Elementary Go Series, Vol.


by Kiyoshi Kosugi and James Davies



Published by the Ishi Press, Inc. CPO Box 2126, Tokyo Copyright 1973 in Japan by the Ishi Press All rights reserved according to international law. This book or any parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publishers. This and any other Ishi Press publication may be ordered from: THE ISHI PRESS, CPO Box 2126, Tokyo, Japan

First printing April 1973 Second printing April 1975 Third printing December 1980 Fourth printing September 1984 Fifth printing February 1989 Printed in Japan by the Sokosha Printing Co., Ltd.


To the beginner, the game of go appears as a jungle of confusion, full of pitfalls past which only Providence could possibly guide him. As he gains experience, he may learn to sort out the events of the middle and end games, recognize patterns, and play rationally, but the opening is apt to remain a mystery to him. Indeed, it remains something of a mystery even to professional go players, and there are no tabulations of go openings comparable to the books on chess openings, which tell how to play from move one onwards. There are, however, patterns which arise in parts of the board again and again during the opening. They occur in especially large numbers in the corners, where the initial fighting of the game generally takes place. These corner formulas, which have been discovered by trial and error, and worked out through centuries of go playing, and are still being added to and discarded, are called joseki. This is intended as a first book on joseki, so it contains only the more common of them. In choosing our material, we have taken pains to avoid the kind of long, complicated sequences that one can spend hours learning, and then go for months without using. We have also decided not to spend time on doubtful or ‘trap’ moves, although occasionally a mistaken play is shown to explain the meaning of a good one. These


commissions will limit this book’s usefulness as a reference work for advanced players, but they should be welcomed by readers at the sub-shodan level, for whom we are writing. There are no major gaps in our coverage of joseki, and we hope that our explanations are clear enough for even beginners to understand. With the exception of chapter four, we have limited ourselves to those joseki in which one player plays a stone in the corner, and before he has a chance to reinforce it with a second stone, his opponent moves in after him. The first stone ordinarily goes on one of these five points: the 3-3 point (san-san) the 3-4 point (komoku) the 4-4 point (hoshi) the 3-5 point (mokuhazushi) the 4-5 point (takamoku) We shall take them in that order, starting with the three-three point and moving out toward the center. We shall stop at the four-five point because, although it is not necessarily bad to start farther out from the corner, it is rather unusual, so there are no joseki built specifically around such moves. The reader of this, or any other joseki book, may be dismayed at the large number of variations it contains. Let him be reassured that he need not worry about forgetting them; in fact, it is a good idea to forget them. Too much dependence on rote learning of joseki stifles a player’s imagination, and blinds his overall vision of the board. It is best to remember pieces of


when he plays a stone.joseki—shapes of stones. varying them. coming to understand them. starting with sequences they remember from books or from stronger players’ games. Joseki books. or even criticized in. Even professional players read joseki books. 5 . but he is confident that the subsequent moves will bear out his judgment. having read dozens of go books and played and watched thousands of games. and therefore regularly produces moves not found in. individual moves. and finally being able to play on their own with confidence. and concepts that can be put to use in many situations. like other books. Amateurs must learn joseki in the same way. but relies on his accumulated experience. exactly what makes it a good move. He plays joseki not from memory. but from his general feeling for what moves are good in any given situation. joseki books. A full-fledged professional. we can see them using and misusing joseki that they have picked up from their reading. should be looked upon as sources of ideas. Watching these student professionals. or what is going to follow it. He adapts his joseki to the surrounding positions. and they are more likely to be thought up on the spur of the moment than to be the product of secret study the night before. He may pull new surprise moves on his opponents. This gives their games an awkward appearance. but do not yet really understand. no longer studies joseki much. testing them out in their own games. not as texts to be learned by heart. He may not know. at the apprentice stage of their development.

and not taking what he reads to be blanket statements covering all situations. Tokyo. The text was written by Davies. We are indebted to the Japanese Go Association for the use of their facilities. October. applying what appears in one place to positions arising in other places without having to be told. and to Richard Bozulich of the Ishi Press for offering suggestions on parts of the manuscript. 1972 Kiyoshi Kosugi James Davies 6 . and show how they should be altered to meet varied situations. We expect the reader to use his head a little. we have taken a relatively few number of them and tried to explain them. who also contributed what diagrams he could. 1972. most of the diagrams and ideas in it were supplied by Kosugi in a series of consultations stretching from April to October.This book has been designed to encourage that development: rather than just compile long lists of joseki. Concerning the authorship of this book.

... 12 Chapter 2: 3-4 point joseki........TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface ........ part 1 ........................... 26 7 ....………………………….. 3 Chapter 1: 3-3 point joseki .....………….....………….....

…………...Chapter 3: squeeze plays ................... 60 8 .

....Chapter 4: 4-4 point joseki... kakari ……….......119 Chapter 5: 4-4 point joseki..... invasion and tsuke …………...135 9 ....................

.........………..........……….......242 10 .... 226 Glossary of technical terms ...............Chapter 6: 3-5 point joseki ......... 194 Chapter 7: 4-5 point joseki ..………….....

ABOUT THE AUTHORS ___________________________________________________ KIYOSHI KOSUGI was born in 1939 in Tokyo into a large. and 3-dan the year after that. mother. where his go playing has advanced to the amateur 5-dan level. go-playing family. and younger brother— are professional go players. He graduated from Oberlin College in 1967 and entered graduate school at the University of Washington. 11 . He is known to foreign go visitors to Japan for his good command of English and his lively sense of humor. he is a regular contributor to Go Review magazine. He now lives with his wife in the suburbs of Tokyo. reached 2-dan the next year. Tokyo. and three of them—his father. which determines a professional player’s rank. In 1967 he took second place in the second division of the Oteai tournament. Besides writing for the Ishi Press. only to have a mathematics professor interest him in the game of go. he likes to read and play mah-jong. Besides go. and was promoted to 5-dan. with his wife and two daughters. His parents and all six of his brothers and sisters know how to play go. ____________________________________________________ JAMES DAVIES was born in 1945 in Philadelphia. he became a professional shodan in 1957. Under his father’s tutelage. At present he lives in Ota-ku. In 1970 he came to Japan.

when professional players have come to make frequent use of three-three point joseki.CHAPTER 1 Three-three point joseki INTRODUCTION Generally speaking. This used to be considered a poor play. 12 . 1. the simplest joseki start with a stone on the three-three point. The virtue of the stone in Dia. tucked so far back in the corner. The two sections of this chapter will show what happens when Negru approaches the Alb stone in Dia. 1. as in Dia. 1 is easy to understand: it denies Negru access to the corner. but that belief has been dispelled in the present century. The drawback of a play on the three-three point is that. If Negru attacks. he will have to build his position in the center or along one side of the board. where it is harder to find security. it does not give much help in developing into the center.

and Negru 3 to 5 are the standard continuation. We shall examine the meaning of the moves in the basic joseki. 2. This is the basic joseki pattern. by adding a stone at 1 or ‘a’ in Dia. reaching out into the center. Such a move. then sooner or later Alb will want to make a shimari. a move which approaches an isolated enemy corner stone from the outside. and then look at some of the variations. reinforcing the corner. but it is often altered to fit surrounding circumstances. Negru 3. Alb 4. 13 . In particular.If Negru does not get around to playing against Alb’s stone. is of great value. and preparing for wide extensions on both sides. It is worth quite a lot for Alb to push back against this particular kakari with 2. Alb makes a modest amount of corner territory. and Negru 5 are often played differently. SECTION 1 Negru 1 is our first example of a kakari. while Negru gets a center-facing position.

2. 3. Dia. a move which prepares both to attack the Negru stones and to make territory on the left side. then although Alb can still live in the corner. 14 . then Negru 1 becomes almost useless.The basic joseki Dia. see section 19. If Negru omits 3 and Alb gets to play 4. Negru 5 in the basic joseki is easier to leave out than the three moves which preceded it. Dia. Alb 4 is important for the same reason. Alb 2 in the basic joseki is a big move. This formation is better for Alb than just a shimari would be. Therefore Negru 3 in the basic joseki is another important move. he will be confined much more tightly than before. for if Alb leaves it out and Negru gets a chance to play 3. but it does prevent Alb 1 in this diagram. 1.

6. After the joseki. Sometimes it is best to play 1 instead of Δ. Negru 1 here is a big move. preparing to make territory and eye shape on the lower side. 15 . and stopping Alb from enlarging his corner in that direction. 5. although that gives Negru sente. Alb often continues the basic joseki by playing 6. Dia. so Alb usually plays 8 at ‘b’. leaving Negru to take ‘c’ or some other point. 4. To prevent Negru 1 in the last diagram. Alb 4: variations Dia. Negru 7 prepares to wall off the left side at ‘a’.Dia. Here is one variation in the basic joseki.

Dia. Negru jumped out to 6. but unless by some chance he succeeds in actually capturing them. but . in this situation Alb might well play 4 and so on to take territory on the left side. Alb attacked Negru Δ with 1. Negru can finish the sequence with 13. After 5. Alb can attack the stones Negru has played.. Incidentally. this is a situation where Negru might play 5 at ‘a’ for a faster get-away into the center. Compare his prospects in this diagram with what they would be if he could make a shimari at 3. 16 . Negru 1 is especially appropriate when Alb has made two extensions like Δ from his corner stone.. 9. By way of introducing some of the other variations in this joseki. Instead of following the basic joseki pattern. and Alb wedged in at 7. and Negru 2 and 4 made a nice reply. taken from a professional game. let’s examine this sequence. Against Alb 5.Dia. he cannot get a lot of territory here. 7. giving himself some room for eyes and getting ready to attack Alb Δ. 8. Negru makes a one-point jump Dia. Either way is joseki.

If Negru had played 6 here Alb would have skipped out to 7. 10. and it would have been hard for Negru to do much of anything with 6 and Δ. because they could connect to the left hand corner at ‘a’. 17 .Dia. He could not very well attack the Alb stones in the middle of the lower side.

and there would remain ways. In one variation of this joseki. because then Alb 9 would have taken a large lower side and left Negru Δ very weak. but in the present game that would let Negru get a big point at 8 on the right side. 11.Dia. such as Negru ‘d’. Dia. But it would not have been good for Negru to play 8 after Alb 7 here. 18 . 12. for him to break into the lower side. Alb plays 7 as shown to take territory on the lower side. even if Alb first played ‘c’. Later Negru could play ‘a’ or ‘b’ in sente.

since Alb does not want to be pushed toward Negru’s strong wall in the lower right. Alb could have secured the lower side territory by playing 11 here—the connection between it and Δ could not be broken—but then Negru would have played 12 and Alb would have been faced with the need to make an invasion on the right side.Dia. Alb 13 looks like the best point. 13. 11 is a joseki move for Alb. Dia. 19 . but in these circumstances it would have been an unnecessary addition to his stones on the lower side and an invitation to trouble on the right. 13. 14. but however he invades. Next Negru was able to live on the lower side by playing ‘a’ and ‘b’. he cannot get the worry-free position he had in Dia. So the actual game continued this way.

there are other similar kakari which we shall look at. the shoulder-hitting kakari of section 1 is better. but whenever a stone anywhere on the third line is attacked with a shoulder-hitting move like Negru 1. Negru should make a kakari like 1 when his purpose is to do something constructive on the left side. or he may choose not to answer Negru 1 at all. ‘c’. SECTION 2 It often happens that Negru wants to approach Alb’s stone from one side or the other. ‘b’. As a rule.In conclusion These sequences can be used not only in the corner. instead of attacking at ‘a’. the patterns of this section turn up frequently in the opening and early middle game. Also. Alb may answer Negru 1 at ‘a’. Since such shoulder-blows are one of the common ways of reducing large potential territories. Depending on the situation. When his aim is to destroy Alb territory. instead of Negru 1. or ‘d’ instead of at 2. 20 . The exchange of Negru 1 for Alb 2 forms a simple joseki. however.

Ogeima kakari Dia. 1. In this common position Negru 1 is often played. It and Negru 3 give Negru a position on the left side, weakening Alb Δ. 4 is a good point for Alb, but Δ still does not have room to make two eyes on the side, and Negru can attack it with 5. Dia. 2. If Negru played this joseki, then he would be putting much less pressure on Alb Δ; this time, after Alb 6, Negru ‘a’ would pose very little threat to Alb.


Dia. 3. When Alb has made an extension like Δ from his corner stone, Negru 1 may be used to reduce the size of his prospective territory. Compare its size now with what it would be if Alb made a shimari at 1. Here Alb should definitely play 2 on the fourth line, for this builds toward a larger territory than Alb ‘a’ would. Next, ‘b’ is a good point for either player. Dia. 4. The reason Alb does not always play 2 on the fourth line is that Negru can then attack from the other side with 3. This aims at ‘a’, from which point Negru can connect to either 1 or 3.

Dia. 5. In this case Alb might answer 1 at 2 instead of ‘a’. The argument for doing so is that even if Alb extended to ‘a’, Negru would still be able to invade the lower side, at ‘b’ for instance. Since Alb needs two stones to defend the side anyway, 2 and, later, Alb ‘b’ make a well-balanced formation, and 2 makes the corner stronger than Alb ‘a’ would. Other kakari 22

Dia. 6. When Negru approaches Alb Δ from the side, he need not always use the ogeima kakari. The kogeima kakari is possible too, although it must be used with discretion, since it provokes this sequence, in which Alb makes a lot of secure territory on the lower side.

Dia. 7. In this situation Negru 2 would be the correct kakari. Alb could play ‘a’ or ‘b’ instead of 3. Dia. 8. If we move Alb 1 and Negru Δ a line higher, then Negru 2 should be moved accordingly.


Tenuki Dia. 9. When Alb fails to respond to 1, the keima at Negru 3 is the standard play. Alb can slide out to ‘a’ or ‘b’, but he is being pressed into a very low position.

Later on Dia. 10. After the basic joseki, Negru can play kikashi at 1 and 3, useful points because they interfere with Alb’s extending to ‘a’. However, these moves make Alb solid and strong, and Negru should not play them too early, since there are other things he may want to try against the corner.


Dia 11. This shows one of those other possibilities. Negru 1 and 3 aim at exchanging the corner territory for the outside, and might be used if Negru Δ became hard to defend. If Alb played 4 at 7, Negru could play 5 at 4 or ‘a’, and in one way or another it should be possible for him to make eye shape.

In conclusion Generally speaking, Negru’s plays in this section are much more loose and open than his ones in the previous section. For that reason they allow Alb to build toward larger territories than before, but at the same time they leave more possibilities for Negru in the corner itself. Dia. 11 is just one example of the kind of thing that can happen there later on.


Three-four point joseki: part 1
INTRODUCTION The Negru stone in Dia. 1 rests on the 3-4 point, which has long been the most popular starting point in the corner. A stone placed here, like one on the 3-3 point, protects the corner territory, but it is not as likely to be shut in from the outside. If Alb attacks with 1 in Dia. 2, copying the idea of the joseki in section 1 of chapter 1, Negru will be more than happy to reply with 2, 4, and 6, getting a favorable result. Rather than have Negru solidify such a large corner, Alb usually attacks with one of the plays shown in Dias. 3 to 6.

If we think of the Negru stone as a stone on the third line, then Alb 1 in Dia. 3 is a natural way to attack. Alb’s general aim is to establish a position on the right side or in the center, while Negru takes the corner territory. All of the joseki in this chapter illustrate that idea, and most of them start with Alb 1 in Dia. 3.


If we think of the Negru stone as a stone on the fourth line, then Alb 1 in Dia. 4, aiming to slide in to the point ‘a’, is natural. Most of the joseki starting this way have Negru answering with a squeeze play on the right side, and are to be found in chapter 3. In this chapter, (section 7), will be found Negru’s reply at ‘b’. The ogeima kakari in Dia. 5 is used when Alb puts special emphasis on the right side, as opposed to the corner. Section 8 of this chapter and section 18 of the next are devoted to this play. The kakari in Dia. 6 stresses side and center at the expense of the corner. It is sometimes used by those who like a quick opening development, their idea being to ignore whatever reply Negru makes, (‘a’ and ‘b’ are typical replies), and rush on to some other part of the board. We shall forego any further discussion of this kakari.


One of the advantages of playing on the 3-4 point is that a stone there is in an excellent position for making a shimari. Dias. 7 to 10 show the four shimari plays that Negru has available. The one in Dia. 7 defends the corner best. Negru 1 in Dia. 8 is stronger toward the center, and makes a better wall from which to extend along the lower side, but suffers from the disadvantage that Alb can play at ‘a’, threatening to run into the corner at ‘b’. The shimari plays in Dias. 9 and 10 stake out larger territories, but they are a bit open as compared with the previous two. After any of these four shimari, an extension on the lower side becomes a large move for either player. There are special joseki starting from these four shimari, but they are not part of this book. In this chapter we shall see what happens when Alb attacks the single stone on the three-four point and Negru answers by defending his corner. There is another large group of three-four point joseki in which Negru answers Alb’s kakari by counterattacking with a squeeze play, but that is the subject of the next chapter.


Alb plays 3 if he is interested in the right side. and Alb 7 are one way to finish it. Negru 2 is a tsuke and Negru 4 is a hiki. the spacing of 5 and 7 being Rood. Negru 6. but of course there are variations. and in fact Negru can get all the corner territory by playing 2. 29 . in the next section we shall see an alternative choice for 3 which builds more toward the center and lower side. Alb 5.SECTION 3 Alb 1 tries more for a position on the outside than for corner profit. so this joseki is usually called the tsuke-hiki joseki.

Dia. (or ‘a’). Sometimes Alb plays 6 as shown as to be able to play ‘a’ later. Negru can make a solid connection with 5 and then extend to 7. so the way to build solid as Alb by . Alb 6 gets in of Negru ‘b’. however. In this situation. Negru. The basic joseki ends in Alb’s gote. 1. and so is suitable if Alb wants territory on the lower side. for if Negru cuts at 1 in this diagram Alb can still make a position for himself with 2 and 4. The point ‘b’ may become another good extension for Negru later on. keeping the three-line interval between 7 and 5. has much greater prospects on the lower side and in the center than before. aiming at ‘d’ in the corner. 30 here. the spacing between 7 and Δ is also just right. as shown here. 2. By and by Negru may annoy playing ‘c’ himself. 3. but it is not as Alb ‘c’. Dia. If Alb wants sente he can play tenuki after Negru’s hiki.Some variations Dia.

Then after Alb 9 he can attack with 10. building a wall which works beautifully with his shimari. instead of just ‘a’. 4. Dia. Thinking of this. In this situation he might choose to make a shimari at 7 instead. Alb will reply at 2. After the kaketsugi at 5 Alb need not always extend at ‘a’.Dia. Of course Negru is getting territory too. Alb could even apply this sequence in answer to Negru 6 in Dia. 5. and so Negru could be satisfied. (or 6 and ‘a’. Negru Δ turns out to be almost completely wasted. 31 . or 6 and ‘b’). but then Negru Δ would not be on the board. Negru can play 6 and 8. 6. It is futile for Negru to play 1 after Dia. Dia. 4. but not as much as Alb. He must play 6 right after Alb 5 if he wants Alb to answer it at 7. and Negru 6 should turn out to be useful in the fighting to come. 5.

The loss of Δ costs Alb very little. When he jumps out to 5. again it is not so important. Even if he is unable to capture the cutting stone in shicho. Sometimes Alb is unable to extend up the right side. 7.Dia. In this situation. 8. while the lower side is still open. Alb need not fear this Negru 6. for example. Negru takes the vital point at 6. Alb should jump out into the center with 5 instead of playing ‘a’. 32 . and then he must change his tactics accordingly. and Negru Δ begins to look very weak. (Alb 9 at 10). Dia. he can make shape as shown. Alb 7 establishes room for two eyes on the right side. If Alb were allowed to play there he would make good shape for his stones while destroying a lot of Negru’s lower side territory. making a quick escape. and if Negru cuts at ‘a’ and captures another stone.

Here is one common opening pattern in which the joseki we have just been studying is often played.A common opening pattern on the right side Dia. Alb. Dia. It is not so from above with underneath at 5. but then Negru will play ‘a’. since Negru can connect and the hane at ‘a’ still threatens 33 . happy with the exchange of 13 for ‘c’. gives Negru the chance to invade at good for Alb to reply by pressing 2 and 4. That 1. although Negru ‘a’ would be big. so maybe Alb should play 14 at ‘a’. Negru 13 is a big point. 9. Of course Alb can defend with ‘c’. too. The reason that Negru 13 is so big is that it prepares for an invasion at ‘b’. 10.

Negru had better be sure of his ko threats before starting this fight. Now Alb is ready to play either ‘a’ or ‘b’ to connect his position. Alb 2 here is the correct answer to Negru 1. At the same time. 12. Alb ‘e’ has become a strong move for later on. If Negru plays 3 at ‘c’ Alb will play ‘a’. 11. If Negru is determined to make trouble he can play tsuke at 3. leading to a ko.Dia. 34 . Dia. Alb can play 8 at ‘a’ or ‘b’. and if Negru plays 3 at ‘d’ Alb will play ‘b’.

Dia. If Alb lacks ko threats he cannot play 4 and 6 in the last diagram. He can still fight in his separated shape. so there is nothing unfair about it. since he gets a strong corner while Alb’s shape is still open to attack. But on the other hand. but must submit to being cut in two as shown here. 14. 35 . In conclusion This is a simple and satisfying joseki for Negru. for after it the invasion at ‘a’ is not likely to pose any threat at all.Dia. but it will be hard for him. There are many opening situations where it is a reasonable choice for both Players. Thus Alb 1 is quite large. and it is easier for him to develop a really large territory than it is for Negru. 13. Alb comes out of it with a higher position.

With this shimari in the lower left corner it is a good idea for Alb to make the kaketsugi at 9. but now Alb slides along the top with 3 instead of playing hane at ‘d’. which means avalanche in Japanese. After Negru 8. ‘a’. for Negru has a serious weakness in the cutting point at ‘a’. and he can also play tenuki. It does not stop here.SECTION 4 This joseki starts out like the one in the last section. We shall concentrate on Negru ‘a’ and ‘b’. No variation is possible in Negru 4 and Alb 5. This joseki is known as the nadare. Negru has four choices for his next play. working toward a large territory across the lower side. ‘c’. and ‘d’. Alb has good plays at ‘a’ and ‘b’. 2. Negru 6: simplest variation Dia. 1. 36 . and Alb does likewise at 7. ‘b’. Negru defends his weak point at 6. while Alb is vulnerable to a hane at ‘b’. Dia.

both the Negru and the Alb groups being weak. Dia. but the fight is a fair one. If he plays it here. Alb must be careful not to play 9 too close to the lower right corner. 5. 37 . Dia. Negru can attack with 10. Now it is obvious that there is too little territory below Alb 9 and too much open space above it. Alb 9 is not a bad move. Negru will just push out with 10 and 12. 4. 3. So Alb may prefer to make a play like 9 here. except that Alb has only a single stone in the other corner. With the joseki turned on its side. this is the same situation as before.Dia. but now Negru can easily make a position on the side with 10 and 12.

8. Alb can play kikashi at 1. Negru’s best response is 2. The other key point for Alb is at 9. reduces Negru’s prospects on the right side. If Negru plays 10 here he leaves a serious weak point at ‘a’ which Alb can exploit if he has a stone further up on the right side. 6. This play enlarges Alb’s wall and. If Negru fails to answer Δ. Dia. 7. by preventing Negru ‘a’.Dia. If Negru answers Alb 9. Do you see the relation of ‘a’ to Alb ‘b’? Dia. 38 . he should do so at 10. but this exchange by itself hinders Negru in the expansion of his territory along the right side.

Negru 10 threatens to capture all the Alb stones.The small nadare joseki Dia. 9. Dia. Negru attacks with 6 and Alb counter attacks with 7. 39 . Dia. and Alb 11 defends. forming the so-called small nadare joseki. Alb cuts and makes a position for himself on the right side. this is another possible variation. is the key to this variation. but the cutting point at ‘a’ remains. threatening both ‘a’ and ‘b’. and after this the joseki continues with a fight involving the weak Negru stones in the center. Dia. After Alb 11. 12. Negru 12 is a good tesuji and Negru 16 takes the corner. 11. Alb 9. 10. One idea for Negru’s next move is ‘a’.

14. So if the shicho favors Negru. If the shicho works. Negru can crawl out at 12. If Alb plays 13 at 16. 13. he must play as shown here. When the shicho is against Negru. What happens if Alb plays nobi with 11? The feasibility of this move depends on a shicho. but on the other hand if the shicho favors Alb.Dia. Next Alb should take the vital point at ‘a’. and when Alb cuts at 13 Negru attacks with 14. this diagram is not very good for Negru. Alb 11 is impossible. 40 . 16. then Negru 13 captures the corner stones. Alb loses everything. and 18. taking the corner. and of course ‘b’ is his sente on the right side. Dia. and this is not so good for Alb either.

Negru 6 here forms the so-called o-nadare. Perhaps you can figure out what happens if Alb does not answer Negru ‘a’. In conclusion Alb is offering Negru a modest amount of corner and side territory in return for a wall. so Alb will often answer it by playing tenuki. basically a simple idea. but there are many complicated variations to the nadare joseki. 16. This move is not as aggressive as the hane at ‘a’. 15. Finally there is this double hane variation. (big nadare). Another idea is to exchange 7 for 8 and then tenuki. joseki.Negru 6: the other two variations Dia. Dia. then this diagram shows the simplest way. which leaves Negru with good plays at ‘a’ and ‘b’. 41 . including a whole family arising from the o-nadare which we have not mentioned. If Alb does continue with the joseki. without playing 9.

(if Alb fails to play 10 then Negru can play there himself and completely encircle Alb’s corner). or he can leave the shape as it is. in which Negru plays 3 at ‘a’. The tsuke at 6 secures the corner territory. Alb can continue by playing ‘b’ or ‘c’. threatening to continue with ‘b’. the tsuke on the outside is also possible. 1. and in addition Negru ‘c’. Let’s start with the two ways of playing Alb 6. and strength to use on the right side and in the center. Alb 6: first choice Dia. 42 . although there is a difficult variation. is sente if played at the right time. (threatening ‘d’). You may be impressed with Alb’s large profit in this sequence. as well as a variation in which Negru plays 5 at ‘c’. Alb’s position is not solid: Negru can play ‘a’. We shall look at all three of these possibilities. The sequence up to Negru 5 is the usual joseki. but Negru has sente. After Negru 5.SECTION 5 In answer to Negru’s kakari at 1. not to be found in this book.

The sequence may continue this way. and after Alb 8 Negru typically makes some move on the lower side to reduce the amount of Alb territory there. 2. 3. he may push Alb a bit farther.). Instead of 8 in Dia.Alb 6: second choice Dia. Alb ‘b’. Dia. and 15 at ‘b’ are other possibilities. and he may be able to put Negru 9 to use later. but Negru is also stronger. Alb has a higher wall than before. to build up his own strength over the right side. etc. 43 . The idea behind this Alb 6 is to build a wall over the lower side. although 13 at ‘a’. Alb can still play ‘c’ later on to take the corner. (to take sente). (Negru ‘a’. Before doing so. Alb can play the double hane shown here if he likes. 2.

but since he gets to play a shicho-breaking move in the upper right corner. which is not finished.Alb plays tenuki Dia. 5. Continuing from the last diagram. if Negru plays 7 at 8 then Alb will play 8 at 7. If Alb lets Negru have the next play after the basic joseki. Alb is confined to a small corner. 6. If the shicho does not work. In this sequence. and although the ensuing semeai in the corner may be difficult. he is not so badly off. Negru can still confine Alb with these plays. Negru captures two stones in shicho. and Alb 2 to 8 are the correct response. Dia. then Negru will play the tsuke at 1. if played correctly it ends in Negru’s defeat. Dia. 4. 44 .

Here is one situation in which Negru should play 5 instead of ‘c’.Negru 5: variation Dia. Alb will get too much territory on the lower side. This variation of the joseki continues with Alb cutting at 6 and taking the corner. and Negru 11 an important kikashi. 2 or 3. Dia. Negru has sente and can build territory on the right side. You may wonder why Alb doesn’t play 10 here. for if he plays ‘c’ and gets into Dia. 9. Alb 10 is a tesuji in this shape. 8. and from Δ he can easily invade the lower side. 7. Dia. After all. doesn’t that allow him to take sente? 45 . making ‘a’ Alb’s gote.

or tenuki. SECTION 6 The keima at Negru 2 is a less forcible response to Alb 1 than the tsuke moves we have studied previously. or thereabouts. 10. but then Negru can play 1 and 3 here sente). In conclusion This simple joseki. so its basic moves are well worth learning. but then a second attacking move at ‘a’. 46 . after which this joseki has three variations. but it is no less a good move.(in Dia. Therefore Alb usually continues with 3 and 5. Sometimes Alb plays tenuki after it. which is a favorite with the famous professional player Sakata. which do terrible damage to the corner. Yes. makes it difficult for him to form eye space on the lower side gracefully. but anywhere along the side of the board. can occur not only as shown in the corner. or ‘c’. Negru can play ‘b’.

If Alb fails to extend to. Negru 8 and 10 are consistent with Negru 6.Negru 6: first variation Dia. flattening out Alb’s territory on the lower side while expanding his own area. Negru can play kikashi with 1. 1. 47 . This Negru 6 is suitable for building territory on the right side. then again Negru can attack at ‘a’. Dia. 2. 7. or in the direction of. Later on. and are typical follow-up moves to this joseki. since it leaves Negru with no weak points.

for Alb can make excellent shape by following the sequence up to 13. In this particular situation Alb might extend on the fourth line to 7. but Alb is already out into the center. The original keima. and the right side is still open to Alb ‘a’. In comparison with the last diagram Negru has made more corner profit. 3. 48 . Negru Δ is looking very weak. is thought to be a good way to start the attack. which threatens Alb ‘c’. as in this diagram. The tsuke at Negru 2 is much less effective. but with his weak group on the lower side to look after. The idea is to keep Alb weak by interfering with his eye space along the lower edge. This Negru 6 is more suitable for attack and is especially good when Negru already has stones on the sides.Negru 6: second variation Dia. (Negru Δ). 4. Alb may never get a chance to exploit this weakness. Dia. so as to make a quick march into the center at ‘a’ next. in line with the general principle of not playing in contact with the stones to be attacked. The drawback of Negru 6 is that it leaves the possibility of Alb ‘b’.

attack with 7 in this diagram. but Negru can defend his position with 8. to forestall such action. to keep Negru from taking that point and also preparing to play ‘b’ and capture two stones. Here is one case in which. 5. or for that matter Negru might play 2 at 6. Maybe we are pointing out the obvious. Dia. There are other ideas in this situation: Alb might be inclined to play 3 at ‘c’ to attack at once. after Alb 5. 6. 49 . Negru ‘a’. but should play 6 to help his stone Δ. but it would be a mistake for Alb to try to counter. This is much better for him than Alb 5.Negru 6: tenuki Dia. Negru should play neither ‘a’ nor 7. leaving both Alb 7 and the three stones in the corner weak. for then Negru would defend his shape with 8. Alb ‘c’. Alb now plays 7 in the corner.

when you appreciate that fact you will have learned something about go. but there is nothing peaceful about Negru’s intentions in playing it. SECTION 7 When Alb makes a kogeima kakari with 1. it makes ready to put pressure on Alb 1. ‘b’. if at all. the diagonal play at Negru 2 is the simplest reply. or some such point. Aggressive action often starts slowly like this. 50 .In conclusion The keima response to Alb’s kakari looks like a quiet move. It has three purposes: it prevents Alb from making another attack on the corner. and it prepares for a wide extension on the lower side. Alb usually answers it. by extending up the right side to ‘a’.

but Negru has brought the situation under control. Dia 2. Alb ‘b’ would be better. Alb should try for the greatest possible territory by playing 2 as shown. Here is an example of one kind of position in which the diagonal play is particularly necessary. but with the strength he has in the upper right.When the diagonal play is needed Dia. Alb has a solid fortress in the upper right corner. In this sequence Alb makes his most ambitious defense. then Alb will land on the vital point at 1. and Negru 1 is urgently needed to keep the Alb territory on the right side from growing too large. 1. 51 . and his territory takes on gigantic proportions. If Negru fails to make the diagonal play. In this case Alb 2 at ‘a’ would be far too timid.

52 . This is not at all good for Alb. and ‘d’ and ‘e’ are other possibilities. 3.Now let’s see what Negru can do if Alb doesn’t answer his diagonal play. If Alb makes the next play after 2. Dia. Negru may also play tenuki. We have just shown ‘a’. Let’s take a closer look at Negru 1 and Alb 2. Negru will press him with 1. There are two ways for him to attack. Alb plays tenuki Dia. he should play ‘a’. Negru has many ways to proceed from this exchange. 4. and Negru has a wall to use for building territory over the lower side. Alb’s strength in the upper right goes completely to waste. If Alb plays tenuki after Δ in this position. The exchange of 1 for 2 by itself is usually good for him. ‘b’ and ‘c’ are similar.

Alb will usually capture the cutting stone. Negru has the corner. 6. Because of the nearness of Negru Δ there is no sense in playing 1 at 2 to build a wall. 5. but he also has gote. Here Negru 1 and 3 are appropriate.Dia. Dia. making good shape on the outside. If Negru pushes through and cuts. This is not bad for Alb—note the endgame point left for him at ‘a’. 53 .

he should play 2. Even though he can fight a little bit on the outside with Δ. It may be better for him to look for eye space than just to run away into the center. 8. but he lives comfortably with 4 and 6. Alb could run out at 3 if he had any chance of counterattacking. 7. Sometimes Negru may want to attack from the side instead of playing as in Dia. he will soon have to play ‘a’ to live in the corner. and if so. Dia. 4. but Negru might get to play ‘a’ and Alb could find himself fighting a running battle without any base on the side. Against this Negru 1. Here is one likely setting for such a move. Negru can confine him with 3. but is not really so smart of him to do so. 54 . It is possible for Alb to resist Negru 3 with Alb 4.Dia.

the diagonal move is of basic importance. 1 Negru 1 was the only good move. then Negru can attack on the right side at ‘a’. but if Negru invades at 1. If Alb plays 2 on the lower side. In conclusion Although most of the joseki stemming from the kogeima kakari involve squeeze plays and are postponed to the next chapter. which opens up the possibility of a connection underneath at ‘b’. It would be better for Negru first to play ‘c’ and then think about 1.Another example Dia. but it is easy to understand. If Alb defends on the right side at 2. 1. then Alb answers at 6. which give Negru the cut at ‘a’ to worry about. 10. here it is just one among many possibilities. then Negru can extend toward the shimari with 3. Alb has 2 and 4 to play. Alb’s four-line extension to Δ may look unsafe. 9. absolutely necessary in situations like Dia. 55 . he is in no danger. If he plays 5 to defend against it. Considering that there is still room for Alb to extend upwards from Δ to ‘c’. Dia. Whereas in Dia.

56 . so Alb 1 is reserved for situations where Alb has a special need to occupy the right side. Negru can simply defend the corner at 2. and has more potential for development. Of course in those situations Negru may want to answer Alb 1 by playing at or around 3. than Alb’s side position. as we shall see in section 18.SECTION 8 The ogeima kakari at 1 is not usually as good as the other two kakari considered in this chapter. After Alb 3. his corner is larger and safer. but then Alb has an easy way to handle the corner.

If he does not play 4. however.Dia. 2. 3. Or he can hit them from the outside. Negru has various strong-arm tactics to use against Alb’s two stones. but Negru can still make a good extension to 4. after which Negru can neither make much territory in front of his shimari nor attack Alb. He can hit them from underneath by playing Negru 1. making profit on the edge while attacking. Dia. Alb 1 and 3 do something to reduce the effectiveness of Negru’s shimari in the upper right corner. The ogeima kakari is understandable in this position. then Alb will approach closer at ‘a’. although it is at least temporarily out of style. looking for profit in the center. Negru 1 to 7 in this diagram would be appropriate if there were an extension like Δ on the board. Dia. 57 . After 4. 1.

If 3 is played on the third line. There is a good reason for his playing 3 on the fourth line instead of the third. Dia. If Alb played 3 correctly at 5 and Negru played 4. 58 . not 3. After 6 his stones have better shape than they could possibly get in Dia.Dia. 4. 5. Negru will lose no time in striking with 4. Alb would answer with ‘a’. and the space between Alb 3 and 5 and Alb Δ is too narrow. This time Alb uses 1 and 3 to attack on the right side. 4.

which we are coming to in section 18.Dia. If after the basic joseki Alb advances on Negru’s corner with 1 here. he could make territory in the center. 59 . Negru 2 is a good reply. Alb’s real intention is usually to provoke a squeeze play. It is not that Negru’s eye shape is endangered. 6. In conclusion The ogeima kakari looks rather lukewarm so far. but if Alb were allowed to play at 2 himself. and then he has some good maneuvers. and Negru could not attack.

The squeeze plays on the fourth line are the creations of the present century. Negru ‘e’. they did not become really popular until the post-World-War II era. Negru ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the oldest. letting Alb extend unhindered along the side. 1 is one squeeze play. (Alb 1 in Dia. Which of these is best in any given situation is a hard question—the choice may be more a matter of taste than of anything else. around 1700. Negru 2 in Dia. and ‘a’. Negru ‘c’ was introduced by Dosaku. ‘b’. in fact. was not much played until a year or two ago. and the most thoroughly studied. 60 . and ‘e’ are others.CHAPTER 3 Squeeze plays INTRODUCTION In the last chapter we saw what happens when Negru answers Alb’s kakari by defending the corner in one way or another. a famous Japanese professional go player. 1). the newest. ‘c’. In this chapter we come to the joseki in which Negru stops that extension with a squeeze play. ‘d’. Squeeze plays are particularly often used against the kogeima kakari.

since it is played when the side is important. To keep this chapter from being longer than it is. is often met with a squeeze play. we will concentrate on Negru 2 in Dia. and Negru ‘e’ is too new for us to be able to say much about.Squeeze play joseki are difficult. too. Sections 14 to 16 contain brief surveys of the joseki starting with Negru ‘a’. so we are leaving it out of this book. and that is the subject of the last section of the chapter. The ogeima kakari. 2. which is the most representative squeeze play. (sections 9 to 13). (section 17). 61 . and ‘c’. but the joseki proceeding from it are not yet really well worked out. ‘d’. 1. Negru ‘b’ is too much like Negru 2 to need a separate section. and branch out into a large number of variations. Squeeze plays can also be used against other kakari. and happens to be currently the most popular. Negru ‘f is a modern play often made against Alb 1. such as Negru 2 against Alb 1 in Dia.

1.A squeeze play is most effective in a situation like Dia. then a squeeze play is no longer so good. If we reverse the colors up there. 4. In Dia. and by attacking Negru ‘g’ Alb can build up strength for use in other directions. where it serves both to attack Alb’s stone and to extend from a Negru position in the other corner. 62 . as in section 7. Now let’s start sampling the joseki that begin with Alb 1 and Negru 2 in Dia. 4. as in Dia. 5. If Negru wants to keep Alb from making a large territory on the right side by playing ‘g’ in Dia. where Alb has only one stone in the upper right corner and Negru can aim to attack it. 3. a squeeze play would be above criticism. nor make much territory of his own there. without having to worry about his strong stones in the upper right corner. he can easily do so. however. it is better for Negru to play at 1. but he can not take away all of Alb’s territory.

he can pressure Negru’s two stones on the lower side. 63 .SECTION 9 Negru plays 1. but there is a lot of flexibility in his position. or he can do nothing at all. There is not a solid connection between Alb’s two stones. he can do any of four things: he can attack Negru 1. Alb jumps between Negru’s stones at 2. he can play at the 3-3 point to get eye shape in the corner. and Negru runs along the lower side with 3—this is one of the most interesting of the squeeze play joseki. We shall take up these four possibilities one by one after looking at two of the variations in the basic joseki. After jumping well out into the center with 2.

Dia.Two variations Dia. but while he is living in the corner. Alb is getting stronger on the outside. as you will see in the next diagram. 64 . but sometimes it may be more important for Negru to defend the right side than to play 3 on the lower side. If Negru wants to. If Alb plays ‘a’ Negru can still cause trouble by playing ‘b’. he can play these moves after the last diagram. who can make territory on the lower side. The Negru stone in the corner is not dead. and now it is Alb. This is a very large shift in circumstances. 2. If Negru uses 3 on the right side. Alb will play 4. 1. not Negru. and in fact Negru can even allow Alb to play another stone against it.

but the fighting gets difficult. a recent invention. Dia. in which both sides make good shape. Now back to the basic joseki and the four possibilities left after it. Alb has good points at ‘a’. and not much is known about it. Instead of playing 3 as in the basic joseki. This is the usual continuation. 5.Dia. Negru can slice into Alb’s position this way. 4. Alb can next play ‘b’. and ‘c’ but it is Negru’s turn. 3. After Negru 5 he is ready to cut at either ‘a’ or ‘b’. or he can play 6. There is also this messy continuation. ‘b’. Dia. 65 . It may be joseki.

Dia. Negru will cut him with 4. and 8. and the sequence up to 11 is a good way for both sides to continue. When Alb has a stone in the upper right corner he need lose no time in playing 1. 66 . Here is one of them. For example. making a good extension while attacking. 7. since it threatens to cut Alb. Attack on the right Dia. 6. so before jumping further out into the center he must do something to tighten the connection between his stones. if Alb plays 3. or ‘b’). 6. 8. There are several ways in which he can do so. Negru 2 is the usual defense.1. Alb 3 prevents the cut. Dia. (or ‘a’. Alb should not allow this.

9. Before making his attack Alb can play 1. if Negru jumped out too hastily by playing 4 at ‘a’. then Alb 5 at 4 would give him plenty to worry about. inviting Negru to help himself to some territory along the third line. 67 . then this sequence may follow. Dia. and now when Alb attacks with 9 he has a big wall to push Negru’s stone against. Alb 5 is a way of making good shape in this kind of situation. If Negru accepts the invitation by playing 2. Of course Negru can play 6 at 9. Negru does not have to follow the easy course of the previous diagram. for he can push through and cut with 2 and 4 here.2. Incidentally. Pressure Dia. but then ‘a’ is a large point for Alb. 10.

68 . Negru cuts at 10. After this. Dia. 12. This kind of thing can go on all the way down the side of the board. the fighting follows no set course. 14. Negru should answer 5 with 6. with Alb getting tremendous thickness. 11. After Negru 12. Alb counters with 7 and 9. 13. Negru has to answer at 8. Dia. and Alb can exchange 9 for 10 before running out into the center at 11.Dia. Alb plays the same tesuji as before at 13. but when Alb plays 11 Negru is hardly likely to have any ko threats big enough to fight the ko. You may be wondering why Negru does not answer 5 with 6 in this diagram. but this play has no merit. Dia. Alb has to play 7.

Alb can make eye shape with 5 and 7. and then 1 and 3 become appropriate. Negru usually takes the opportunity to cut off Alb’s center stone. Defense Dia. as in this diagram. (If he omits 7. Alb 5 then takes the corner. 16. then a Negru stone on that point spoils his shape.3. There are times when Alb must think of defense rather than attack.) Dia. considering that Alb has sente. Alb can connect by playing ‘a’ and ‘b’. If Negru answers with 2 and 4. 69 . for if Negru plays 6 at 7. But instead of playing 4 on the 2-2 point. 15. The exchange up to Negru 10 is a fair one.

Dia. 70 . In conclusion We have here the basic defense against the squeeze play—Alb jumps up into the center. Negru attacks Dia. separating Negru’s stones and preparing to attack on either side. The danger in a diagonal jump is that the opponent will come through the middle of it. he generally begins by playing 1 to block Alb from the corner. Alb 6 makes good shape. but if Negru plays 7 Alb has adequate resources in the tesuji at 8. If Negru answers at 9. 18. Next Alb has good points at ‘a’ and ‘b’. and continues with 3 and 5. and after Negru 13 he has ‘a’ on the outside and ‘b’ and ‘c* in the corner to work with. although it may look a bit strange. 17.4. Alb pushes on with 10. If Negru gets to attack Alb’s two stones after the basic joseki. so if Negru plays one of them Alb plays the other and all is well.

The unique feature of the joseki in this section is that Alb makes a two-space jump. which left both sides with many options. It puts heavy pressure on the lower side in preparation for a heavy attack on the right side. getting a good position on the lower side in return. There is another variation in which he gives up his stone on the right side. sacrificing solidity for speed of development. 71 . Negru plays 2 if he is willing to engage in a running battle. SECTION 10 In contrast to the two-point jump of the last section.We shall see this strategy repeated numerous times in the rest of this chapter. We shall explain both of these variations. a kind of reverse strategy often found in go. the keima at 1 is a move with a definite purpose.

Alb can make shape with 7. Alb should only play the keima when he is in an attacking position on the right side.Running battle Dia. when he attacks with 5 he is making a good extension from his stone in the upper right corner. 2. and 11. This puts him in a strong position because . In this diagram. Alb has to play 7. Negru plays 6 to keep Alb from making eye shape. and so must run out into the center. . 1 is fairly necessary. The Negru and Alb groups both lack eyes. If the stone up there were Negru instead of Alb. 72 . . 9. for instance. and how it continues from there is up to you. 1. If Negru just jumps upward with 6 here. Dia. then his position would not be so attractive. Negru 6 in Dia.

forcing Alb 5.Dia. which gives him a safe group between two vulnerable Negru ones. Dia. He is threatening to carry out this sequence. 4. 3. but when he does so he is not making territory—he is just defending—and Alb 7 is a big move made in sente. and then protect the right side with 6. Negru can play 4 this way. 73 .

Negru 8 is necessary to capture Alb Δ. Dia. it would be more circumspect of Negru to push through and cut with 2 and 4 in this diagram. 6. The joseki ends this way. Alb 5 is a skillful way of handling Negru’s tactics. with both sides getting good positions. 74 . Instead of playing as above. It is much easier for Negru to make a fair trade like this than to get involved in an unfavorable fight on the right side. 5. 7. Here is another version of the joseki. Dia.Exchange Dia. the alternative mentioned at the head of the section.

having two reasonably good side groups while Negru has just a small corner and some weak stones in the center. he can play 1 here. In conclusion Alb’s keima at 1 is a rather aggressive move. After these strong-arm tactics. The tesuji of Alb 5 is worth remembering. You will learn more about this joseki in section 31. see what happens when Negru answers it at 6. and this time he gets much the better of it. 9. Alb can push him around with 7.Dia. 10. 5. Dia. and 11. Whether or not Negru can successfully push through there and cut or not depends on a shicho. 8. For the sake of explaining it a little more. Dia. If the shicho favors Negru. remember the tesuji at Alb 5 in Dia. but Negru can dodge around it if he decides it would be best not to get into a running fight. 9. Alb should defend with 13. Alb must give thought to Negru ‘a’. For the present. which we ask you to figure out for your-self. But if the shicho favors Alb. and Negru should do likewise with 14. 75 . This is another fair trade.

Alb 3 is not without its aggressive intentions. (Another idea is to attack at once at ‘b’). A third is the diagonal play at 1 featured in this section.. it is natural to run out into the center. preparing to counterattack on one side or the other. At this point. Alb has accomplished his purpose of separating Negru’s stones.. All the same. So far we have seen two examples of this strategy in the two-point jump and the keima. If Negru fails to play 4 .SECTION 11 In answer to any squeeze play. 76 . so instead of running further out into the center at ‘a’. Negru 2 is the simplest response to it. it is better for him to slide into the corner at 3. ‘a’ remains a big point for either side.

. which is more important. 77 .The reason for Negru 4 Dia. Alb Dia. 2. drifting group of stones like this. 1. There is no good way for Negru to answer Alb 1. board. but while he is struggling to occupy a small territory on the side. But with Negru Δ on the 1 loses its sting. Negru can answer it at 2 or 5. Negru is becoming strong around the outside. Following Negru 8 . it is most annoying to have a large. Alb can attack with 1 in this diagram. Alb manages to live.. and Alb’s corner group is suffering. 3. Dia. taking away Negru’s room for eyes at the side.

5. but Alb plays 3 and jumps out into the center at 5. This time he has done his damage to the lower side and gotten out into the center as well. If Alb wants to attack on the lower side after the basic joseki. he can answer Alb 1 with 2 in this diagram to connect along the lower side.The right way to attack Dia. Negru can answer strongly at 2. Notice a tesuji which occurs in this shape: if Negru later plays ‘a’. he should play 1 here. After exchanging 6 for 7 Negru takes a good point at 8. but then Alb can play at 9. Alb will answer at ‘b’. If Negru does not feel like fighting. 4. Alb 3 is a sacrifice stone. Dia. 78 . or at some point in the lower left. to fight.

Dia. For one thing. 1 is also a big point for Alb. The sequence begun in the last diagram ends in this way. If he has a good chance to play it. or in something similar. as will be seen in the next diagram. Usually Negru prefers Dia. it revives the possibility of Alb ‘a’. it enlarges Negru’s territory.Dia. A large point Dia. 4-6. it prepares for an attack on the single Negru stone on the right side. 79 . 7. Alb has built up a lot of power in the center while pressing Negru’s territory down to the edge of the board. 6. 4 to this. It prevents the nonsense of Dias. 1 is a big point for Negru. and it protects Negru Δ. For another. 8.

he gains corner profit. The invasion ends in Alb’s getting the corner. 9. Dia. If Negru attacks this way. Considering the presence of Alb Δ. Alb is safe Dia. Negru had better answer Alb 1 by playing 2 right on top of it. 10. The Alb stones in the basic joseki are almost indestructible. Even if Negru gets in the two moves Δ shown in this diagram. 11.Dia. Dia. but in gote. Alb can live easily by playing 1 in the corner. 80 . 12. Alb 4 gives the Alb stones excellent eye-making potential.

Alb attacked at 16. but now Negru played 13 instead of ‘a’. Negru made his squeeze play at 11. This professional game illustrates another of the variations of the basic joseki. for a reason explained in the next diagram. 13. 14. Alb confronted Negru’s stones at 14 and Negru took the key point in the corner at 15.Variations Dia. and answered Negru 17 by connecting underneath at 18. This gives him corner profit. but Alb is more out into the center than before. Dia. and Alb made the diagonal move at 12. One variation in the basic joseki occurs When Negru plays 2 at the three-three point to keep Alb out of the corner. 81 .

instead of kogeima at ‘a’. he could play 5 at ‘a’ to reduce his loss in the corner). (If he did not care so much about sente. 16. even if it does mean playing on the two-three point. if Alb played 4 after the last diagram. 15. however. Dia. these variations illustrate the main themes of the joseki. and it is well worth Alb’s while to take what room there is. was that if Alb played 2. the sliding move into the corner. Negru’s reason for playing ogeima at 1. In this situation. Negru would answer it at 5. In squeeze play joseki there is often competition for room to make eyes at the side of the board. The drawback of the ogeima is that it leaves the weak point at Alb 4. Negru 3 is a stronger attack on the Alb stone in the lower right corner than ‘b’ would be.Dia. 82 . The key move is Alb 3 in the basic joseki diagram. and then use sente to make another attack against the stone in the lower right. he could play 3 instead of ‘b’. In conclusion Taken together.

Negru can cause trouble by playing 2 at 3. 83 . If Negru responds at 2. he can do so with the diagonal tsuke at 1. Let’s begin our study of this joseki by looking at Negru 6. Alb plays 3 and 5 and is safe in the corner. which are shown at the end of this section. for which there is another choice.SECTION 12 When Alb wants to settle the situation. but Alb has ways to deal with that. the usual move.

Negru has a good reply at 2. When playing Δ. However. With Negru Δ on the fourth line. 84 . If Alb simply plays 1. 2. Alb cannot attack so well on the lower side. then Negru’s group is short of eye space. then attack at 5. Negru has to choose between defending one side and defending the other. Dia. 3. aiming to slide under to ‘a’. Alb can attack at 1. This variation is biased toward defense on the lower side. he can play kikashi at I and 3. Dia. If he gets ‘a’ or ‘b’ in addition to 1. 3. Dia. This diagram shows the reason for Alb 1 and 3 in Dia. With Negru Δ low. instead of at ‘a’. 1.Negru 6: third line or fourth? Dia. 4. An important variation in the basic joseki occurs when Negru plays 6 on the third line.

5. Negru has three ways to attack the Alb group. but then ‘b’ is almost sente for Negru. Negru 1 is a large point in the corner. which are shown in the next four diagrams. as regarding both territory and the safety of the Negru and Alb groups. 85 . Here Negru plays it to get Alb’s reaction before extending toward the shimari in the upper right corner. Alb 2 makes good shape and leaves open the possibility of an invasion at ‘a’.Negru takes the offensive After the basic joseki. Dia.

Dia. a vital point in this shape. He cannot get out into the center past Negru 1—for instance. he would play 1 from this direction. 7. Alb 2 would be more appropriate if the shimari in the upper right corner were Negru. he can attack with 1 here. Alb would respond by taking the big point in the corner. Alb can reply at either ‘a’ or ‘b’. Alb 2 here is another way of answering Negru 1. 8. Dia. although in a way Alb is reducing the value of his own shimari by pushing Negru toward it. 6. Instead. Alb ‘c’.Dia. If Negru is concerned with the center. 86 . but then Negru would not play 1. Negru ‘d’. working towards a large territory on the right side.

which is the cutest of the three. We shall confine ourselves to Negru ‘a’. . Dia. but first . . Negru should cut at 4.As you can see. if Negru attacks from one direction. Alb gets out into the center and prepares to attack the stone Δ. Next Negru can play ‘a’. 9. Now we come to the variations in which Negru plays 2 on the three-three point. he provokes a strengthening of Alb’s position. and after Alb 5 it gets complicated. or ‘c’. ‘b’. But the fun comes when Alb plays 3 here to put up a fight for the corner. in some other direction. Negru’s attacks in the last four diagrams are far from being killing attacks. Negru 2 at the three-three point Dia. and a weakening of his own. One way for Alb to proceed is shown here. 87 . 10. and not before he can make an intelligent choice among the three of them. indeed. It follows that Negru should not launch into any of these attacks without reason. While Negru makes some territory on the lower side.

Negru must play 8 and 10. but the only good one Alb has. is not very good. 10. Before getting involved in the difficulties which follow Dia. Continuing from Dia. 11. 13. and Alb must play 9 and 11. you can probably see what is coming next. Dia. a strange-looking play. Dia. 88 . 14. There is only one branch in this variation. 10. Dia. Alb should answer at 7. 12. After these moves. we should point out that Negru 4 in this diagram. Alb has a powerful reply at 5. (instead of the cut at 7).Dia. The finish of this variation: Alb’s wall is imposing. but Negru has a good point left at ‘a’. if Negru plays 6.

In conclusion Complicated variations aside. 89 . SECTION 13 The last variations of the two-point high squeeze play we are going to consider are the ones in which Alb plays tenuki. the one point-squeeze play on the third line. Negru’s next play is usually either ‘a’. but against any squeeze play except. Alb’s purpose in this joseki is to gain safety in sente before moving on to some other part of the board. giving Negru a chance to put another stone into the corner. which lets Alb live easily but gains outside strength. or ‘b’. perhaps. which drives Alb out into the center. Alb 1 and the rest can be used not only against the twopoint squeeze play shown in this section.

Dia. this is the expected result. 1. and then Alb can think about attacking on the right side. Negru generally plays 5 at ‘b’ to defend against Alb ‘a’.Negru plays tsuke at the three-four point Dia. but Alb has possibilities at ‘a’ which he is trying not to disturb. After Alb 9 it is Negru’s turn. When Negru plays 1 at the three-four point. but he has lots to worry about: his stones on the outside are weak and his corner is not yet alive. 90 . This explains the weakness that exists after Dia. Alb 4 may look like a feeble move. 1. 2.

9). Dia. or play 11 at 13.Dia. Alb takes the corner with 4. but that play depends on a shicho. The only drawback of this shape is that if Alb later gets to attack at ‘a’. and he has sente if Alb connects the ko. (see Dia. Dia. 91 . In another variation. Negru can avoid having to worry about the possibility of Dia. ‘a’ is the most desirable point. 2 by playing 3 here. 3. Negru plays tsuke on the outside Dia. and Negru plays double hane at 5 and 7. Here is one variation. Negru’s double hane in the last diagram enables him to make a perfect wall on the outside. Negru plays 3 at 4. it is not hard for Alb to make two eyes in the corner or on the right side. For Alb 2. 4. Negru will find himself cramped in the corner. When Negru plays 1 here. Negru connects at 3. he can omit Negru 13. If Negru is worried that Alb might not connect and wants to be sure of sente. Alb plays 2. 5. and so Alb may have to play ‘b’ instead. 6.

In comparison with Dia. now lets see how they apply in a couple of actual situations. Alb pushes in between the Negru stones at 2 to put some cutting points into Negru’s shape. After Negru 5 this variation gets complicated Alb is barred from the corner. Alb cannot play 2 unless the shicho in this diagram is good for him. 7 and 8 has to be modified a bit. Alb 7 and Negru 8 are the same as before. Alb makes a counter-squeeze play Dia. A similar situation occurs when Alb plays 2 at 4 and Negru plays 3 at 5. but if it is not.Dia. but now 92 . Here is one possible continuation from Dia 7. it is more prudent of Negru to play 6 than ‘a’. Negru has all sorts of weaknesses for Alb to aim at. 8. When possible. but a countersqueeze play. 7. 10. Dia. but he can make shape on the side by playing ‘a’ or ‘b’. (although ‘a’ is not impossible). 9. so if Negru plays 2 and Alb plays 3. If it is. then of course he is more than happy with this result. the sequence of Dias. then he is in great trouble. 6 on the previous page. These are the basic variations. Dia. Since Alb 1 is so close. Alb 1 in this diagram is not a tenuki.

Let’s see how this affects the joseki. After Alb 3. and if Alb plays 2. 93 . Negru should play 3. This time Negru 1 is correct. 12. Negru ‘e’ would weaken Alb 1 too much. Negru ‘c’.Alb simply plays 9 instead of ‘b’. This is because Alb ‘b’. Alb 4 to 12 are one way to proceed from here. Negru has no good move. Here Alb has a stone out at Δ on the lower side. 11. Alb ‘d’. Negru 2 at the three-three point is bad. Alb’s stone is farther away Dia. Dia. In answer to Alb 1.

14. however. inviting this exchange. 13. which does not bode well for the fighting that should develop from Alb 6.15. for after the usual joseki shown here. On the third line. If he wishes. Dia. 94 . Negru ‘a’ would be too close to it to be efficient. then after Alb 4 he wants to play 5 as shown to confront Alb Δ while defending against Alb ‘a’. Negru 5 offers no resistance to Alb’s movements in the center. Alb Δ makes Negru 1 a doubtful move. Negru cannot make good use of his wall. Alb can answer Negru 1 more loosely at 2.Dia. If Negru plays keima at 3. Dia.

The order of Negru 1 and 3 may be reversed. If Negru answers Alb 1 by capturing Alb Δ then Negru Δ becomes greatly weakened. and Alb has again cut into Negru’s prospective territory. Dia. 16. he still has good chances of reviving his original stone. Even when he plays tenuki twice. too. After Dia. but he is by no means giving up the corner. provided that Negru is not too strong in the surrounding area. He still has ways of breaking up Negru’s position. When Negru plays 1. 95 . Alb can probably live with this sequence. starting with Alb ‘a’. Dia. of course Alb is giving Negru a local advantage. 16. In conclusion By playing tenuki. Alb can play another tenuki and let Negru have 3. 18. 17.A second tenuki Dia.

(which works out about as in section 10). or at ‘b’. we will use this section and the next two to look at three other squeeze plays often used against the kogeima kakari. as always. Negru 1 above is the most aggressive of them all. starting with the former. 96 . or ‘d’. or he can. ‘c’. for it gives Alb the least room in which to operate. ignore Negru 1. We shall restrict ourselves to Alb ‘b’ and ‘d’. Alb can answer at ‘a’.SECTION 14 After spending the last five sections on the two-point high squeeze play.

on the lower side. (Alb ‘a’. 1. for in the running fight to come. 2. Negru defends the lower side with 3. Dia. If a chase into the Alb has a kikashi at ‘a’ he can use. Alb should not try 4 unless he is backed up in the upper right corner and can expect a good profit on the right side. third line. be making third-line territory.Alb 2: one-point jump Dia. and now it seems natural for Alb to attack the other side with 4. and Negru will than fourth-line 97 . rather territory. Negru ‘b’). which no reservations center develops. When Negru plays 3 on the is also joseki. on the lower side. Alb’s one-point jump to 2 is the most generally useful answer to Negru 1. he is likely to find himself pushing Negru along the fourth line. then there need be about playing 4. but Negru fights back with 5.

When he plays 4 in the last diagram. Be careful of the order of 7 and 9. 98 . Alb can answer it at 7 instead of 10. 3. 4. trying to avoid a running battle. If Negru plays 9 first. But when Negru plays keima with 3.Dia. Dia. and he can make an eye for his group by playing ‘c’ when the time comes. At the end of this diagram Alb is in a position to attack either at ‘a’ or at ‘b’. Alb may prefer to play 4 this way. this sequence is what Alb expects.

Dia. The joseki usually ends about like this. 5. 99 . We will not even try to go through the variations. Negru can push through and cut with 5 and 7. 7. it is common for Alb to attack from that direction with 4. Dia. Alb has good shape for making eyes on the right side. bending around Negru 5 and protecting the cutting point at ‘a’. Negru naturally answers with 5.Dia. although you can probably see some of the possibilities for yourself. 6. Alb 6 and 8 are a good combination. Even though Negru plays 3 to defend the lower side. but this can get very difficult. Instead of passively playing the previous sequence.

100 . Although it is always hard to say which squeeze play would be best. Dia. He cannot use it to attack Alb’s group. Negru plays 5 to defend the lower side. This is joseki. which is alive. 8. After Alb 4 there are essentially two variations. In one of them. and Alb cuts at 6.Alb 2: tsuke Dia. Negru wants his territory on the right side to be as large as possible. especially considering the possibility of Alb ‘a’. and he has not made much territory with it. so he plays 1 as far down as he can. but in the present circumstances Negru’s strength in the upper right goes to waste. Alb resists by pushing Negru back toward his strong position in the upper right with 2. 9. here is one situation in which Negru 1 looks appropriate.

10. In conclusion When Negru makes his squeeze play as close as this. Alb can attack on the lower side at 6. except that it is played on the fourth line. So in this case Negru had better choose the other variation and connect at 5. as seen in many of the diagrams of this section. 101 . he is putting maximum pressure on Alb. but at the same time it becomes possible for Alb to push back on Negru in one way or another. marked ‘a’ to ‘e’. of which ‘c’ and ‘d’ are the most interesting. Alb has five different ways to answer it.Dia. SECTION 15 This squeeze play is like the one in the previous section. Negru’s simplest course is to live in the corner with 7 and the rest.

This gains corner profit. he might play 5 at 6 to start a fight. Negru can play 7. after which Alb will probably play on the lower side to counter Negru’s wall. Negru can play it on the three-three point. Negru jumps out to 5. and Alb connects underneath at 6. or he can carry on as in one of the next two diagrams. 2. and 11 to strengthen his position. 1. In the usual joseki Alb attacks at 4. Negru can attack at ‘a’. straight up between Negru’s two stones. 3. however. 9. Dia. Dia. Instead of playing 11 as in the last diagram. taking no chances. and if Negru has a lot of strength in the upper right corner we imagine Alb playing ‘a’ instead of 4. Alb 2. 102 . and in the corner ‘b’ is a very large point. but now Negru’s ‘a’ is not as menacing as before.Alb 2: one-point jump Dia. looks like the most natural answer to Negru 1. Both Negru ‘a’ and ‘b’ threaten a hane at ‘c’. After this diagram Negru can play tenuki. If Negru has some strength in the upper right corner.

He often does this last. since he has a good play at ‘a’ to use if Negru attacks. 5. By the way. After Negru 7. The keima at 2 is more flexible than the one-point jump. When Negru plays keima with 3. Negru 3 is one good answer to it. Dia. After 9. or he can leave the position as it is. Negru 5 here is a lighter answer to Alb 4. and now Alb can continue by attacking Negru 1.Alb 2: keima Dia. too. 4. Before playing 5 Negru should think about playing ‘a’ in the corner. Dia. One thing he can do is to play 4. 103 . Negru has more room on the right side. hoping Alb will answer at ‘b’. Alb has ‘b’ or ‘c’ to play. and the sequence shown here is joseki. Negru’s three stones on the right side do not have eye shape yet. Alb cannot ignore it. 6. although he also has some cutting points. but Alb has not made eyes yet either. On the lower side. Negru cannot answer Alb 2 at ‘b’ because of Alb ‘a’. another good move. and this is joseki. Alb might continue at ‘a’.

Alb is alive in the corner. which threatens ‘a’. 9. 8. 10. to live on the right side. Alb 2: tsuke Dia. and the joseki usually ends with Negru 17.Dia. Dia. Continuing from the last diagram. since he may need to connect at ‘c’. 7. And here is a similar one starting with the tsuke at the three-three point. Alb can answer Negru’s keima at 3 by playing 4 at the three-three point. This sequence is a simple joseki. 104 . but he may not want to provoke Alb ‘c’ by doing so. In the early endgame Alb ‘a’ is a very large play. (which forces Alb ‘a). A more complicated joseki occurs when Negru answers Alb 4 by cutting with 5. Dia. Here is one joseki stemming from a Alb tsuke at 2. Negru plays kikashi at 11 before defending the lower side. 11. and he fights on the outside by playing 10. 7. so as to live quickly in the corner. and 9. Negru can prevent it by playing ‘b’. Dia.

We are skipping over Negru’s squeeze plays at ‘a’ and ‘b’ for reasons mentioned in the introduction to this chapter. Because of this. but they are too far away to have a strong effect on the corner. Plays farther up the side than Negru 1 or ‘b’ are possible. 105 . as can be seen from the joseki shown in this section. the three-point low squeeze play. SECTION 16 Our discussion of the kogeima kakari ends with Negru 1. it tends to lead to solid and settled positions more often than the other squeeze plays.In conclusion Negru 1 is the most forceful of all the squeeze plays.

as shown. For example. 106 . he can settle for making good shape in the corner with the sequence that starts with 2 and ends with Negru 7 or ‘a’. 1.Two Common joseki Dia. Many players would play 1 at 4. Alb has a shimari in the upper right corner. 1. Dia. In this shape Negru can get some room for eyes by playing ‘a’. This would be appropriate if. If Alb is not in a position to take the offensive. or on the point between 1 and 4. if there is a Negru shimari in the upper right corner. Alb would certainly prefer this way to Dia. 2. One way to meet Negru 1 is with the twopoint jump to 2 and the counter-squeeze play at 4. but his stone is under attack all the same. to avoid this kind of attack.

When Alb plays 8. Here is a situation in which the three-point squeeze play is often made. and after another atari at 11 he connects at 13. The sequence up to Negru 9 is almost like the one in Dia. 2. which changes things considerably. 3. for then Alb 9 would leave him with no eye shape. 1 or 2. Negru must not connect at 10. 5. Keima Dia. Negru can make shape in the corner with 5. instead of following Dia. Negru frequently plays a move like 3. When Alb plays keima at 4. but Alb can play 8 at 9.Tenuki Dia. ‘b’. Dia. He has to play atari at 9. For Alb 4 there are three possibilities—’a’. 107 . and ‘c’—which we shall look at in turn. Since Alb 2 does not really put much pressure on Negru 1. 4.

Alb cuts at 14 and Negru has to play 15. Negru can no longer accomplish much by playing ‘a’ in the corner. 7. Dia. Notice that Alb would now prefer to have Δ at ‘a’. The fighting might continue this way. Alb makes a satisfying amount of territory as Negru pushes him along the side. so he will fight with 5 and 7 instead. 8.Dia. 108 . but Negru has a big wall and sente to make a wide extension on the lower side. Now we come to the diagonal play at Alb 4. Diagonal play Dia. 6. to give himself more room on the lower side. Continuing. (This does not mean that Δ was a bad play to begin with).

but it provokes Negru 5. This is the most aggressive way to attack. 109 . 10. If Alb wants to keep Negru out of the corner. Tsuke Dia. 10. and it gets complicated. Dia. This is joseki in some situations. Negru plays 9 to build a living position. and with his two-stone wall Negru can cap Alb’s stone on the right side at 7. it is rather cowardly. After Alb 8. 11. 2). and Alb needs to defend. Continuing from Dia. this is one possibility. Dia. but here. a defensive way of playing. After settling his own position. (just as in section 13. Another way for Negru to answer Alb 4 is to dive into the corner at 5. considering that Negru has two stones in the upper right corner. he can do so by playing 4. Negru is aiming at the point ‘a’.Dia. 9.

Dia. either of which separates the two Negru stones. or with a tsuke at ‘c’. and the only one that is going to find its way into the present book. for instance. SECTION 17 Of the squeeze plays that can be used against Alb 1 above. Negru 2 is the oldest. One way to continue is with 10 to 13. Alb can reply to it with ‘a’ or ‘b’. a double-threat move which prepares for either Alb ‘a’ or Alb ‘b’.In conclusion This and other long-range squeeze plays give both sides a fair amount of room to work with. The last of these is the subject of this section. or if Negru plays ‘b’. Running fight Dia. Against Alb 3. If Negru connects at ‘a’. Alb’s defense is at 7. Alb strikes on the right side at 9. then 110 . If Negru defends the lower side with 8. 1. one which makes it a bit hard for Negru to get good shape on the right side. Negru announces his intention to engage in a running fight by playing 4 and 6. ‘d’. as in Dias. That makes them especially useful as invasions between the kakari stone and a position in the adjacent corner. Alb 13 is a solid play. or ‘e’. 2. 1 and 3. Alb will attack him with ‘b’.

as in some others. similar to the many other running fights that have appeared so far in this chapter. 1 to 3 we have a typical running fight provoked by a squeeze play. In Dias. which can lead to a hard and desperate battle. In another variation Alb uses 13 to cut at ‘a’. In the present joseki. then Alb attacks on the lower side with 9. and similar to ones that develop when Alb plays 3 at ‘a’. Dia. as we shall see next. if Negru does not want to assume a separated shape. and this sequence is joseki. 3. or ‘c’ in the diagram at the head of this section. there is a way for him to avoid it. Negru can handle this onslaught with 10. ‘b’. If Negru defends the right side with 8. however. 111 . Negru still plays 12). (If Alb tries to play 11 at ‘a’.Alb has ‘a’.

The joseki continues as shown up to Negru 16. When Negru plays atari underneath with 8.Negru moves to connect Dia. or by making a wide extension on the lower side. 112 . Alb’s only way to fight is to push in between Negru’s two stones at 7. Negru plays 8 underneath Dia. 4. unfortunately. Negru joins up his position by cutting in behind Alb 3 and reaching up the side with 4 and 6. both of which. lead to complications. and Alb can finish it by playing 17. Alb should reply with a counter-atari at 9. Negru can next play either ‘a’ or ‘b’. 5.

that improves things somewhat. and Negru has no choice but to play 10 and 12. 7. but Alb has sente. And now there is the case in which Negru plays 8 from above. If Alb can capture the stone in shicho by playing ‘a’ instead of 13. Alb plays 9. Considered in isolation. and while Alb captures one stone on the right side. If Alb just connects with 9. Dia. this exchange is good for Alb.Dia. At this point the joseki branches into two variations. When Alb plays atari at 9. Alb captures at 13 and Negru captures at 14. but then Alb does likewise. Negru has a chance to capture with 10. but Negru is still happy. and he can cut off Alb 15 by playing ‘a’. 6. Negru plays 8 from above Dia. In the simpler one. 113 . then Negru can play 10. this exchange is generally good for Negru. 9. 8. Dia. Negru has the stronger position.

and the fight goes on. and the battle continues until they become stabilized. or he can give them up by pushing through with ‘b’ and onwards. (see Dia. but then Alb continues to develop on the right side with 17. This diagram shows the first possibility. 10. 114 . Dia. 12). These moves are not hard to understand. then the variation in Dia. Negru connects at 18. capturing Alb 15 in return. 9 would be rather good for Negru. a Negru shimari in the upper right corner. and Alb would like to avoid it. Negru gets the corner with 14 and 16.Dia. He can connect his two stones at ‘a’. he can do so by playing 13. 11. If there is. Depending on a shicho. Now again Negru has two choices. say. Alb continues at 19. At the end of this diagram there are three weak groups on the board. This second possibility we leave you to figure out for yourself.

he can choose the variation of Dias. only one variation. for Negru.Dia. If he wants to strike a bargain with Alb and settle the situation quickly. After the cross-cut at 5 there is. he can choose from among the other variations of this joseki. 12. SECTION 18 In the last section of the chapter we see Negru making a squeeze play against the ogeima kakari. In conclusion Alb cannot play 13 if the shicho shown here works If Negru wants to embark on a protracted running fight. 115 . Alb can handle the situation with a tsuke at the threethree point. for a change. 1 to 3.

The idea behind the ogeima kakari Dia. strong position in the upper right corner. but he knows that 3 and 5 will give him a good position in the corner. If Negru answers it at 2. Dia. 116 . Alb rather expects a squeeze play like 2. Alb will be quite satisfied to extend up the right side at 3. By comparison. The ogeima kakari is appropriate when Negru has a large. it is not as easy for Alb to handle his stone. 3. if Alb plays a kogeima kakari at 1 and Negru makes the same squeeze play at 2. 1. Dia. forming a safe position which greatly reduces the effectiveness of Negru’s strength. 2.

after the crosscut at 5. one thing he can do is to exchange 12 for 13. To continue with the joseki. This is simple. 4. but whatever the strategic merits of Negru’s position on the right side. Dia. Alb 11 is a possible stopping-place for the sequence. Alb will play 9 and dominate the corner by capturing Negru 6. If Negru reverses the order of 6 and 8. Negru can play tenuki after Dia. 117 . then connects at 10. 5. his opponent has taken the corner. Be careful of the order of Negru 6 and 8. but if he keeps on. Negru plays atari at 6 and 8. 4. Dia.The joseki Dia. 6.

but Alb has nothing to complain of as he springs out into the center. Negru can stubbornly play 4 and 6 to make Alb fight on the right side. Especially considering the closeness of Δ. 118 . should that become necessary. which could go about like this. Negru may want to play 12 on the lower side to provoke some fighting. Dia. In conclusion This section illustrates the kind of thinking that makes for good go strategy. 7. 8.Dia. taking his own profits in the corner where the taking is easier. It is not hard for him to make two eyes on the side. Alb anticipates Negru’s squeeze play and deals with it by giving Negru what he wants on the right side.

Alb 1 in Dia. but in this chapter we will be talking only about Alb 1 in Dia. 2. Of course a kakari is still possible. at the very beginning of the game. Alb 1 in Dia. 1 and a similar play. instead of making a kakari from the outside. say. Negru can hold Alb to a small territory in the corner and along one side while building himself a strong. 1. The difference is that now Alb has enough room to invade at 1 in Dia. On the other hand. or when there are some Alb stones near enough to be endangered by a newly-created. Such an exchange can be bad for Alb if made. if Alb stays away from the corner too long. 119 . 1 is not always a good play. is in a considerably different position from one played closer in to the corner. centerfacing wall. like the Negru one in Dia.CHAPTER 4 Four-four point joseki: invasion and tsuke INTRODUCTION A stone on the four-four point. Negru will close it off by adding another stone. 1. Let’s look at a couple of situations in which the threethree point invasion is appropriate. strong Negru position.

for it will eat up more than half of Negru’s prospective territory. which aims into Alb’s territory on the side. 6. 4. Negru will come out of the joseki with a good deal of probable territory on the outside. Negru area. Dia. Negru could more or less secure his corner territory with 1 in Dia. but that cannot be helped. If Alb lets Negru play 3 in Dia. (This does not mean that Negru 1. the three-three point is the key point for reducing it.When Negru makes a double wing formation around his stone. as in Dia. 120 . 3. then there will be no easy invasion route left open into the huge. is a bad play. 5 shows the same idea on a smaller scale. Here Alb 2 is especially destructive. but then Alb would be happy to play 2).

then. but generally it is easy to see which is better. the invader can expect to get only a small area for himself. In 121 . the kakari to be studied in the next chapter is better. The problem. the three-three point invasion is a weapon for taking away the opponent’s territory. 7 or 8 is best. For building territory.As these two examples may hint. becomes which side to push on. How is a three-three point invasion answered? Almost always a contact play like Negru 2 in Dia.

and no chance to make territory. for instance. Negru has more room for territory on the upper side than on the left side. 7. In Dia. And what comes after Negru 2? Let’s take a look. ‘Block in the direction of your widest extension’ is the general rule. on the upper side. so naturally he plays 2. so he plays 2 to get what little he can on the left side. each in an appropriate setting. SECTION 19 There are a good many variations to the three-three point invasion. 8 Negru has no extension. 122 .Dia. In this section we will show the major ones.

as he usually does. Alb. 1. although it is not the most common. Negru holds Alb down into the corner. has gotten to play the fairly large hane at 9 and can later push out further from the corner at ‘a’. 123 .Basic variation Dia. building a wall in the center which here works well with the stones marked Δ. This sequence might be called the basic variation. If Negru wants to stop his opponent from getting so much profit in sente. Double hane Dia. all this in sente. 2. however. he can play this double hane. Three variations follow.

3. For example. and the Dia. Negru plays this way if he has no particularly good use for sente. In the second variation Alb plays 7 and 9 as before. but this time Negru chooses to take the corner in gote with 10 and 12. and 12. He can also play on the point ‘e’ to good effect. or some other point on outside. ‘a’. 4. Alb can play ‘c’. or if he needs the corner to secure room for two eyes. 10. 124 . then Negru can play 14. and Alb can hardly help but connect the ko at 13. and then play ‘d’ in sente because of the threat of Alb ‘a’. In the first one. Alb can be satisfied because his two captured stones still have some life left in them—visualize the exchange of Alb ‘a’ for Negru ‘b’. Negru builds his wall in sente with 8.Dia. Alb plays atari at 7.

If he plays tenuki. for instance. Alb uses this joseki when the upper side is more important than the left. in the corner. but there are times when it is better to play hane at the other end. Here. where Alb is very strong. which of course he can do with his pon-nuki shape. if Alb wants to play another stone in this area he has a good point at ‘a’. Negru has no prospects on the left side. In the third variation Alb breaks out of the corner by playing 7 and 9 on the upper side. for example when Negru’s extension on the upper side is wider than his extension on the left. threatening a double atari at 10. 125 . Negru 4: hane in the corner In the variations so far Negru played his fourth move at the open end of Alb’s stones. which exploits the dead stones left in the corner. as in this diagram. taking sente and defending the largest possible amount of territory on the upper side. 6. After Negru 14. Dia. so he answers Alb 3 at 4.Dia. 5. then ‘b’ will be a good point for Negru.

the hane at 4 is again appropriate. This ko is. on the upper side. 7. Alb can still play 1.Dia. If Alb wants to avoid the hane of Negru 4 in Dias. The joseki continues as shown in this diagram and the next. like . and Alb has just enough room to live in gote in the corner. Dia. Dia. 10. 6 and 7. Dia. 3. then Negru might be able to kill the corner by playing 10 at 13. for Alb does not have enough room to live in any other way. 11. 9. When Negru has an extension to Δ on the left side and wider one. Negru 6 deprives the Alb group of room for two 126 . Alb has to be careful not to play 11 until Negru has connected at 10. If Negru plays 6. Alb plays hane first Dia. making a large ko. 8. Alb should be ready to answer with 7. in fact. When Negru Δ is as close in as this. and 5. This gives him the cut at ‘a’ or the squeeze-tsuke at ‘b’ to aim at. for if he exchanged 11 for 12 first. the usual joseki when Negru has a stone at Δ. he can do so by playing 3 and 5.

Alb can live with the hane at 5. Dia. 13. the diagonal play at Alb 3 becomes the proper way to live. 127 . Dia. but Negru cannot attack as long as the cutting point at ‘a’ remains undefended.eyes. When Negru has added a stone at Δ. 14. but even dead stones can be put to use. We leave this life and death problem for you to work out on your own. If Negru plays 4 and 6. 12. Alb 7 does not quite assure him of two eyes in the corner. Alb will aim at the points ‘a’ and ‘b’ as before. then Alb can get room for eyes by hopping down the side to 7. Or if Negru blocks Alb’s extension down the side. and his corner may yet live. Diagonal play Dia.

seeing how it works in combination with a kakari from the outside. but Alb ‘a’ aims only at living in the corner. is with a three-three point invasion at ‘a’. 10 and 11. 128 . the invader can live quite easily. as in either of the two diagrams above.In conclusion This is what to expect of a three-three point invasion made out of the blue. while Alb 1 has more to do with the outside. as you have seen in the last section. SECTION 20 When Negru has made a two-stone shimari based on a stone at the four-four point. Except in cases such as Dias. one way of attacking it is with the tsuke at Alb 1. Another way. In the next chapter we will return to this invasion. so to speak.

and Alb extends on the left side to 7 or. 129 . Negru plays 6. if there are other Negru forces in the area. 1.The usual answer to Alb 1 is either ‘a’ or ‘b’. Inner hane Dia. but there will be cutting points left in his shape which Alb can take aim at from the outside. If Negru plays ‘a’. Negru and Alb connect at 4 and 5. the standard joseki calls for Alb to play hane at 3. then he may be able to keep Alb in the corner. Alb 1 has a way of leading to very complicated sequences. 3. If Negru plays ‘b’. to ‘a’. Dia. In the simplest continuation. and what follow are only the most common of them. The same pattern can arise from an attack on an ogeima shimari based from the three-three point. Dia. Let’s start by considering the case in which Negru answers Alb 1 by defending his corner with 2. then Alb can develop a position on the left side while slightly reducing Negru’s corner territory. When Negru has the formation shown here. 2.

into the center. He need not be afraid of the cut at ‘a’—Alb ‘a’. 7. then Negru can play 6. and Alb dies—and Negru 6 prevents Alb from extending into the center. Negru ‘b’. Alb can get eye shape by playing there himself. The order of playing 3 and 5 is important. again expecting Negru 6. threatening both ‘a’ and ‘b’. Dia. Here Negru has a stone at Δ. 4. Alb 7. or he can play ‘a’. he now makes a kaketsugi at 5. Instead of following Dia. Negru ‘d’. . and so Alb does not have room for a satisfactory extension on the left side. or he can jump out to ‘b’. . and a ko fight. Dia. 7. and 9. If Negru protects against the former by playing 10 in the next diagram . 5. Alb will make a wall with 11 and 13. depending on the surrounding positions. 6. What if Negru answers Alb 3 by cutting at 4? This too is joseki. If Negru does not play 6. 130 . 3. as here. The way for Alb to handle it is to play 5. This gives him a very nice base from which to extend down the left side or. inviting Negru to start a ko fight.Dia. Alb ‘c’. If Alb reverses them. Dia.

9. and Alb does not want to invade at the three-three point for fear that Negru will get too much territory on the outside. Negru can pressure him with the sequence from 6 to 10. but we will leave them in order to go on to the case in which Negru answers Alb 1 by playing hane from the outside. and now Alb can play 3. There are a good many other variations besides the ones above. but has the advantage that Alb cannot play 6 in sente. But here Negru has an ogeima shimari. If Alb simply extends to 5. 131 . This gives up points in the corner. This joseki is frequently used when Negru has an extension like Δ. Dia. since he is not afraid of Negru’s playing 6 at ‘a’.Dia. In this variation Negru plays 4 instead of ‘a’. 8.

the standard joseki calls for Alb to play counterhane. 10. although ‘a’ and ‘b’ are other possibilities. which is sometimes correct. as shown here. 11. We leave you to find for yourself what happens if Negru plays atari at ‘b’ instead of 4. 12. Dia. Next Negru plays 6. when Negru has a one-pointjump shimari. 132 . then Alb’s connection at 5 is the usual play. If Negru connects at 4. In this diagram Alb gets a good life in the corner. There is a second way for Alb to play counter-hane with 3. Once again. and Alb lives in the corner. Dia.Outer hane Dia. and can aim to cut at ‘a’ later. with the cut at ‘a’ or the squeeze-tsuke at ‘b’ left as sizeable threats.

If Negru plays 18 as shown. and 15 in sente. If Negru answers at 19. 13. Negru seems to be trying to kill all the Alb stones when he plays 4 and 6. Alb can play 17 here. (Alb ‘a’. the outcome of which will be determined by the presence or absence of other stones in its path. Sacrificing two stones.Dia. 13. 13 Dia. Dia. then Alb plays 18 and gets up to the third line and out into the open. 15. If he cannot afford to live so humbly. This is one of the more complicated variations. and then live by crawling along the second line. etc.). 14. Dia. 131 133 . then a crawling battle develops on the left side. Alb can play 11. a tesuji worth taking note of. Negru ‘b’. but Alb can cope by cutting at 7.

It is. In conclusion The tsuke at 1 yields far more complications than the simple three-three point invasion of the last section. Negru will play 6. 10. Another. He has something to aim for in the cut at ‘a’. 16. however. 18. As before. except that now Alb gets his best result by playing nobi with 3 instead of hane. 17. and Alb can live safely with 7 to 13. Dia. The last combination of possibilities is when Negru has an ogeima shimari and answers Alb 1 from the outside. Alb can also play 3 like this. reflecting the fact that its purpose is less clearly defined —it can lead either to life in the corner or to a battle on the outside. The joseki shown here is about like the one in Dia. but we leave that for a more advanced book. Following the last diagram. 134 . surprisingly complicated family of variations starts when Alb plays ‘a’ instead of 5.Dia. The mutual connections at 4 and 5 form one joseki. Dia. an important tool for getting into a territorial framework based around a stone on the four-four point.

and Alb comes skipping out of the corner at 11. and then he will make a kakari from the appropriate direction. Alb can go right to 3. however. but it need not go to waste. he is more concerned with making shape on one side or the other than with ravaging the corner territory. More often than not. when Alb plays against a stone on the four-four point. Alb 1 in Dia. for two reasons.CHAPTER 5 Four-four point joseki: kakari INTRODUCTION In the last chapter we studied the three-three point invasion and the three-four point tsuke. Alb 1 has been cut off. moves which make an immediate penetration into the corner. The second reason is that Alb 1 works well with an invasion at ‘b’. After Alb 9. Negru would like to make a kaketsugi by playing at the point on which Alb 1 rests. 1 is the best kakari to make against a stone on the four-four point. All other things being equal. For example. if Negru answers Alb 1 with a squeeze play at 2 in Dia. so he has to make do with the shapeless tight connection at 10. but he cannot. 2. Alb can play 135 . The first is that from 1 Alb can slide into the corner by playing ‘a’.

136 . then turn to some other part of the board where he has more of a chance to make territory. which is mostly Negru’s domain. attacking Negru’s eyeless group. 4. expecting Negru ‘b’. he could not expect to keep sente. as at 2 in Dia. 3. In Dia. but Alb can then leave the left side as it is and turn elsewhere. and he has a useful move at ‘b’. But a kakari is made in order to develop on the side. he can play another ogeima kakari at ‘a’. 1. and frequently the conditions dictate some choice other than Alb 1 in Dia.‘a’. too. (or right away). Usually he plays his kakari at 2. and Negru’s corner territory will not be unduly large. If Alb made a kogeima kakari. After Negru 3 he would still have to defend against the possible invasion at ‘c’. Later. Alb would like to deal quickly with the left side. a common opening position. Negru may answer at 3.

and Alb can continue with 3. Negru 2 is the usual answer. as in Dia. 6. using his wall in the lower left to develop a huge potential area. reducing Alb’s left side to easily manageable proportions. Negru would answer with 2 and 4.Dia. and starting to make a large area of his own on the upper side. If Alb played a kogeima kakari. 137 . 5 shows one kind of position in which Alb should make a high kakari at 1.

then after Negru 2 he would be vulnerable to an invasion behind 1. Better to have 1 up on the fourth line. 138 . because Negru can always jump out to ‘d’ to keep Alb from getting any territory on the left side. If Alb played any higher up. say at ‘b’. (at ‘c’).In Dia. Compare this with Negru ‘a’. 7 we see the 2-point high kakari being used to give room for eyes to the Alb group on the left side and to reduce Negru’s potential area in the upper left. where it will be of use in the fighting to come in the center. There would be no point in playing 1 on the third line. The choice of Alb 1 is easily understood.

24. 11 is not very good for Alb. Now let’s look at a few more. 10. supporting an extension to 1. 8 are reasonable answers to Alb 1 in various circumstances. all of the points marked in Dia. 23. You have already seen a couple of them in the preceding diagrams. and it will be treated in sections 21. then Alb 3 becomes very effective. Dia. aiming to slip under Negru’s stone to ‘b’. Besides starting to build territory on the upper side. 11. who will have to care for two weak groups while Negru attacks from his own strong one. Another weakness is that Alb may sooner or later play 3 in Dia. but if there are some additional Alb stones in the surrounding area. 9 is the one-point jump at Negru 2. Considered in isolation. and 25. The standard answer to a kakari at 1. or ‘b’ in Dia. 139 . The chief weakness in this move is that Alb can still invade the corner easily at ‘a’.There is a wide choice of ways to answer a kakari. ‘a’. Negru 2 makes a good base for jumping out into the center. in Dia. or to one of the points marked x.

or ‘a’. but it is not as strong on defense. 13 used to be the standard reply to Alb 1. Negru would do well to play 2 on the third line instead of at ‘a’. Negru 2 in Dia. and it is still used. 12. for instance. for defensive purposes. threatens an invasion at ‘c’. Then if Alb attacks with 3. Negru 2 is often used when Alb plays 1. It aims at making a larger corner territory than Negru ‘a’. Negru can make a secure corner enclosure with 4. in Dia.In Dia. 14. With the Alb stone so 140 . for instance. Alb ‘b’.

Negru should play this way whenever he already has a strong formation around the middle of the upper side. It would be an over concentration of strength. and Alb could easily invade at the three-three point. 15 we have a good case where Negru 2. In Dia. 141 . or Negru ‘a’. is correct. and so there is not so much point in his playing 2 at ‘b’.far removed from the corner there is not much point in Negru’s advancing toward the center. 16 would be incorrect here. and 25. 12 will be mentioned alongside the one-point jump in sections 21. Negru 2 secures the corner. This Negru 2 and the Negru 2 in Dia. Negru 2 in Dia. 24. and of course it also attacks Alb 1.

and nothing too serious will happen if Negru lets Alb attack a second time. as in Dia. Alb usually makes his second move from the other side. and we shall study these double-kakari joseki in sections 28 and 29.The tsuke responses to a kakari are treated in sections 22 and 26. or to construct Negru territory there. one common answer to a Alb kakari is no answer at all. Finally. as in Dia. 142 . A kakari is not as pressing an attack as the three-three point invasion or the three-four point tsuke. too. Squeeze plays are common. 17. The squeeze play in Dia. 19 is also made for constructive purposes. A squeeze play may be used to keep Alb from building territory on the side. an interesting idea that we will be looking at in section 27. 18.

easily defended positions. Alb’s weakness Dia. 143 . it seems that the most frequently used four-four point joseki is the one on the left above. in which Negru answers Alb’s kogeima kakari with a one-point jump to 2. in which Negru makes a kogeima with 2. he can make it even harder for Alb to reach the center by playing the moves in this diagram. Negru defends at 4.SECTION 21 Basic joseki 21 If we survey recent Japanese professional games. Observe that Alb’s stones in the basic joseki are all on the second or third line. The variation on the right. is quite similar and will also appear in this section. If Negru does not mind solidifying Alb’s position. Both sides get stable. This means that it is not so easy for him to extend upwards into the center. 1. let’s get Alb’s main weakness out of the way first. and Alb makes a two-point extension to 5. Alb slides into the corner at 3. (next page) Since we will have lots to say shortly about Negru’s weaknesses in this joseki.

The drawback of this move is that it gives Negru a good attacking point at ‘a’. it can almost be considered as part of the basic joseki.Dia. it is a good idea for him to answer 1 at 2. Dia. 2 in this diagram and the last is such a big point that Negru should seize any reasonable excuse to play it. Just from the standpoint of corner territory. A Negru extension to the point ‘a’ is a large move. Negru 2 is usually the correct answer to Alb 1. On the upper side Dia. he can play 1 here instead of extending on the third line. since if Negru lets Alb play both 1 and 2. If Alb wants a higher position. he will find himself short of eye space. 144 . 2. Even when Negru has made the defensively stronger kogeima. 4. Alb has a good move at 1. 3. If Negru does not get around to playing ‘a’.

Since it is so large. by playing 2. 5 at 8 still gives him a big profit. Dia. Occasionally Negru plays 4 at ‘a’ to make eye shape. but that gives Alb the play at ‘b’. although it is usually too slow to be worth playing in the opening. If Alb cannot afford to have his two stones on the left side cut off. he may fall victim to this sequence. 5. he can gain some more by exchanging 3 for 4. 7. let’s see what happens when Alb plays 1. Alb has made a big gain as compared with a Negru play at 1. If Negru fails to answer Alb 1 in the previous diagram. 6.Alb plays the key point in the corner Dia. Even if Negru does answer Alb 1. 145 . Later. Dia. although this solidifies Negru’s corner somewhat. This is more a middle game move than an endgame move.

Dia. suppose that Negru has let Alb play both of the stones marked Δ in Dia. since Alb can play 2. 8. (What we have to say here applies equally to the case where Negru Δ is on the fourth line. 8. 8. Alb easily connects to his stone on the upper side.Dia. 146 . To point up one of the principal dangers in this joseki. If Negru connects at 3.) Now it is too late for Negru to make eye shape by defending at 1. but of course that would strengthen Alb on the upper side. Negru could follow this way if he had exchanged Negru ‘a’ for Alb ‘b’ before playing 1 in Dia. 9. and Negru is in trouble.

In other variations. coupled with the extension down the left side or the play at the three-three point in Dia. we will see what happens when Negru prevents Alb 3. Variation in the basic form Dia. gives Alb plenty of room for two eyes. but when hane at 8. The simplest continuation is the one shown. There is one major variation in this joseki: instead of defending his corner. 11. 10. 11. Alb plays 9 at ‘a’ or ‘b’. plays Another idea is to play 3 and 5 this way. letting Alb take the three-three point with 5. In the next section. Negru can play 4 on the outside. a straightforward exchange of corner territory for an outer wall.Alb Dia. or at 10. 147 . In conclusion The key move in this joseki is Alb 3. which slides into the corner and. Negru is in trouble again.

but it is obvious that his three stones are badly overcrowded. 1. which leave Alb less room to make trouble in the corner. 148 . When there is a Negru stone at or around Δ.SECTION 22 When Negru wants to keep Alb from playing the keima of the last section. Negru 4 is also an attacking move. are sometimes appropriate instead of Negru 4. preparing for a capping play at ‘b’. but they have little offensive meaning. When to play the diagonal tsuke Dia. The purpose of Negru 2 is not to defend the corner territory —as we shall see. Negru ‘c’ or Negru ‘d’. he exchanges 2 for 3 above before jumping out to 4. Alb can still invade at ‘a’—but rather to attack the Alb stones on the left side by making it hard for them to get eye shape. Negru 2 is standard practice. Alb can make no better extension than 5 on the left side.

If Negru lets Alb broaden his base by sliding into the corner at 3. Dia. 149 .Dia. the Alb stones will be much safer. Compare Alb’s narrow shape here with what is in the next diagram. 2. Negru can continue his attack as shown. 3.

for Alb is afraid to extend any farther down the side than to 5 because of Negru’s thickness in the lower left corner.Dia. Notice that Alb plays 5 on the fourth line. Negru 2 and 4 are also appropriate here. 6. which defends the corner while damaging Alb’s shape. Negru ‘c’. Dia. 150 . If he played 5 on the third line. 4. his position would be too cramped. Later on Negru ‘a’. getting ready for activity in the center. The space between Alb 1 and 3 and Alb 5 is still too narrow for comfort. Here is a common opening position in which the diagonal tsuke is used. 5. Dia. Alb ‘b’. and Negru could attack from the outside at ‘a’. will become a good maneuver for Negru.

7 was played too early in the first place. Negru should reply at 2. but . the three-three point invasion is a bit dangerous. When the Alb stones on the left side are still weak. and since it is so common. Alb 1 in Dia. Alb can live on the upper side by playing 3 and 5. Indeed. . 7. 8. and it is not going to be much fun for Alb to take care of his original three stones on the left side. Negru is alive in the corner and has become very strong on the outside. and after Negru 14 Alb still needs another play on the upper side. The joseki continues this way. 151 . Alb should have waited until his stones on the left were a little bit safer. Negru 2: first variation Dia. Dia.The three-three point invasion We now come to the problem of Alb’s invasion at the threethree point in this joseki. . we are going to spend some time going through the fairly complicated family of variations.

10. and that he can do by sacrificing one stone in the way shown. Usually Alb plays the three-three point invasion when his stones on the side are still a bit weak. Especially with Alb Δ on the board. but Negru lived in the corner and was left with no weak points at all to worry about. it is important for Negru to preserve some eye space in the corner. starting with the diagonal play at 5 instead of the previous move at 6. Negru 2: second variation Dia. is the best reply. and then Negru should play 2 as follows. and the Negru stones do not have two eyes yet. the Alb position is safe beyond all attack. Now Negru confines Alb to the corner.Dia. 152 . Alb broke out along the upper side. and Negru 2 in Dia. however. 7. Sometimes. 9. attacking them. Another way for Alb to play is shown here. but there remains the possibility of Alb ‘a’ or ‘b’. In the last two diagrams.

After this. The only drawback of this joseki. 153 . so it does not matter very much. as compared with the one in Dia. he should exchange 1 for 2. 10.Dia. Dia. of course. 12. 13. is that there are weak points like ‘b’ and ‘c’ in the corner. Here we have another joseki starting with Negru 2. In this kind of position. if Negru has a chance to do so before Alb comes crashing into the corner. Alb gets to make a pon-nuki in sente. the corner is safe. Dia. but his eye shape was already secure. He is aiming at the point ‘a’. Alb may not bother to answer at 2. but that is another matter. This time Negru connects at 4 instead of playing hane at 5. 11.

Dia. This is sometimes the best move. but he is going to suffer from Negru 4. it in no way strengthens Negru’s position or attacks Alb’s. and he can leave the corner as it is with a clear conscience. 16. There are yet other ways to answer the three-three point invasion. or at ‘a’). 7. and of course there may develop the possibility of Alb ‘b’.Negru 2: other variations Dia. A similar idea is to reverse the order of 2 and 4. 154 . Dia. 14. The exchange of 1 for 2 has not cost Alb anything. but he can make shape with 5. One final answer to Alb 1 is the connection at 2. After answering Negru 2. (or by playing 3 at 5. 15. Alb may be able to live in the corner with 3 and 5. this diagonal play is often a strong move. but unlike the moves studied previously. Alb can no longer live in the corner. waiting for the right moment to put Alb 1 to use. and 9 on the upper side. His extension to 9 is safe because ‘a’ is his sente.

He lives rather small. according to circumstances. Alb should look for the earliest good opportunity to challenge Negru at the threethree point. and Negru should not be afraid to trade his territory for a chance to attack on the outside. of course. At the right time. 17. The point of extension varies.Dia. In conclusion Aggression is the theme of this joseki. although 3 above is the one most often correct. and the rest of this section will be spent looking at some of the various extensions and their meanings. (or ‘a’ or ‘b’). Alb can live in the corner by playing 1 to 9. 155 . SECTION 23 When Negru extends to 2. and Negru 8 undermines his position on the left side. it is not unusual to find Alb just making an extension of his own on the left side.

is almost worthless to Negru since Alb can jump out to ‘b’ from the lower left corner. but Negru can build a large prospective area in the center with the joseki up to 8. Negru can play kikashi at 4. 156 . What if Alb plays into the corner with 3? This may not be necessarily a bad move.Dia. Alb can still invade the corner at the three-three point. as you will remember from the last section. 2. 1 shows one setting for the joseki above. the usual vulnerable point of an extension on the fourth line like Alb 3. Notice that ‘a’. but although this move has some value in cramping Alb’s style. Alb does not want to extend any farther than 3 for fear of an invasion between 1 and 3. Dia.

5. ‘a’ might seem like a better extension than 3. Negru 6 would become too good an attacking move. If Alb played 3 on the fourth line. and there will be two strong Alb stones on either side of him. but there would be room for a Negru invasion between Alb 1 and Alb ‘a’. Dia. however. except that now Alb has played 3 on the third line for reasons shown in the next diagram. This is about like Dia. Another setting for Alb 3. Dia. 1. 4. 157 . if Negru invades. The joseki of section 21 would be another good choice. Alb 3 seems to strike the right balance on the left side. As the mid-point between Alb 1 and Δ. Here. he will have to do so between 3 and Δ. 3.Dia. With the present Alb structure. Dia. 6.

would be just a bit reckless. Dia. 158 .Dia. because that greatly lessens his chances for a successful invasion at ‘a’. Dia. however. A two-point extension is thinkable. 8. Here Alb makes a three-point extension on the third line. which in this particular case seems to be right. but then Negru could play 4 and 6. There is some danger from a Negru invasion at ‘a’. 9. Negru should not play 1. (after Dia. but with the upper left corner open and an extension from Alb 3 to Alb ‘b’ still possible. 7). To extend any farther than 3. and Alb’s position would be too narrow. Alb should be able to handle Negru ‘a’ well enough. 7.

he should look for an opportunity to play 1 here. 12. Alb’s invasion is the subject of the next section.Dia. With this much open space on the side. 10 or 12. Dia. The reasoning is that if the exchange of 4 for 5 is made later. 10. 159 . we see Alb making a five-point extension. In conclusion Alb’s immediate extension down the side leaves a rather unsettled position. Often the main point of this joseki becomes whether Negru gets to defend the corner. Alb will have a satisfactory shape. mainly because the corner is still open. Dia. Instead. as compared with his cramped one in Dia. 11. Negru can invade at ‘a’ and almost surely capture the upper one of Alb’s stones. This strongly defends the corner. 10. as in Dia. and if Alb fails to play 2. before Alb invades it at the three-three point.

it may be because he wants to keep open the possibility of playing 1. which prevents them. Later Alb may be able to do something on the left side by playing ‘a’ or ‘b’.SECTION 24 In this section we will consider what happens when Alb has made a kakari. 1 shows the most typical joseki. and so is Negru ‘c’. Dia. but is forced to connect in bad shape at 6. Negru cuts Alb 1 off from the outside with 2 and 4. Negru plays 8 to take command on the left side. Alb 1 is an alternative to Alb ‘c’. but he can afford a moderate loss there since he has completely taken over the corner and the upper side. Alb lives with 7. and Alb invades at the three-three point. and when Alb does not play ‘c’. ‘a’. Negru has extended to Δ. Both Alb 1 and Alb ‘c’ are quite large. and then Alb can come out of the corner to 9 on the upper side. Obviously Alb had better consider what is going to become of the left side before starting in on this joseki. or ‘b’. 160 .

161 . starting with Negru ‘a’. threatening to capture one of the two Negru groups he has cut apart. Dia. The drawback of this idea is that even though Alb’s corner is not alive after Negru 16. This is suitable mainly when Negru already has a stone somewhere around the middle of the upper side. Negru can play ‘d’ in sente. 17 is an interesting move. Negru ‘c’. leaving Negru to deal with the cutting stone Δ as best he can. 2.Dia. On the other hand. Negru can reduce Alb’s corner to seki in sente. but then Alb can push out at ‘d’. Or Alb can just play 17 to live. on the one hand. Alb can sometimes fight by playing ‘a’ or ‘b’. and can hope for territory between it and the wall he builds. sometimes Negru can play 8 and pen Alb up in the corner. 3. Alb ‘b’. but then Alb plays ‘a’ and gets the maximum possible amount of corner territory. Instead of letting Alb run out along the upper side as in the last diagram.

5.Dia. Negru should do this only when he has some particularly good use for sente. but just play the important point at 10. Dia. then jump out to 9. Dia. When Negru has a stone at Δ. Negru cannot cut the connection between 9 and the corner because of Alb 5. 6. 162 . and Negru ‘a’ looks bigger. The exchange of Negru 6 for Alb 7 is played to make sure that ‘a’ will be Alb’s gote. and what he can do to prevent it is to play kaketsugi at 5. In this joseki ‘a’ is left as a large endgame point. Alb may not want him to play as in the last two diagrams. should he get to play it. or some good reason for hanging on to his territory on the upper side. making territory on the upper side. A completely different way for Negru to deal with Alb’s corner invasion is to let Alb connect to the outside. since he has given up the corner and gained nothing on the left side. in return for sente. Presumably he will not try. 4. but in this case these plays come too close to Negru Δ to be worth much. He can play 10 and 12 here to hold Alb into the corner.

8. 7. Dia. 1. After Alb lives with 9 and 11. Here we see the three-three point invasion into the kogeima formation made by Negru Δ. see the next two diagrams. Negru can often continue by playing 8. however. 163 . Negru cannot always play this way. Alb may be not so willing to invade as he was when Negru Δ was on the fourth line.Dia. Because of this. the moves are the same as they were in Dia. Up to Alb 7. making excellent shape on the outside. Negru defends his cutting point with 12.

When Negru makes the ogeima extension at 2. When Alb has a stone at Δ.Dia. Dia. 9. Instead of trying to block Alb. Dia. After Negru 16. pressing from above and then playing 10 to defend his shape. This time he crawls out at 5 before playing the hane at 7. 12. Negru should play 8 this way. Negru is in considerable danger after the cut at 11. 10. 11. Dia. it is joseki for Alb to invade the corner immediately at 3. The joseki continues with Alb living in the corner in sente and making shape on the left side with 13 and 15. even though Alb is not yet alive in the corner. a Alb extension on the left side and a very wide Negru one on the upper side are to be expected. 164 .

generally in the late opening stage of the game. Provided that making territory on the outside is not essential to his overall strategy. play ‘a’ later and cut off Negru Δ. and that he will not be giving Negru too grand a territory there.Dia. In conclusion Such is the size of the corner that the invasions of this section are played quite early. 6. 11-12. There is the compensating advantage that Alb can. This time. perhaps. The three-three point invasion is often used to answer a squeeze play. letting Negru have the point 9. 13. Alb would have no room to extend on the left side if he followed Dias. so rather than burden himself with weak stones there. he plays 4. and 8. 165 . Alb should not hesitate to jump into the three-three point.

Negru almost has to play 2. Another possibility would be to invade at the three-three point and take the corner. else Alb takes the same point. Alb 1 could be used in the presence of Negru Δ. but then 166 . and then there are two possibilities for Alb 3. the tsuke at Alb 1 is another possibility worth considering.SECTION 25 After a Alb kakari and a Negru extension. Alb 3: first variation Dia. 1. The purpose of this move is to make shape on the left side when there is not room enough for an ordinary extension.

and even then he may not like this result. Dia. 2. If Alb ignores a Negru ko threat be can cut at ‘a’. Alb should only play this way if the shicho in which the sequence ends works for him. and when Alb plays 5. he can next capture the corner with ‘b’. Alb 3 and Negru 4 are both good. 3. 167 . as shown in this diagram and the next. because Negru can cut at ‘a’. and provided he has a ko threat of his own big enough to keep Negru from then taking and connecting the ko. aggressive moves. Dia. a big ko fight is in the offing. Sometimes there is another way for Alb to answer Negru 4.Alb would lose any chance of attacking Negru Δ.

but this makes life too simple for Alb. Negru can play atari at 6. By playing this atari and pushing through at 6.Alb 3: second variation Dia. but at the same time Negru’s corner has become secure. 7. but then Alb could extend to T. but then Alb would develop upwards with 9 and 11. 6. Dia. and pushes at 11 to give himself some room for the outside group. 5. Negru 8 at ‘e’ would be another possibility. Dia. Dia. Another possibility for Alb is the hane at 3. Now when Alb plays 5. One better way for Negru is to play a second hane at 4. More aggressive than the previous Negru 4 is the move shown here. . Negru separates Alb’s stones into two weak groups. Faint-hearted Negru players sometimes answer Alb 3 by connecting at ‘a’. Negru could answer Alb 7 by capturing. connects at 9. 168 . While cuts at 7. and there remain the points ‘c’ and ‘d’ at which Negru can attack. who can get excellent eye shape with ‘b’. then . At the end of this diagram Alb has made an eye. 4. . which aims at handling the situation without re-course to ko fights or shicho.

Of course this leaves his outside stones pretty weak. Alb ‘c’). The exchange shown here is often played before making an extension down the left side. Dia. There is also a hane variation. 11. the three-four point tsuke is the usual way for him to bite into the corner. Another way is for him to give up the corner but make shape on the outside. Notice the possibility of ko left behind. Other settings for the tsuke Dia. (starting with Alb ‘a’. 10. 169 . 8. One way for Alb to continue is to live in the corner with 13 and 15. 9. Negru ‘b’. When Alb has played his kakari at Δ. since it keeps Negru from playing a similar tsuke at ‘a’. Dia.Dia. in which Alb plays 3 to trade the corner for the outside.

when Negru answers Alb’s kakari simply by extending.Dia. Negru 4 is a strong and sure answer. 7. but to defend against attack. and 9 in sente. and Alb plays 5. Alb cross-cuts at 3. In conclusion Bear in mind that in most cases. Although he can now play tenuki. 12. SECTION 26 As has been seen in the last few sections. he leaves Alb a lot of room to play around in the corner. If Negru seems to come out ahead in some of these sequences. the purpose of the tsuke is not to make territory. (Negru 2 is a tsuke 170 . This is the standard joseki for making shape on the left side when Negru has played an ogeima extension at Δ. when he is threatened with annihilation. A joseki that solidifies the corner immediately is the tsuke-osae above. it is an indication that Alb should save them for use in real emergencies. his position can be attacked with some force at ‘a’.

with a ko left behind for later.) After playing atari with 5. or even ‘b’. and he has at least three choices as to how to continue. then extend along the upper side to or in the direction of 12. it behooves Alb to defend one of his cutting points. This leaves him the possibility of playing ‘a’ later. If Alb plays 11 at 12. 1. although there is the danger that Alb may play ‘b’ before Negru gets into action. 171 . Alb 7: first variation Dia.and Negru 4 an osae. hence the name. Negru can capture one stone in sente. on the left side. Negru can also just answer 7 at 8. 2. Dia. When Alb connects here with 7. Negru gets to play ‘a’.

Another move that defends the left side territory. 3. 172 . When Alb connects at 7 in Dia. 4. This looks very good for him. is this Alb 7. and then Negru captures a Alb stone with 12. The cut at ‘a’ is another possibility to consider if the conditions are right. so Alb has to play 11. but if he is willing to risk a loss there. he has an excellent opportunity to cut at 8 instead. Alb 7 is one move that Alb employs when he is in a position to make the left side his territory. Alb 7: third variation Dia.Alb 7: second variation Dia. again Negru usually extends to 8. too. 3. Negru 10 threatens Negru ‘a’. and one which threatens an incursion into the corner. Negru can answer by protecting his corner at 9.

Alb 3: another possibility Dia. but needless to say. Dia. Alb will play 2 and live. Actually. Negru can also play atari with 10 instead of blocking at ‘a’. and that makes the tsuke-osae especially appropriate. His corner is better defended by 12 than it was in the previous variation. Dia. If Negru plays 2 at 4.Dia. Here Alb already has a stone at Δ when he plays his kakari. but any of them would produce the same kind of over-concentration as shown in this diagram. 6 is the beginning of a long and hard fight in the center. 7. 5. 173 . In this diagram Alb Δ conies out at least one line too close to the Alb wall to be efficient. it is not as good as it looks. and Negru has gained a definite advantage. because Alb can invade the corner with 1. Alb could choose one of the other variations studied above. 6.

and instead of 7 Alb will have to play ‘a’. and Alb gets to come into the corner at 9. 8. Then.Dia. which we have shown here. After atari at 4. the next order of business for Negru is an extension on the upper side. 8. Dia. Negru plays double hane at 10 and 12 in sente. There is an interesting sequel to the sequence in Dia. Negru must connect at 6. 9. If it does not work. If Negru tried to play 6 at 9. Alb ‘c’. but later he can come back and cut at 1 in the next diagram. Dia. If the shicho works. Negru can take a large upper side with Negru ‘b’. 10. limiting Alb’s take in the corner and leaving him with some cutting points. even without putting 2 in motion. he can push in between Negru’s stones at 3. This is the shicho. Negru ‘d’. Negru will definitely play 4 from underneath. There is a way for Alb to deal with this problem. Alb would cut at 6 and Negru would be in a little trouble. although it depends on shicho. 174 . After this.

Alb has to capture the stone in the corner. After Negru 3. In conclusion Negru’s tactics in this joseki may lack the light touch. Negru plays the squeeze-tsuke at 5 and makes quite good shape all around. incidentally. but the way. is why Alb does not normally play Dia. and then Negru can make shape on the left side. 175 . Dia. Negru could do still better. (else Negru plays ‘a’). 12. not just in the corner. as shown in the next diagram. If Alb Δ were not on the board. but at least he has destroyed most of Alb’s left side territory. The tsuke-osae.Dia. This. With more open space on the left side. Alb Δ is in his way. 8 without having a stone already in place around the middle of the left side. but they defend the corner strongly and are often used by professional players. 11. is a maneuver that can be played anywhere along the side where Negru has territory to defend.

a Alb stone there would completely reverse the situation. Other cases would call for other squeeze plays. as above. 176 .SECTION 27 There are many occasions on which Negru answers a Alb kakari with a squeeze play. Negru 6 is the key move of this joseki. Negru is trying to make full use of his stone Δ by building a wall facing it. or even to make good shape on the upper side. 1. he may want to make territory on the left side. and the onepoint squeeze play happens to be a good way to start. or to keep Alb from doing so. The last of these cases is illustrated in the sequence above. look at what happens when Alb tries to push out toward the center with 7 in Dia. The easiest way for Alb to answer any squeeze play is to go in to the three-three point. To understand the power of Negru 6.

After Alb 13. he can play ‘b’ himself. with little chance for growth. 1. Dia. he can. if he is strong enough in the area. More simply. in which Negru has built a strong wall and can look forward to a large territory on the upper side.Alb’s failure Dia. Alb has maybe ten points in the corner. Negru pushes through and cuts on both sides with 10 and 12. 177 . 2. That leads to this position. play ‘a’ and let Alb try to get away with ‘b’.

he is threatening to connect at ‘c’. Notice that if Alb plays ‘b’ on the left side. Alb should play 7 in this diagram. Instead. 10. In this joseki Negru can sometimes omit. Dia. The last two diagrams are not joseki. although that leaves the threat of Alb ‘d’. but this time his territory on the upper side is not complete until he plays ‘a’. or postpone. but his prospects for breaking through on the left side are slightly better. Again Negru makes a good wall with 8 and 10. 3. and Negru does not have the chance to play tenuki that he had in Dia. 4 is also joseki.Joseki Dia. 178 . Alb does not have the way into Negru’s upper side that he had before. 3.

If Alb had a strong position in the lower left he might answer Negru’s squeeze play with this one-point jump. 1 and 2 is followed. Alb does not have enough room on the left side to make two eyes. Dia. for then Alb can get eye space for his group by slipping under Negru’s stones at 5 and 7. and a sequence something like the one in Dias. When Negru plays 2 there is also a variation in which Alb plays 3 at the three-three point. intending to follow with an attack on the left side. 6. ‘a’ is left as a big point for either side. The danger in playing 3 is that if Negru 2 gets away.Alb 3: one-point jump Dia. 179 . 5. The one-point jump is more appropriate when Negru has made his squeeze play on the fourth line. In this joseki.

There is. If Alb starts to attack the Negru stones with 1. you may recall. he does things a little differently. Dia. Negru can play tenuki. Negru is aiming at a larger territory than in Dia. if possible. Negru cuts him off from his stone at 1. The main difference is that when Alb invades the corner at 3. 9. Double kakari joseki are the subject of the next two sections. He also has the squeeze-tsuke at ‘a’ to use if he gets into trouble. Dia. another way of lengthening his wall. the three-three point invasion featured in most of the diagrams above is rarely a bad move. Negru can also just push Alb along by playing 12 at ‘a’. 7. In addition. Negru 12 here is another way. however. Negru may lose some of his territory.Negru goes for the left side Dia. This kind of play was studied in section 4. For that matter. so as to leave more territory between it and the wall he makes. another way— one that is often used in handicap games because it can lead to complications—and that is to make a second kakari. In conclusion In answer to any squeeze play. 180 . When Negru makes his squeeze play in order to take territory on the left side. but he can counterattack with the sequence shown. Negru makes his original squeeze play a bit farther from the corner than before. Negru 12 is one way of ending the sequence. 8. 7.

for one reason or another. Negru makes no direct answer to Alb’s kakari at 1.SECTION 28 There are many times when. In this section we will see what ways Negru has to deal with Alb 1 and 3. A second kakari at 3 is a good way for Alb to continue his attack on the corner. and in the next one we shall look at similar situations in which one or both of Alb’s stones are on the fourth line. 181 .

the key point for enlarging his left side while reducing Alb’s upper side.Tsuke-nobi Dia. 2. building up power to use against the weaker one. At this point Alb has at least four choices. When Alb plays 7 at the three-three point. Dia. A second kakari is one way of answering a squeeze play. Before doing anything else. ‘c’. and the joseki gets a little complicated. ‘b’. ‘a’. he has a chance to play ‘a’. for his next play. we shall take the time to go through the variations from ‘a’ to ‘d’. and ‘d’. (nobi). including the Alb stone Δ. (tsuke). 1. 182 . especially in handicap games. it is natural for Negru to block at 8. Negru has made his wall and is in a position to swallow up the left side. Since this formation is so common. however. Up to Alb 13. That is the idea behind Negru 4. The usual counter-measure against this double kakari is to push against the stronger of Alb’s stones. and Negru 6.

Negru has already gotten something out of his kikashi at 14 in that he has played 16 in sente. Alb answers at 17 or suffers the fate shown in the next diagram. and Negru would have gote. First Negru plays kikashi at 14. Alb might answer by exchanging ‘a’ for ‘b’. and then he takes the key point at 16. If he played 16 without playing 14. later. after which a cut at 14 could be answered by Alb ‘c’. 4. Negru can surround him with these plays. 3. Dia. he may be able to put 14 to use again. If Alb omits 17 in the last diagram.Dia. 183 .

strong position with power on the upper side and in the center. Dia. letting Alb live in the corner and on the left with 9. There are some variations in which Alb plays 9 at 10 and Negru plays 10 at 9. and this is joseki.Dia. 3. which are a bit tricky. 5. Negru can also answer Alb 7 with 8 here. 184 . 6. Later. but let’s leave those. Although it may seem inconsistent with the original idea of going after the left side. This brings up the tsuke at the three-four point. The end result of this joseki is about like Dia. By playing 10 Negru gets a high. Alb can cut at ‘a’ and take the corner.

following the course of Dia. (he would hardly exchange 7 for 8 if Negru had already cut at 11). so he connects there and Negru plays 12. (at 16). Alb does not want to let Negru cut at 11. would involve a loss. 2. in Dia. Negru blocks his thrust at 8. Both Dias. then fight on the outside with 14. but his stones on the upper side are in rather bad shape. After exchanging 7 for 8. since Alb has already usurped the point 7 which Negru took for himself. 185 . 7 and 8 are joseki. At the end of this diagram Alb has the corner. 7. getting into one of the tricky sequences alluded to earlier. What if Alb invades the corner with 9? For Negru to answer by playing 10 at 12. Better to play 10 as shown. When Alb plays 7 here. Dia. 8. He need not fear the cut at 9. 3. for he can live in the corner with 10 and 12.Dia.

but hopefully manageable groups on both sides. there is this Alb 7. 9. Finally. See if you can work that out for yourself. Negru 18. Dia. and the sequence continues as in the next diagram. Negru lives in the corner and gets out into the center. 10. while Alb makes weak. is necessary to keep Alb from invading the corner at ‘a’. 186 . In one well-established joseki.Dia. Negru 10 defends. Alb plays 9. by the way. which Negru must block at 8. threatening to push through at ‘a’.

After Negru 8. After Alb 17. More often Alb connects at 9. Dia. and Alb’s wall will be a bit flimsy. which is sente since it forces Alb to extend down the left side. 12. they are not the only ways. 11. but then Negru will cut at ‘b’. When Negru is not interested in attacking either of Alb’s stones. Negru can still live in the corner. he can play tsuke-osae instead of tsuke-nobi to make sure of the corner. letting Negru move out into the center by playing tsuke-nobi at 10 and 12.Tsuke-osae Dia. Diagonal plays Although tsuke-nobi and tsuke-osae are the most generally useful ways of answering Alb’s double kakari. Negru can make a living shape in the corner by connecting at ‘a’. 187 . The diagonal play at Alb 13 happens to be good in this position. or he can wait to play on the left side himself. If Alb captures at ‘a’. Alb can wall Negru in by playing ‘a’.

at least he can get a living shape in the corner with the tsuke-osae joseki. for example. In conclusion There is little to fear from a double kakari. 188 . is not fatal to the corner stone. and if he does not. 13 is rather like some of the previous ones in this section.Dia. with Negru going for the left side. He is alive in the corner. Negru will push and cut with 3 and 5. (Even a triple kakari. 13. Alb can answer it by playing 2 at the three-three point. this diagonal play toward the center. and Alb has two weak groups to try to save. If Alb tries to blockade Negru with 2. Dia. for that matter.) If Negru has any strength in the surrounding area he can often capture one of Alb’s kakari stones with the tsuke-nobi or a diagonal play. the diagonal move at the three-three point is good. (or 3 and ‘a’). from which he can connect to either of his two kakari stones. The result in Dia. When Negru already has stones on both sides. where he already had the stone Δ. There is also. 14.

Often a play at ‘d’. 189 . 13 and 14 of the last section. is much like the one studied in the last section.SECTION 29 The double kakari formation on the left above. which are exactly similar to the diagonal plays in Dias. The double kakari formation on the right above is the hardest one for Negru to handle. Getting back to the formation on the left. He has diagonal plays at ‘c’ and ‘d’. if Negru wants to attack on one side. since his only way of coming out into the center is ‘c’. which are similar in purpose to the tsuke plays before. Negru can make tsuke plays at ‘a’ or ‘b’. where Alb has one stone on the fourth line. We shall see him doing that in the next few diagrams. he should begin by playing tsuke against the Alb stone on the other side. or T in the corner is preferable. ‘e’. which is not always very good. The only new idea is the tsuke at ‘e’.

This sequence can also be used when Negru is not interested in attacking. not a large-scale move. but one which makes it easy for him to get two eyes. He cannot play 5 at ‘a’. One way for Alb to respond is with the . Dia. Here Negru plays 1 in order to attack Alb Δ. after Alb 6. Next he might play ‘c’.Negru plays tsuke Dia. 1. Dia. Now Negru wants to attack on the left side. Then. but just wants to make a safe position. he plays 7. so he uses the tsuke on the right. but after Alb 6 Negru has made a wall which works well with his stone in the middle of the upper side. lengthening his wall and further isolating Alb Δ. 3. (Alb would push through at ‘b’). 2.

Negru 5 takes the corner. . 6. 5. Instead of connecting with 4 in Dia. but since that would solidify Negru’s shape.hane at 2 and the kake-tsugi at 4. 3. When Negru blocks at 3. Dia. Alb can play 4 at the three-three point. with Alb eyeing the cutting point at ‘a’. the sequence comes out about like the one just before. Dia. Dia. It is also joseki for Alb to play at the three-three point immediately after Negru’s tsuke at 1. 4. Alb can exchange ‘a’ for ‘b’. Before connecting at 10. he will be in for a hard running fight. strong position on the upper side by playing this way. letting Negru take the corner. it would mean less chance for success with Alb ‘c’. There is also the possibility of Negru’s trading the corner for a high. or anything else Alb might use to try to break up Negru’s territory. and if Alb tries to escape with Δ.

and Alb might continue with an extension on the upper side. they may be rather cumbersome. 7. Negru naturally plays 3. Double high kakari When both of Alb’s stones are on the fourth line. If he does. in which case he plays Alb 2 in this diagram. ends with a ko shape. . (or tenuki). he may want to avoid the result of the previous diagram.Diagonal tsuke Dia. If Alb lacks the ko threats. Whether it is good or bad for Negru depends on whether Alb has enough ko threats to cut at ‘a’ or not. which starts from the tsuke at 1 and the diagonal play at 3. 8. If not. Dia. he will have no trouble managing his stones on the left side. This joseki. and of course Negru has taken the corner and severely weakened Alb’s stone on the upper side. the number of possible joseki is much smaller than before.

Dia. That lets Alb build on the outside with 2. an attempt to make a largerscale capture. Negru would do best to take the corner at 1. might be better if Negru Δ were closer. When Negru comes out toward the center at 1. They figure not only in all handicap games.Dia. 10. 9. spoiling Alb’s territory on the upper side. With Alb Δ on the upper side. . The four-four point was much in vogue during the ‘shinfuseki’ period of the nineteen thirties. but frequently in even games as well. and the joseki ends with Negru capturing one of Alb’s original kakari stones. is compensation enough. but Negru 3. In conclusion This concludes our study of the four-four point joseki. the four-four point is second in popularity after the three-four point for the opening play in the corner. Among professional players. Negru 5 at ‘a’. because ft supports large-scale extensions without the making of a shimari. when high-speed opening development was the style. Alb naturally enters the corner at 2.

by attacking at ‘a’ instead of at 1. He can make the opposite exchange if he wishes. and in order to make best use of the stone in Dia. like the Alb one in Dia. (section 35). . 1. 2. is the easiest. and will be satisfied to make a simple trade of corner profit for an outside wall. The invasion at 1 in Dia. There are three common ways to attack a stone on the three-five point. Alb is aiming at the upper side rather than the right side. 1. his whole opening strategy should proceed along those lines.CHAPTER 6 Three-five point joseki INTRODUCTION This chapter is devoted to the joseki which start with a stone on the three-five point. Negru expects Alb to answer at ‘a’. Secondly. he is going for quick outside development rather than corner profit. Firstly. (section 30). Two things can be said about a stone so placed. (and obviously).

he attacks at 1 in Dia. in Dia. . and the resulting joseki have a way of becoming complicated. 6. Negru can also answer Alb 2 by invading. or ‘b’.When Negru wants to get his share of both the corner and the outside. we have nothing special to say about the joseki which follow from Alb 2. Alb has several squeeze and pressure plays to use against Negru 1. of course. if Alb played there he would greatly expand his area. This pattern. Negru 3 is the key point. 3. 4 goes unanswered. he may answer Negru 1 by just extending to 2. often arises when Alb 1 in Dia. etc. however.). (sections 31 to 34). In the rest of this book. 5. (or ‘a’. if he wants to make matters complicated. as at 3 in Dia. If Alb’s sole purpose is to develop on the upper side.

Or.If Negru does not get around to making any attack. the opposite of Alb 1 in Dia. we shall drop the subject of Dias. All three of these plays are strong toward the center but weak in the corner. described in section 19. he can play 1 in Dia. 8. Alb can form a shimari with 1 in Dia. is the simplest way to attack a stone on the three-five point. 8. 7. various players have experimented with Alb ‘b’ or ‘c’ with mixed success. Alb 2 is the usual . 7. SECTION 30 Negru 1. This makes Negru 1 rather attractive. although that shimari has a weakness at ‘a’. but now the invading group cannot be confined as closely as it was there. 7 and 8 here. Instead of Alb 1 in Dia. an invasion at the three-three point. Since we are not going into shimari joseki in this book. if he wants his shimari to face across the upper side. This move may be compared with the three-three point invasion under a handicap stone.

What can he do? .response. However. 1. then Alb may be the one to play next in the corner. for the ensuing fight will turn out well for him. ‘c’. expanding his corner territory. ‘b’. In this sequence. 1. In many cases he will make his next play somewhere on the upper side to counter the wall Alb has gotten. Shows the basic joseki pattern. if Alb plays 8 at 9. he has sente. 2. 2. Negru pushes along the third line with 3 and 5. and after Alb 6. Alb 4: nobi Dia. but leaves the position as it is in Dia. Negru should not hesitate to cross-cut by playing 9 at 8. but keep in mind such other possibilities as ‘a’. or tenuki. If Negru does not play Dia. it is also joseki for Negru to continue with these moves. Dia.

is threatening the twin cutting points ‘a’ and ‘b’. 2. you can investigate that possibility on your own. 4. after 3. in many situations. To begin with. however. . If he plays tenuki after this diagram. putting Alb in a position to profit on the right side as well as in the center and on the upper side. Dia. you can appreciate the value of the moves in Dia.Dia. If Negru answers at 2. Dia. Alb 1 here is another possibility. Negru may. but after them ‘a’ becomes Alb’s sente. Alb can capture either the Negru stone on the three-three point or the two Negru stones below Alb 1. Alb 1 is a fairly large move. Negru’s corner is still perfectly safe. Looking at the last three diagrams. is gote. 5 shows a third way for Alb to assail Negru’s corner. do better to answer Alb 1 at 3 instead of at 2. 3. and Negru is at a loss to find a good answer. then Alb. Alb 1. Alb 1 and 3 are gote.

. On the upper side Alb can play ‘a’ or ‘b’ in sente. (either of them threatens to kill the comer). It would be unfair to leave this joseki without showing what happens when Alb plays hane at 4. Dia. this is the standard joseki. but if Alb can capture Negru 5 in shicho by playing 10. 7. 8. Alb would like to answer with 6 and 8. If Negru does cross-cut at 5. instead of nobi at ‘a’. Unfortunately. and a fight in the center involving Negru 5 and 13 and the two separated Alb groups is about to take place. this gets a bit complicated. and the cross-cut at 5 is wrong. 6. Alb 12 at ‘b’ is also possible in this joseki. while if the shicho is broken then Alb 8 and 10 are incorrect. Negru 9 is necessary. since Negru may be able to cross-cut at ‘a’. Dia. Negru is alive in the corner.Alb 4: hane Dia. This sequence is not joseki: if the shicho works it is bad for Negru. With the shicho not working. he has by far the better position. which is a great help to him in managing his stones there.

let’s look at it in operation during an actual game. and 6. 4. What makes it disagreeable is that with the strong Negru stone at Δ. When the shicho works for Alb. Alb plays 2. Observe that after Alb has played 5. Alb cannot do much on the right side. Negru’s position is very low. 12. The shicho is against Alb. As a sequel to the last diagram. this is joseki. Why does Alb let himself be pushed around like this. on the upper side. Dia. Alb can push his opponent in with the tsuke at 1. Alb can capture the cutting stone in geta with ‘b’. but since Alb still has the cutting point at ‘a’. so he has to connect at 8 and follow the sequence shown. . or some such move. Negru would cross-cut at 5. 9. instead of playing hane with 4 at 5? Dia. Before leaving this section’s joseki.Dia. and then Negru plays 7. Negru invades at 1. Dia. 11. he will definitely play the hane at 4. if Negru tries to cut at ‘a’. and Negru will have to reply with 5 to 9. If Alb did play hane at 4. His weak stones at 10 and 14 will be nothing but a worry for him. 10.

and is made in the late opening or middle game. . The former is largely a tool for destroying the opponent’s territory. leading to a more active position.In conclusion There is considerable difference between the three-three point invasion which occurs in four-four point joseki and the three-three point invasion of this section. The latter is a constructive play. and can be made without hesitation in the earliest stage of the opening.

SECTION 31 When Negru plays the kogeima kakari at 1. but Alb can still press him down with 2 and 4. and consider alternatives which exist to Alb 4 and Negru 5. so as to build territory on the upper side or in the center. . In this section we shall discuss the continuation from the position above. he cannot be confined to the corner as he was when he played the three-three point invasion.

Dia. The effect of Alb’s plays in Dia. Negru has to defend at ‘a’. Alb’s plan is to cordon off the entire upper side. so after Negru 4 he continues pressing with 5 and 7. Alb intends to keep on with his wall by playing ‘a’ or. better yet. 2. 2 is that Alb Δ keeps Negru from making any corner territory. 3. 1. and Alb can later play ‘a’ to take the corner for himself. he plays 8 and 10 to turn Alb’s advance and reach a higher altitude. If Alb played 17 at 18. .Continuation Dia. This position might appear at the beginning of the game. The sequence continues through Negru 22 and onward. and we leave you to devise subsequent moves for yourself. The purpose of 13 and 15 is to give Alb profit in the corner. ‘b’. Since Negru cannot allow himself to be pushed forever along the third line. Negru would capture at 17 and be very happy with his exchange of some points in the corner for a pon-nuki in the center. Next. Dia. but first he has a chance to play a kikashi of his own at ‘b’. but at this point he has some kikashi to make on the right side.

for he has the possibility of pushing at ‘a’ and cutting at ‘b’ to work with on the right side. 4 shows another way of playing. using the same ideas as in Dia. Alb may just extend to 1 on the upper side. he should play 4 this way. Negru 4: variation Dia.Dia. After the basic joseki. 2. (see Dia. and then Negru can play on the upper side himself. 6. but it has a big drawback. Dia. Negru can then bend Alb around with 2. If Negru wants to keep Alb from making an extension on the upper side. At times this maneuver is necessary. and 6. but Alb need not necessarily complain. 5. 4. instead of continuing to push down the right side. but starting from the basic joseki position. 8). . Alb 5 is forced.

With the exchange of Alb 3 for Negru 4 it may seem that nothing special is going on. 7. . 8. but you may want more of an explanation. Negru will take the key point at 2. while helping Alb very little at all. who is in a position to make territory on the right side. Dia. not Negru. It is easy to see that the exchange of Δ for Δ is solidifying Negru’s position. his corner can be killed. If Negru fails to answer. If Alb extends to 1 after the moves marked Δ and Δ. The drawback is that Alb can play 7 in sente. Now it is Alb. 6 is necessary. An experienced player feels instinctively that Alb 5 in Dia.Dia. but think what will happen if Negru cuts at ‘a’ or pushes at ‘b’.

Dias. Dia. Alb ‘a’ would be sente. Alb can vary this joseki by making a one-point jump with 3. If Negru played 10 on the upper side to stop Alb’s extension. but it is quite safe. Dia. he will get into the same kind of pattern as in section 9. . 12 to 14. 9. This way of playing looks a little bit loose.Alb 3: one-point jump Dia. 10. and Alb should now make a very wide extension on the upper side. 11. This variation of the joseki continues up to Negru 10. If Negru tries to push out with 4 and 6.

. If he wanted to develop there.In conclusion The main purpose of Alb’s pressure play at 2 is to build on a large scale toward the center. SECTION 32 Alb 1 above begins the taisha. the most notable feature of which is complexity. Therefore. and there is space in this book for only about one percent of them. The taisha is known as the joseki of a thousand variations. (great slanting). Fear of the taisha prompts some Negru players to tenuki after Alb 1. (ii) Alb more or less gives up any hope of making territory on the right side for himself. but one of the squeeze plays in the next three sections. for Alb can then get a very strong formation by playing ‘a’. this joseki can be used to reduce a developing Negru territory to a moderate size. but two other points about this joseki should be borne in mind. but that is not usually such a good idea. (i) Alb presses Negru into a low position on the right side. joseki. he would not choose the pressure play at 2.

For Negru 2. First tsuke Dia. 1. which duplicate one of the variations in the last section. If Negru is looking for a simple answer to the taisha. which bears a close resemblance to the basic joseki of the last section. If Alb answers at 3. Here is another way for Negru to play tsuke at 2.Avoiding trouble Dia. with 4 to 10. Then there is only one variation. Negru can again come marching down the side. tsuke plays are more in keeping with the spirit of the taisha. This one can lead to Alb 3 and 5. Negru may continue his progress down the right side at 6. he can play 2 this way. 3. . Second tsuke Dia. 2.

when Negru separates Alb’s two stones with this tsuke. he has an easy exchange of corner territory for outside strength and sente. while Negru cuts and gets a large corner. Third tsuke Dia. he must make sure that the shicho works. Alb 3 is standard. Dia. 4. 5. After Alb 5. Alb connects at 7 and makes an outer wall in sente. however. 7. Dia. Before Negru connects on the outside at 6. In the most typical variation of this variation. and Alb will cut on the other. Negru has to connect on one side of Negru 4. but if it does. The real fun begins. 6. Or Negru can play 4 this way.Dia. . creating three cutting points in Alb’s position.

but obviously getting a perfectly satisfactory result. Dia. 8. Usually Alb continues with this 11. 9. . the simplest continuation sees Negru sacrificing a stone and playing 8 and 10.Dia. starting a ko fight. Here there is the gruesome possibility that Alb will play 11 at ‘a’. so an extension like 16 is called for. Negru’s eye shape is not very good. When Negru connects on the inside and Alb cuts at 7. letting Negru capture and connect the ko. but he needs some truly large ko threats to carry this off.

Dia. and thereafter the variations become too numerous and involved for any but the most devoted to learn thoroughly. It is sometimes considered as the standard taisha joseki.Dia. . This is one of the shorter variations. In conclusion Thus ends our cursory glance at the taisha joseki. Generally speaking. the taisha has no particular strategic meaning. More complicated variations follow when Negru answers Alb 7 by drawing out of atari at 8. 10. and ‘c’ for the eleventh move. but at the end of this diagram Alb can choose from among ‘a’. The next two moves are fixed. Those who play it often have nothing more in mind than to lure their opponents into complicated fighting. for it can lead to almost any kind of pattern. 11. ‘b’. from which they hope to emerge victorious.

like the taisha of the preceding section. much as was done in some of the joseki of sections 28 and 29. a difficult joseki. In the first one. We shall take them in that order. There are then two things for Negru to consider in choosing his next move. and Alb defends on the upper side at 8. so its variations have been well worked out. Another possibility is to play tsuke with Negru 3 against the stronger of Alb’s stones. the diagonal play at 3 will serve the purpose on most occasions. Although Negru has various ways of answering it. Alb 6 used to be the only recognized continuation from the basic joseki diagram. and we shall stick to it in this book. One is the line of Alb stones on the right side. Negru just connects at 7. which he may be able to attack.SECTION 33 The one-point squeeze play at Alb 2 is. The time-honored play Dia. Alb 4 and Negru 5 are standard after Negru 3. 1. The other is . but for Alb 6 there are two choices. ‘a’ and ‘b’.

If Alb plays 2 and so on this way. but makes a wall on the upper side and gets sente.‘a’. the main advantage of this exchange is that he can connect at ‘a’ if his three stones on the right are attacked. perhaps. Dia. and Negru will be left with neither territory nor a place to make two eyes. If Alb plays ‘a’. the weak point in the corner. 3. Negru secures the corner with 3 and Alb’s upper side needs defending at 4. If Alb answers at 2. . he can connect to either the upper side or the right side. From Alb’s point of view. Dia. Negru gives up the corner. 2. Therefore Negru sometimes plays 1 before going into action on the outside. to be used at 9.

) Dia. and 12.Dia. is correct in this joseki. Alb 6 in this diagram has been in use for less than a decade. or Negru can use 17 to attack on the right side. Negru 13. Usually. preparing for an extension to the left. 4. The new-fangled play Dia. but there is no doubt about its being a sound play. rather than Negru ‘a’. in which case Alb may get a chance to cut on the upper side. but it need not be the solid connection. Alb continues with 14 and 16. in which case Alb should defend the corner by exchanging 18 for 19. it is better for him to have 13 and ‘b’ than ‘a’ and ‘b’. since if Negru later plays ‘b’. Negru 7 here also does the trick. Negru can connect at 17. (The latter reach one line less toward the left. however. 10. 6. 5. Negru has to make some answer to Alb 6 to keep Alb from pushing through at 11. . Alb answers with 8.

Dia. for instance. for exactly the same reason. 6 for Negru is to play 9 and 11 and allow himself to be surrounded. Dia. Alb 8 becomes a good blockading move. Alb would have answered at ‘b’. The best continuation from Dia. It would be better for Negru to do nothing at all than to play 9 or ‘b’. 7. After the last diagram there is no good way for Negru to get out into the center from his corner position. Alb will immediately exchange 10 for 11. 8. but of course if Negru had originally played 9 at ‘a’. If he plays 9 this way.Although a bit passive. Negru 9 at ‘b’ would be no good either. . Clearly Negru ‘a’ would now be better than Negru 9. At least he has the cutting point at ‘a’ to aim at. making Negru 9 into a bad move. the diagonal tsuke at 7 is one possible answer to it.

It is best made when Alb is backed up with some stones in adjacent parts of the board. and what comes next depends on the position in the lower right corner. Alb 8 starts a running fight.Dia. 9. Rather than get barricaded into the corner. In conclusion The one-point squeeze play is suitable when Alb is in an aggressive frame of mind and wants to try for territory on both sides of the corner. . Negru often answers Alb 6 with an attack on the right side at or around 7. leaving the diagonal tsuke at ‘a’ for possible use later.

there is also the tsuke at ‘b’ to be considered. the most natural thing for Negru to do is to advance toward the center with a diagonal play at ‘a’. but they lead to rather different joseki. Alb uses the squeeze play on the third line when he wants to develop on the right side. however. . Against the squeeze play on the third line. In answer to either of them. just as in the previous section.SECTION 34 The pair of Alb 1’s above can both be classified as two-point squeeze plays. and the squeeze play on the fourth line when he wants to develop on the upper side.

Alb will look for a chance to play ‘a’ and rob Negru of his eye space. The aggressive way for Alb to answer Negru 1 is to come out toward the center with 2. . The issue now becomes the attack and defense of the one Alb and two Negru stones in the corner. lest Alb enclose him by playing at the same point. Negru is left in a good position to gain territory on the upper side. Given that Alb’s intention in playing 1 is to develop on the right side. Negru should try to attack with some move like 1 in the next diagram. which makes up for his losing the corner. lest Negru enclose him there. 3. Negru should take the valuable eye space in the corner with 5. Negru can be expected to close Alb in at 3. Dia. and Alb must play 4. Now that both sides are out into the center. 1. Negru must play 3. 2. Before Alb has time to do so. he will reply to Negru 2 by extending to 3.The squeeze play on the third line Dia. The safe way for Alb to answer Negru 1 is to dive into the corner at 2. Dia. and then Alb lives with 4 and 6.

Alb plays 9. . Unless there are some other Alb forces in the surrounding area not only is Alb’s single stone on the upper side in danger. You will see how that goes in Dia. but his four stones on the right side are rather weak. Assuming the danger on the upper side to be the more serious. Alb’s groups are both still in need of attention. Dia. instead of 1. 4. and Negru. it may be better for him to play 5 in the first place. unless he is in a strong position to attack on the right.If Negru is not in a good attacking position on the upper side. too. 5. the second way of answering Alb’s squeeze play on the third line. takes the corner with 10. Dia. 5. and so is Negru 8. Alb 3. and 7 are natural. 6. This brings us to Negru 2.

Alb 1. at ‘a’. however. imagine the situation if they were omitted and Alb got in to the two-three point. . When Alb puts 1 on the fourth line. Alb has sente and can extend to 7. Alb need not be afraid of being attacked on the upper side. but now there is not so much open space. ‘a’ is another point for Alb to aim at in this joseki. The purpose served by Alb 1. Alb 1 would not be so good if Alb Δ had been played on the third line. The reason for playing Alb 1 on the fourth line can be seen in the next diagram. without going through the preliminaries. and 5 is to make it hard for Negru to get into Alb’s extension. are important. having this resource. By the way. taking the corner. he really has the upper side in mind. or whatever point he has his eye on the upper side. for instance.The squeeze play on the fourth line Dia. is an excellent point. 3. If Alb had just played 7. Dia. 7. Negru could easily invade. Negru 4 and 6. and so he answers Negru 2 by playing 3. Now. 6. loosely confining Negru to the corner and linking up Alb’s positions.

Following the exchange of 3 for 4. or extend up into the center.In conclusion Being one line further from the corner than the one-point squeeze play and taisha of the preceding two sections. the two squeeze plays of this section are less aggressive. or extend down the right side. SECTION 35 In the three-five point joseki seen so far. and then take up a possible variation in Alb 4. he can play 1. . Alb wants to handle the corner with just a few moves. We shall look at both ways of extending. leaving lots of possibilities open for the future. inviting Alb to defend the corner with 2. If Negru has some reason for preferring the opposite exchange. the usual pattern has been for Negru to take the corner while Alb develops on the outside. however. Negru can play tenuki.

In this situation. this extension is good. for example—Negru can play 2 in sente. as he does here. . and thereby gain profit at the edge of the board. 3. At the proper time—in answer to Alb 1. Negru 2 in the last diagram is not absolutely sente. Dia. which threatens an invasion at ‘a’.Negru 5: extension down the side Dia. The three-line interval between Negru 5 and the two-stone wall is correct. Negru 2 is sufficient defense against the threat of Alb ‘a’. Negru can play 1 and so on in this diagram. but if Alb fails to answer it. elbowing his way around Alb’s corner and leaving Alb with the threat of Negru ‘a’ to worry about. When Negru wants to give himself some room for his stones on the side. Alb can play 1 himself to forestall a Negru play there. 4. See if you can work out the effect of Negru ‘a’ for yourself. 1. 2. Dia. Dia.

If Alb omits 8. Dia. This time. 5.however. Alb should definitely exchange 8 for 9. he should go into the center. Here Negru already has a stone on the side. The two-point jump to 5 is also joseki. lest Negru’s side territory grow too large. that will be a good point for Negru to take. 6. Negru 5: extension into the center Dia. . by provoking Negru 2 he is reducing the value of his possible extension to ‘a’. so if he wants to make an extension. Negru 5 to 7 are standard joseki plays.

Alb 4: a variation Dia. 7. Alb 4 here is also joseki. It practically forces Negru 5, by threatening a Alb play there. Alb 6 and Negru 7 are one way to finish this joseki.

Dia. 8. One use for Alb 4 is to give Alb the chance to play 6 on the right side, if he feels that is necessary. Negru will answer with the tsuke at 7. Dia. 9. Here is the normal continuation from Negru’s tsuke. It is obviously undesirable for Alb to have to play 8, 10, and 12 on

the second line while Negru plays 9, 11, and 13, so he should choose this variation only when the situation on the right side urgently calls for a Alb stone at or near Δ. In conclusion Negru’s plays in this joseki have the virtue of simplicity, but they give up a fair amount of corner territory. Therefore, they should be part of a sound plan for development on the outside. There are ways for Alb to steer this joseki into complications, (starting with his playing tsuke at move 2), but they are rarely an improvement on the natural moves shown above, so we shall skip over them and go on to the next chapter.

Four-five point joseki INTRODUCTION A stone is played on the four-five point, like the one in Dia. 1, to make profit on the side rather than in the corner, and in that way the joseki of this chapter bear some resemblance to those of the last chapter. Compared with the three-five point, the four-five point gives a better chance to develop toward the center, but it is weaker in the corner. This can be seen by comparing the shimari formed by Δ and 1 in Dia. 2 with the one that would be formed by 1 and Alb ‘a’.

As you might expect, a play on the four-five point invites the invasion at 1 in Dia. 3. Alb 2 is the usual answer, and since it produces the same joseki as in section 30 of the last chapter, there will be no section on the three-three point invasion in this chapter, even though it is quite commonly used. One occasion for the

three-three point invasion is shown in Dia. 4. Alb 1 almost cries out for Negru 2, because the usual joseki through 10 turns out extremely well for Negru. He has ruined the territory Alb was trying to make on the right side.

Another way of attacking a stone on the four-five point is Negru 1 in Dia. 5, and the three sections of this chapter will all be spent on the joseki which come from it.


The keima at 1 best keeps to Alb’s original intention in playing his first stone at the four-five point, which was to develop toward the center. The simple exchange that follows from Negru 2 to Alb 5 leaves Negru alive in the corner, but his small territory there is worth much less than Alb’s outer wall. The equalizing factor is, of course, that Negru has played only three stones to his opponent’s four, and has sente. Among the variations in this joseki, there is a long and complicated one in which Alb plays 3 at 4. We are not going to get involved in it, but we shall mention a couple of the other variations that Alb can choose, and finish by showing what can happen if Negru plays tenuki instead of 2.

The nature of Alb 1 To help you see what kind of move Alb 1 is, we shall show one situation in which it is very good, and one in which it is rather poor. Dia. 1. This shows Alb 1 at its best. With Alb Δ it builds toward a large territory on the right side, while keeping Negru from making anything much of the lower side. It would be a good point for Negru, too, in this formation. Dia. 2. Here Alb 1 is not so good. On the right side Negru Δ keeps Alb from making a satisfactory extension, and on the lower side Negru 6 spoils his chances for getting territory. Even if Negru does not actually play 6, the fact that he could do so is enough to show that Alb 1 is on the wrong point. A better move would be the three-three point tsuke described in section 38.

Kikashi Dia. 3. After the basic joseki, if Alb wants to interfere with Negru 6 in the previous diagram, he should play kikashi at 1 in this diagram. Alb 1 by itself is enough to get in Negru’s way, but if Alb does not mind giving up sente, be can follow with Alb ‘a’ and confine Negru securely to the corner.

Alb 3: a variation Dia. 4. In one variation of this joseki, Alb plays 3 here and cuts with 5. His plan is to use 5 and 7 as sacrifice stones to help him build up his outer position. Dia. 5. While giving up his two stones, Alb gets to play 9, 11, and 13 in sente, after which he connects at 15. Negru immediately plays kikashi at 16 on the chance that this stone may come in useful later, and Alb 17 finishes the joseki. This technique of sacrificing two stones to make a strong shape is worth knowing, since it can be used anyplace along the side of the board. This variation seems to be a favorite with amateurs. Professionals, however, tend to shy away from it, because even though Negru’s corner is not very big, it is absolutely safe; Alb cannot so much as make a ko threat against it. Professionals do

not like to see their opponents’ positions become so solid if they can help it.

Alb 5: variations Dia. 6. Alb can connect this way with 5, instead of at ‘a’. There is little to choose between the two moves. Dia. 7. Alb 5 here is another possibility. Since it threatens Negru’s eye shape in the corner, he had better play 6 at once, and Alb can finish with 7. If 5 and 7 give Alb a good territorial framework on the right side, as they do in this diagram, then they are good moves. Otherwise, however, they would be open to suspicion, since Negru has gotten to play 6 in sente.

Instead of 1 in Dia. which threatens the hane at ‘a’. . Even if it dies. How then should Alb proceed? go Dia. 10. but he would find himself tightly shut into the corner. Negru could still make his stone Δ live. 9. Negru should refrain from playing unnecessarily at ‘a’ or ‘b’ in Dia. after which he could play ‘a’ instead of 2 and make a base on the right side. Now Negru’s countermove is the diagonal play at 2. Negru Δ is not going to waste. Dia. Dia. planning to exchange the corner for a base on the right side. with which Negru can break out of the corner. Alb can play 1 at the threethree point. and then Negru extends to 4. 8. because it enables Negru to play ‘a’ or ‘b’ effectively. Something else to keep in mind after the last diagram is this combination. Another idea would be for Negru to try to get a stone on the point ‘b’. Alb 3 defends. As long as he thinks he might want to use this sequence. 8. 8. and it is better for him to jump down to 2. Alb 1 in this diagram is one possibility.Negru plays tenuki It often happens that Negru lets Alb’s keima without an answer.

and Alb’s best reply is to draw back at 3 Negru 4 may seem strange. Alb’s keima is a move with a large-scale meaning. since it leaves the double cutting points ‘a’ and ‘b’. he will not have made an unfair trade. and even if he plays tenuki again. leaving his corner stone to be attacked again. SECTION 37 Alb’s second way of answering Negru’s kakari is the outer tsuke at 1 in the diagram above. he still has lots of ways to fight. but it is Negru’s plan to have Alb cut at one of them or the other. . making eye shape. and there will be many times when Negru will want to counter it from the outside. As the last three diagrams make clear. The hane at 2 is correct. letting Alb kill the corner with a fourth stone. then capture the cutting stone.In conclusion The tenuki variations of this joseki are important.

However. The most common variation of this joseki has Alb cutting on the outside at 5. Negru has sente. blocking Alb from the center. If Alb answers as shown. then Negru can play the point 12. If Alb does not answer Negru 10. and with his good eye shape he can leave this part of the board and play elsewhere. Negru can also continue with 10. 1. Negru capturing the cutting stone. and Alb taking the corner. then Negru has built up his position in sente. 3. Dia. 2. the exchange is fair. . Considering that Alb has played one more stone than Negru. Dia.Alb cuts on the outside Dia.

and is profitable to Alb. 1. he may have to prevent the invasion by capturing at 4 immediately when Negru plays 1. The 1-2 exchange hurts Negru’s eye shape and pushes him down along the side. to forestall a stronger attack. and Negru should be able to live on the right side with 7. This variation can be something of a puzzler because of the ko. Another reason for playing Negru 10 in the last two diagrams is that it makes possible Negru 1 in this diagram. Dia. 4. Alb has a kikashi at 1. If Alb cannot kill the Negru stones. Dia. because then Alb would cut at ‘a’. This play does not threaten the life of the Negru stones. and having played 7. trying for an outer wall instead of the corner. allowing Negru to connect at 2. If Negru does not play 10 as above.Dia. in which Alb follows the cut at 5 with 7 and 9. 6 shows another variation of the joseki. Alb has to answer Negru 3 at 4 instead of at 5. . Because of Negru Δ. 5. his position would be markedly better than in Dia. Negru should not play 8 at 9. but Negru Wants to defend at 2 anyway. taking the corner.

Alb would happily cut and take the corner. If Negru mistakenly played 4 in the usual way. After the 5-6 exchange Alb has various possible moves—’b’.Alb cuts on the inside Dia. but this time Negru should play 4 on the second line instead of at ‘a’. avoiding Alb’s cut. (or just as happily cut on . and Alb has countered with the tsuke at 1.—but he has poor eye shape and Negru’s stones are working effectively. ‘c’. Naturally he must make sure that the shicho works. Variation Dia. 8. Negru 2 is still good. Negru has made a squeeze play at Δ. etc. squeezing Alb from both sides. Dia. 7 shows the variation in which Alb cuts on the inside with 5. 9.

and another which says that ‘pon-nuki is worth thirty points’. giving Alb some room on the side. 1 to 7 may look. is fairly important. Negru 4 makes a strong shape. and would be left too close to the strong Alb position for comfort. including tenuki. . For Negru 6 there are several possibilities. and is a good move even though it is played on the second line. and make a stable position. Negru 2 and Alb 3 are fixed. This joseki provides good illustrations of both of them. which are shown below. No matter how big and strong Alb’s positions in Dias. 7 worked). An extension to or around 5. Negru has good eye shape and sente and a perfectly equal result. In conclusion There is a go saying which tells us to ‘capture the cutting stone’. Negru Δ would then lose its attacking force. SECTION 38 Alb’s third way of answering Negru’s kakari is the inner tsuke in the diagram above.the other side if the shicho in Dia.

Negru 2 and Alb 3 are joseki. This is a more aggressive choice for Negru 6. Negru 6: tenuki If Negru does not make one of the moves in the last three diagrams. Alb will look for a chance to attack as in one of the next few diagrams. 4. Negru must extend "high with 6. Alb plays 9 so as to provoke Negru 10 and give Himself a good excuse to connect at 11. After 7 and 8. With his first three stones on the second and third lines. 3.Negru plays 6 Dia. Here Alb would play 1. and Alb is very pleased to have swelled his area on the right While aiming a spearhead into Negru’s territories on the lower and left sides. Negru often plays 6 here. . Dia. 1 of section 6. He has reached a firm shape. Dia. reaching a little farther to the left. Dia. This is one possibility for Negru 6. it gives the same position as in Dia. 2. 1. and now Negru has to figure out what to do about the Alb stone left on the lower side.

Alb 5 is a good connection. Alb will play ‘b’. So Negru will play 6 this way. which are also joseki. and then Negru 10 and 12 are necessary to live in the corner. Dia. Negru must reply at ‘b’ or be killed by a Alb play at that point. (in section 9). . and seen that it does not work for Negru. We have been through that pattern before. 6. If Negru now plays ‘a’. and start a fight in the center. Alb 7 and 9 are necessary for making shape on the lower side. Negru may prefer to fight back with 2 and 4 in this diagram. Later. ‘a’ is Alb’s sente.Dia. 5.

7. 4. This gives him good eye shape. and prepares for a possible counterattack against 2. and although Negru’s position on the lower side is none too strong.Dia. 8. Here. . 9. so as to make full use of his shimari. Alb should change his tactics slightly by playing 5 as shown. Continuing with 3 and 5. there is no great problem about it. and still Negru’s group is not safe. Alb 3. With the situation in the lower left corner reversed. 5. and 7 are natural. he has sente to play 8. he builds a vast area across the lower side. When Negru plays 2 closer. If Negru prefers to ignore Alb’s original tsuke at 1. hitting right at Negru’s sore spot. Now he will attack with 1. we see him playing 2 on the center point on the right side. for instance. Dia. Negru 2: tenuki Dia. Alb’s aims are different from in Dia.

10.Dia. leaving Alb without certain eye shape in the corner. Both styles are joseki. Alb’s plays in this section stress development along the side. whereas before Alb played as though the envisioned areas stretching high and far across large portions of the board. . and both have their places in the opening. Negru could strengthen himself in sente with 6 and 8. now he is only going for a modest side position. That is. If Alb played 5 as here. In conclusion While the joseki of the preceding two sections stressed development toward the center.

Atari (check): an immediate threat to capture. . A player has gote if his opponent has the initiative. or pronunciation of Japanese terms. Gote is the opposite for sente. Gote (go-teh): A move is gote if it does not evoke an answer from the opponent. Diagonal play (kosumi): an extension like the one in the diagram.GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS Note: The parentheses give Japanese alternatives for English terms. Double hane (nidan bane): Two successive hane plays. Diagonal tsuke (kosumi-tsuke): a diagonal play which is also a tsuke. or English alternatives for Japanese terms.

outside the main flow of play. but the expectation is that it will turn out to be valuable later on. Kakari (approach): a move that approaches a single enemy corner stone from the outside. After it has been answered. (usually). . a kikashi play is typically ignored for a while. Keima (knight’s move): see the diagram Kikashi: a forcing move made. Kaketsugi (hanging connection): a connection like the one in the diagram. The drawback is that Negru can play ‘a’. The virtue of a kaketsugi is that it makes some eye shape.Hane (ha-neh): A move which bends around an opponent’s stone.

threatening to make it fail. if it is his turn and there are no threats he need answer. Nobi Ogeima (large knight’s move): as in the diagram. . Shicho-breaking move: a stone played in the path of a potential shicho. cross-cut.Nobi (no-bee): an extension away from an opponent’s tsuke. A player has sente if he has the initiative. Shicho (ladder): a zig-zag pursuit. etc. Sente (sen-teh): A move is sente if it calls for an answer. as in the diagram. that is.

Shimari (closure): a two-stone corner formation. The diagram shows a typical example. but it does make a base around which it is hard for the opponent to gain a foothold. a tactically sound move. Squeeze play (hasami): a play that attacks by preventing the opponent’s extension down the side. A shimari does not exactly secure the corner. Squeeze-tsuke (hasami-tsuke): as shown in the diagram Tenuki (teh-noo-key): A player plays tenuki if he ignores his opponent’s last move. and turns elsewhere. . but not in contact with any friendly stones. Tesuji (teh-soo-djee): the best play in a local position. Tsuke (tsoo-keh): a play made in contact with one of the opponent’s stones.

1 In the Beginning by Ishigure Ikuro 9-dan Required reading for all beginning players. California 94043. **G6 Strategic Concepts of Go by Nagahara Yoshiaki 6-dan Some of the basic concepts of go and the middle game are analyzed. *G2 Basic Techniques of Go by Haruyama Isamu 9-dan and Nagahara Yoshiaki 6-dan A general introduction to tactics. Covers the fundamental ideas of the fuseki (opening). 415-964-7294. *G11 Vol. Japan or in North America from Ishi Press International. Mountain View. endgame and handicap go..Bibliography Elementary books are marked with a single asterisk. fuseki. 1400 North Shoreline Blvd. Inc. Building A7.. Tel. CPO Box 2126. All the books listed below are available from the Ishi Press. . intermediate books with a double asterisk and advanced books with a triple asterisk. with a large number of problems that utilize these concepts. All the josekis that you need to know until you reach expert level. A free catalog of go books and go equipment is available on request. ELEMENTARY GO SERIES *G10 Vol. Tokyo. 2 38 Basic Joseki by Kosugi Kiyoshi 7-dan & James Davies The ideal introduction to josekis.

**G14 Vol. 7 Handicap Go by Nagahara & Bozulich The fundamental principles of handicap go are presented with a problem section. *G17 Kage’s Secret Chronicles of Handicap Go by Kageyama Toshiro 7-dan The correct way to play handicap go. *G16 Vol.*G12 Vol. 4 Life and Death by James Davies The basics of life and death with over 200 examples and problems. 5 Attack and Defense by Ishida Akira 9-dan & James Davies The basic book on the middle game. Covers the fundamentals of positional judgment as well as other topics. *G13 Vol. Examples are from handicap games. **G19 The Breakthorough to Shodan by Miyamoto Naoki 9-dan Basic principles you need to know if you are going to reach expert level. **G15 Vol. . 6 The Endgame by Ogawa Tomoko 4-dan & James Davies The standard book in English on the endgame. Lots of examples and problems. 3 Tesuji by James Davies The basics of tesujis (tactical brilliancies) with over 300 examples and problems.

DICTIONARY OF BASIC JOSEKI. **G27 Kato’s Attack & Kill. by Kato Masao 9-dan Attacking techniques in the middle game. **G26 The Direction of Play. 1: 3-4 Point Josekis ***G22 Vol. by James Davies & Richard Bozulich . ***G24 Enclosure Josekis. G30 An Introduction to Go. All about building and and reducing large frameworks of territory. 4-4 & 3-3 Point Josekis The standard reference work in English on josekis from the point of view of even games. by Ishida Yoshio 9-dan ***G21 Vol. **G29 Reducing Territorial Frameworks by Fujisawa Shuko 9-dan An excellent book on the middle game. by Kageyama Toshiro 7-dan A chatty and easy to read book about the fundamental principles of go strategy and tactics. 2: 3-4 & 5-3 Point Josekis ***G23 Vol. by Takemiya Masaki 9-dan Josekis that occur in the middle game with emphasis on the ones that involve attacking and defending comer enclosures. *G28 Lessons in the Fundamentals of Go. by Kajiwara Takeo 9-dan Fuseki theory as expounded by Kajiwara. How to attack and kill your opponent’s stones. 3: 5-4. the great modern fuseki theoretician.

published since 1977. Volumes 1 to 4. by Richard Bozulich Written for players who have just learned the rules of go. **G33 The Chinese-Style Opening. essays and instructional articles. The second part is a collection of unique and fascinating full-board problems that is sure to entertain both beginner and advanced players. you’ll find it all in this book. A panorama of 19th century go in Japan. A must for every serious go player. The authoritative go magazine in English. It covers every phase of the game and aims to set the novice on the right track with respect to the strategic principles of go. a quarterly magazine on go. G41 The Magic of Go. A collection of nearly 1500 hundred problems for the beginner. A entertaining collection of essays about go and its players. The finest go book ever written. computer go and how go relates to intelligence and learning. **G32 The Power of the Star-Point. Graded Go Problems for Beginners. Cho Chikun The rules arid strategy of the game are thoroughly covered in a logical step-by-step approach. From history to modern tournament play. Go World. by Nakayama Noriyuki 5-dan. Essay are interspersed with the technical chapter that will broaden your understanding. go news from around the world. by Kano Yoshinori 9-dan.*G31 The Second Book of Go. All major Japanese tournament games are presented with detailed commentaries as well as general interest articles. edited by John Power. The Treasure Chest Enigma. by Takagawa Shukaku A thorough analysis of the sanren-sei opening pattern. 160 games with detailed commentaries by modern professionals of the greatest go genius who ever lived. the golden age of go. drilling them in the basic tactics of go. . by Kato Masao A thorough analysis of the Chinese-style opening pattern. Invincible: The Games of Shusaku.

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