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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Name:

Roll No:

Learning Centre:

Subject: MB0040 – STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT

Assignment No: Set 2

Date of Submission at the Learning Centre:

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MB0040 Set2

and “Schedule”.

Answer:

Statistical surveys are used to collect numerical information about units in a population.

Surveys involve asking questions to individuals. Surveys of human populations are

common in government, health, social science and marketing sectors.

• Planning and

• Execution.

The figure below shows the two broad stages of Statistical survey.

Often, information is collected through questionnaires. The questionnaires are filled with

questions pertaining to the investigation. They are sent to the respondents with a covering

letter soliciting cooperation from the respondents (respondents are the people who respond

to questions in the questionnaire). The respondents are asked to give correct information

and to mail the questionnaire back. The objectives of investigation are explained in the

covering letter together with assurance for keeping information provided by the respondents

as confidential.

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MB0040 Set2

survey. When questionnaires are properly framed and constructed, they become important

tools by which statements can be made about specific people or entire populations.

This method is generally adopted by research workers and other official and non-official

agencies. This method is used to cover large areas of investigation. It is more economical

and free from investigator’s bias. However, it results in many “non-response” situations.

The respondent may be illiterate. The respondent may also provide wrong information due

to wrong interpretation of questions.

questions in inappropriate format, or questions that are biased, then the survey would be

useless. An important method for checking and making sure whether a questionnaire is

accurately capturing the intended information is to pre-test among a smaller subset of target

respondents.

the questionnaire. You have to keep the following points in mind while preparing a

questionnaire:

The respondent should not take much time in completing the questionnaire. It should be

small and not lengthy.

· The questions asked should be well structured and unambiguous.

· The questions asked should be in proper logical sequence.

· Questions should be unbiased. The questions in the questionnaire should not disturb the

privacy of the respondents.

· The task of completion of questionnaire should not have much writing work.

· Necessary instructions and glossary should be given in covering letter.

· Questions involving technological jargons and mathematical calculations should be

avoided.

· The completed questionnaire should be kept confidential and used only for the purpose of

the survey as mentioned in the investigation.

· There should not be any scope for misinterpretation in the questions.

There are different types of questions that can be used in the questionnaire. A questionnaire

can have Contingency questions, Matrix questions, Closed ended questions and Open ended

questions. Let’s have a look at each one in detail

Contingency questions are questions that are answered only if the respondent gives a

particular response to a previous question. This avoids asking people questions that do not

apply to them

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MB0040 Set2

Matrix questions are questions which are placed one under the other, forming a matrix.

The response categories are placed along the top and a list of questions are placed down the

side. This is used to efficiently occupy page space and respondents’ time.

Closed ended questions are those where the respondents’ answers are limited to a fixed set

of responses. Usually scales are closed ended.

Yes/no questions – here the respondents answer with “yes” or “no”. Some of the examples

are:

Multiple choices – here the respondents have several options from which to choose. For

example:

Scaled questions – here the responses are graded on a continuum (For example, rating the

appearance of a product on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 implying the most preferred

appearance and 1 implying the least preferred appearance). Scaled questions are mostly

questions related to attitudes. A Likert scale provides a number of attitude statements. The

respondent has to say how much they agree or disagree with each one.

Open ended questions are those questions for which the respondent supplies their own

answer without any fixed set of possible responses. Examples of types of open ended

questions include:

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MB0040 Set2

about what they think is happening in the picture.

contact. In order to get reliable information, the investigator should be well trained, tactful,

unbiased and hard working.

contact. The problem of non-response is minimised.

There is a difference between a schedule and a questionnaire. A schedule is a form that the

investigator fills himself through surveying the units or individuals. A questionnaire is a

form sent (usually mailed) by an investigator to respondents. The respondent has to fill it

and then send it back to the investigator.

1. Liability for Informant is liable for filling it up. Enumerator fills it up after

filling up getting answers from informants.

Information schedules and contact the

informants.

Relationship personal contact with the have personal contact through

informants. schedule.

Information lack of personal contact. because of the personal contact

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MB0040 Set2

informants.

5. Scope of The use of Questionnaire is suitable Schedule can be used for both

Enquiry where the informants are literate. literate as well as illiterate

persons.

questionnaire method is method as most of the

economical. enumerators are paid.

it is less reliable as informants enumerators can get correct

cannot give correct answers to answers after clarifying the

some of the questions. questions to the informants.

information by this method. collected by the enumerators.

Q2. The table shows the data of Expenditure of a family on food, clothing, education,

rent and other items.

Items Expenditure

Food 4300

Clothing 1200

Education 700

Rent 2000

Others 600

Answer:

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MB0040 Set2

PIE CHART

2000

Food

Clothing

600 Education

Others

4300 Rent

700

1200

Q3. Average weight of 100 screws in box „A‟ is 10.4 gms. It is mixed with 150 screws

of box „B‟. Average weight of mixed screws is 10.9 gms. Find the average weight of

screws of box „B‟.

Answer:

[XAB] = NA XA + NB XB

NA + NB

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MB0040 Set2

100 + 150

XB = 11.23 gms.

(b) What is meant by “Conditional Probability”?

Answer:

Managers very often come across with situations where they have to take decisions about

implementing either course of action A or course of action B or course of action C.

Sometimes, they have to take decisions regarding the implementation of both A and B.

For Example: A Sales manager may like to know the probability that he will exceed the

target for product A or product B.sometimes,he would like to know the probability that the

sales of product A and B will exceed the target.the first type of probability is answered by

addition rule.the second type of probability is answered by multiplication rule.

Addition rule:

i) If ‘A’ and ‘B’ are any two events then the probability of the occurrence of either ‘A’

or ‘B’ is given by:

ii) If ‘A’ and ‘B’ are two mutually exclusive events then the probability of occurrence

of either A or B is given by:

iii) If A, B and C are any three events then the probability of occurrence of either A or

B or C is given by:

In terms of Venn diagram, we can calculate the probability of occurrence of either event ‘A’

or event ‘B’, given that event ‘A’ and event ‘B’ are dependent events. From the figure 5.5,

we can calculate the probability of occurrence of either ‘A’ or ‘B’, given that, events ‘A’

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MB0040 Set2

and ‘B’ are independent events. From the figure 5.6, we can calculate the probability of

occurrence of either ‘A’ or ‘B’ or ‘C’, given that, events ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ are dependent

events.

iv) If A1, A2, A3………, An are ‘n’ mutually exclusive and exhaustive events then the

probability of occurrence of at least one of them is given by:

Multiplication rule :

If ‘A’ and ‘B’ are two independent events then the probability of occurrence of ‘A’ and ‘B’

is given by:

Sometimes we wish to know the probability that the price of a particular petroleum product

will rise, given that the finance minister has increased the petrol price. Such probabilities

are known as conditional probabilities.

Thus the conditional probability of occurrence of an event ‘A’ given that the event ‘B’ has

already occurred is denoted by P (A / B). Here, ‘A’ and ‘B’ are dependent events.

Therefore, we have the following rules.

If ‘A’ and ‘B’ are dependent events, then the probability of occurrence of ‘A and B’ is

given by:

It follows that:

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MB0040 Set2

For any bivariate distribution, there exists two marginal distributions and

‘m + n’ conditional distributions, where ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the number of

classifications/characteristics studied on two variables.

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MB0040 Set2

(b) Differentiate between “Type-I” and “Type-II” Errors

Answer:

5(a) In hypothesis testing, we must state the assumed or hypothesised value of the

population parameter before we begin sampling. The assumption we wish to test is called

the null hypothesis and is symbolised by ’Ho’.

The term ‘null hypothesis’ arises from earlier agricultural and medical applications of

statistics. In order to test the effectiveness of a new fertilizer or drug, the tested hypothesis

(the null hypothesis) was that it had no effect, that is, there was no difference between

treated and untreated samples. If we use a hypothesised value of a population mean in a

problem, we would represent it symbolically as ‘µ H0’. This is read – ‘The hypothesised

value of the population mean’.

If our sample results fail to support the null hypothesis, we must conclude that something

else is true. Whenever we reject the hypothesis, the conclusion we do accept is called the

alternative hypothesis and is symbolised H1 (“H sub-one”).

For the null hypothesis H0: µ = 200, we will consider three alternative hypothesis as:

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MB0040 Set2

Example

We want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to 500.

We would symbolise it as follows and read it as,

The null hypothesis is that the population mean = 500 written as,

The purpose of hypothesis testing is not to question the computed value of the sample

statistic but to make a judgment about the difference between that sample statistic and a

hypothesised population parameter.

The next step after stating the null and alternative hypotheses is to decide what criterion to

be used for deciding whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis. If we assume the

hypothesis is correct, then the significance level will indicate the percentage of sample

means that is outside certain limits (In estimation, the confidence level indicates the

percentage of sample means that falls within the defined confidence limits).

Suppose that making a Type I error (rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true) involves the

time and trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted. At the

same time, making a Type II error (accepting a null hypothesis when it is false) means

taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemical compound will be poisoned.

Obviously, the management of this company will prefer a Type I error to a Type II error

and, as a result, will set very high levels of significance in its testing to get low β ’s.

Type II error:

Suppose, on the other hand, that making a Type I error involves disassembling an entire

engine at the factory, but making a Type II error involves relatively inexpensive warranty

repairs by the dealers. Then the manufacturer is more likely to prefer a Type II error and

will set lower significance levels in its testing.

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MB0040 Set2

Q6. From the following table, calculate Laspyres Index Number, Paasches Index

Number, Fisher‟s Price Index Number and Dorbish & Bowley‟s Index Number

taking 2008 as the base year?

Kg

A 6 50 10 56

B 2 100 2 120

C 4 60 6 60

D 10 30 12 24

E 8 40 12 36

Answer:

2008 2009

Commodity P0q0 P1q1 P0q1 P1q0

(Rs.) per Kg (Rs.) per Kg

Kg (P0) Kg (P1)

(q0) (q1)

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MB0040 Set2

Σ P0q0

1360

Σ P0q1

1344

Or

L+P

Σ P0q0 Σ P0q1

1360 1344

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MB0040 Set2

************

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