favors Alb. You will learn more about this joseki in section 31. For the sake of explaining it a little more. Alb can push him around with 7. see what happens when Negru answers it at 6. After these strong-arm tactics. For the present. If the shicho favors Negru. 9. remember the tesuji at Alb 5 in Dia. This is another fair trade.Dia. 9.

. At this point. 76 . A third is the diagonal play at 1 featured in this section. preparing to counterattack on one side or the other.. Negru 2 is the simplest response to it. ‘a’ remains a big point for either side. If Negru fails to play 4 . All the same. (Another idea is to attack at once at ‘b’). so instead of running further out into the center at ‘a’. it is better for him to slide into the corner at 3.SECTION 11 In answer to any squeeze play. Alb 3 is not without its aggressive intentions. it is natural to run out into the center. So far we have seen two examples of this strategy in the two-point jump and the keima. Alb has accomplished his purpose of separating Negru’s stones.

Following Negru 8 . drifting group of stones like this. There is no good way for Negru to answer Alb 1. board. 1. it is most annoying to have a large. Dia. But with Negru Δ on the 1 loses its sting. but while he is struggling to occupy a small territory on the side. Negru is becoming strong around the outside. which is more important. Alb can attack with 1 in this diagram.. 77 . Alb manages to live.. 2. taking away Negru’s room for eyes at the side.The reason for Negru 4 Dia. Negru can answer it at 2 or 5. and Alb’s corner group is suffering. 3. Alb Dia.

he can answer Alb 1 with 2 in this diagram to connect along the lower side. After exchanging 6 for 7 Negru takes a good point at 8. to fight. but then Alb can play at 9. Alb will answer at ‘b’. but Alb plays 3 and jumps out into the center at 5. This time he has done his damage to the lower side and gotten out into the center as well. Negru can answer strongly at 2. Notice a tesuji which occurs in this shape: if Negru later plays ‘a’. Dia. 5. Alb 3 is a sacrifice stone. If Alb wants to attack on the lower side after the basic joseki.The right way to attack Dia. 4. 78 . If Negru does not feel like fighting. or at some point in the lower left. he should play 1 here.

For another. Dia. it enlarges Negru’s territory. as will be seen in the next diagram. Usually Negru prefers Dia. 4-6.Dia. 1 is a big point for Negru. 4 to this. 8. A large point Dia. The sequence begun in the last diagram ends in this way. For one thing. it revives the possibility of Alb ‘a’. it prepares for an attack on the single Negru stone on the right side. Alb has built up a lot of power in the center while pressing Negru’s territory down to the edge of the board. and it protects Negru Δ. If he has a good chance to play it. or in something similar. 79 . 6. 1 is also a big point for Alb. 7. It prevents the nonsense of Dias.

11. he gains corner profit. but in gote. Alb is safe Dia. The Alb stones in the basic joseki are almost indestructible. 12. 10. The invasion ends in Alb’s getting the corner. Dia. 80 .Dia. Dia. Alb 4 gives the Alb stones excellent eye-making potential. Considering the presence of Alb Δ. Negru had better answer Alb 1 by playing 2 right on top of it. 9. If Negru attacks this way. Even if Negru gets in the two moves Δ shown in this diagram. Alb can live easily by playing 1 in the corner.

Alb confronted Negru’s stones at 14 and Negru took the key point in the corner at 15. 81 . for a reason explained in the next diagram. and Alb made the diagonal move at 12. Dia. This professional game illustrates another of the variations of the basic joseki. 13. This gives him corner profit. Negru made his squeeze play at 11. 14. but Alb is more out into the center than before.Variations Dia. Alb attacked at 16. One variation in the basic joseki occurs When Negru plays 2 at the three-three point to keep Alb out of the corner. but now Negru played 13 instead of ‘a’. and answered Negru 17 by connecting underneath at 18.

82 . Negru’s reason for playing ogeima at 1. and then use sente to make another attack against the stone in the lower right. 15. he could play 5 at ‘a’ to reduce his loss in the corner). and it is well worth Alb’s while to take what room there is. however. these variations illustrate the main themes of the joseki. 16. The key move is Alb 3 in the basic joseki diagram. In squeeze play joseki there is often competition for room to make eyes at the side of the board. even if it does mean playing on the two-three point. he could play 3 instead of ‘b’. was that if Alb played 2. In this situation. if Alb played 4 after the last diagram. The drawback of the ogeima is that it leaves the weak point at Alb 4. Dia.Dia. In conclusion Taken together. Negru would answer it at 5. instead of kogeima at ‘a’. Negru 3 is a stronger attack on the Alb stone in the lower right corner than ‘b’ would be. the sliding move into the corner. (If he did not care so much about sente.

Let’s begin our study of this joseki by looking at Negru 6. 83 . but Alb has ways to deal with that. the usual move. Alb plays 3 and 5 and is safe in the corner. which are shown at the end of this section. he can do so with the diagonal tsuke at 1. If Negru responds at 2. for which there is another choice. Negru can cause trouble by playing 2 at 3.SECTION 12 When Alb wants to settle the situation.

When playing Δ. 1. then attack at 5. Dia. An important variation in the basic joseki occurs when Negru plays 6 on the third line. he can play kikashi at I and 3. then Negru’s group is short of eye space. Dia. Alb cannot attack so well on the lower side. This variation is biased toward defense on the lower side. Negru has to choose between defending one side and defending the other. Alb can attack at 1. With Negru Δ low. instead of at ‘a’. 4. If Alb simply plays 1. If he gets ‘a’ or ‘b’ in addition to 1. aiming to slide under to ‘a’. With Negru Δ on the fourth line. However. Dia.Negru 6: third line or fourth? Dia. 3. 3. This diagram shows the reason for Alb 1 and 3 in Dia. Negru has a good reply at 2. 2. 84 .

which are shown in the next four diagrams. Alb 2 makes good shape and leaves open the possibility of an invasion at ‘a’. Here Negru plays it to get Alb’s reaction before extending toward the shimari in the upper right corner. but then ‘b’ is almost sente for Negru. 5. as regarding both territory and the safety of the Negru and Alb groups.Negru takes the offensive After the basic joseki. 85 . Negru has three ways to attack the Alb group. Negru 1 is a large point in the corner. Dia.

He cannot get out into the center past Negru 1—for instance. If Negru is concerned with the center.Dia. working towards a large territory on the right side. 86 . Alb would respond by taking the big point in the corner. Instead. he would play 1 from this direction. 8. Dia. Negru ‘d’. he can attack with 1 here. but then Negru would not play 1. 7. Alb 2 would be more appropriate if the shimari in the upper right corner were Negru. Dia. although in a way Alb is reducing the value of his own shimari by pushing Negru toward it. Alb can reply at either ‘a’ or ‘b’. Alb 2 here is another way of answering Negru 1. Alb ‘c’. a vital point in this shape. 6.

which is the cutest of the three. Next Negru can play ‘a’. But the fun comes when Alb plays 3 here to put up a fight for the corner. . ‘b’. It follows that Negru should not launch into any of these attacks without reason. 10. but first . . in some other direction.As you can see. Now we come to the variations in which Negru plays 2 on the three-three point. Negru should cut at 4. and not before he can make an intelligent choice among the three of them. he provokes a strengthening of Alb’s position. We shall confine ourselves to Negru ‘a’. Negru’s attacks in the last four diagrams are far from being killing attacks. indeed. 87 . One way for Alb to proceed is shown here. Negru 2 at the three-three point Dia. Alb gets out into the center and prepares to attack the stone Δ. if Negru attacks from one direction. Dia. and a weakening of his own. or ‘c’. and after Alb 5 it gets complicated. 9. While Negru makes some territory on the lower side.

you can probably see what is coming next. Dia. 13. but Negru has a good point left at ‘a’. Before getting involved in the difficulties which follow Dia. After these moves. is not very good. Alb should answer at 7. Dia. but the only good one Alb has. 10. 88 . if Negru plays 6. Alb has a powerful reply at 5. (instead of the cut at 7).Dia. we should point out that Negru 4 in this diagram. 12. The finish of this variation: Alb’s wall is imposing. Dia. Negru must play 8 and 10. 11. 10. and Alb must play 9 and 11. a strange-looking play. 14. There is only one branch in this variation. Continuing from Dia.

SECTION 13 The last variations of the two-point high squeeze play we are going to consider are the ones in which Alb plays tenuki. Alb’s purpose in this joseki is to gain safety in sente before moving on to some other part of the board. which lets Alb live easily but gains outside strength. giving Negru a chance to put another stone into the corner. 89 . perhaps. which drives Alb out into the center. Negru’s next play is usually either ‘a’. Alb 1 and the rest can be used not only against the twopoint squeeze play shown in this section. or ‘b’. the one point-squeeze play on the third line. but against any squeeze play except.In conclusion Complicated variations aside.

1. 1. After Alb 9 it is Negru’s turn. 2. When Negru plays 1 at the three-four point. but Alb has possibilities at ‘a’ which he is trying not to disturb. Dia. This explains the weakness that exists after Dia. but he has lots to worry about: his stones on the outside are weak and his corner is not yet alive. this is the expected result. Alb 4 may look like a feeble move. Negru generally plays 5 at ‘b’ to defend against Alb ‘a’.Negru plays tsuke at the three-four point Dia. and then Alb can think about attacking on the right side. 90 .

Negru can avoid having to worry about the possibility of Dia. 2 by playing 3 here. or play 11 at 13. In another variation. Alb plays 2. it is not hard for Alb to make two eyes in the corner or on the right side. Negru plays 3 at 4. Alb takes the corner with 4. If Negru is worried that Alb might not connect and wants to be sure of sente. For Alb 2. ‘a’ is the most desirable point. but that play depends on a shicho. Negru connects at 3. and he has sente if Alb connects the ko.Dia. (see Dia. Negru will find himself cramped in the corner. Negru plays tsuke on the outside Dia. 6. When Negru plays 1 here. he can omit Negru 13. 91 . 5. Negru’s double hane in the last diagram enables him to make a perfect wall on the outside. Dia. The only drawback of this shape is that if Alb later gets to attack at ‘a’. Here is one variation. Dia. and so Alb may have to play ‘b’ instead. 3. and Negru plays double hane at 5 and 7. 4. 9).

Negru has all sorts of weaknesses for Alb to aim at. now lets see how they apply in a couple of actual situations. These are the basic variations. If it is. 6 on the previous page. so if Negru plays 2 and Alb plays 3. Here is one possible continuation from Dia 7. When possible. but he can make shape on the side by playing ‘a’ or ‘b’. the sequence of Dias. A similar situation occurs when Alb plays 2 at 4 and Negru plays 3 at 5. but if it is not. Since Alb 1 is so close. Dia. it is more prudent of Negru to play 6 than ‘a’. Alb 7 and Negru 8 are the same as before. Dia. After Negru 5 this variation gets complicated Alb is barred from the corner.Dia. Alb cannot play 2 unless the shicho in this diagram is good for him. Alb pushes in between the Negru stones at 2 to put some cutting points into Negru’s shape. but now 92 . 9. but a countersqueeze play. 7 and 8 has to be modified a bit. In comparison with Dia. then of course he is more than happy with this result. 10. then he is in great trouble. 7. Alb 1 in this diagram is not a tenuki. (although ‘a’ is not impossible). 8. Alb makes a counter-squeeze play Dia.

This is because Alb ‘b’. Here Alb has a stone out at Δ on the lower side. 11. 12.Alb simply plays 9 instead of ‘b’. Alb ‘d’. Negru has no good move. and if Alb plays 2. 93 . In answer to Alb 1. Negru 2 at the three-three point is bad. Negru ‘e’ would weaken Alb 1 too much. Alb 4 to 12 are one way to proceed from here. Dia. This time Negru 1 is correct. After Alb 3. Alb’s stone is farther away Dia. Negru should play 3. Negru ‘c’. Let’s see how this affects the joseki.

Dia. If Negru plays keima at 3. inviting this exchange. for after the usual joseki shown here. 94 . 14. 13. On the third line. Negru ‘a’ would be too close to it to be efficient. Alb can answer Negru 1 more loosely at 2. Dia. Alb Δ makes Negru 1 a doubtful move. Negru cannot make good use of his wall. If he wishes. however.15.Dia. which does not bode well for the fighting that should develop from Alb 6. then after Alb 4 he wants to play 5 as shown to confront Alb Δ while defending against Alb ‘a’. Negru 5 offers no resistance to Alb’s movements in the center.

16. 16. He still has ways of breaking up Negru’s position. Alb can probably live with this sequence. In conclusion By playing tenuki. Even when he plays tenuki twice.A second tenuki Dia. The order of Negru 1 and 3 may be reversed. but he is by no means giving up the corner. starting with Alb ‘a’. Dia. he still has good chances of reviving his original stone. provided that Negru is not too strong in the surrounding area. 18. 95 . If Negru answers Alb 1 by capturing Alb Δ then Negru Δ becomes greatly weakened. After Dia. When Negru plays 1. and Alb has again cut into Negru’s prospective territory. Dia. 17. Alb can play another tenuki and let Negru have 3. too. of course Alb is giving Negru a local advantage.

or he can. (which works out about as in section 10). We shall restrict ourselves to Alb ‘b’ and ‘d’. or at ‘b’. ignore Negru 1. for it gives Alb the least room in which to operate. starting with the former. we will use this section and the next two to look at three other squeeze plays often used against the kogeima kakari. or ‘d’. Alb can answer at ‘a’. Negru 1 above is the most aggressive of them all.SECTION 14 After spending the last five sections on the two-point high squeeze play. as always. 96 . ‘c’.

but Negru fights back with 5. When Negru plays 3 on the is also joseki. Alb’s one-point jump to 2 is the most generally useful answer to Negru 1.Alb 2: one-point jump Dia. Dia. and Negru will than fourth-line 97 . (Alb ‘a’. which no reservations center develops. Alb should not try 4 unless he is backed up in the upper right corner and can expect a good profit on the right side. 1. on the lower side. on the lower side. Negru ‘b’). 2. be making third-line territory. rather territory. If a chase into the Alb has a kikashi at ‘a’ he can use. Negru defends the lower side with 3. for in the running fight to come. third line. and now it seems natural for Alb to attack the other side with 4. then there need be about playing 4. he is likely to find himself pushing Negru along the fourth line.

At the end of this diagram Alb is in a position to attack either at ‘a’ or at ‘b’.Dia. Be careful of the order of 7 and 9. But when Negru plays keima with 3. 98 . and he can make an eye for his group by playing ‘c’ when the time comes. Alb can answer it at 7 instead of 10. 3. trying to avoid a running battle. 4. Dia. this sequence is what Alb expects. Alb may prefer to play 4 this way. When he plays 4 in the last diagram. If Negru plays 9 first.

Dia.Dia. Alb 6 and 8 are a good combination. it is common for Alb to attack from that direction with 4. 5. Instead of passively playing the previous sequence. bending around Negru 5 and protecting the cutting point at ‘a’. Negru can push through and cut with 5 and 7. Negru naturally answers with 5. 99 . Even though Negru plays 3 to defend the lower side. 6. The joseki usually ends about like this. We will not even try to go through the variations. 7. Dia. Alb has good shape for making eyes on the right side. although you can probably see some of the possibilities for yourself. but this can get very difficult.

Negru wants his territory on the right side to be as large as possible. Alb resists by pushing Negru back toward his strong position in the upper right with 2. but in the present circumstances Negru’s strength in the upper right goes to waste. Negru plays 5 to defend the lower side. 9. Dia. which is alive. Although it is always hard to say which squeeze play would be best. After Alb 4 there are essentially two variations. 100 . especially considering the possibility of Alb ‘a’. In one of them. and he has not made much territory with it. 8. here is one situation in which Negru 1 looks appropriate. He cannot use it to attack Alb’s group. This is joseki. so he plays 1 as far down as he can.Alb 2: tsuke Dia. and Alb cuts at 6.

Alb can attack on the lower side at 6.Dia. except that it is played on the fourth line. marked ‘a’ to ‘e’. SECTION 15 This squeeze play is like the one in the previous section. So in this case Negru had better choose the other variation and connect at 5. In conclusion When Negru makes his squeeze play as close as this. 101 . as seen in many of the diagrams of this section. he is putting maximum pressure on Alb. Alb has five different ways to answer it. of which ‘c’ and ‘d’ are the most interesting. Negru’s simplest course is to live in the corner with 7 and the rest. but at the same time it becomes possible for Alb to push back on Negru in one way or another. 10.

and in the corner ‘b’ is a very large point. Dia. If Negru has some strength in the upper right corner. 1. Alb 2. he might play 5 at 6 to start a fight. but now Negru’s ‘a’ is not as menacing as before. Dia. Instead of playing 11 as in the last diagram. 2. Negru can play 7. and if Negru has a lot of strength in the upper right corner we imagine Alb playing ‘a’ instead of 4. Negru can play it on the three-three point. Negru jumps out to 5. straight up between Negru’s two stones. looks like the most natural answer to Negru 1. however. taking no chances. 9. 3. Negru can attack at ‘a’. and 11 to strengthen his position.Alb 2: one-point jump Dia. After this diagram Negru can play tenuki. This gains corner profit. In the usual joseki Alb attacks at 4. or he can carry on as in one of the next two diagrams. Both Negru ‘a’ and ‘b’ threaten a hane at ‘c’. after which Alb will probably play on the lower side to counter Negru’s wall. and Alb connects underneath at 6. 102 .

Alb 2: keima Dia. Dia. and this is joseki. The keima at 2 is more flexible than the one-point jump. and now Alb can continue by attacking Negru 1. Dia. Negru’s three stones on the right side do not have eye shape yet. hoping Alb will answer at ‘b’. By the way. Alb cannot ignore it. 5. Negru 5 here is a lighter answer to Alb 4. 4. since he has a good play at ‘a’ to use if Negru attacks. 103 . 6. another good move. Alb might continue at ‘a’. He often does this last. and the sequence shown here is joseki. Alb has ‘b’ or ‘c’ to play. or he can leave the position as it is. Negru 3 is one good answer to it. although he also has some cutting points. Negru has more room on the right side. When Negru plays keima with 3. Negru cannot answer Alb 2 at ‘b’ because of Alb ‘a’. On the lower side. Before playing 5 Negru should think about playing ‘a’ in the corner. After 9. One thing he can do is to play 4. but Alb has not made eyes yet either. too. After Negru 7.

Dia. Alb can answer Negru’s keima at 3 by playing 4 at the three-three point. and 9. And here is a similar one starting with the tsuke at the three-three point. which threatens ‘a’. Alb 2: tsuke Dia. 104 . since he may need to connect at ‘c’. 9. Here is one joseki stemming from a Alb tsuke at 2. and he fights on the outside by playing 10. to live on the right side. Continuing from the last diagram. In the early endgame Alb ‘a’ is a very large play. Negru plays kikashi at 11 before defending the lower side. so as to live quickly in the corner. This sequence is a simple joseki. Alb is alive in the corner. Dia. 11. Dia. 7. Negru can prevent it by playing ‘b’. and the joseki usually ends with Negru 17.Dia. 10. (which forces Alb ‘a). A more complicated joseki occurs when Negru answers Alb 4 by cutting with 5. but he may not want to provoke Alb ‘c’ by doing so. 8. 7.

but they are too far away to have a strong effect on the corner. Plays farther up the side than Negru 1 or ‘b’ are possible. 105 . We are skipping over Negru’s squeeze plays at ‘a’ and ‘b’ for reasons mentioned in the introduction to this chapter. it tends to lead to solid and settled positions more often than the other squeeze plays. the three-point low squeeze play. Because of this. as can be seen from the joseki shown in this section.In conclusion Negru 1 is the most forceful of all the squeeze plays. SECTION 16 Our discussion of the kogeima kakari ends with Negru 1.

he can settle for making good shape in the corner with the sequence that starts with 2 and ends with Negru 7 or ‘a’. if there is a Negru shimari in the upper right corner. Many players would play 1 at 4. as shown. 2. but his stone is under attack all the same. If Alb is not in a position to take the offensive. 106 . Alb would certainly prefer this way to Dia. or on the point between 1 and 4. Alb has a shimari in the upper right corner. 1.Two Common joseki Dia. One way to meet Negru 1 is with the twopoint jump to 2 and the counter-squeeze play at 4. In this shape Negru can get some room for eyes by playing ‘a’. This would be appropriate if. For example. Dia. 1. to avoid this kind of attack.

and after another atari at 11 he connects at 13. and ‘c’—which we shall look at in turn. When Alb plays 8. Negru can make shape in the corner with 5. The sequence up to Negru 9 is almost like the one in Dia. for then Alb 9 would leave him with no eye shape. Since Alb 2 does not really put much pressure on Negru 1. Negru must not connect at 10. When Alb plays keima at 4. Here is a situation in which the three-point squeeze play is often made. 5. He has to play atari at 9. instead of following Dia. For Alb 4 there are three possibilities—’a’. but Alb can play 8 at 9. Keima Dia. 107 . 4.Tenuki Dia. 3. which changes things considerably. ‘b’. Dia. Negru frequently plays a move like 3. 2. 1 or 2.

7. (This does not mean that Δ was a bad play to begin with). Notice that Alb would now prefer to have Δ at ‘a’. Diagonal play Dia. 6. Dia. so he will fight with 5 and 7 instead. Alb cuts at 14 and Negru has to play 15. 108 . but Negru has a big wall and sente to make a wide extension on the lower side. to give himself more room on the lower side. Continuing. The fighting might continue this way. Now we come to the diagonal play at Alb 4. Negru can no longer accomplish much by playing ‘a’ in the corner. 8.Dia. Alb makes a satisfying amount of territory as Negru pushes him along the side.

Another way for Negru to answer Alb 4 is to dive into the corner at 5. it is rather cowardly. 109 . but here. Negru is aiming at the point ‘a’. this is one possibility. 10. Negru plays 9 to build a living position.Dia. he can do so by playing 4. 10. Dia. This is the most aggressive way to attack. After Alb 8. After settling his own position. 9. Tsuke Dia. a defensive way of playing. Dia. 2). but it provokes Negru 5. Continuing from Dia. (just as in section 13. 11. If Alb wants to keep Negru out of the corner. and with his two-stone wall Negru can cap Alb’s stone on the right side at 7. considering that Negru has two stones in the upper right corner. This is joseki in some situations. and Alb needs to defend. and it gets complicated.

and the only one that is going to find its way into the present book. If Negru defends the lower side with 8. Running fight Dia. ‘d’. Alb can reply to it with ‘a’ or ‘b’. Alb will attack him with ‘b’. Dia. or with a tsuke at ‘c’. If Negru connects at ‘a’. one which makes it a bit hard for Negru to get good shape on the right side. Negru 2 is the oldest. 1. Alb 13 is a solid play. Against Alb 3. Alb strikes on the right side at 9. for instance. The last of these is the subject of this section. 2. or ‘e’. or if Negru plays ‘b’. That makes them especially useful as invasions between the kakari stone and a position in the adjacent corner. Negru announces his intention to engage in a running fight by playing 4 and 6. One way to continue is with 10 to 13. Alb’s defense is at 7. as in Dias. 1 and 3. SECTION 17 Of the squeeze plays that can be used against Alb 1 above. a double-threat move which prepares for either Alb ‘a’ or Alb ‘b’. then 110 . either of which separates the two Negru stones.In conclusion This and other long-range squeeze plays give both sides a fair amount of room to work with.

3. however. and similar to ones that develop when Alb plays 3 at ‘a’. ‘b’. (If Alb tries to play 11 at ‘a’. and this sequence is joseki. then Alb attacks on the lower side with 9. 111 . which can lead to a hard and desperate battle. as we shall see next. or ‘c’ in the diagram at the head of this section. similar to the many other running fights that have appeared so far in this chapter.Alb has ‘a’. there is a way for him to avoid it. 1 to 3 we have a typical running fight provoked by a squeeze play. In another variation Alb uses 13 to cut at ‘a’. In Dias. If Negru defends the right side with 8. Negru can handle this onslaught with 10. In the present joseki. Negru still plays 12). if Negru does not want to assume a separated shape. as in some others. Dia.

Negru plays 8 underneath Dia. 5.Negru moves to connect Dia. unfortunately. The joseki continues as shown up to Negru 16. lead to complications. 112 . both of which. When Negru plays atari underneath with 8. and Alb can finish it by playing 17. 4. Negru can next play either ‘a’ or ‘b’. or by making a wide extension on the lower side. Alb’s only way to fight is to push in between Negru’s two stones at 7. Negru joins up his position by cutting in behind Alb 3 and reaching up the side with 4 and 6. Alb should reply with a counter-atari at 9.

113 . At this point the joseki branches into two variations. then Negru can play 10. and Negru has no choice but to play 10 and 12. that improves things somewhat. Considered in isolation. If Alb just connects with 9. 8. Negru plays 8 from above Dia. 6. 9. 7. Dia. In the simpler one. Alb captures at 13 and Negru captures at 14. but Negru is still happy. but Alb has sente. but then Alb does likewise. this exchange is generally good for Negru. this exchange is good for Alb.Dia. Alb plays 9. and he can cut off Alb 15 by playing ‘a’. And now there is the case in which Negru plays 8 from above. Negru has a chance to capture with 10. Dia. If Alb can capture the stone in shicho by playing ‘a’ instead of 13. Negru has the stronger position. and while Alb captures one stone on the right side. When Alb plays atari at 9.

9 would be rather good for Negru. 12). capturing Alb 15 in return. but then Alb continues to develop on the right side with 17. and Alb would like to avoid it. Negru connects at 18. 10. and the fight goes on. say. Alb continues at 19. Dia. then the variation in Dia. 11.Dia. a Negru shimari in the upper right corner. If there is. These moves are not hard to understand. He can connect his two stones at ‘a’. Now again Negru has two choices. he can do so by playing 13. At the end of this diagram there are three weak groups on the board. or he can give them up by pushing through with ‘b’ and onwards. This second possibility we leave you to figure out for yourself. (see Dia. Negru gets the corner with 14 and 16. and the battle continues until they become stabilized. This diagram shows the first possibility. Depending on a shicho. 114 .

If he wants to strike a bargain with Alb and settle the situation quickly. he can choose the variation of Dias. SECTION 18 In the last section of the chapter we see Negru making a squeeze play against the ogeima kakari. he can choose from among the other variations of this joseki. After the cross-cut at 5 there is. 1 to 3. 12. In conclusion Alb cannot play 13 if the shicho shown here works If Negru wants to embark on a protracted running fight. only one variation. 115 . for a change.Dia. for Negru. Alb can handle the situation with a tsuke at the threethree point.

The idea behind the ogeima kakari Dia. The ogeima kakari is appropriate when Negru has a large. it is not as easy for Alb to handle his stone. 2. By comparison. if Alb plays a kogeima kakari at 1 and Negru makes the same squeeze play at 2. Dia. Alb will be quite satisfied to extend up the right side at 3. 3. If Negru answers it at 2. Dia. but he knows that 3 and 5 will give him a good position in the corner. 116 . forming a safe position which greatly reduces the effectiveness of Negru’s strength. strong position in the upper right corner. Alb rather expects a squeeze play like 2. 1.

6. 117 . 4. If Negru reverses the order of 6 and 8. 4. Alb 11 is a possible stopping-place for the sequence. but if he keeps on. then connects at 10. Dia. his opponent has taken the corner.The joseki Dia. 5. Negru can play tenuki after Dia. after the crosscut at 5. To continue with the joseki. This is simple. but whatever the strategic merits of Negru’s position on the right side. Dia. one thing he can do is to exchange 12 for 13. Be careful of the order of Negru 6 and 8. Negru plays atari at 6 and 8. Alb will play 9 and dominate the corner by capturing Negru 6.

Negru can stubbornly play 4 and 6 to make Alb fight on the right side. Dia. 8.Dia. In conclusion This section illustrates the kind of thinking that makes for good go strategy. 118 . which could go about like this. Alb anticipates Negru’s squeeze play and deals with it by giving Negru what he wants on the right side. It is not hard for him to make two eyes on the side. 7. Negru may want to play 12 on the lower side to provoke some fighting. Especially considering the closeness of Δ. taking his own profits in the corner where the taking is easier. but Alb has nothing to complain of as he springs out into the center. should that become necessary.

Let’s look at a couple of situations in which the threethree point invasion is appropriate. Negru will close it off by adding another stone. say. 1. 2. at the very beginning of the game. 1 is not always a good play.CHAPTER 4 Four-four point joseki: invasion and tsuke INTRODUCTION A stone on the four-four point. On the other hand. Alb 1 in Dia. is in a considerably different position from one played closer in to the corner. like the Negru one in Dia. or when there are some Alb stones near enough to be endangered by a newly-created. but in this chapter we will be talking only about Alb 1 in Dia. The difference is that now Alb has enough room to invade at 1 in Dia. Negru can hold Alb to a small territory in the corner and along one side while building himself a strong. instead of making a kakari from the outside. Of course a kakari is still possible. strong Negru position. Such an exchange can be bad for Alb if made. if Alb stays away from the corner too long. 119 . centerfacing wall. Alb 1 in Dia. 1 and a similar play. 1.

120 . 3. Negru could more or less secure his corner territory with 1 in Dia. but then Alb would be happy to play 2). the three-three point is the key point for reducing it. Dia. 6. (This does not mean that Negru 1. 4. Negru will come out of the joseki with a good deal of probable territory on the outside. then there will be no easy invasion route left open into the huge. 5 shows the same idea on a smaller scale. Here Alb 2 is especially destructive.When Negru makes a double wing formation around his stone. which aims into Alb’s territory on the side. as in Dia. is a bad play. but that cannot be helped. for it will eat up more than half of Negru’s prospective territory. If Alb lets Negru play 3 in Dia. Negru area.

the kakari to be studied in the next chapter is better. but generally it is easy to see which is better. In 121 .As these two examples may hint. the invader can expect to get only a small area for himself. becomes which side to push on. For building territory. 7 or 8 is best. How is a three-three point invasion answered? Almost always a contact play like Negru 2 in Dia. the three-three point invasion is a weapon for taking away the opponent’s territory. The problem. then.

8 Negru has no extension. 122 . on the upper side. each in an appropriate setting. And what comes after Negru 2? Let’s take a look. so he plays 2 to get what little he can on the left side. Negru has more room for territory on the upper side than on the left side. for instance. ‘Block in the direction of your widest extension’ is the general rule. SECTION 19 There are a good many variations to the three-three point invasion. In Dia. so naturally he plays 2. and no chance to make territory. 7.Dia. In this section we will show the major ones.

123 . Alb. as he usually does. all this in sente. has gotten to play the fairly large hane at 9 and can later push out further from the corner at ‘a’. building a wall in the center which here works well with the stones marked Δ. 2. If Negru wants to stop his opponent from getting so much profit in sente. he can play this double hane. This sequence might be called the basic variation. although it is not the most common. Negru holds Alb down into the corner.Basic variation Dia. however. 1. Double hane Dia. Three variations follow.

Dia. but this time Negru chooses to take the corner in gote with 10 and 12. and the Dia. 4. 10. ‘a’. Alb plays atari at 7. Alb can play ‘c’. and 12. or if he needs the corner to secure room for two eyes. 3. and then play ‘d’ in sente because of the threat of Alb ‘a’. and Alb can hardly help but connect the ko at 13. Alb can be satisfied because his two captured stones still have some life left in them—visualize the exchange of Alb ‘a’ for Negru ‘b’. Negru builds his wall in sente with 8. Negru plays this way if he has no particularly good use for sente. In the second variation Alb plays 7 and 9 as before. 124 . He can also play on the point ‘e’ to good effect. then Negru can play 14. In the first one. For example. or some other point on outside.

125 . but there are times when it is better to play hane at the other end. which exploits the dead stones left in the corner. Alb uses this joseki when the upper side is more important than the left. After Negru 14. taking sente and defending the largest possible amount of territory on the upper side. 5. then ‘b’ will be a good point for Negru. for example when Negru’s extension on the upper side is wider than his extension on the left. threatening a double atari at 10. for instance. 6. Negru has no prospects on the left side.Dia. so he answers Alb 3 at 4. Negru 4: hane in the corner In the variations so far Negru played his fourth move at the open end of Alb’s stones. Here. If he plays tenuki. if Alb wants to play another stone in this area he has a good point at ‘a’. as in this diagram. in the corner. In the third variation Alb breaks out of the corner by playing 7 and 9 on the upper side. Dia. where Alb is very strong. which of course he can do with his pon-nuki shape.

the usual joseki when Negru has a stone at Δ. 11. Alb can still play 1. on the upper side. The joseki continues as shown in this diagram and the next. for if he exchanged 11 for 12 first. and Alb has just enough room to live in gote in the corner. This gives him the cut at ‘a’ or the squeeze-tsuke at ‘b’ to aim at. Alb has to be careful not to play 11 until Negru has connected at 10. and 5. Alb plays hane first Dia. like . Dia. he can do so by playing 3 and 5. When Negru Δ is as close in as this. If Alb wants to avoid the hane of Negru 4 in Dias. 10. Dia. the hane at 4 is again appropriate. 8. then Negru might be able to kill the corner by playing 10 at 13. for Alb does not have enough room to live in any other way. 7. If Negru plays 6. 9. Dia. This ko is.Dia. 3. When Negru has an extension to Δ on the left side and wider one. making a large ko. in fact. Alb should be ready to answer with 7. 6 and 7. Negru 6 deprives the Alb group of room for two 126 .

Dia. 12.eyes. 127 . 13. the diagonal play at Alb 3 becomes the proper way to live. but even dead stones can be put to use. Alb 7 does not quite assure him of two eyes in the corner. When Negru has added a stone at Δ. Alb can live with the hane at 5. Dia. Or if Negru blocks Alb’s extension down the side. If Negru plays 4 and 6. and his corner may yet live. Alb will aim at the points ‘a’ and ‘b’ as before. then Alb can get room for eyes by hopping down the side to 7. 14. but Negru cannot attack as long as the cutting point at ‘a’ remains undefended. Diagonal play Dia. We leave this life and death problem for you to work out on your own.

the invader can live quite easily. 10 and 11. Another way. as in either of the two diagrams above. one way of attacking it is with the tsuke at Alb 1. is with a three-three point invasion at ‘a’. In the next chapter we will return to this invasion. seeing how it works in combination with a kakari from the outside. SECTION 20 When Negru has made a two-stone shimari based on a stone at the four-four point. 128 . while Alb 1 has more to do with the outside. Except in cases such as Dias. but Alb ‘a’ aims only at living in the corner. as you have seen in the last section. so to speak.In conclusion This is what to expect of a three-three point invasion made out of the blue.

Let’s start by considering the case in which Negru answers Alb 1 by defending his corner with 2. then he may be able to keep Alb in the corner. 2. If Negru plays ‘a’. if there are other Negru forces in the area. 129 . Dia. to ‘a’. the standard joseki calls for Alb to play hane at 3. In the simplest continuation. but there will be cutting points left in his shape which Alb can take aim at from the outside. If Negru plays ‘b’. and Alb extends on the left side to 7 or. The same pattern can arise from an attack on an ogeima shimari based from the three-three point. When Negru has the formation shown here. then Alb can develop a position on the left side while slightly reducing Negru’s corner territory. Inner hane Dia. 3. and what follow are only the most common of them. Negru and Alb connect at 4 and 5. 1.The usual answer to Alb 1 is either ‘a’ or ‘b’. Negru plays 6. Dia. Alb 1 has a way of leading to very complicated sequences.

threatening both ‘a’ and ‘b’. and a ko fight. 130 . If Negru does not play 6. Dia.Dia. 4. or he can jump out to ‘b’. This gives him a very nice base from which to extend down the left side or. inviting Negru to start a ko fight. depending on the surrounding positions. Alb can get eye shape by playing there himself. 6. Dia. 7. Here Negru has a stone at Δ. . Dia. and Alb dies—and Negru 6 prevents Alb from extending into the center. What if Negru answers Alb 3 by cutting at 4? This too is joseki. again expecting Negru 6. or he can play ‘a’. Instead of following Dia. and so Alb does not have room for a satisfactory extension on the left side. 7. He need not be afraid of the cut at ‘a’—Alb ‘a’. The way for Alb to handle it is to play 5. Negru ‘b’. If Negru protects against the former by playing 10 in the next diagram . and 9. 3. 5. then Negru can play 6. The order of playing 3 and 5 is important. Alb will make a wall with 11 and 13. If Alb reverses them. . Alb ‘c’. Negru ‘d’. Alb 7. into the center. as here. he now makes a kaketsugi at 5.

This joseki is frequently used when Negru has an extension like Δ. but has the advantage that Alb cannot play 6 in sente.Dia. and now Alb can play 3. and Alb does not want to invade at the three-three point for fear that Negru will get too much territory on the outside. since he is not afraid of Negru’s playing 6 at ‘a’. In this variation Negru plays 4 instead of ‘a’. 131 . Dia. If Alb simply extends to 5. This gives up points in the corner. 9. There are a good many other variations besides the ones above. 8. Negru can pressure him with the sequence from 6 to 10. But here Negru has an ogeima shimari. but we will leave them in order to go on to the case in which Negru answers Alb 1 by playing hane from the outside.

12. then Alb’s connection at 5 is the usual play. Dia. as shown here. although ‘a’ and ‘b’ are other possibilities. If Negru connects at 4. In this diagram Alb gets a good life in the corner. There is a second way for Alb to play counter-hane with 3.Outer hane Dia. with the cut at ‘a’ or the squeeze-tsuke at ‘b’ left as sizeable threats. 11. Next Negru plays 6. Dia. Once again. when Negru has a one-pointjump shimari. which is sometimes correct. and can aim to cut at ‘a’ later. and Alb lives in the corner. the standard joseki calls for Alb to play counterhane. We leave you to find for yourself what happens if Negru plays atari at ‘b’ instead of 4. 132 . 10.

If he cannot afford to live so humbly.). the outcome of which will be determined by the presence or absence of other stones in its path. 14. This is one of the more complicated variations. Alb can play 17 here. a tesuji worth taking note of. (Alb ‘a’. 13 Dia. Sacrificing two stones. Negru seems to be trying to kill all the Alb stones when he plays 4 and 6. then Alb plays 18 and gets up to the third line and out into the open. and then live by crawling along the second line. If Negru answers at 19. Negru ‘b’. but Alb can cope by cutting at 7. 13. etc. If Negru plays 18 as shown. 131 133 .Dia. 15. Alb can play 11. Dia. and 15 in sente. Dia. 13. then a crawling battle develops on the left side.

an important tool for getting into a territorial framework based around a stone on the four-four point. except that now Alb gets his best result by playing nobi with 3 instead of hane. Another. reflecting the fact that its purpose is less clearly defined —it can lead either to life in the corner or to a battle on the outside. 16. The joseki shown here is about like the one in Dia. but we leave that for a more advanced book. The last combination of possibilities is when Negru has an ogeima shimari and answers Alb 1 from the outside. The mutual connections at 4 and 5 form one joseki. 18. surprisingly complicated family of variations starts when Alb plays ‘a’ instead of 5. In conclusion The tsuke at 1 yields far more complications than the simple three-three point invasion of the last section.Dia. 134 . 10. however. He has something to aim for in the cut at ‘a’. Dia. Following the last diagram. 17. Negru will play 6. Alb can also play 3 like this. It is. As before. and Alb can live safely with 7 to 13. Dia.

he is more concerned with making shape on one side or the other than with ravaging the corner territory. for two reasons. 1 is the best kakari to make against a stone on the four-four point. 2. More often than not. and then he will make a kakari from the appropriate direction. but he cannot. Negru would like to make a kaketsugi by playing at the point on which Alb 1 rests.CHAPTER 5 Four-four point joseki: kakari INTRODUCTION In the last chapter we studied the three-three point invasion and the three-four point tsuke. After Alb 9. when Alb plays against a stone on the four-four point. so he has to make do with the shapeless tight connection at 10. For example. Alb can go right to 3. The first is that from 1 Alb can slide into the corner by playing ‘a’. but it need not go to waste. Alb 1 has been cut off. Alb can play 135 . All other things being equal. moves which make an immediate penetration into the corner. The second reason is that Alb 1 works well with an invasion at ‘b’. and Alb comes skipping out of the corner at 11. however. Alb 1 in Dia. if Negru answers Alb 1 with a squeeze play at 2 in Dia.

he can play another ogeima kakari at ‘a’. Negru may answer at 3. too. 3. 4. But a kakari is made in order to develop on the side. Alb would like to deal quickly with the left side. a common opening position. which is mostly Negru’s domain. he could not expect to keep sente. In Dia. Usually he plays his kakari at 2. then turn to some other part of the board where he has more of a chance to make territory. attacking Negru’s eyeless group. 136 . but Alb can then leave the left side as it is and turn elsewhere. Later. 1.‘a’. expecting Negru ‘b’. (or right away). If Alb made a kogeima kakari. and he has a useful move at ‘b’. and Negru’s corner territory will not be unduly large. as at 2 in Dia. After Negru 3 he would still have to defend against the possible invasion at ‘c’. and frequently the conditions dictate some choice other than Alb 1 in Dia.

and starting to make a large area of his own on the upper side. using his wall in the lower left to develop a huge potential area.Dia. Negru would answer with 2 and 4. and Alb can continue with 3. If Alb played a kogeima kakari. reducing Alb’s left side to easily manageable proportions. 137 . 6. Negru 2 is the usual answer. as in Dia. 5 shows one kind of position in which Alb should make a high kakari at 1.

where it will be of use in the fighting to come in the center. 7 we see the 2-point high kakari being used to give room for eyes to the Alb group on the left side and to reduce Negru’s potential area in the upper left. then after Negru 2 he would be vulnerable to an invasion behind 1. The choice of Alb 1 is easily understood. Better to have 1 up on the fourth line. There would be no point in playing 1 on the third line. (at ‘c’). 138 . Compare this with Negru ‘a’. If Alb played any higher up. because Negru can always jump out to ‘d’ to keep Alb from getting any territory on the left side. say at ‘b’.In Dia.

The chief weakness in this move is that Alb can still invade the corner easily at ‘a’. The standard answer to a kakari at 1. or ‘b’ in Dia. supporting an extension to 1. You have already seen a couple of them in the preceding diagrams. Another weakness is that Alb may sooner or later play 3 in Dia. then Alb 3 becomes very effective. and 25. in Dia. 9 is the one-point jump at Negru 2. 24. 23. but if there are some additional Alb stones in the surrounding area. 8 are reasonable answers to Alb 1 in various circumstances. who will have to care for two weak groups while Negru attacks from his own strong one. and it will be treated in sections 21. all of the points marked in Dia. aiming to slip under Negru’s stone to ‘b’. Besides starting to build territory on the upper side. Now let’s look at a few more. 11 is not very good for Alb. Negru 2 makes a good base for jumping out into the center. 10. Considered in isolation.There is a wide choice of ways to answer a kakari. ‘a’. 11. Dia. or to one of the points marked x. 139 .

With the Alb stone so 140 . Negru 2 is often used when Alb plays 1.In Dia. 12. but it is not as strong on defense. for instance. threatens an invasion at ‘c’. and it is still used. It aims at making a larger corner territory than Negru ‘a’. 14. Negru 2 in Dia. Alb ‘b’. Negru would do well to play 2 on the third line instead of at ‘a’. for instance. for defensive purposes. or ‘a’. 13 used to be the standard reply to Alb 1. in Dia. Negru can make a secure corner enclosure with 4. Then if Alb attacks with 3.

Negru should play this way whenever he already has a strong formation around the middle of the upper side. In Dia. and so there is not so much point in his playing 2 at ‘b’. Negru 2 secures the corner. It would be an over concentration of strength. is correct. and of course it also attacks Alb 1.far removed from the corner there is not much point in Negru’s advancing toward the center. This Negru 2 and the Negru 2 in Dia. 16 would be incorrect here. or Negru ‘a’. 141 . and 25. 12 will be mentioned alongside the one-point jump in sections 21. 24. Negru 2 in Dia. 15 we have a good case where Negru 2. and Alb could easily invade at the three-three point.

A kakari is not as pressing an attack as the three-three point invasion or the three-four point tsuke. A squeeze play may be used to keep Alb from building territory on the side. 142 . 19 is also made for constructive purposes. Finally. and nothing too serious will happen if Negru lets Alb attack a second time. Squeeze plays are common. 18.The tsuke responses to a kakari are treated in sections 22 and 26. 17. Alb usually makes his second move from the other side. as in Dia. an interesting idea that we will be looking at in section 27. one common answer to a Alb kakari is no answer at all. or to construct Negru territory there. and we shall study these double-kakari joseki in sections 28 and 29. as in Dia. The squeeze play in Dia. too.

is quite similar and will also appear in this section. he can make it even harder for Alb to reach the center by playing the moves in this diagram.SECTION 21 Basic joseki 21 If we survey recent Japanese professional games. in which Negru makes a kogeima with 2. it seems that the most frequently used four-four point joseki is the one on the left above. Alb slides into the corner at 3. Alb’s weakness Dia. and Alb makes a two-point extension to 5. (next page) Since we will have lots to say shortly about Negru’s weaknesses in this joseki. This means that it is not so easy for him to extend upwards into the center. Both sides get stable. Negru defends at 4. in which Negru answers Alb’s kogeima kakari with a one-point jump to 2. 143 . easily defended positions. Observe that Alb’s stones in the basic joseki are all on the second or third line. 1. If Negru does not mind solidifying Alb’s position. let’s get Alb’s main weakness out of the way first. The variation on the right.

On the upper side Dia. 2 in this diagram and the last is such a big point that Negru should seize any reasonable excuse to play it. since if Negru lets Alb play both 1 and 2. The drawback of this move is that it gives Negru a good attacking point at ‘a’. Dia. he can play 1 here instead of extending on the third line. If Negru does not get around to playing ‘a’. 3. 144 . Just from the standpoint of corner territory. Even when Negru has made the defensively stronger kogeima. If Alb wants a higher position. it can almost be considered as part of the basic joseki.Dia. it is a good idea for him to answer 1 at 2. 2. Negru 2 is usually the correct answer to Alb 1. he will find himself short of eye space. 4. A Negru extension to the point ‘a’ is a large move. Alb has a good move at 1.

although it is usually too slow to be worth playing in the opening. 7. 145 . by playing 2. 5 at 8 still gives him a big profit. Dia.Alb plays the key point in the corner Dia. If Alb cannot afford to have his two stones on the left side cut off. 6. he can gain some more by exchanging 3 for 4. Since it is so large. he may fall victim to this sequence. If Negru fails to answer Alb 1 in the previous diagram. Alb has made a big gain as compared with a Negru play at 1. although this solidifies Negru’s corner somewhat. Occasionally Negru plays 4 at ‘a’ to make eye shape. This is more a middle game move than an endgame move. but that gives Alb the play at ‘b’. let’s see what happens when Alb plays 1. Later. Even if Negru does answer Alb 1. 5. Dia.

Negru could follow this way if he had exchanged Negru ‘a’ for Alb ‘b’ before playing 1 in Dia. and Negru is in trouble. since Alb can play 2. If Negru connects at 3.) Now it is too late for Negru to make eye shape by defending at 1. 146 . Dia. Alb easily connects to his stone on the upper side. 9. 8. 8. To point up one of the principal dangers in this joseki. but of course that would strengthen Alb on the upper side. suppose that Negru has let Alb play both of the stones marked Δ in Dia.Dia. (What we have to say here applies equally to the case where Negru Δ is on the fourth line. 8.

letting Alb take the three-three point with 5. 11. a straightforward exchange of corner territory for an outer wall. or at 10. 10. coupled with the extension down the left side or the play at the three-three point in Dia. In the next section. which slides into the corner and. plays Another idea is to play 3 and 5 this way. we will see what happens when Negru prevents Alb 3. Negru can play 4 on the outside. gives Alb plenty of room for two eyes. 147 . 11. In other variations. Alb plays 9 at ‘a’ or ‘b’. Negru is in trouble again. In conclusion The key move in this joseki is Alb 3. There is one major variation in this joseki: instead of defending his corner. Variation in the basic form Dia. but when hane at 8. The simplest continuation is the one shown.Alb Dia.

are sometimes appropriate instead of Negru 4. The purpose of Negru 2 is not to defend the corner territory —as we shall see.SECTION 22 When Negru wants to keep Alb from playing the keima of the last section. 1. but they have little offensive meaning. Alb can still invade at ‘a’—but rather to attack the Alb stones on the left side by making it hard for them to get eye shape. but it is obvious that his three stones are badly overcrowded. 148 . Negru 4 is also an attacking move. preparing for a capping play at ‘b’. Alb can make no better extension than 5 on the left side. When to play the diagonal tsuke Dia. Negru 2 is standard practice. When there is a Negru stone at or around Δ. he exchanges 2 for 3 above before jumping out to 4. Negru ‘c’ or Negru ‘d’. which leave Alb less room to make trouble in the corner.

Dia. 149 . Compare Alb’s narrow shape here with what is in the next diagram.Dia. Negru can continue his attack as shown. 3. If Negru lets Alb broaden his base by sliding into the corner at 3. 2. the Alb stones will be much safer.

and Negru could attack from the outside at ‘a’. Later on Negru ‘a’. 150 . Dia. Negru 2 and 4 are also appropriate here. Negru ‘c’. If he played 5 on the third line. will become a good maneuver for Negru. 5. Dia. Notice that Alb plays 5 on the fourth line. 6. 4. his position would be too cramped.Dia. for Alb is afraid to extend any farther down the side than to 5 because of Negru’s thickness in the lower left corner. getting ready for activity in the center. The space between Alb 1 and 3 and Alb 5 is still too narrow for comfort. Alb ‘b’. Here is a common opening position in which the diagonal tsuke is used. which defends the corner while damaging Alb’s shape.

151 . . Negru is alive in the corner and has become very strong on the outside. Negru 2: first variation Dia. Alb should have waited until his stones on the left were a little bit safer. . 8. we are going to spend some time going through the fairly complicated family of variations. 7. and it is not going to be much fun for Alb to take care of his original three stones on the left side. Alb can live on the upper side by playing 3 and 5.The three-three point invasion We now come to the problem of Alb’s invasion at the threethree point in this joseki. the three-three point invasion is a bit dangerous. Indeed. 7 was played too early in the first place. The joseki continues this way. Alb 1 in Dia. Negru should reply at 2. Dia. but . and since it is so common. When the Alb stones on the left side are still weak. and after Negru 14 Alb still needs another play on the upper side.

attacking them. and then Negru should play 2 as follows.Dia. Negru 2: second variation Dia. it is important for Negru to preserve some eye space in the corner. 7. the Alb position is safe beyond all attack. Sometimes. Another way for Alb to play is shown here. Now Negru confines Alb to the corner. Alb broke out along the upper side. 152 . however. is the best reply. In the last two diagrams. Especially with Alb Δ on the board. 9. Usually Alb plays the three-three point invasion when his stones on the side are still a bit weak. 10. and the Negru stones do not have two eyes yet. but Negru lived in the corner and was left with no weak points at all to worry about. and that he can do by sacrificing one stone in the way shown. starting with the diagonal play at 5 instead of the previous move at 6. and Negru 2 in Dia. but there remains the possibility of Alb ‘a’ or ‘b’.

11. 10. 153 . 12. Dia. is that there are weak points like ‘b’ and ‘c’ in the corner. The only drawback of this joseki. but his eye shape was already secure. This time Negru connects at 4 instead of playing hane at 5. if Negru has a chance to do so before Alb comes crashing into the corner. In this kind of position. 13. so it does not matter very much. of course. After this. but that is another matter. as compared with the one in Dia. Dia. Here we have another joseki starting with Negru 2. Alb gets to make a pon-nuki in sente. He is aiming at the point ‘a’. Alb may not bother to answer at 2. he should exchange 1 for 2. the corner is safe.Dia.

After answering Negru 2. and he can leave the corner as it is with a clear conscience. but unlike the moves studied previously. 15. Alb can no longer live in the corner. waiting for the right moment to put Alb 1 to use. and of course there may develop the possibility of Alb ‘b’. it in no way strengthens Negru’s position or attacks Alb’s. There are yet other ways to answer the three-three point invasion.Negru 2: other variations Dia. but he can make shape with 5. Dia. Dia. 14. His extension to 9 is safe because ‘a’ is his sente. 7. but he is going to suffer from Negru 4. (or by playing 3 at 5. or at ‘a’). this diagonal play is often a strong move. 154 . A similar idea is to reverse the order of 2 and 4. One final answer to Alb 1 is the connection at 2. Alb may be able to live in the corner with 3 and 5. This is sometimes the best move. 16. The exchange of 1 for 2 has not cost Alb anything. and 9 on the upper side.

He lives rather small. according to circumstances. In conclusion Aggression is the theme of this joseki. 17. At the right time. it is not unusual to find Alb just making an extension of his own on the left side. Alb can live in the corner by playing 1 to 9. and Negru 8 undermines his position on the left side. 155 . although 3 above is the one most often correct. (or ‘a’ or ‘b’). of course. Alb should look for the earliest good opportunity to challenge Negru at the threethree point. SECTION 23 When Negru extends to 2. and Negru should not be afraid to trade his territory for a chance to attack on the outside. The point of extension varies.Dia. and the rest of this section will be spent looking at some of the various extensions and their meanings.

but although this move has some value in cramping Alb’s style. as you will remember from the last section. 156 . but Negru can build a large prospective area in the center with the joseki up to 8. What if Alb plays into the corner with 3? This may not be necessarily a bad move. is almost worthless to Negru since Alb can jump out to ‘b’ from the lower left corner. Alb does not want to extend any farther than 3 for fear of an invasion between 1 and 3.Dia. 1 shows one setting for the joseki above. Negru can play kikashi at 4. Alb can still invade the corner at the three-three point. Notice that ‘a’. the usual vulnerable point of an extension on the fourth line like Alb 3. 2. Dia.

however. As the mid-point between Alb 1 and Δ.Dia. Dia. With the present Alb structure. Another setting for Alb 3. Dia. Alb 3 seems to strike the right balance on the left side. he will have to do so between 3 and Δ. 6. Here. ‘a’ might seem like a better extension than 3. 3. If Alb played 3 on the fourth line. except that now Alb has played 3 on the third line for reasons shown in the next diagram. Dia. if Negru invades. but there would be room for a Negru invasion between Alb 1 and Alb ‘a’. 157 . This is about like Dia. 1. Negru 6 would become too good an attacking move. 5. 4. The joseki of section 21 would be another good choice. and there will be two strong Alb stones on either side of him.

Dia. 7). Alb should be able to handle Negru ‘a’ well enough.Dia. 9. Negru should not play 1. (after Dia. A two-point extension is thinkable. 158 . To extend any farther than 3. 7. There is some danger from a Negru invasion at ‘a’. but with the upper left corner open and an extension from Alb 3 to Alb ‘b’ still possible. would be just a bit reckless. however. and Alb’s position would be too narrow. but then Negru could play 4 and 6. Dia. 8. because that greatly lessens his chances for a successful invasion at ‘a’. which in this particular case seems to be right. Here Alb makes a three-point extension on the third line.

With this much open space on the side. 10. he should look for an opportunity to play 1 here. 12. Alb’s invasion is the subject of the next section. and if Alb fails to play 2. mainly because the corner is still open. Dia. In conclusion Alb’s immediate extension down the side leaves a rather unsettled position. as in Dia. 10. Dia. The reasoning is that if the exchange of 4 for 5 is made later.Dia. 10 or 12. we see Alb making a five-point extension. before Alb invades it at the three-three point. 11. Often the main point of this joseki becomes whether Negru gets to defend the corner. 159 . Instead. Alb will have a satisfactory shape. as compared with his cramped one in Dia. This strongly defends the corner. Negru can invade at ‘a’ and almost surely capture the upper one of Alb’s stones.

Negru cuts Alb 1 off from the outside with 2 and 4. 160 . ‘a’. Dia. Negru plays 8 to take command on the left side. it may be because he wants to keep open the possibility of playing 1. or ‘b’. but is forced to connect in bad shape at 6. but he can afford a moderate loss there since he has completely taken over the corner and the upper side. 1 shows the most typical joseki. Later Alb may be able to do something on the left side by playing ‘a’ or ‘b’. Negru has extended to Δ. and Alb invades at the three-three point. Obviously Alb had better consider what is going to become of the left side before starting in on this joseki. and then Alb can come out of the corner to 9 on the upper side. which prevents them.SECTION 24 In this section we will consider what happens when Alb has made a kakari. Alb lives with 7. and so is Negru ‘c’. Both Alb 1 and Alb ‘c’ are quite large. Alb 1 is an alternative to Alb ‘c’. and when Alb does not play ‘c’.

sometimes Negru can play 8 and pen Alb up in the corner. on the one hand. Negru can play ‘d’ in sente. 3. On the other hand. leaving Negru to deal with the cutting stone Δ as best he can. Dia. but then Alb plays ‘a’ and gets the maximum possible amount of corner territory. Or Alb can just play 17 to live. Negru ‘c’. Instead of letting Alb run out along the upper side as in the last diagram. starting with Negru ‘a’. but then Alb can push out at ‘d’. 2. 17 is an interesting move.Dia. threatening to capture one of the two Negru groups he has cut apart. 161 . Negru can reduce Alb’s corner to seki in sente. This is suitable mainly when Negru already has a stone somewhere around the middle of the upper side. The drawback of this idea is that even though Alb’s corner is not alive after Negru 16. Alb ‘b’. Alb can sometimes fight by playing ‘a’ or ‘b’. and can hope for territory between it and the wall he builds.

The exchange of Negru 6 for Alb 7 is played to make sure that ‘a’ will be Alb’s gote. but in this case these plays come too close to Negru Δ to be worth much. or some good reason for hanging on to his territory on the upper side. 6. When Negru has a stone at Δ. Negru should do this only when he has some particularly good use for sente. in return for sente. making territory on the upper side. should he get to play it. then jump out to 9. Presumably he will not try.Dia. In this joseki ‘a’ is left as a large endgame point. and Negru ‘a’ looks bigger. and what he can do to prevent it is to play kaketsugi at 5. Alb may not want him to play as in the last two diagrams. He can play 10 and 12 here to hold Alb into the corner. Negru cannot cut the connection between 9 and the corner because of Alb 5. Dia. Dia. but just play the important point at 10. A completely different way for Negru to deal with Alb’s corner invasion is to let Alb connect to the outside. 162 . since he has given up the corner and gained nothing on the left side. 5. 4.

Alb may be not so willing to invade as he was when Negru Δ was on the fourth line. 163 . Because of this. After Alb lives with 9 and 11. Negru can often continue by playing 8. however. Up to Alb 7. Negru defends his cutting point with 12. the moves are the same as they were in Dia. Dia. Negru cannot always play this way.Dia. 8. making excellent shape on the outside. see the next two diagrams. 7. Here we see the three-three point invasion into the kogeima formation made by Negru Δ. 1.

Dia. This time he crawls out at 5 before playing the hane at 7. Negru is in considerable danger after the cut at 11. After Negru 16. 12. Negru should play 8 this way. 11. it is joseki for Alb to invade the corner immediately at 3. Instead of trying to block Alb. When Negru makes the ogeima extension at 2. a Alb extension on the left side and a very wide Negru one on the upper side are to be expected. Dia. Dia. 10. The joseki continues with Alb living in the corner in sente and making shape on the left side with 13 and 15. even though Alb is not yet alive in the corner. 9. When Alb has a stone at Δ. pressing from above and then playing 10 to defend his shape. 164 . Dia.

and that he will not be giving Negru too grand a territory there. he plays 4. This time. play ‘a’ later and cut off Negru Δ. There is the compensating advantage that Alb can. The three-three point invasion is often used to answer a squeeze play. generally in the late opening stage of the game. In conclusion Such is the size of the corner that the invasions of this section are played quite early. so rather than burden himself with weak stones there. 6.Dia. and 8. 13. 165 . 11-12. Alb would have no room to extend on the left side if he followed Dias. perhaps. letting Negru have the point 9. Provided that making territory on the outside is not essential to his overall strategy. Alb should not hesitate to jump into the three-three point.

Another possibility would be to invade at the three-three point and take the corner. and then there are two possibilities for Alb 3. but then 166 . 1. Alb 1 could be used in the presence of Negru Δ. The purpose of this move is to make shape on the left side when there is not room enough for an ordinary extension. Negru almost has to play 2. else Alb takes the same point. the tsuke at Alb 1 is another possibility worth considering.SECTION 25 After a Alb kakari and a Negru extension. Alb 3: first variation Dia.

and provided he has a ko threat of his own big enough to keep Negru from then taking and connecting the ko. 2. as shown in this diagram and the next. a big ko fight is in the offing. Dia. and when Alb plays 5. aggressive moves. Sometimes there is another way for Alb to answer Negru 4. he can next capture the corner with ‘b’. Alb should only play this way if the shicho in which the sequence ends works for him. Dia. 3.Alb would lose any chance of attacking Negru Δ. If Alb ignores a Negru ko threat be can cut at ‘a’. 167 . and even then he may not like this result. Alb 3 and Negru 4 are both good. because Negru can cut at ‘a’.

. Another possibility for Alb is the hane at 3. Dia. 5. While cuts at 7. connects at 9. and there remain the points ‘c’ and ‘d’ at which Negru can attack. At the end of this diagram Alb has made an eye. 168 . Dia. . but this makes life too simple for Alb. One better way for Negru is to play a second hane at 4. By playing this atari and pushing through at 6. Negru 8 at ‘e’ would be another possibility. 6. but then Alb would develop upwards with 9 and 11. who can get excellent eye shape with ‘b’. and pushes at 11 to give himself some room for the outside group. 7. Negru can play atari at 6. Now when Alb plays 5. then . Negru separates Alb’s stones into two weak groups. which aims at handling the situation without re-course to ko fights or shicho. Dia. Negru could answer Alb 7 by capturing.Alb 3: second variation Dia. More aggressive than the previous Negru 4 is the move shown here. but then Alb could extend to T. but at the same time Negru’s corner has become secure. Faint-hearted Negru players sometimes answer Alb 3 by connecting at ‘a’. 4.

Notice the possibility of ko left behind. 169 . There is also a hane variation. the three-four point tsuke is the usual way for him to bite into the corner. One way for Alb to continue is to live in the corner with 13 and 15. since it keeps Negru from playing a similar tsuke at ‘a’. Another way is for him to give up the corner but make shape on the outside. The exchange shown here is often played before making an extension down the left side. in which Alb plays 3 to trade the corner for the outside. (starting with Alb ‘a’. Of course this leaves his outside stones pretty weak.Dia. 9. 10. When Alb has played his kakari at Δ. Dia. Dia. 8. Other settings for the tsuke Dia. Alb ‘c’). 11. Negru ‘b’.

In conclusion Bear in mind that in most cases. but to defend against attack.Dia. Alb cross-cuts at 3. This is the standard joseki for making shape on the left side when Negru has played an ogeima extension at Δ. Although he can now play tenuki. 7. he leaves Alb a lot of room to play around in the corner. the purpose of the tsuke is not to make territory. If Negru seems to come out ahead in some of these sequences. Negru 4 is a strong and sure answer. when he is threatened with annihilation. SECTION 26 As has been seen in the last few sections. 12. A joseki that solidifies the corner immediately is the tsuke-osae above. and 9 in sente. it is an indication that Alb should save them for use in real emergencies. (Negru 2 is a tsuke 170 . and Alb plays 5. when Negru answers Alb’s kakari simply by extending. his position can be attacked with some force at ‘a’.

although there is the danger that Alb may play ‘b’ before Negru gets into action. or even ‘b’. 2. Negru can also just answer 7 at 8. Negru gets to play ‘a’. it behooves Alb to defend one of his cutting points. This leaves him the possibility of playing ‘a’ later. When Alb connects here with 7. on the left side. 1.) After playing atari with 5. Alb 7: first variation Dia.and Negru 4 an osae. and he has at least three choices as to how to continue. 171 . Negru can capture one stone in sente. If Alb plays 11 at 12. with a ko left behind for later. Dia. then extend along the upper side to or in the direction of 12. hence the name.

172 .Alb 7: second variation Dia. but if he is willing to risk a loss there. Another move that defends the left side territory. he has an excellent opportunity to cut at 8 instead. This looks very good for him. so Alb has to play 11. When Alb connects at 7 in Dia. is this Alb 7. Alb 7: third variation Dia. The cut at ‘a’ is another possibility to consider if the conditions are right. 4. too. again Negru usually extends to 8. 3. Negru 10 threatens Negru ‘a’. and then Negru captures a Alb stone with 12. 3. Alb 7 is one move that Alb employs when he is in a position to make the left side his territory. Negru can answer by protecting his corner at 9. and one which threatens an incursion into the corner.

and Negru has gained a definite advantage. Dia. Alb will play 2 and live. Alb 3: another possibility Dia. 7. If Negru plays 2 at 4. Dia. 6 is the beginning of a long and hard fight in the center. Actually.Dia. Negru can also play atari with 10 instead of blocking at ‘a’. Here Alb already has a stone at Δ when he plays his kakari. Alb could choose one of the other variations studied above. but any of them would produce the same kind of over-concentration as shown in this diagram. In this diagram Alb Δ conies out at least one line too close to the Alb wall to be efficient. 173 . 6. 5. His corner is better defended by 12 than it was in the previous variation. because Alb can invade the corner with 1. it is not as good as it looks. but needless to say. and that makes the tsuke-osae especially appropriate.

although it depends on shicho. 8. 8. limiting Alb’s take in the corner and leaving him with some cutting points. the next order of business for Negru is an extension on the upper side. Negru must connect at 6. Alb ‘c’. If it does not work. he can push in between Negru’s stones at 3. even without putting 2 in motion. This is the shicho. There is a way for Alb to deal with this problem. Negru will definitely play 4 from underneath. and instead of 7 Alb will have to play ‘a’. There is an interesting sequel to the sequence in Dia. 10. Dia. which we have shown here. If Negru tried to play 6 at 9. Negru ‘d’. 174 . but later he can come back and cut at 1 in the next diagram. and Alb gets to come into the corner at 9. After atari at 4. 9. If the shicho works. Negru plays double hane at 10 and 12 in sente. Alb would cut at 6 and Negru would be in a little trouble. Dia. After this. Then.Dia. Negru can take a large upper side with Negru ‘b’.

After Negru 3. but at least he has destroyed most of Alb’s left side territory. Negru plays the squeeze-tsuke at 5 and makes quite good shape all around. Alb has to capture the stone in the corner. (else Negru plays ‘a’). as shown in the next diagram. incidentally. Negru could do still better. With more open space on the left side. is why Alb does not normally play Dia. 11. 12. If Alb Δ were not on the board. but they defend the corner strongly and are often used by professional players. Dia. not just in the corner. This. The tsuke-osae. but the way.Dia. and then Negru can make shape on the left side. 8 without having a stone already in place around the middle of the left side. Alb Δ is in his way. is a maneuver that can be played anywhere along the side where Negru has territory to defend. 175 . In conclusion Negru’s tactics in this joseki may lack the light touch.

look at what happens when Alb tries to push out toward the center with 7 in Dia. and the onepoint squeeze play happens to be a good way to start. 176 . Other cases would call for other squeeze plays. or to keep Alb from doing so. a Alb stone there would completely reverse the situation. 1. Negru 6 is the key move of this joseki.SECTION 27 There are many occasions on which Negru answers a Alb kakari with a squeeze play. To understand the power of Negru 6. he may want to make territory on the left side. The last of these cases is illustrated in the sequence above. as above. or even to make good shape on the upper side. Negru is trying to make full use of his stone Δ by building a wall facing it. The easiest way for Alb to answer any squeeze play is to go in to the three-three point.

More simply.Alb’s failure Dia. if he is strong enough in the area. in which Negru has built a strong wall and can look forward to a large territory on the upper side. 1. he can play ‘b’ himself. That leads to this position. he can. After Alb 13. Dia. Alb has maybe ten points in the corner. Negru pushes through and cuts on both sides with 10 and 12. 2. 177 . with little chance for growth. play ‘a’ and let Alb try to get away with ‘b’.

10. or postpone. The last two diagrams are not joseki. 3. but his prospects for breaking through on the left side are slightly better.Joseki Dia. Notice that if Alb plays ‘b’ on the left side. 4 is also joseki. 3. but this time his territory on the upper side is not complete until he plays ‘a’. Alb should play 7 in this diagram. Alb does not have the way into Negru’s upper side that he had before. 178 . he is threatening to connect at ‘c’. In this joseki Negru can sometimes omit. Dia. Again Negru makes a good wall with 8 and 10. Instead. and Negru does not have the chance to play tenuki that he had in Dia. although that leaves the threat of Alb ‘d’.

Alb 3: one-point jump Dia. If Alb had a strong position in the lower left he might answer Negru’s squeeze play with this one-point jump. Dia. 6. The danger in playing 3 is that if Negru 2 gets away. Alb does not have enough room on the left side to make two eyes. intending to follow with an attack on the left side. 179 . In this joseki. 1 and 2 is followed. ‘a’ is left as a big point for either side. for then Alb can get eye space for his group by slipping under Negru’s stones at 5 and 7. The one-point jump is more appropriate when Negru has made his squeeze play on the fourth line. and a sequence something like the one in Dias. When Negru plays 2 there is also a variation in which Alb plays 3 at the three-three point. 5.

if possible. There is. you may recall. 8. 9. For that matter. the three-three point invasion featured in most of the diagrams above is rarely a bad move. Negru can play tenuki. Negru can also just push Alb along by playing 12 at ‘a’. Negru is aiming at a larger territory than in Dia. but he can counterattack with the sequence shown. however. Negru may lose some of his territory. he does things a little differently. Double kakari joseki are the subject of the next two sections. If Alb starts to attack the Negru stones with 1.Negru goes for the left side Dia. In conclusion In answer to any squeeze play. another way of lengthening his wall. This kind of play was studied in section 4. In addition. 7. another way— one that is often used in handicap games because it can lead to complications—and that is to make a second kakari. so as to leave more territory between it and the wall he makes. Dia. When Negru makes his squeeze play in order to take territory on the left side. Negru 12 here is another way. The main difference is that when Alb invades the corner at 3. Negru cuts him off from his stone at 1. Negru 12 is one way of ending the sequence. He also has the squeeze-tsuke at ‘a’ to use if he gets into trouble. Negru makes his original squeeze play a bit farther from the corner than before. 180 . 7. Dia.

A second kakari at 3 is a good way for Alb to continue his attack on the corner. and in the next one we shall look at similar situations in which one or both of Alb’s stones are on the fourth line. 181 . for one reason or another.SECTION 28 There are many times when. Negru makes no direct answer to Alb’s kakari at 1. In this section we will see what ways Negru has to deal with Alb 1 and 3.

for his next play.Tsuke-nobi Dia. The usual counter-measure against this double kakari is to push against the stronger of Alb’s stones. we shall take the time to go through the variations from ‘a’ to ‘d’. At this point Alb has at least four choices. Up to Alb 13. (tsuke). however. When Alb plays 7 at the three-three point. Since this formation is so common. and the joseki gets a little complicated. ‘b’. Dia. he has a chance to play ‘a’. (nobi). and Negru 6. and ‘d’. ‘c’. A second kakari is one way of answering a squeeze play. it is natural for Negru to block at 8. 1. That is the idea behind Negru 4. the key point for enlarging his left side while reducing Alb’s upper side. 182 . especially in handicap games. 2. building up power to use against the weaker one. Negru has made his wall and is in a position to swallow up the left side. ‘a’. including the Alb stone Δ. Before doing anything else.

183 . First Negru plays kikashi at 14. Alb answers at 17 or suffers the fate shown in the next diagram. later. 3. Dia. Negru can surround him with these plays. If he played 16 without playing 14. he may be able to put 14 to use again. and Negru would have gote. Alb might answer by exchanging ‘a’ for ‘b’. and then he takes the key point at 16. Negru has already gotten something out of his kikashi at 14 in that he has played 16 in sente. 4. If Alb omits 17 in the last diagram. after which a cut at 14 could be answered by Alb ‘c’.Dia.

184 . There are some variations in which Alb plays 9 at 10 and Negru plays 10 at 9. Although it may seem inconsistent with the original idea of going after the left side. and this is joseki. This brings up the tsuke at the three-four point. which are a bit tricky. Later. Alb can cut at ‘a’ and take the corner. By playing 10 Negru gets a high.Dia. but let’s leave those. strong position with power on the upper side and in the center. Negru can also answer Alb 7 with 8 here. letting Alb live in the corner and on the left with 9. 6. 5. 3. The end result of this joseki is about like Dia. Dia.

in Dia. following the course of Dia. 8. He need not fear the cut at 9.Dia. 7. since Alb has already usurped the point 7 which Negru took for himself. 2. would involve a loss. 185 . for he can live in the corner with 10 and 12. but his stones on the upper side are in rather bad shape. Both Dias. At the end of this diagram Alb has the corner. Dia. What if Alb invades the corner with 9? For Negru to answer by playing 10 at 12. (he would hardly exchange 7 for 8 if Negru had already cut at 11). then fight on the outside with 14. 3. When Alb plays 7 here. 7 and 8 are joseki. After exchanging 7 for 8. Better to play 10 as shown. (at 16). getting into one of the tricky sequences alluded to earlier. Alb does not want to let Negru cut at 11. Negru blocks his thrust at 8. so he connects there and Negru plays 12.

but hopefully manageable groups on both sides. 9. and the sequence continues as in the next diagram. there is this Alb 7. See if you can work that out for yourself. In one well-established joseki. 186 . Alb plays 9. threatening to push through at ‘a’. Finally.Dia. is necessary to keep Alb from invading the corner at ‘a’. while Alb makes weak. Dia. Negru lives in the corner and gets out into the center. Negru 18. which Negru must block at 8. 10. Negru 10 defends. by the way.

Dia. When Negru is not interested in attacking either of Alb’s stones. Negru can make a living shape in the corner by connecting at ‘a’. More often Alb connects at 9. but then Negru will cut at ‘b’. The diagonal play at Alb 13 happens to be good in this position. or he can wait to play on the left side himself. After Alb 17. 11. which is sente since it forces Alb to extend down the left side. Negru can still live in the corner.Tsuke-osae Dia. letting Negru move out into the center by playing tsuke-nobi at 10 and 12. After Negru 8. 12. 187 . he can play tsuke-osae instead of tsuke-nobi to make sure of the corner. Alb can wall Negru in by playing ‘a’. they are not the only ways. If Alb captures at ‘a’. Diagonal plays Although tsuke-nobi and tsuke-osae are the most generally useful ways of answering Alb’s double kakari. and Alb’s wall will be a bit flimsy.

When Negru already has stones on both sides. where he already had the stone Δ. (or 3 and ‘a’). There is also. is not fatal to the corner stone. with Negru going for the left side. the diagonal move at the three-three point is good.) If Negru has any strength in the surrounding area he can often capture one of Alb’s kakari stones with the tsuke-nobi or a diagonal play. this diagonal play toward the center. He is alive in the corner. 188 . 13. (Even a triple kakari. If Alb tries to blockade Negru with 2. for example. The result in Dia. In conclusion There is little to fear from a double kakari. and Alb has two weak groups to try to save. 13 is rather like some of the previous ones in this section. Alb can answer it by playing 2 at the three-three point. from which he can connect to either of his two kakari stones.Dia. at least he can get a living shape in the corner with the tsuke-osae joseki. Negru will push and cut with 3 and 5. Dia. 14. and if he does not. for that matter.

‘e’. which are exactly similar to the diagonal plays in Dias. he should begin by playing tsuke against the Alb stone on the other side. or T in the corner is preferable. Often a play at ‘d’. 189 . which is not always very good. The only new idea is the tsuke at ‘e’.SECTION 29 The double kakari formation on the left above. if Negru wants to attack on one side. where Alb has one stone on the fourth line. He has diagonal plays at ‘c’ and ‘d’. since his only way of coming out into the center is ‘c’. Getting back to the formation on the left. is much like the one studied in the last section. The double kakari formation on the right above is the hardest one for Negru to handle. We shall see him doing that in the next few diagrams. 13 and 14 of the last section. Negru can make tsuke plays at ‘a’ or ‘b’. which are similar in purpose to the tsuke plays before.

Dia. but one which makes it easy for him to get two eyes. so he uses the tsuke on the right.Negru plays tsuke Dia. but after Alb 6 Negru has made a wall which works well with his stone in the middle of the upper side. (Alb would push through at ‘b’). Dia. lengthening his wall and further isolating Alb Δ. 2. but just wants to make a safe position. Then. This sequence can also be used when Negru is not interested in attacking. 1. Now Negru wants to attack on the left side. He cannot play 5 at ‘a’. he plays 7. not a large-scale move. One way for Alb to respond is with the . after Alb 6. Next he might play ‘c’. 3. Here Negru plays 1 in order to attack Alb Δ.

Alb can exchange ‘a’ for ‘b’. It is also joseki for Alb to play at the three-three point immediately after Negru’s tsuke at 1. Dia. but since that would solidify Negru’s shape. Negru 5 takes the corner. 3. and if Alb tries to escape with Δ. or anything else Alb might use to try to break up Negru’s territory. with Alb eyeing the cutting point at ‘a’. the sequence comes out about like the one just before. . Alb can play 4 at the three-three point. Dia. Before connecting at 10. When Negru blocks at 3. strong position on the upper side by playing this way. it would mean less chance for success with Alb ‘c’. 4. letting Negru take the corner. Instead of connecting with 4 in Dia. 5. Dia.hane at 2 and the kake-tsugi at 4. There is also the possibility of Negru’s trading the corner for a high. he will be in for a hard running fight. 6.

Negru naturally plays 3. he may want to avoid the result of the previous diagram. the number of possible joseki is much smaller than before. 8. he will have no trouble managing his stones on the left side. If Alb lacks the ko threats. Double high kakari When both of Alb’s stones are on the fourth line. they may be rather cumbersome. in which case he plays Alb 2 in this diagram. 7. (or tenuki). This joseki. and of course Negru has taken the corner and severely weakened Alb’s stone on the upper side. and Alb might continue with an extension on the upper side. Whether it is good or bad for Negru depends on whether Alb has enough ko threats to cut at ‘a’ or not.Diagonal tsuke Dia. Dia. . ends with a ko shape. If he does. If not. which starts from the tsuke at 1 and the diagonal play at 3.

but Negru 3. 9. When Negru comes out toward the center at 1. the four-four point is second in popularity after the three-four point for the opening play in the corner. In conclusion This concludes our study of the four-four point joseki. because ft supports large-scale extensions without the making of a shimari. Alb naturally enters the corner at 2. but frequently in even games as well. . is compensation enough. when high-speed opening development was the style.Dia. Dia. an attempt to make a largerscale capture. 10. With Alb Δ on the upper side. spoiling Alb’s territory on the upper side. Among professional players. The four-four point was much in vogue during the ‘shinfuseki’ period of the nineteen thirties. might be better if Negru Δ were closer. Negru 5 at ‘a’. That lets Alb build on the outside with 2. Negru would do best to take the corner at 1. They figure not only in all handicap games. and the joseki ends with Negru capturing one of Alb’s original kakari stones.

CHAPTER 6 Three-five point joseki INTRODUCTION This chapter is devoted to the joseki which start with a stone on the three-five point. Two things can be said about a stone so placed. Secondly. 1. . his whole opening strategy should proceed along those lines. he is going for quick outside development rather than corner profit. 2. (section 30). There are three common ways to attack a stone on the three-five point. Firstly. like the Alb one in Dia. (and obviously). and will be satisfied to make a simple trade of corner profit for an outside wall. The invasion at 1 in Dia. is the easiest. and in order to make best use of the stone in Dia. Alb is aiming at the upper side rather than the right side. 1. (section 35). Negru expects Alb to answer at ‘a’. He can make the opposite exchange if he wishes. by attacking at ‘a’ instead of at 1.

Negru can also answer Alb 2 by invading. of course.When Negru wants to get his share of both the corner and the outside. he may answer Negru 1 by just extending to 2. This pattern. we have nothing special to say about the joseki which follow from Alb 2. in Dia. or ‘b’. (or ‘a’. if he wants to make matters complicated. 5. 4 goes unanswered. as at 3 in Dia. Alb has several squeeze and pressure plays to use against Negru 1. 6. he attacks at 1 in Dia.). . If Alb’s sole purpose is to develop on the upper side. often arises when Alb 1 in Dia. however. In the rest of this book. Negru 3 is the key point. and the resulting joseki have a way of becoming complicated. if Alb played there he would greatly expand his area. 3. (sections 31 to 34). etc.

but now the invading group cannot be confined as closely as it was there. Since we are not going into shimari joseki in this book. various players have experimented with Alb ‘b’ or ‘c’ with mixed success. 8. although that shimari has a weakness at ‘a’. This move may be compared with the three-three point invasion under a handicap stone.If Negru does not get around to making any attack. he can play 1 in Dia. Alb can form a shimari with 1 in Dia. the opposite of Alb 1 in Dia. All three of these plays are strong toward the center but weak in the corner. Alb 2 is the usual . 7 and 8 here. an invasion at the three-three point. SECTION 30 Negru 1. Or. if he wants his shimari to face across the upper side. 7. is the simplest way to attack a stone on the three-five point. described in section 19. 7. 8. Instead of Alb 1 in Dia. This makes Negru 1 rather attractive. we shall drop the subject of Dias.

but leaves the position as it is in Dia. for the ensuing fight will turn out well for him.response. 1. In many cases he will make his next play somewhere on the upper side to counter the wall Alb has gotten. 2. If Negru does not play Dia. Negru should not hesitate to cross-cut by playing 9 at 8. Shows the basic joseki pattern. 2. then Alb may be the one to play next in the corner. or tenuki. Dia. and after Alb 6. 1. if Alb plays 8 at 9. he has sente. it is also joseki for Negru to continue with these moves. In this sequence. ‘b’. but keep in mind such other possibilities as ‘a’. However. expanding his corner territory. Alb 4: nobi Dia. ‘c’. What can he do? . Negru pushes along the third line with 3 and 5.

Negru may. 3. Alb 1. Alb 1 and 3 are gote. putting Alb in a position to profit on the right side as well as in the center and on the upper side. If Negru answers at 2. do better to answer Alb 1 at 3 instead of at 2. however. Alb can capture either the Negru stone on the three-three point or the two Negru stones below Alb 1. and Negru is at a loss to find a good answer.Dia. Looking at the last three diagrams. If he plays tenuki after this diagram. you can investigate that possibility on your own. . 4. Alb 1 here is another possibility. 5 shows a third way for Alb to assail Negru’s corner. is gote. in many situations. Negru’s corner is still perfectly safe. you can appreciate the value of the moves in Dia. To begin with. Alb 1 is a fairly large move. but after them ‘a’ becomes Alb’s sente. after 3. Dia. 2. is threatening the twin cutting points ‘a’ and ‘b’. Dia. then Alb.

This sequence is not joseki: if the shicho works it is bad for Negru. Alb 12 at ‘b’ is also possible in this joseki. and the cross-cut at 5 is wrong. (either of them threatens to kill the comer). 8. On the upper side Alb can play ‘a’ or ‘b’ in sente. but if Alb can capture Negru 5 in shicho by playing 10. . which is a great help to him in managing his stones there. If Negru does cross-cut at 5. With the shicho not working. Alb would like to answer with 6 and 8. instead of nobi at ‘a’. Dia. Negru is alive in the corner. It would be unfair to leave this joseki without showing what happens when Alb plays hane at 4. Negru 9 is necessary. Dia. 7.Alb 4: hane Dia. since Negru may be able to cross-cut at ‘a’. he has by far the better position. while if the shicho is broken then Alb 8 and 10 are incorrect. this is the standard joseki. and a fight in the center involving Negru 5 and 13 and the two separated Alb groups is about to take place. this gets a bit complicated. 6. Unfortunately.

this is joseki. Dia. Alb can capture the cutting stone in geta with ‘b’. Why does Alb let himself be pushed around like this. His weak stones at 10 and 14 will be nothing but a worry for him. What makes it disagreeable is that with the strong Negru stone at Δ. so he has to connect at 8 and follow the sequence shown. Negru invades at 1. 12. 10. he will definitely play the hane at 4. 4. . When the shicho works for Alb. instead of playing hane with 4 at 5? Dia. Negru would cross-cut at 5. Alb plays 2. The shicho is against Alb. As a sequel to the last diagram.Dia. Before leaving this section’s joseki. if Negru tries to cut at ‘a’. and 6. but since Alb still has the cutting point at ‘a’. and then Negru plays 7. and Negru will have to reply with 5 to 9. 9. Alb can push his opponent in with the tsuke at 1. on the upper side. If Alb did play hane at 4. or some such move. Negru’s position is very low. Alb cannot do much on the right side. Observe that after Alb has played 5. Dia. let’s look at it in operation during an actual game. 11.

and can be made without hesitation in the earliest stage of the opening. and is made in the late opening or middle game.In conclusion There is considerable difference between the three-three point invasion which occurs in four-four point joseki and the three-three point invasion of this section. leading to a more active position. . The latter is a constructive play. The former is largely a tool for destroying the opponent’s territory.

In this section we shall discuss the continuation from the position above. he cannot be confined to the corner as he was when he played the three-three point invasion. and consider alternatives which exist to Alb 4 and Negru 5. . but Alb can still press him down with 2 and 4. so as to build territory on the upper side or in the center.SECTION 31 When Negru plays the kogeima kakari at 1.

so after Negru 4 he continues pressing with 5 and 7. but at this point he has some kikashi to make on the right side. Dia. Negru would capture at 17 and be very happy with his exchange of some points in the corner for a pon-nuki in the center. 2 is that Alb Δ keeps Negru from making any corner territory. 1. Next. 2. The sequence continues through Negru 22 and onward. Negru has to defend at ‘a’. Dia. 3.Continuation Dia. The purpose of 13 and 15 is to give Alb profit in the corner. If Alb played 17 at 18. and we leave you to devise subsequent moves for yourself. and Alb can later play ‘a’ to take the corner for himself. ‘b’. Alb’s plan is to cordon off the entire upper side. Alb intends to keep on with his wall by playing ‘a’ or. he plays 8 and 10 to turn Alb’s advance and reach a higher altitude. The effect of Alb’s plays in Dia. . better yet. This position might appear at the beginning of the game. Since Negru cannot allow himself to be pushed forever along the third line. but first he has a chance to play a kikashi of his own at ‘b’.

he should play 4 this way. (see Dia. If Negru wants to keep Alb from making an extension on the upper side. Alb may just extend to 1 on the upper side. but Alb need not necessarily complain. using the same ideas as in Dia. for he has the possibility of pushing at ‘a’ and cutting at ‘b’ to work with on the right side. 6. After the basic joseki. At times this maneuver is necessary. 8). Negru 4: variation Dia.Dia. Alb 5 is forced. but starting from the basic joseki position. 4 shows another way of playing. 4. Negru can then bend Alb around with 2. and 6. . 2. and then Negru can play on the upper side himself. 5. but it has a big drawback. instead of continuing to push down the right side. Dia.

while helping Alb very little at all. With the exchange of Alb 3 for Negru 4 it may seem that nothing special is going on. Negru will take the key point at 2. who is in a position to make territory on the right side. An experienced player feels instinctively that Alb 5 in Dia. his corner can be killed. .Dia. 7. Now it is Alb. If Negru fails to answer. The drawback is that Alb can play 7 in sente. not Negru. but you may want more of an explanation. 8. but think what will happen if Negru cuts at ‘a’ or pushes at ‘b’. It is easy to see that the exchange of Δ for Δ is solidifying Negru’s position. If Alb extends to 1 after the moves marked Δ and Δ. 6 is necessary. Dia.

10. 12 to 14. Dia. 11. This variation of the joseki continues up to Negru 10. Dia. and Alb should now make a very wide extension on the upper side. Dias. Alb ‘a’ would be sente. If Negru played 10 on the upper side to stop Alb’s extension. Alb can vary this joseki by making a one-point jump with 3. he will get into the same kind of pattern as in section 9.Alb 3: one-point jump Dia. . 9. This way of playing looks a little bit loose. but it is quite safe. If Negru tries to push out with 4 and 6.

(great slanting). SECTION 32 Alb 1 above begins the taisha. . (i) Alb presses Negru into a low position on the right side. Fear of the taisha prompts some Negru players to tenuki after Alb 1. this joseki can be used to reduce a developing Negru territory to a moderate size. and there is space in this book for only about one percent of them. Therefore. but that is not usually such a good idea. for Alb can then get a very strong formation by playing ‘a’. (ii) Alb more or less gives up any hope of making territory on the right side for himself. the most notable feature of which is complexity. The taisha is known as the joseki of a thousand variations. joseki. but one of the squeeze plays in the next three sections. he would not choose the pressure play at 2.In conclusion The main purpose of Alb’s pressure play at 2 is to build on a large scale toward the center. If he wanted to develop there. but two other points about this joseki should be borne in mind.

If Alb answers at 3. 3. 1. which duplicate one of the variations in the last section. . which bears a close resemblance to the basic joseki of the last section. For Negru 2. with 4 to 10. tsuke plays are more in keeping with the spirit of the taisha. First tsuke Dia. Here is another way for Negru to play tsuke at 2. he can play 2 this way. Negru may continue his progress down the right side at 6. Second tsuke Dia. Negru can again come marching down the side. If Negru is looking for a simple answer to the taisha. 2. This one can lead to Alb 3 and 5. Then there is only one variation.Avoiding trouble Dia.

creating three cutting points in Alb’s position. Dia. when Negru separates Alb’s two stones with this tsuke. The real fun begins. he has an easy exchange of corner territory for outside strength and sente. 6. After Alb 5. Or Negru can play 4 this way. Alb connects at 7 and makes an outer wall in sente. while Negru cuts and gets a large corner. Third tsuke Dia. Alb 3 is standard. Before Negru connects on the outside at 6. 7. 4. 5. Negru has to connect on one side of Negru 4. but if it does. he must make sure that the shicho works.Dia. . and Alb will cut on the other. Dia. however. In the most typical variation of this variation.

8. Negru’s eye shape is not very good. Dia. letting Negru capture and connect the ko. so an extension like 16 is called for. Here there is the gruesome possibility that Alb will play 11 at ‘a’. When Negru connects on the inside and Alb cuts at 7. . but he needs some truly large ko threats to carry this off. the simplest continuation sees Negru sacrificing a stone and playing 8 and 10. starting a ko fight. Usually Alb continues with this 11. but obviously getting a perfectly satisfactory result.Dia. 9.

Dia. In conclusion Thus ends our cursory glance at the taisha joseki. . and ‘c’ for the eleventh move. from which they hope to emerge victorious. More complicated variations follow when Negru answers Alb 7 by drawing out of atari at 8. It is sometimes considered as the standard taisha joseki. but at the end of this diagram Alb can choose from among ‘a’. ‘b’. for it can lead to almost any kind of pattern.Dia. Those who play it often have nothing more in mind than to lure their opponents into complicated fighting. and thereafter the variations become too numerous and involved for any but the most devoted to learn thoroughly. This is one of the shorter variations. Generally speaking. 10. the taisha has no particular strategic meaning. 11. The next two moves are fixed.

Alb 6 used to be the only recognized continuation from the basic joseki diagram. The other is . like the taisha of the preceding section. a difficult joseki. the diagonal play at 3 will serve the purpose on most occasions. and we shall stick to it in this book. ‘a’ and ‘b’. Alb 4 and Negru 5 are standard after Negru 3. Negru just connects at 7. but for Alb 6 there are two choices. There are then two things for Negru to consider in choosing his next move. Although Negru has various ways of answering it. much as was done in some of the joseki of sections 28 and 29. which he may be able to attack. We shall take them in that order. and Alb defends on the upper side at 8. One is the line of Alb stones on the right side. so its variations have been well worked out. Another possibility is to play tsuke with Negru 3 against the stronger of Alb’s stones. In the first one. 1.SECTION 33 The one-point squeeze play at Alb 2 is. The time-honored play Dia.

If Alb plays 2 and so on this way. 2.‘a’. Dia. 3. perhaps. Dia. If Alb plays ‘a’. but makes a wall on the upper side and gets sente. and Negru will be left with neither territory nor a place to make two eyes. . to be used at 9. Negru gives up the corner. the main advantage of this exchange is that he can connect at ‘a’ if his three stones on the right are attacked. the weak point in the corner. From Alb’s point of view. Negru secures the corner with 3 and Alb’s upper side needs defending at 4. If Alb answers at 2. Therefore Negru sometimes plays 1 before going into action on the outside. he can connect to either the upper side or the right side.

5. rather than Negru ‘a’. 4. (The latter reach one line less toward the left. and 12. preparing for an extension to the left. in which case Alb should defend the corner by exchanging 18 for 19. 6. Negru has to make some answer to Alb 6 to keep Alb from pushing through at 11. Negru 7 here also does the trick. The new-fangled play Dia. Usually. Negru can connect at 17. is correct in this joseki. or Negru can use 17 to attack on the right side. Alb continues with 14 and 16. 10. but it need not be the solid connection.) Dia. since if Negru later plays ‘b’. Negru 13. however. but there is no doubt about its being a sound play. Alb 6 in this diagram has been in use for less than a decade. . it is better for him to have 13 and ‘b’ than ‘a’ and ‘b’. in which case Alb may get a chance to cut on the upper side.Dia. Alb answers with 8.

Alb 8 becomes a good blockading move. 6 for Negru is to play 9 and 11 and allow himself to be surrounded. If he plays 9 this way. for exactly the same reason. Alb will immediately exchange 10 for 11. Alb would have answered at ‘b’. The best continuation from Dia. It would be better for Negru to do nothing at all than to play 9 or ‘b’.Although a bit passive. Negru 9 at ‘b’ would be no good either. for instance. Dia. Clearly Negru ‘a’ would now be better than Negru 9. 7. . Dia. but of course if Negru had originally played 9 at ‘a’. the diagonal tsuke at 7 is one possible answer to it. After the last diagram there is no good way for Negru to get out into the center from his corner position. making Negru 9 into a bad move. 8. At least he has the cutting point at ‘a’ to aim at.

It is best made when Alb is backed up with some stones in adjacent parts of the board. Rather than get barricaded into the corner. leaving the diagonal tsuke at ‘a’ for possible use later.Dia. In conclusion The one-point squeeze play is suitable when Alb is in an aggressive frame of mind and wants to try for territory on both sides of the corner. Negru often answers Alb 6 with an attack on the right side at or around 7. . 9. Alb 8 starts a running fight. and what comes next depends on the position in the lower right corner.

there is also the tsuke at ‘b’ to be considered. however. just as in the previous section.SECTION 34 The pair of Alb 1’s above can both be classified as two-point squeeze plays. the most natural thing for Negru to do is to advance toward the center with a diagonal play at ‘a’. In answer to either of them. Against the squeeze play on the third line. Alb uses the squeeze play on the third line when he wants to develop on the right side. . but they lead to rather different joseki. and the squeeze play on the fourth line when he wants to develop on the upper side.

Given that Alb’s intention in playing 1 is to develop on the right side. lest Negru enclose him there. 2. Before Alb has time to do so. 3. The safe way for Alb to answer Negru 1 is to dive into the corner at 2.The squeeze play on the third line Dia. he will reply to Negru 2 by extending to 3. Negru should try to attack with some move like 1 in the next diagram. Negru is left in a good position to gain territory on the upper side. 1. and then Alb lives with 4 and 6. which makes up for his losing the corner. Negru must play 3. lest Alb enclose him by playing at the same point. Now that both sides are out into the center. Alb will look for a chance to play ‘a’ and rob Negru of his eye space. . Negru can be expected to close Alb in at 3. Dia. and Alb must play 4. The aggressive way for Alb to answer Negru 1 is to come out toward the center with 2. The issue now becomes the attack and defense of the one Alb and two Negru stones in the corner. Negru should take the valuable eye space in the corner with 5. Dia.

Alb’s groups are both still in need of attention. and 7 are natural. unless he is in a strong position to attack on the right. Alb 3. . Dia. it may be better for him to play 5 in the first place. You will see how that goes in Dia. and Negru. the second way of answering Alb’s squeeze play on the third line. Assuming the danger on the upper side to be the more serious. This brings us to Negru 2. 6. 4. 5. but his four stones on the right side are rather weak. instead of 1. too.If Negru is not in a good attacking position on the upper side. Dia. Alb plays 9. takes the corner with 10. Unless there are some other Alb forces in the surrounding area not only is Alb’s single stone on the upper side in danger. and so is Negru 8. 5.

for instance. however. without going through the preliminaries. . Alb 1 would not be so good if Alb Δ had been played on the third line. loosely confining Negru to the corner and linking up Alb’s positions. 7. and so he answers Negru 2 by playing 3. Alb need not be afraid of being attacked on the upper side.The squeeze play on the fourth line Dia. Negru 4 and 6. and 5 is to make it hard for Negru to get into Alb’s extension. If Alb had just played 7. Negru could easily invade. ‘a’ is another point for Alb to aim at in this joseki. 3. Now. 6. are important. By the way. at ‘a’. imagine the situation if they were omitted and Alb got in to the two-three point. having this resource. Alb 1. The purpose served by Alb 1. but now there is not so much open space. taking the corner. The reason for playing Alb 1 on the fourth line can be seen in the next diagram. When Alb puts 1 on the fourth line. Alb has sente and can extend to 7. or whatever point he has his eye on the upper side. he really has the upper side in mind. is an excellent point. Dia.

he can play 1. and then take up a possible variation in Alb 4.In conclusion Being one line further from the corner than the one-point squeeze play and taisha of the preceding two sections. inviting Alb to defend the corner with 2. We shall look at both ways of extending. Alb wants to handle the corner with just a few moves. Negru can play tenuki. SECTION 35 In the three-five point joseki seen so far. or extend down the right side. the usual pattern has been for Negru to take the corner while Alb develops on the outside. however. or extend up into the center. If Negru has some reason for preferring the opposite exchange. leaving lots of possibilities open for the future. the two squeeze plays of this section are less aggressive. Following the exchange of 3 for 4. .

but if Alb fails to answer it. elbowing his way around Alb’s corner and leaving Alb with the threat of Negru ‘a’ to worry about. which threatens an invasion at ‘a’. for example—Negru can play 2 in sente. Dia. The three-line interval between Negru 5 and the two-stone wall is correct. . 4. and thereby gain profit at the edge of the board. In this situation. Negru can play 1 and so on in this diagram. 1. See if you can work out the effect of Negru ‘a’ for yourself. Negru 2 is sufficient defense against the threat of Alb ‘a’. Alb can play 1 himself to forestall a Negru play there. At the proper time—in answer to Alb 1. 2. Dia. Negru 2 in the last diagram is not absolutely sente. 3. as he does here. this extension is good.Negru 5: extension down the side Dia. Dia. When Negru wants to give himself some room for his stones on the side.

The two-point jump to 5 is also joseki. This time. Alb should definitely exchange 8 for 9. 6. he should go into the center. Here Negru already has a stone on the side. that will be a good point for Negru to take.however. 5. Negru 5 to 7 are standard joseki plays. Negru 5: extension into the center Dia. lest Negru’s side territory grow too large. If Alb omits 8. so if he wants to make an extension. Dia. by provoking Negru 2 he is reducing the value of his possible extension to ‘a’. .

Alb 4: a variation Dia. 7. Alb 4 here is also joseki. It practically forces Negru 5, by threatening a Alb play there. Alb 6 and Negru 7 are one way to finish this joseki.

Dia. 8. One use for Alb 4 is to give Alb the chance to play 6 on the right side, if he feels that is necessary. Negru will answer with the tsuke at 7. Dia. 9. Here is the normal continuation from Negru’s tsuke. It is obviously undesirable for Alb to have to play 8, 10, and 12 on

the second line while Negru plays 9, 11, and 13, so he should choose this variation only when the situation on the right side urgently calls for a Alb stone at or near Δ. In conclusion Negru’s plays in this joseki have the virtue of simplicity, but they give up a fair amount of corner territory. Therefore, they should be part of a sound plan for development on the outside. There are ways for Alb to steer this joseki into complications, (starting with his playing tsuke at move 2), but they are rarely an improvement on the natural moves shown above, so we shall skip over them and go on to the next chapter.

Four-five point joseki INTRODUCTION A stone is played on the four-five point, like the one in Dia. 1, to make profit on the side rather than in the corner, and in that way the joseki of this chapter bear some resemblance to those of the last chapter. Compared with the three-five point, the four-five point gives a better chance to develop toward the center, but it is weaker in the corner. This can be seen by comparing the shimari formed by Δ and 1 in Dia. 2 with the one that would be formed by 1 and Alb ‘a’.

As you might expect, a play on the four-five point invites the invasion at 1 in Dia. 3. Alb 2 is the usual answer, and since it produces the same joseki as in section 30 of the last chapter, there will be no section on the three-three point invasion in this chapter, even though it is quite commonly used. One occasion for the

three-three point invasion is shown in Dia. 4. Alb 1 almost cries out for Negru 2, because the usual joseki through 10 turns out extremely well for Negru. He has ruined the territory Alb was trying to make on the right side.

Another way of attacking a stone on the four-five point is Negru 1 in Dia. 5, and the three sections of this chapter will all be spent on the joseki which come from it.


The keima at 1 best keeps to Alb’s original intention in playing his first stone at the four-five point, which was to develop toward the center. The simple exchange that follows from Negru 2 to Alb 5 leaves Negru alive in the corner, but his small territory there is worth much less than Alb’s outer wall. The equalizing factor is, of course, that Negru has played only three stones to his opponent’s four, and has sente. Among the variations in this joseki, there is a long and complicated one in which Alb plays 3 at 4. We are not going to get involved in it, but we shall mention a couple of the other variations that Alb can choose, and finish by showing what can happen if Negru plays tenuki instead of 2.

The nature of Alb 1 To help you see what kind of move Alb 1 is, we shall show one situation in which it is very good, and one in which it is rather poor. Dia. 1. This shows Alb 1 at its best. With Alb Δ it builds toward a large territory on the right side, while keeping Negru from making anything much of the lower side. It would be a good point for Negru, too, in this formation. Dia. 2. Here Alb 1 is not so good. On the right side Negru Δ keeps Alb from making a satisfactory extension, and on the lower side Negru 6 spoils his chances for getting territory. Even if Negru does not actually play 6, the fact that he could do so is enough to show that Alb 1 is on the wrong point. A better move would be the three-three point tsuke described in section 38.

Kikashi Dia. 3. After the basic joseki, if Alb wants to interfere with Negru 6 in the previous diagram, he should play kikashi at 1 in this diagram. Alb 1 by itself is enough to get in Negru’s way, but if Alb does not mind giving up sente, be can follow with Alb ‘a’ and confine Negru securely to the corner.

Alb 3: a variation Dia. 4. In one variation of this joseki, Alb plays 3 here and cuts with 5. His plan is to use 5 and 7 as sacrifice stones to help him build up his outer position. Dia. 5. While giving up his two stones, Alb gets to play 9, 11, and 13 in sente, after which he connects at 15. Negru immediately plays kikashi at 16 on the chance that this stone may come in useful later, and Alb 17 finishes the joseki. This technique of sacrificing two stones to make a strong shape is worth knowing, since it can be used anyplace along the side of the board. This variation seems to be a favorite with amateurs. Professionals, however, tend to shy away from it, because even though Negru’s corner is not very big, it is absolutely safe; Alb cannot so much as make a ko threat against it. Professionals do

not like to see their opponents’ positions become so solid if they can help it.

Alb 5: variations Dia. 6. Alb can connect this way with 5, instead of at ‘a’. There is little to choose between the two moves. Dia. 7. Alb 5 here is another possibility. Since it threatens Negru’s eye shape in the corner, he had better play 6 at once, and Alb can finish with 7. If 5 and 7 give Alb a good territorial framework on the right side, as they do in this diagram, then they are good moves. Otherwise, however, they would be open to suspicion, since Negru has gotten to play 6 in sente.

and it is better for him to jump down to 2. How then should Alb proceed? go Dia. Now Negru’s countermove is the diagonal play at 2. Dia. Even if it dies. planning to exchange the corner for a base on the right side. which threatens the hane at ‘a’. Instead of 1 in Dia. with which Negru can break out of the corner. 10. because it enables Negru to play ‘a’ or ‘b’ effectively. Negru Δ is not going to waste. Alb can play 1 at the threethree point. Negru could still make his stone Δ live. 9. Alb 3 defends. As long as he thinks he might want to use this sequence. . Something else to keep in mind after the last diagram is this combination.Negru plays tenuki It often happens that Negru lets Alb’s keima without an answer. Negru should refrain from playing unnecessarily at ‘a’ or ‘b’ in Dia. 8. 8. after which he could play ‘a’ instead of 2 and make a base on the right side. 8. but he would find himself tightly shut into the corner. Dia. and then Negru extends to 4. Another idea would be for Negru to try to get a stone on the point ‘b’. Alb 1 in this diagram is one possibility.

he still has lots of ways to fight.In conclusion The tenuki variations of this joseki are important. then capture the cutting stone. and even if he plays tenuki again. . he will not have made an unfair trade. Alb’s keima is a move with a large-scale meaning. and Alb’s best reply is to draw back at 3 Negru 4 may seem strange. The hane at 2 is correct. and there will be many times when Negru will want to counter it from the outside. SECTION 37 Alb’s second way of answering Negru’s kakari is the outer tsuke at 1 in the diagram above. but it is Negru’s plan to have Alb cut at one of them or the other. leaving his corner stone to be attacked again. letting Alb kill the corner with a fourth stone. making eye shape. As the last three diagrams make clear. since it leaves the double cutting points ‘a’ and ‘b’.

Dia. 3. Negru capturing the cutting stone. Negru has sente. and Alb taking the corner. If Alb does not answer Negru 10. . Negru can also continue with 10. Considering that Alb has played one more stone than Negru. The most common variation of this joseki has Alb cutting on the outside at 5. However. and with his good eye shape he can leave this part of the board and play elsewhere. the exchange is fair. 1. If Alb answers as shown. blocking Alb from the center. then Negru has built up his position in sente.Alb cuts on the outside Dia. then Negru can play the point 12. Dia. 2.

If Alb cannot kill the Negru stones. taking the corner. he may have to prevent the invasion by capturing at 4 immediately when Negru plays 1. his position would be markedly better than in Dia. to forestall a stronger attack. Alb has to answer Negru 3 at 4 instead of at 5. allowing Negru to connect at 2. Negru should not play 8 at 9. and having played 7. The 1-2 exchange hurts Negru’s eye shape and pushes him down along the side. and is profitable to Alb. 5. in which Alb follows the cut at 5 with 7 and 9. Dia. Alb has a kikashi at 1. 6 shows another variation of the joseki. trying for an outer wall instead of the corner. but Negru Wants to defend at 2 anyway. and Negru should be able to live on the right side with 7. Because of Negru Δ. 4. If Negru does not play 10 as above. 1. This variation can be something of a puzzler because of the ko. Dia.Dia. . This play does not threaten the life of the Negru stones. because then Alb would cut at ‘a’. Another reason for playing Negru 10 in the last two diagrams is that it makes possible Negru 1 in this diagram.

Naturally he must make sure that the shicho works. (or just as happily cut on .—but he has poor eye shape and Negru’s stones are working effectively. and Alb has countered with the tsuke at 1. ‘c’. etc. but this time Negru should play 4 on the second line instead of at ‘a’. Variation Dia. Alb would happily cut and take the corner. If Negru mistakenly played 4 in the usual way. avoiding Alb’s cut. Dia.Alb cuts on the inside Dia. squeezing Alb from both sides. 8. Negru has made a squeeze play at Δ. Negru 2 is still good. 9. 7 shows the variation in which Alb cuts on the inside with 5. After the 5-6 exchange Alb has various possible moves—’b’.

No matter how big and strong Alb’s positions in Dias. For Negru 6 there are several possibilities. and would be left too close to the strong Alb position for comfort. 1 to 7 may look. This joseki provides good illustrations of both of them. which are shown below. In conclusion There is a go saying which tells us to ‘capture the cutting stone’. and another which says that ‘pon-nuki is worth thirty points’. Negru 2 and Alb 3 are fixed. SECTION 38 Alb’s third way of answering Negru’s kakari is the inner tsuke in the diagram above. Negru 4 makes a strong shape. and is a good move even though it is played on the second line. Negru Δ would then lose its attacking force. is fairly important. An extension to or around 5. giving Alb some room on the side.the other side if the shicho in Dia. and make a stable position. Negru has good eye shape and sente and a perfectly equal result. 7 worked). . including tenuki.

Dia. This is a more aggressive choice for Negru 6. 3. it gives the same position as in Dia. 1. Negru often plays 6 here. Here Alb would play 1. reaching a little farther to the left. and now Negru has to figure out what to do about the Alb stone left on the lower side.Negru plays 6 Dia. With his first three stones on the second and third lines. 4. Dia. Alb plays 9 so as to provoke Negru 10 and give Himself a good excuse to connect at 11. This is one possibility for Negru 6. Negru must extend "high with 6. After 7 and 8. . Alb will look for a chance to attack as in one of the next few diagrams. Negru 6: tenuki If Negru does not make one of the moves in the last three diagrams. Dia. Negru 2 and Alb 3 are joseki. He has reached a firm shape. 2. 1 of section 6. and Alb is very pleased to have swelled his area on the right While aiming a spearhead into Negru’s territories on the lower and left sides.

and seen that it does not work for Negru. (in section 9). 5. . Alb 7 and 9 are necessary for making shape on the lower side. Alb will play ‘b’.Dia. ‘a’ is Alb’s sente. We have been through that pattern before. Dia. Negru must reply at ‘b’ or be killed by a Alb play at that point. So Negru will play 6 this way. Alb 5 is a good connection. Later. and start a fight in the center. which are also joseki. If Negru now plays ‘a’. Negru may prefer to fight back with 2 and 4 in this diagram. 6. and then Negru 10 and 12 are necessary to live in the corner.

and prepares for a possible counterattack against 2. and still Negru’s group is not safe. so as to make full use of his shimari. Continuing with 3 and 5. he builds a vast area across the lower side. 8.Dia. we see him playing 2 on the center point on the right side. 7. and although Negru’s position on the lower side is none too strong. This gives him good eye shape. Alb 3. Alb should change his tactics slightly by playing 5 as shown. 9. If Negru prefers to ignore Alb’s original tsuke at 1. 4. he has sente to play 8. Dia. 5. Here. . Now he will attack with 1. hitting right at Negru’s sore spot. and 7 are natural. Alb’s aims are different from in Dia. Negru 2: tenuki Dia. When Negru plays 2 closer. for instance. there is no great problem about it. With the situation in the lower left corner reversed.

now he is only going for a modest side position. . If Alb played 5 as here. That is. In conclusion While the joseki of the preceding two sections stressed development toward the center. 10. leaving Alb without certain eye shape in the corner. Negru could strengthen himself in sente with 6 and 8. Both styles are joseki. Alb’s plays in this section stress development along the side. and both have their places in the opening. whereas before Alb played as though the envisioned areas stretching high and far across large portions of the board.Dia.

Atari (check): an immediate threat to capture. . Diagonal tsuke (kosumi-tsuke): a diagonal play which is also a tsuke. or English alternatives for Japanese terms. Gote (go-teh): A move is gote if it does not evoke an answer from the opponent. Gote is the opposite for sente.GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS Note: The parentheses give Japanese alternatives for English terms. A player has gote if his opponent has the initiative. Double hane (nidan bane): Two successive hane plays. or pronunciation of Japanese terms. Diagonal play (kosumi): an extension like the one in the diagram.

(usually). Kaketsugi (hanging connection): a connection like the one in the diagram. After it has been answered. The drawback is that Negru can play ‘a’. a kikashi play is typically ignored for a while. . Kakari (approach): a move that approaches a single enemy corner stone from the outside. Keima (knight’s move): see the diagram Kikashi: a forcing move made. The virtue of a kaketsugi is that it makes some eye shape.Hane (ha-neh): A move which bends around an opponent’s stone. but the expectation is that it will turn out to be valuable later on. outside the main flow of play.

threatening to make it fail. cross-cut.Nobi (no-bee): an extension away from an opponent’s tsuke. Nobi Ogeima (large knight’s move): as in the diagram. A player has sente if he has the initiative. that is. etc. . if it is his turn and there are no threats he need answer. as in the diagram. Sente (sen-teh): A move is sente if it calls for an answer. Shicho (ladder): a zig-zag pursuit. Shicho-breaking move: a stone played in the path of a potential shicho.

Tsuke (tsoo-keh): a play made in contact with one of the opponent’s stones. . Squeeze-tsuke (hasami-tsuke): as shown in the diagram Tenuki (teh-noo-key): A player plays tenuki if he ignores his opponent’s last move. A shimari does not exactly secure the corner. but it does make a base around which it is hard for the opponent to gain a foothold. a tactically sound move. and turns elsewhere. Squeeze play (hasami): a play that attacks by preventing the opponent’s extension down the side. but not in contact with any friendly stones. Tesuji (teh-soo-djee): the best play in a local position. The diagram shows a typical example.Shimari (closure): a two-stone corner formation.

Tokyo. 1400 North Shoreline Blvd. Japan or in North America from Ishi Press International. fuseki.Bibliography Elementary books are marked with a single asterisk.. Mountain View. with a large number of problems that utilize these concepts. All the books listed below are available from the Ishi Press. All the josekis that you need to know until you reach expert level. ELEMENTARY GO SERIES *G10 Vol. *G11 Vol. Building A7. Tel. intermediate books with a double asterisk and advanced books with a triple asterisk. 1 In the Beginning by Ishigure Ikuro 9-dan Required reading for all beginning players. CPO Box 2126. endgame and handicap go. A free catalog of go books and go equipment is available on request. Inc. California 94043.. 415-964-7294. *G2 Basic Techniques of Go by Haruyama Isamu 9-dan and Nagahara Yoshiaki 6-dan A general introduction to tactics. **G6 Strategic Concepts of Go by Nagahara Yoshiaki 6-dan Some of the basic concepts of go and the middle game are analyzed. Covers the fundamental ideas of the fuseki (opening). . 2 38 Basic Joseki by Kosugi Kiyoshi 7-dan & James Davies The ideal introduction to josekis.

7 Handicap Go by Nagahara & Bozulich The fundamental principles of handicap go are presented with a problem section. 3 Tesuji by James Davies The basics of tesujis (tactical brilliancies) with over 300 examples and problems. *G17 Kage’s Secret Chronicles of Handicap Go by Kageyama Toshiro 7-dan The correct way to play handicap go.*G12 Vol. **G19 The Breakthorough to Shodan by Miyamoto Naoki 9-dan Basic principles you need to know if you are going to reach expert level. *G13 Vol. **G15 Vol. **G14 Vol. 4 Life and Death by James Davies The basics of life and death with over 200 examples and problems. 5 Attack and Defense by Ishida Akira 9-dan & James Davies The basic book on the middle game. Lots of examples and problems. 6 The Endgame by Ogawa Tomoko 4-dan & James Davies The standard book in English on the endgame. Covers the fundamentals of positional judgment as well as other topics. . *G16 Vol. Examples are from handicap games.

How to attack and kill your opponent’s stones. 2: 3-4 & 5-3 Point Josekis ***G23 Vol. by Kageyama Toshiro 7-dan A chatty and easy to read book about the fundamental principles of go strategy and tactics.DICTIONARY OF BASIC JOSEKI. by Kato Masao 9-dan Attacking techniques in the middle game. by Takemiya Masaki 9-dan Josekis that occur in the middle game with emphasis on the ones that involve attacking and defending comer enclosures. the great modern fuseki theoretician. 4-4 & 3-3 Point Josekis The standard reference work in English on josekis from the point of view of even games. 3: 5-4. by Kajiwara Takeo 9-dan Fuseki theory as expounded by Kajiwara. G30 An Introduction to Go. by Ishida Yoshio 9-dan ***G21 Vol. All about building and and reducing large frameworks of territory. **G29 Reducing Territorial Frameworks by Fujisawa Shuko 9-dan An excellent book on the middle game. 1: 3-4 Point Josekis ***G22 Vol. *G28 Lessons in the Fundamentals of Go. **G27 Kato’s Attack & Kill. **G26 The Direction of Play. ***G24 Enclosure Josekis. by James Davies & Richard Bozulich .

essays and instructional articles. Invincible: The Games of Shusaku. The authoritative go magazine in English. It covers every phase of the game and aims to set the novice on the right track with respect to the strategic principles of go. All major Japanese tournament games are presented with detailed commentaries as well as general interest articles. Essay are interspersed with the technical chapter that will broaden your understanding. The Treasure Chest Enigma. by Richard Bozulich Written for players who have just learned the rules of go. A must for every serious go player. go news from around the world. by Takagawa Shukaku A thorough analysis of the sanren-sei opening pattern. the golden age of go. published since 1977. you’ll find it all in this book. The finest go book ever written. edited by John Power. A entertaining collection of essays about go and its players. by Kato Masao A thorough analysis of the Chinese-style opening pattern. . **G32 The Power of the Star-Point.*G31 The Second Book of Go. Graded Go Problems for Beginners. a quarterly magazine on go. by Kano Yoshinori 9-dan. drilling them in the basic tactics of go. A collection of nearly 1500 hundred problems for the beginner. computer go and how go relates to intelligence and learning. 160 games with detailed commentaries by modern professionals of the greatest go genius who ever lived. A panorama of 19th century go in Japan. The second part is a collection of unique and fascinating full-board problems that is sure to entertain both beginner and advanced players. Go World. Volumes 1 to 4. by Nakayama Noriyuki 5-dan. From history to modern tournament play. G41 The Magic of Go. **G33 The Chinese-Style Opening. Cho Chikun The rules arid strategy of the game are thoroughly covered in a logical step-by-step approach.

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