Manchester, December 6, 2010

Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

»Digital Marketing « Plan for GlobalWasteIdeas.org Building up a waste ideas community.
Jan Schmiedgen Student ID 10980834 (3rd Semester)

Saved at: DATEN:Dropbox:S_Shared Projects:G_GlobalWasteIdeas:F_Final Concept Documents:GWI-OnlineMarketing-Concept.doc

Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
SEM SEO SROI PPC ROI TG UAS, UAN WOM Search Engine Marketing Search Engine Optimisation Social Return on Investment Pay per Click Return on Investment Target Group Unique Activity System, Unique Activity Network Word of Mouth

Declaration of Authorship I certify that the work presented here is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and the result of my own investigations, except as acknowledged, and has not been submitted, either in part or whole, at this or any other University.

Jan Schmiedgen, December 6, 2010

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Table of Contents
1! Challenges and Objectives................................................... 5!
1.1! Challenges ................................................................................................. 5! 1.2! Limitations and Technical Requirements .................................................... 8! 1.3! Communication Objectives ........................................................................ 9!

2! Techniques and Requirements............................................10!
2.1! Critique ................................................................................................... 10! 2.2! Critiqual Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators........................ 12! 2.3! The ROI-Question ................................................................................... 13!

3! Communications Planning.................................................14!
3.1! Channel Strategy (Proposal) ..................................................................... 14! 3.2! Offline Integration.................................................................................... 18! 3.3! Media Planning ....................................................................................... 19!

4! References .........................................................................20! 5! Appendix ..........................................................................25!
5.1! Some Screenflow Sketches........................................................................ 25! 5.2! GWI – Goals and Objectives .................................................................... 26! 5.3! Platform Classification and Competition – An Attempt ............................. 27! 5.4! Market Definition – A Try........................................................................ 29! 5.5! Key Stakeholders ..................................................................................... 31! 5.6! Community Lifecycle ............................................................................... 33! 5.7! The Steps of an SROI-Analysis................................................................. 33! 5.8! The Waste Life Cycle ............................................................................... 34! 5.9! Some Case Studies ................................................................................... 35!
5.9.1! Skeleton Sea ......................................................................................................35! 5.9.2! Biomer Plastics Reprocessing (BPR) ...................................................................37! 5.9.3! Fertiloo & Peepoople .........................................................................................39! 5.9.4! Ciudad Saludable – Healthy City ........................................................................41!

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Introduction
GlobalWasteIdeas.org, in short GWI, will be a worldwide, multi-sided1 idea-sharing platform for innovative ways to deal with waste. Its main purpose is to pragmatically bridge the time period until the old industrial »cradle-to-grave« paradigm has been disestablished and »cradle-to-cradle« (Braungart & McDonough 2009) has become reality. Until then the platform serves the following goals: Collect and document today’s creative and original »waste ideas«2 (see p. 35 ff. for examples) over the whole waste life cycle and over all levels of the waste hierarchy3 that help people to live a more sustainable (and especially in developing countries better) life; Establish a network of »unusual« participants that catalyses social entrepreneurship and new business idea generation in general; Broaden peoples perception of waste as a valuable commodity; Enforce cross-cultural collaboration from bottom up; Attract also low involved people via sophisticated visual sense-making/representation of the data (see p. 25 for some wireframes); and last but not least – in the sense of a typical design thinking project4 – let people adopt and repurpose the platform to find out which possibilities it actually inheres. For this digital marketing plan such an experimental approach has several implications: With the launch of the platform the business will be in an indefinitely exploration phase. Neither will a profitable business model exist nor does GWI already know what next goals and purposes it will have to serve in the future. At the present time no market research is available, as the project itself is »market research« and searches for possible business opportunities (for the uploaded ideas on the platform as well as for GWI itself). Consequential the following pages are mainly based on »thoroughly thought trough assumptions«. The author therefore wants to apologize already in advance that some of the following outcomes in this document are rather an academic exercise to meet the requirements of the given course template/outline/structure.

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In the sense of a consumer-vendor community that co-creates value (c. f. Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004); Osterwalder & Pigneur (2009)).

This includes in particular the rather »unknown and unheard« grass-roots ideas that local bricoleurs (c.f. Bourdieu 1995; Lévi-Strauss 1966), organisations and social entrepreneurs develop within their cultures, communities, special life circumstances and contexts, worldwide. GWI will use the official categories of the EU recycling coalition from 2005 ! Reduce: Lowering the amount of waste produced through optimized production or adapted consumption, Reuse: Using materials repeatedly, Recycle: Using materials to make new products, Recovery: Recovering energy from waste, Disposal: Putting waste to landfills or burning waste, Repair: Reassembling of malfunctioning or used things, Repurpose: Using materials for alternative meaning, purpose and sensemaking The idea for this project emerged in a course on the topic »design thinking« at Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen (Germany). The class was run by a former director of IDEO, Milano and pursued the goal of discovering cross-cultural and environmental action fields were new business opportunities could be discovered. An approach that is in accordance with the concept of inversion stating that the new logic of value creation is starting with the individual end user: „Instead of “What do we have and how can we sell it to you?” good business practices start by asking “Who are you?” “What do you need?” and “How can we help?” This inverted thinking [as deeeply embedded in design thinking] makes it possible to identify the assets that represent real value for each individual. Cash flow and profitability are derived from those assets.“ (Zuboff 2010)

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Challenges and Objectives
There is an overwhelming bundle of trends that influence and provide the (marketing) ground for a platform like GWI. Given the limited space of this report I will just list a few, excluding their classification in a trend typology and not claiming completeness. In the following labelled trends are marked italic. Some are described in more detail in the appendix at page 46.

1.1 Challenges
GENERAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGES The world is amidst a great rebalancing and despite the fact that there is a rising awareness for environmental issues within people, according to the United Nations (2010) the exploitation of natural resources and unsustainable consumption will dramatically increase. Despite environmental problems and along with it rising inequality, shifting values and social norms, growing risk sensitivity and resulting protest/consumerism movements this development will have tough economic consequences for western economies: Constrained supply due to pressure on commodity markets, increased regulatory and social scrutiny, growing prizesensitive demand from emerging markets (as we have no cheap labour, productivity needs to be even more improved), to name just a few. Supranational and national government organisations are to the greatest possible extent paralysed (cp. Kyoto, UNEP, … etc.) as they can’t bring the many yet unsolved trade-offs between economic development and ecological risk provisioning to a international consensus. However, paralelly a heavily subsidised »race« in search for the most promising (green) future technologies has started amongst the leading countries in the world as they will provide their main competitive hallmark in the future. These efforts are mostly accompanied by huge campaigns, raising public awareness and understanding for this, as well as by supporting regulatory schemes (trends: the market state, pricing the planet, producing public good in the grid, etc.). For companies1 and governments2 in general this means pressure from all sides and the need to radically rethink the way they’re configurating their (business) activities. INDUSTRY CHALLENGES While some organisations already make heavy use of collective intelligence, crowdsourcing and open innovation, our research has shown that many institutions in and around the waste industry and regulations still stick to closed innovation approaches and top-down regulation. And although there are all those undeniable massive business opportunities (cf.

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Firms for example can no longer externalise their internalities (Coase 1990) and will have to account for »social costs« in the future.

Governments however need practical search patterns that help them discovering the most promising action fields (competitive future technologies and national talent) to support in the future – independently from what lobby groups think. At the same time they have to balance environmental regulations and economic growth opportunties.

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Defra 2010) the search behaviour for the latter often is still biased (wrong basic assumptions, old »innovation approaches and research methods«, paralysing path dependencies, etc.) – on industry as well as government side (cf. Chesbrough et al. 2006; Lester & Piore 2004; Hippel 2006). This can be dangerous, as industry boundaries are blurring, consumption patterns change and »growth« will mainly be generated in emerging markets. Who knows if it is not a young indian low-tech company that will disintermediate established value chains of multi-national corporations as its solutions are more effective and viable also for saturated and pressurised western markets? Be it for the sake of monitoring new market entrants or for discovering new business opportunities, the »environmental industry« (sensu latu) is well advised to find new ways to monitor, catalyse and implement innovation. In fact, providers like Veolia already use upstream innovation sources (Veolia Environnement 2010) but most of them are not really open to a broader range of participants1 (cf. appendix »5.3 Platform Classification and Competition – An Attempt«, p. 27). Exactly here the need for action is located. According to the McKinsey Global Institute (2010) these top mega tech trends will influence the future business landscape and therefore affect aforementioned participants: distributed co-creation moving into the mainstream, networks becoming the organisation, innovating from the bottom of the pyramid, and many more relevant (cf. Figure 13: Trends, drivers and forces affecting/favouring GlobalWasteIdeas.o, p. 46). This combined with the realisation that knowledge distribution and cross-linkage bears »grass-roots« solutions to problems2 – often also embedded to a respective (cultural, geographical, community, etc.) context3 and therefore catalysing success even more – puts companies under immense pressure to act. Not to speak of, last but not least, disruptive substitute solutions from other industries and players that are less »grass-roots« but know how to take advantage of above mentioned developments. I think I don’t need to deduce here why GWI therefore could be a helpful tool for people in facing all mentioned challenges. Instead I would like to draw the attention to GWI’s internal issues. INTERNAL CHALLENGES The probably biggest challenge is: GWI doesn’t exist yet! ! Therefore everything needs to be build up from scratch. For the purpose of this assessment document I’ll assume in the following, the platform already exists and we face the key challenge of attracting users to the website. As GWI all depends on the size and quality of its community we will already have to start gathering potential contributors before the official launch. Not only for codevelopment and alpha testing purposes, but also for collecting a critical mass of dissemina-

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According to Pisano & Verganti (2008) firms can use four basic modes of collaborating with outsiders. Veolia already uses three: Close cooperations with an elite circle network of researchers and other handpicked contributers, joint ventures with participants from other industries solving special (more or less defined) problems in the form of an consortium and finally (for exactly defined problems) surely also innovation malls like innocentive.com. Probably also the use crowdsourcing – like articleonepartners.com for the efficient execution of patent research – will already take place in the industry. However our research indicates, that no open participative, flat governed model in the form of an innovation community is used, respectively exits so far. Relevant trends: citizen R&D, networked artisans, personal design and fabrication due to easier access to manufacturing equipment, etc. The self-assertion of technical solutions increases if it comes along with a compelling story and is rooted in (behavioral) routines, values, living contexts etc. of the respective peer groups/communites. Therefore »social innovation« is another critical key for the acceptance of any proposal to the market (cf. Verganti 2009).

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tors. Furthermore in such an interaction knowledge can be gained about the various needs of our future users. Although GWI can serve a variety of purposes and may be highly relevant for many interest groups, we need these insights, as they will help us in custom tailoring the »right brand messages« to attract (connect to) respective stakeholders.

Figure 1: Preliminary stakeholdermap for GWI

As GWI will be a »two-sided grassroots platform« it is very hard to exactly specify its stakeholders, respectively »target groups1«. Nondegradable waste is probably one of the biggest problems mankind faces. So to speak in terms of the »butterfly effect«, basically every human on the whole world is affected by our acts of consumption – even by those taking place in other parts of the world (e.g. leading to the irretrievable indulgence of natural resources like oil, rare gases, etc.). Nevertheless the interests of our prospective stakeholders couldn’t be more contrasting and every group also differs regarding their levels of involvement with the topic. If we want to efficiently build a community we therefore we need to start with those highly involved people (e.g. activists, industry, regulators) who already have some knowledge as well as an overview over the development in the »waste (industry) world«. On that account the community building needs to split up into two steps: Phase 1 woos highly involved people and collects their knowledge to build up a critical mass of »entertaining« content that in turn attracts low involved people in phase 2. They consume that

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In a first step one could roughly cluster our »worldwide TGs« into three classes: On the micro-level we have all individuals producing waste (mankind). On a meso-level we adress the industry in general and special waste managing companies in particular. On a macro-level society, government and politics are adressed. More detailed clusters will emerge, once the platform runs.

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knowledge in the first place and hopefully get converted to contributors later on. But as if that wasn't already enough we also have to take into consideration that many, if not most, of our low involved people are even hard to reach.

1.2 Limitations and Technical Requirements
Namely GWI faces the challenge of trying to cover the most promising cases, from especially those emerging and »digital divide« countries, where (broadband) internet connection is either not available or slow. How this can be achieved in the long run will not be part of this concept1, we only need to be aware, that the low internet penetration in the most interesting countries forces us to start our introduction and launch campaigns in the »developed« internet world. However, as Figure 2 shows, growth figures in less developed regions give profound reason for hope that the once the platform is established more people in those can access it – be it via desktop computers or mobile devices. Nevertheless I assume in the following that our launch takes place (resp. is going to be remarked) worldwide.

WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS

Figure 2: World internet usage and population statistics (Sources: Miniwatts Marketing Group 2010; International Telecommunication Union 2010; Nielsen 2010)

Furthermore GWI needs to take into account that even in OECD countries still 29% of all subscribers access the internet with cable modems (OECD 2009). That means that the basic functionality of the site also needs to work without fast connections and bandwidth consuming technologies like AJAX or Flash. Regarding that, especially (mobile) browser2 optimisation will be a central issue. With this background information in mind now our communication objectives can be formulated.

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Some ideas are for example to include NGOs via special incentives as our case collectors in the forefront of grassroots fieldwork. Also teachers (often the most highly educated persons, especially in rural areas) in local communities are good information sources and may be they are good idea disseminators too. Both groups have either regular internet access or from time to time. In »developing« countries not only the hardware very often is quite antiquated but also software (here browsers) are rather old. Therefore GWI also has to be optimised for – often IE-based – kiosk systems (as people/NGOs often use internet cafes as only access to internet) with slow connections.

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1.3 Communication Objectives
If the key challenge is to build a community that produces content for the platform, we have to turn – especially high involved – visitors as fast and convincing as possible to higher levels of the conversion funnel shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Possible GWI User Hierarchy/Funnel (compiled by author)

That in turn already requires a critical mass of cases on the platform because „to attract the »consumers« of the content, you have to have »publishers« first, but it's hard to get »publishers« to the service without »consumers« (unkown 2010).“ Deduced from this, the »communication« objectives for GWI are as follows:
MAIN OBJECTIVES

Objectives are very challenging to raise the bars of our efforts. They have to be achieved with no/low budget, but the manpower of the founders and to be acquired volunteers as well as a few sponsors and crowdfunding. Produce a critical mass of at least 100 initial case studies until the launch of the beta version! Attract around 1,000,000 unique visitors and 70,000 members (7% conversion rate) in two years after launch. Thereof at least a) 40,000 members as fully-registered users (4% full-registering conversion rate), b) 30,000 as semi-registered users and c) 100 as very active contributors (lead users with a 0.01% contribution efficiency conversion rate).

SIDE OBJECTIVES

Attract at least 50 highly qualified disseminators in different countries, spreading our idea and convincing people to become editors for the platform in the first half year after launch. Research and get to know new case providers/sources to fill up our database. Establish relations with media people. -9-

Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

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Techniques and Requirements
As GWI doesn’t exist yet, itself cannot be criticised. Instead general pitfalls in similar industries could be examined. But GWI is a multisided platform, performing a multitude of functions for a heterogeneous group of customers/stakeholders overlapping with a variety of alternative solutions that would also solve those functions. According to Abell (1980) the intersections of these three dimensions constitute the solution space, one calls »market«. If for example we take a closer look at the »customer group/alternative solution matrix« (cf. appendix Table 2, p. 30) we see that some of our prospective users are also »competitors« in terms of the services they provide (e.g. governmental institutions vs. governmental service agencies or waste industry/waste consultants vs. waste industry/waste consultants). In terms of customer functions governmental service agencies would also be our biggest »competitor« (cf. appendix Table 3, p. 30). But are they? Rather are waste consultants. But even they could be grateful users of our platform within certain win-win scenarios. So what to analyse? The innovation behaviour of the waste industry (as already mentioned in 1.1 Challenges) or the integrated marketing approaches of other idea-collecting platforms (in general, from governmental organisations, etc.)? I decided to not analyse any particular actions (SEO, SEM, SMA, etc.) of our customers/competitors, as at this point it makes no sense at all. Moreover I will examine very shortly the general pitfalls in online community building itself. STARTING AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE BUT NOT SIMPLER One of the most important and difficult tasks is to find the right balance between an already »finished« (platform) solution with many functionalities and the integration of the community in the platform development process. The basic bug-tracked functionalities as well as participation1 mechanisms already need to exist in the beta version of the site, otherwise attracted users would perceive the website as a construction site. However the initial site shouldn’t be over-featured, as users a) show more cohesion when they have a feeling of coproduction and b) can bring up their own ideas for further development (hook up not to explore options). To fulfil our objectives a »GWI intro campaign« therefore has to align two aims: 1) Attracting people to the platform (seeding phase) and 2) keeping them engaged on the latter (engaging phase), while considering the different information and moderating needs over a community lifecycle (cf. p. 33). Especially in our initial »on boarding« stage we will need to provide most of the content ourselves as new entrants will judge the quality of the platform according to that.

2.1 Critique

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According to the MIT – Center for Collective Intelligence (Malone et al. 2009), a good collective intelligence platform (CI) must address the following themes: goals (referring to the desired outcome ! What is to be accomplished?), incentives (referring to the motivational factors ! Why should anyone help out?), structure/process (referring to the business model and organizational structure to complete the task ! How are they meant to contribute?) and staffing (referring to the people required to support the business model and sustainability of CI within the organization ! Who will per-form the necessary work?).

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Mashable (Betancourt 2009; Betancourt 2010; Catone 2009) suggests several tips and rules for promoting/seeding social businesses1 and increasing community engagement2. Complementary they show how to avoid the most common »traps«3 within those steps. However, most of them are pretty obvious or have already been mentioned. GWIs biggest challenge here will be the high diversity of targeted user groups. Especially during the seeding phase custom-tailored key messages, media environments, and seeding methods need to be developed. Therefore the setup and handling of different conversation streams that are made to stick (C. Heath & D. Heath 2007) is crucial. In the following these thoughts flow into in the short overview of CSFs, KPIs and ROIs that apply to our main objectives.

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Attraction tips: 1. Remember: Social Media is a Conversation, 2. Be Active and Responsive, 3. Be Personal and Authentic, 4. Encourage Sharing, 5. Make Social Media an Organization-wide Activity 1. Make it easy to participate, 2. be a leader (good example), 3. interact with the community, welcome newbies, identify and nurture power users, showcase and cross promote UGC, reward contributors, be timely about posting UGC, allow profile creation and engage with popular existing communities (Betancourt 2009). Traps are: 1. the gaping hole perception, 2. no community cohesion, 3. don’t downplay the audience, 4. don’t betray the community, 5. don’t try to be everywhere, 6. no internal support for the community manager, 7. don’t be a dictator and 8. avoid social media staffing bottlenecks (Betancourt 2010).

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2.2 Critiqual Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators
Objectives Produce a critical mass of at least 100 initial case studies until the launch of the beta version! Attract around 1,000,000 unique visitors and 70,000 members in two years after launch. Critical Success Factors Gathering case studies from not yet known sources, while checking if the respective sites are possible (link) partners for GWI. Finding editors who support us in our search (activist groups, NGOs, etc.). Make sure to permanently develop and maintain a map of our prospective and particular GWI social media ecosystem Secure funding for IT (hosting/server(s), loadbalancer, etc.) and GWI roadshow travelling expenses. Having compiled a volunteer team of programmers, designers and first editors. Create some pre-launch buzz for already creating some link authority and awareness for the official launch. Gather marketing and PR (student) supporters worldwide that help with the respective local media roll-outs (friends, acquaintances, volunteers). Collecting famous intercessors (actors, scientists, politicians, etc.) that promote our idea or provide us with quotes we can use in our campaign. Researching the contacts of appropriate mass media that shall flank our social web campaign and establish a relationship with them. Having programmed the basic platform (tested by friends in early prototype stadium) for beta testing, including the setup of clever participation and incentive mechanisms (cf. the building blocks of collective intelligence, Malone et al. 2009; MIT - Center for Collective Intelligence 2010). Having gathered more insights (motivations, needs, pain points, contexts of usage, etc.) on our prospective stakeholders and user groups in order to setup our brand message variations for the seeding phase (also knowing their cognitive frames for search behaviour/memes etc.). Having constructed personas that reflect possible usage scenarios, user roles in general and standard use cases. Rapidly building up a qualified link base by registering the site to all kinds of thematic catalogues, link lists and partner sites after having thought through the SE strategy according to our users cognitive frames. Creating a big buzz via a fully integrated campaign with special prepared landing pages for every user group. Donations received Number of Backlinks Number of volunteers we collect to bring platform and initial content to life. Intensity of buzz (number of positive mentions) in all kind of publications (blog entries, press clippings, Facebook wall posts, etc.) Number intercessors, influencers, disseminators and opinion leaders that (in)officially support us. An overall 7% user registering conversion rate ( = leads (people attracted by the campaign) CPA: Cost per Acquisition Feedback: Number of comments from site, mail, etc. User/Community satisfaction index Site performance and availability Average visiting time on site Visits to register Referrer mix Share of search (dominant occupation of strategic memes and phrases) Number of referrals to the community by members WOM generated by community, etc. a) 40,000 fullyregistered users Setup of a well-designed and clever on-site info-/entertainment conversion funnel towards registering. Supporting people in the fast establishment of peer-connections, once they have registered (increase cohesion). b) 30,000 semiregistered users Steady flow of new content (updates, new cases, news, etc.) via RSS, Newsletter or FB wall posts, etc. to keep peoples attention. Special (upgrade) campaigns for semi-registered users, stimulating them to fully register/complete their profiles. c) 100 active contributors Preparation of special incentives/rewarding mechanisms for lead users Arranging meetings (annual events?) to meet physically with lead users. 4% full registering conversion rate (transition of lurkers into active community members) nCase inspiration connections Site register conversion rate (from user to member) Activity/participation level: Average contribution frequency (e. g. ratio of comments per post), nActivated, Dormant, nLapsed, etc. 0.01% contribution efficiency rate (number of people contributing) nCases per contributor, etc. KPIs n.a. ROIs hardly foreseeable: see next page for a comment

Table 1: Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators

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2.3 The ROI-Question
The question for any ROI of GWI is hard to answer, especially in the early stages its community lifecycle (Abelson 2010): Firstly GWI is a (business) experiment whose prospective revenue model is everything but clear. Conceivable revenue options for us may be subscription models (i.e. our disliked option of »premium content«), the ubiquitous but obvious advertising financing, the coupling to a governmental or commercial organisation that funds it, or more venturesome – a micropay per case option by VCs that are interested in a diverse and maintained high quality platform. But what’s the use of any promising scenarios if we don’t know yet whether they are even viable? At the moment we don’t care about any returns. In terms of time we put in without getting something out, the project already is a financial »disaster«. But we don’t care. Our »ROI« is experience, good karma and in the long-term personal reputation – obviously all not real financial measures, what in turn leads us to the general discussion of the dilution of the ROI econometric. Many marketers adapted the concept with (among others) the idea of an attention economy1 (Franck 1998) in mind and invented measures like Return on Engagement, Return on Participation, Return on Involvement, Return on Attention or Return on Trust2. As important as they may be, these measures also don’t helps us along, as they are not referencing to »real« financial returns/measures but results (Solis 2010). Furthermore another question looms large: For whom do we create value? About whose ROI do we actually talk3? Obviously not (just) about ours. Rather about the different and particular ROIs for all of our stakeholders within the business eco-system we operate in (some examples can be found in the appendix: Table 5, p. 33). But how can the socioeconomic value4 creation in such a public innovation eco-system (Emerson et al. 2001, p.137) be described, measured and quantified (not to speak of getting prognosticated)? To determine GWIs ROIs it needs a measure that describes the value of its impacts, by using

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Here in the controversial sense of »attention transactions« replacing financial transactions as the main focus of our economic systems.

„Return on Engagement: The duration of time spent either in conversation or interacting with social objects, and in turn, what transpired that’s worthy of measurement; Return on Participation: The metric tied to measuring and valuing the time spent participating in social media through conversations or the creation of social objects; Return on Involvement: Similar to participation, marketers explored touchpoints for documenting states of interaction and tied metrics and potential return of each; Return on Attention: In the attention economy, we assess the means to seize attention, hold it, and measure the response; Return on Trust: A variant on measuring customer loyalty and the likelihood for referrals, a trust barometer establishes the state of trust earned in social media engagement and the prospect of generating advocacy and how it impacts future business. (Solis 2010)“ Not to mention the attempt to define and operationalise »investment«. Who invests what if we build the platform with our working time together with an open source community of volunteers? Can the contributions of our (beta) users and disseminators also be seen as »investments«? The transformative value of social purpose enterprises occurs along a continuum from economic, over socio-economic to social value. Economic value creation happens in most for-profit organisations and „[...] is created by taking a resource or set of inputs, providing additional inputs or processes that increase the value of those inputs, and thereby generate a product or service that has greater market value at the next level of the value chain.“ Respective measures have developed over centuries, resulting in a host of [standard] econometrics (ROI, debt/equity ratios, price/earnings, etc.). „Social value [however] is created when resources, inputs, processes or policies are combined to generate improvements in the lives of individuals or society as a whole. It is in this arena that most non-profits justify their existence, and unfortunately it is at this level that one has the most difficulty measuring the true value created. [...] Socio-economic value [finally] builds on the foundation of economic value creation by attempting to quantify and incorporate certain elements of social value. An entity creates socio-economic value by making use of resources, inputs, or processes; increasing the value of these inputs, and by then generating cost savings for the public system or environment of which the entity is a part. These cost savings are potentially realized in decreased public dollar expenditures and partially in increased revenues to the public sector, in the form of additional taxes.“ (Emerson et al. 2001, p.137)

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financial proxies representing our benefits that are not usually captured in a »market economy«. Various approaches1 try to operationalise these complex coherences. The most expedient – although not perfect – method for GWI seems to be a Social Return on Investment2 (SROI) calculation. Only such an analysis could really give a holistic and sufficiently complex answer to understand the full returns that GWI could leverage for its stakeholders and »mankind« at large. The bad news for this strategy conception template is: We do not have enough data yet to even start such an analysis (cf. appendix, p. 33, »The Steps of an SROIAnalysis«) and the author dares to further play with assumptions made up out of thin air. !

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Communications Planning
As our CSFs on p. 12 have shown, the main challenge is to create sufficient content and buzz in the beginning – whereas both is dependent on each other (cf. »buzz cycle« (Bacon 2009)). For the sake of simplification, our diverse target groups have been split up into two groups in the following: low involved (e.g. »ordinary people«, general manufacturing companies) and high involved persons (e.g. activist groups, waste industry, governmental institutions). Figure 4 shows an ideal-typical (and very simplified) seeding setup GWI could use. Within this setup different customer journeys are conceivable (also depending on the creative main idea our campaign will be aligned to). Although the standard journeys in those routes may be different, a lot of »overlapping« content could be used for both involvement groups. In detail I suggest the use of the following digital communication channels and approaches: SOCIAL WEB Especially our low-involved TGs with their restricted attention spans need to be engaged in conversations that use simple but convincing edutainment approaches3. That means we have to curate content in a variety of ways – always differentiated between our low and high involved recipients. One will be setting up Vimeo/Youtube video channels, that highlight and present the best cases and other topic-related content (presentations, TED talks, documentaries, etc.). Out of that we could (let) produce podcasts that are offered for download or subscription via all the channels we serve. One of this channels obviously is Face-

3.1 Channel Strategy (Proposal)

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e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or Social Accounting

According to Social Economy Scotland, „SROI measures an organisation’s added value by calculating the social, environmental and economic benefits it creates and by attributing a financial value to them. It is based on standard accounting principles and investment appraisal techniques.“ (Unite For Sight 2009) Recent entertaining examples are the Volkswagen »Fun Principle«, »The Girl Effect« (Nike Foundation and Care.org) or the »Entrepreneursday Virals« (http://entrepreneursday.org).

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book1, were we could aggregate other content i.e. within a GWI group page (partly automatically via SocialRSS, partly manual and self-produced) facilitating engagement2. By identifying and using »social web power users« we will leverage our seeding campaign. That’s why we already »collect« authority persons contacts of every conceivable service.

Figure 4: First draft of a channel strategy for GWI

BLOGOSPHERE AND SPECIAL INTEREST NEWS SERVICES The above mentioned channel-diversicated setup is however merely the basic structure for our Online-PR. To spread our messages we also need to encourage our friends, dissemina-

1

Of course Facebook is just representative for the different national and international social networks that enjoy popularity in the world. Despite Facebook e.g. global networks like friendster.com (still used in south-east asia), hi5.com, bebo.com or orkut.com are also potential (low-involvement) environments to spread our messages. Locally platforms like renren.com, xiaonei.com, kaixin001.com and 51.com (for China) or mixi.jp (Japan) and vkontakte.ru (Russia) are interesting (just to mention a few). The creation of respective buzz in these local environments is a task we cannot accomplish ourselves. It will be a task for disseminators of our community that engage locally in those communities. According to Chopra (2010) the following top-categories cause engagement on Facebook: „1. Contests and giveaways; 2. Quizzes, surveys, polls, requests for feedback so every relevant question attracts an answer (i. e. engagement) ; 3. Humor, jokes and trivia; 4. Controversy or debate; 5. Patriotism (especially in countries like India and Japan) ; 6. Real-life stories or examples; 7. Breaking news; 8. Unexpected information; 9. Interesting pictures and videos; in the U. S. and other developed nations, where Internet bandwidth is not an issue videos are viewed even more than pictures“

2

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tors and sympathizers to engage in microblogging for GWI (Twitter, identi.ca, Facebook, etc.). We will also have to compile a list with »bloggers of authority«, liaise with them and let them mention our story in order to reach our intended recipients in their particular sphere of influence. This is especially important for our special interest sites within our »high-involved route«. One clever way for example could be making PR for our cases (i.e. writing articles or press releases for them). By valorising the »innovating heroes« of our platform we also make PR for ourselves, e.g. by interspersing quotes and cross connections to GWI via the »back door«. Another conceivable win-win situation could be, being the official supplier of cases for the many »waste idea books« that many designers and writers (are going to) publish at the moment (i.e. www.retrash.com). Regardless of ideas and approaches – the important thing always is to forge more or less strategic alliances with kindred spirits over all channels. Because exactly this will ensure the attention and attraction of high-involved prospects we can then convert into case contributors and editors. Once (and while) we set this ball rolling we should also fortify the use of social bookmarking services (especially Digg, Reddit, StumbleUpon and Delicious). If our campaign/content goes popular on these »connector« sites it may well spread faster. And once the community establishes we should also encourage, enable and support our members to use every opportunity to be interviewed on websites, podcasts, videocasts, or in magazines. Again the goal is to valorise them in order to valorise ourselves (Goffman 1982). PROFESSIONAL MEDIA RELATIONS The materials we have produced anyways can be easily transformed to any other format. Therefore we’ll also use the opportunity to supply the established media with interesting quality content (notwithstanding that we maintain our mandatory standard PR-relations like announcing our website launch and other GWI-related events). This could be magazine articles, features or Q&As we contribute1 tailored to the mediums respective audience. The goal then is to get published in authority media on- and offline and have GWI either mentioned (increases level of awareness) or even better linked (quality link building). For the sake of the latter every piece of PR with a GWI link inside will also be distributed via erelease services. SEARCH I don’t want to look into standard SEO2 in detail, as I regard it as a basic prerequisite that will be taken into account very thoroughly when building the site. Besides that the best SEO for GWI will be the buzz our introduction campaign/content produces (even our

1 2

We could send over a list of topics we could write about or just write articles and submit it.

Standard SEO includes e.g. taking into account the search anatomy for our to be occupied search terms/phrases (amount of words, stop words, anti log, spellings, synonyms, word order), doing a respective search strategy/keyword analysis, on-page optimisation (keyword density, word frequency, friendly URLs and speaking file names, XHTML tag optimisations, internal cross-linkage, link depth, etc.) as well as off-page optimisation (increase link popularity and qualified backlinks with predefined anchor texts, link baiting, avoid duplicate content, control the appropriate speed of link growth if possible, domain rings, etc.).

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press releases will then be optimised to the key phrases we need to occupy). However I have three remarks and one idea that I regard worth mentioning: We will make no use of paid search as it would counteract our grassroots impression in the beginning. We will also have the difficulty that we don’t know the mental (search) models of our diverse user groups yet. Therefore the long-term preparation of to be occupied subject areas/topics with its respective search phrases or even memes isn’t possible at the outset. Its creation will be an iterative (learning) process during the collection of knowledge about our users (tracking data, user interviews, market research etc.). The same applies to the optimization of our different landing pages that have to be tested and refined1 until conversions are optimised. The mentioned idea is the establishment of an authority list tagged to GWI (i.e. »GWI Top List of Sustainability Sites«2) that could help us in producing a lot of qualified »good neighbourhood« backlinks with GWI-related content. COOPERATIONS As already mentioned we need to seed our idea and the site with opinion leaders, prospective publishers and voluntary co-workers. We therefore have to get access to existing communities, ask for help and invite people to republish our content. In order to gain the needed attention we could inquire celebrities (movie stars or the like) to spread our message by being one of our »brand ambassadors«. We could also ask movie makers for help, regarding the professional preparation of our campaign contents. Handselected corporations could be the first official sponsors of the platform and serve also as disseminators in the corporate world. GENERAL »OFFLINE INTEGRATION« The »real« web influencers however are easiest to reach in real life not via impersonal electronic communication. Therefore the most crucial part of our seeding campaign is to take part in conference presentations, talks, barcamps and important sustainability/wasterelated events. Furthermore we’ll submit papers and presentation suggestions ourselves to respective conferences (topics will always be related to GWI, e.g. design thinking, socialand open innovation, anthropological research approaches, etc.). Additionally we’ll encourage our members as well to submit papers and follow us suit. Another way of spreading the idea with an already growing member base is to organise local events and meetings (e.g. presenting our cases or new projects that emerged our of our members connections, etc.). First they could for example be attached to big formats like local TED talks. Later our members should be encouraged to organise their own formats (meetings, events, open days, etc.) to tell their version of our/their story.

1

One approach to achieve this is for example Googles Siteoptimisation Tool that lets you test randomly different versions of the same page with your users. The best converting can then be used later. ! https://www.google.com/analytics/siteopt/new_expt?account=XXXXXX. If we’d carry that to the extremes, we could even establish an own »GlobalWasteIdea Award« recognising the best ideas (of the year or another period of time). This wouldn’t just generate media attention but also traffic and organic SEO.

2

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THE LANDING PAGES The landing pages are the first culmination point of our campaign as they are the start of our on-site conversion funnel. At least three related cases are showcased with short videos, pictures, the link to the case itself and additional rich media (interviews, reports about the idea). All the cases have in common, that we emphasize the community’s contribution to its »birth« or implementation. Once the users realized that they could play a crucial role (in the distribution of information about those ideas, in the further development of them, with their own ideas/projects – be them as small as they be) and make a difference to the current status quo of the world (respectively discover business opportunities), we hopefully convert them to users or disseminators. In order to alleviate their decision and overcome their last parts of scepticism we list benefits of a »membership«, provide incentives like prizes or the like (e.g. trash art from SkeletonSea, p. 35) and we prepare a short FAQ that clarifies the last objections. If the user shouldn’t be convinced through this page we can nevertheless encourage him to spread our messages through his social web accounts with prepared messages. This is just one click, but increases the likelihood of getting in contact with people we could convert to users. The low-involved landing pages will contain more sensational, entertaining and surprising content that emphasises »fun-, wow- and cool-effects« (e.g. SkeletonSea, p. 35 or Peepoople, p. 39 in appendix). The high-involved route is characterised by more complex cases showcasing technological or intermeshed social innovations (e.g. Healthy City, p. 41 or BPR, p. 37 in appendix). FURTHER GENERAL THINGS TO CONSIDER We’re already slowly building up a structured (mail) address base of supporters and future users within our private and professional contacts. E-mail marketing therefore plays a rather tangential role at the moment. However if we have to opportunity to access the user base of »partner platforms« within our cooperations we’d use them immediately – also via traditional mail. Part of building the crucial user base in the beginning will be the creation of active »fake users« consisting of friends, family and our broader private network.

3.2 Offline Integration
Although this is a »digital marketing plan« the author believes that it makes no sense to artificially separate the offline integration. Therefore respective proposals have already been woven into the thoughts above.

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3.3 Media Planning
Before a »real« media planning can be done the platform already needs to be in place/programmed and initial market research on our TG patterns of reception as well as media environments1 also has to be finished. Only if this data is available we can choose the adequate media to cluster and configure a custom-tailored media plan for every of our TGs. The time table in »Figure 5« is therefore very simplified but it shows general timing dependencies and the time horizons we’re talking about.

Figure 5: Time table for GWI introduction campaign

Again this is just a rough proposal that can change if opportunities arise. If for example we have the chance to surf on major news waves that are related to our topics, we’ll do that immediately by rearranging our schedule. Therefore permanent agenda monitoring (i.e. via Google Trends) is a self-evident part of both PR and SEO activities we perform. Besides that timing and media planning are also dependent on the creative main idea (cf. Percy & Elliott 2005) that will guide our seeding campaign.

1

For our high-involved users, lets say »environmental activists« or partly also »governmental service agencies« sites like http://environment.change.org, http://www.care2.com/greenliving/ or http://www.care2.com/causes/environment/could be an adequate media environment. People from our »VC and Private Equity« group however will rather be targeted at sites like http://www.economist.com/science-technology/ or http://www.ft.com and the like.

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4

References
Abell, D.F., 1980. Defining the Business - The Starting Point of Strategic Planning, NJ: Englewood Cliffs. Abelson, R., 2010. HOW TO: Manage a Sustainable Online Community. Mashable/Social Media. Available at: http://mashable.com/2010/07/30/sustainable-onlinecommunity/ [Accessed November 20, 2010]. Bacon, J., 2009. The Art of Community: Building the New Age of Participation 1st ed., Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media. Betancourt, L., 2009. 10 Rules for Increasing Community Engagement. Mashable/Business. Available at: http://mashable.com/2009/12/16/community-engagement/ [Accessed November 20, 2010]. Betancourt, L., 2010. 8 Things to Avoid When Building a Community. Mashable/Business. Available at: http://mashable.com/2010/01/05/community-engagement-pitfalls/ [Accessed November 20, 2010]. Bisson, P., Stephenson, E. & Viguerie, S.P., 2010. Pricing the Planet. McKinsey Quarterly Public Sector - Government Regulation. Available at: https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Strategy/Growth/Pricing_the_planet_2629 [Accessed November 7, 2010]. Bourdieu, P., 1995. Outline of a Theory of Practice, New York: Cambridge University Press. Braungart, M. & McDonough, W., 2009. Cradle to Cradle, London: Vintage. Catone, J., 2009. 5 Essential Tips for Promoting Your Charity Using Social Media. Mashable/Social Good. Available at: http://mashable.com/2009/08/21/charity-socialmedia/ [Accessed November 20, 2010]. Chaffey, D. et al., 2009. Internet Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice 4th ed., Essex: Prentice Hall. Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W. & West, J., 2006. Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm, Oxford University Press. Chopra, P., 2010. Why Will People Come to Your Company Facebook Page? - India Chief Mentor - WSJ. Wallstreet Journal / India Chief M entor. Available at: http://blogs.wsj.com/india-chief-mentor/2010/06/21/why-will-people-come-toyour-company-facebook-page/ [Accessed November 23, 2010]. Coase, R.H., 1990. The Firm, the Market, and the Law, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Daren C. Brabham, 2011. Crowdsourcing: A model for leveraging online communities - 20 -

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Unpublished Draft. In Jennifer Henderson & Aaron Delwiche, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Participatory Culture. Oxford: Routledge. Available at: http://dbrabham.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/brabham_handbook_crowdsourci ng.pdf. Defra, C.A.I.W., 2010. "Less is more": business opportunities in waste & resource management. Available at: http://www.wmro.org/displayResource.aspx/9473/_Less_is_more_business_opp ortunities_in_waste_resource_management_.html [Accessed October 15, 2010]. Dustin Haisler & Margarita Quihuis, 2010. Gov 2.0: How to pick a citizen idea platform. GovFresh - Open Air Government. Available at: http://govfresh.com/2010/01/howto-pick-a-citizen-idea-platform/ [Accessed November 12, 2010]. Emerson, J., Wachowicz, J. & Chun, S., 2001. Social Return on Investment (SROI): Exploring Aspects of Value Creation, San Francisco: The Roberts Enterprise Development Fund. Available at: http://www.redf.org/download/boxset/REDF_Vol2_8.pdf. Franck, G., 1998. Ökonomie der Aufmerksamkeit : Ein Entwurf, München: Hanser. Goffman, E., 1982. Interaction Ritual - Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior 1st ed., New York: Pantheon. Heath, C. & Heath, D., 2007. Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die 1st ed., New York: Random House. Hippel, E.V., 2006. Democratizing Innovation New ed., The Mit Press. International Telecommunication Union, 2010. Monitoring the WSIS targets, Geneva: International Telecommunication Union. Available at: http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/ind/D-IND-WTDR-2010-PDF-E.pdf [Accessed November 19, 2010]. Lester, R.K. & Piore, M.J., 2004. Innovation-The Missing Dimension 1st ed., Harvard University Press. Lévi-Strauss, C., 1966. The Savage Mind, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Malone, T.W., Laubacher, R. & Dellarocas, C., 2009. Harnessing Crowds: Mapping the Genome of Collective Intelligence. In Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. McKinsey Global Institute, 2010. Ten tech-enabled Business Trends to watch. - McKinsey Quarterly - High Tech - Strategy & Analysis. Available at: https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/High_Tech/Strategy_Analysis/Clouds_big_ data_and_smart_assets_Ten_tech-enabled_business_trends_to_watch_2647 [Accessed November 8, 2010].
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Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2010. World Internet Usage Statistics News and World Population Stats. Available at: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm [Accessed November 19, 2010]. MIT - Center for Collective Intelligence, 2010. MIT - Handbook of Collective Intelligence. MIT - Handbook of Collective Intelligence. Available at: http://scripts.mit.edu/~cci/HCI/index.php?title=Main_Page [Accessed November 9, 2010]. Nielsen, 2010. Nielsen NetRatings 2010. Available at: http://enus.nielsen.com/content/nielsen/en_us/product_families/nielsen_netratings.html [Accessed November 19, 2010]. OECD, 2009. OECD Broadband Portal. OECD Broadband Portal. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/sti/ict/broadband [Accessed November 6, 2010]. Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y., 2009. Business Model Generation - A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers & Challengers, Zürich: Self Published. Percy, L. & Elliott, R., 2005. Strategic Advertising Management 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pisano, G.P. & Verganti, R., 2008. Which Kind of Collaboration Is Right for You? Harvard Business Review, 86(12), pp.78-86. Prahalad, C.K. & Ramaswamy, V., 2004. The future of competition, Harvard Business Press. Solis, B., 2010. The Maturation of Social Media ROI. Mashable/Business. Available at: http://mashable.com/2010/01/26/maturation-social-media-roi/ [Accessed November 25, 2010]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009. Visualised stages of a waste life cycle. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/lifecycle.html [Accessed November 6, 2010]. Unite For Sight, 2009. Social Investing and Social Return on Investment. Unite For Sight. Available at: http://www.uniteforsight.org/social-entrepreneurshipcourse/module7 [Accessed November 28, 2010]. United Nations, 2010. Trends In Sustainable Development - Towards Sustainable Consumption And Production, New York: United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development. unkown, 2010. Solution to "critical mass" problem with services needing "network effect" to work - any case studies? OnStartups - Stack Exchange. Available at: http://answers.onstartups.com/questions/7063/solution-to-critical-mass-problem- 22 -

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with-services-needing-network-effect-to-wor [Accessed November 20, 2010]. Veolia Environnement, 2010. Research and Innovation 2010, Paris: Veolia Environnement. Verganti, R., 2009. Design Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating What Things Mean, Harvard Business Press. World Economic Forum, 2010. WEF Risks 2010. Available at: http://www.weforum.org/documents/riskbrowser2010/risks/# [Accessed November 19, 2010]. Zuboff, S., 2010. Creating Value in the Age of distributed Capitalism. McKinsey Quarterly Strategy - Growth. Available at: https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Strategy/Growth/Creating_value_in_the_ag e_of_distributed_capitalism_2666 [Accessed November 7, 2010].

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TABLES
Table 1: Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators ................................................ 12! Table 2: Customer Group/Alternative Solution............................................................................ 29! Table 3: GWI - Customer Function/Alternative Solution Matrix.................................................. 29! Table 4: GWI - Customer Function/Group Matrix ...................................................................... 30! Table 5: Key stakeholders motivations / unmet needs / benefits / prospective ROIs ..................... 32!

FIGURES
Figure 1: Preliminary stakeholdermap for GWI..............................................................................7! Figure 2: World internet usage and population statistics (Sources: Miniwatts Marketing Group 2010; International Telecommunication Union 2010; Nielsen 2010) .................................8! Figure 3: Possible GWI User Hierarchy/Funnel (compiled by author) ............................................9! Figure 4: First draft of a channel strategy for GWI........................................................................ 15! Figure 5: Time table for GWI introduction campaign ................................................................... 19! Figure 6: Some rough screenflow sketches.................................................................................... 25! Figure 7: GWI Goals and Objectives............................................................................................ 26! Figure 8: Which kind of collaboration is right for you? (Source: Pisano & Verganti 2008) Example collaboration the waste industry is using today (Source: compiled by author). ................. 27! Figure 9: GWI-Competition: Platform type vs. functions performed (Source: compiled by author). 28! Figure 10: Community Lifecycle (Abelson 2010) .......................................................................... 33! Figure 11: The Steps of an SROI-Analysis (Emerson et al. 2001, p.139 ff.) .................................... 33! Figure 12: Visualised stages of a waste life cycle (Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2009) ............................................................................................................................ 34! Figure 13: Trends, drivers and forces affecting/favouring GlobalWasteIdeas.org........................... 46!

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5

Appendix

5.1 Some Screenflow Sketches

"

"

Figure 6: Some rough screenflow sketches

MOCK-UPS

The latest wireframes can always be found on the Pidoco website. Just copy and paste this link:
https://pidoco.com/rabbit/api/prototypes/12913/pages/page0001.xhtml?mode=sketched&api_key=2QrNb66xPVCGGOPHCdY5zojr8xdIQq4oxK 5S92eP

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5.2 GWI – Goals and Objectives
GWI shall become a supranational collective (business) intelligence hub, catalyzing bottom-up movements for sustainable behaviour in a world where the use of the word waste has become obsolete. XXxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. To broaden peoples perception of waste as a commodity. We offer a platform that accompanies us to a life with sustainable technologies and holistic ways of consumption. By making waste dealing ideas visible worldwide, we question the current industrial paradigm of cradle-to-grave and enforce cross-cultural collaboration. At the same time we pragmatically bridge the time until cradle-to-cradle takes over as the leading industrial paradigm. P1: P2: P3: We are open. Our Framework can be used by others and we share knowledge. We are positivists/possibilists. We see opportunities, no problems. To innovate we have to stay independent. The only stakeholder group influencing our interests are our users.

Principles

Mission

Vision

Organisational Goals

quantitative

User KPIs

To become the worlds major, and most used exchange platform for waste issues with over one million users within 5–10 years. To earn at least a revenue that finances our living expenses plus a compensating interest for abandoning our actual professions: XXXXXXXx EUR per person. Become the central business intelligence hub for waste related content. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Financial KPIs

qualitative

General

Social Goals

To become a central collective intelligence hub putting the dream of a sustainable world into practice (implementing digital club of Rome). Becoming an international, for the greater part open, research database that takes up on cultural practices, geographical conditions, and other frequently overlooked variables, often preventing the successful implementation of mostly technical innovations regarding waste. ! Showing people that those innovations usually become more assertive. To pragmatically bridge the time until the cradle2cradle-vision becomes true and therefore reduce further harm to our environment. To put social peer pressure on people (but not a moral one with wagging fingers and moral sermons) and create an change of awareness, as well as actions in people by building on positivism and the surprising remaining opportunities to solve our problems.

Image

The international and cross-cultural grassroots catalyser that brings change in sustainable behaviour from bottom up by transferring ideas. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Build a developer and PR team until mid of 2011. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Attract at least 100 disseminators in different countries, spreading our idea and convincing people to become editors for the platform. Attract 70.000 members in two years after launch. Being financed in 2011: XXX.XXX EUR p.a.

Misc

Action Field Goals

Figure 7: GWI Goals and Objectives

quantitative

qualitative

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5.3 Platform Classification and Competition – An Attempt
According to Pisano & Verganti (2008) organisations can make use of four major modes of collaboration as shown in Figure 8. Within this typology GWI can be characterised as an innovation community, that it is open to everyone and especially searches for grassroots/communities ideas.

!
Figure 8: Which kind of collaboration is right for you? (Source: Pisano & Verganti 2008) Example collaboration the waste industry is using today (Source: compiled by author).

Our desk research unveiled that the waste industry is not using this collaboration opportunity yet. Governmental organisations may already experiment with OpenGovapproaches but they are usually very open and cover such an variety of topics that the idea collection often looses its focusing. A dedicated innovation community for »waste and consumption« therefore doesn’t exist yet. However, this excludes all general »sustainability sites« or open challenges on sites like www.openideo.com that cover idea generation on the topic. So the question is, what idea collection platforms already exist and how do they generate knowledge? While Dustin Haisler & Margarita Quihuis (2010) roughly distinguish two distinctly different platforms for idea collection: specific-task motivated-1 and structuredidea collection platforms2, Daren C. Brabham (2011) structures crowdsourcing approaches

1

These platforms (like Ideascale, Uservoice, etc.) are great a gathering ideas for a specific purpose. For instance, many online voting challenges have adopted these platforms to gather votes for a set period of time. After a user expends their vote or votes they are no longer motivated to return to the platform aside from seeing what ideas are on top. This type of platform (like Spigit) collects and manages ideas on a board scale within multiple departments of an agency. Unlike the Specific-Task Motivated Platforms, users are free to submit ideas at any time within multiple departments. Since users are not motivated by specific-tasks, they must be motivated by a game-mechanics (ranking & rewarding of actions). In this type of platform, ideas are driven by the participants through an idea funnel.

2

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into four different modes: the knowledge discovery and management approach1, the broadcast search approach2, the peer-vetted creative production approach3, and distributed human intelligence tasking4. GWI therefore is an open innovation community with a flat hierarchy, organised in the form of a structured-idea collection platform, performing the functions of broadcast search and peervetted creative production. Figure 9 shows those few platforms that are not exclusively dedicated to our topic but which display the greatest overlap in terms of the (customer) functions they perform (cf. Abell 1980). The red area is the competition field that covers functions GWI provides. GWI-COMPETITION: PLATFORM TYPE VS. FUNCTIONS PERFORMED

Figure 9: GWI-Competition: Platform type vs. functions performed (Source: compiled by author)

1

This approach is useful when knowledge exists in the network (e.g., in written records, prior art, and other published sources) and there is a need to find and assemble that knowledge in a coherent way in a single location (Peer to Patent Community Patent Review). Broadcast search is useful when an empirically right answer exists and the knowledge of a single expert (or handful of experts) somewhere in the network is needed to know the answer. Opening up the problem solving process through crowdsourcing is like casting a wide net, hoping to find the one needle in the haystack (InnoCentive, Goldcorp Challenge). Peer-vetted creative production is useful when there is no empirically right answer, but rather the “right” answer is the one the market will support. In other words, when the “right” answer is a matter of consumer tastes or user preferences, this approach can help generate and vet original ideas to find a best choice (Threadless, Next Stop Design). This final approach is useful when online communities are needed to perform tasks that require human intelligence in order to process large batches of data. Crowdsourcing organizations using this approach need massive amounts of microlabor to crunch large piles of information in systematic ways, yet computers are not capable of performing these processes (SETI@Home, Amazon Mechanical Turk).

2

3

4

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5.4 Market Definition – A Try
GWI – CUSTOMER GROUP/ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION

Table 2: Customer Group/Alternative Solution

GWI – CUSTOMER FUNCTION/ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION

Table 3: GWI - Customer Function/Alternative Solution Matrix

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GWI – CUSTOMER FUNCTION (DETAILED)/CUSTOMER GROUP

Table 4: GWI - Customer Function/Group Matrix

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5.5 Key Stakeholders
Segmented Group/Sector »General« Industry / Manufacturer General Motivation
37

Unmet Needs and Insights We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed.

Benefits

ROI

38

Comment

Escape political and societal pressure by showing and proving the organisations »CSR«.

Benefit from outside-in / open innovation and inspiration (cross industry innovation). Discover/monitor possibilities/solutions for waste-related cost reduction or the like. ! Increasing raw material prices: reduce resource dependency/scarcity Find people with whom you can synthesise ideas, solve problems or simply get advised. Showcase and present own successes and solutions and gain positive publicity. Copy best practices from other market participants

Examples (assumptions): n% cost reduction n% reduced CPH (cost per hire) for finding experts free Green-PR etc.

All the benefits listed here also apply to the other »industry segments«.

Environmental Service Industry

Keep pace with (cross-) industry innovation speed for staying profitable and increasing company / shareholder value (some also: market share).

We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed.

Discover new business opportunities / markets. Monitor also the (grassroots) market for nearly free. Monitor competition. Community-led »business intelligence service« with more inspiring and surprising trends than any trendscouts could discover. Search and identify potential partnerships and/or joint-ventures ! GWI as contact platform.

n% cost reduction for market research etc.

n.a.

Private Equity and Venture Capital Industries

Be the first in the race of discovering new business opportunities.

To have an easy and affordable way to discover early business opportunities – especially in emerging markets and in future industries. Easy and inexpensive access to potential founders and innovators.

Discover »unusual« business/investment opportunities in early stages – worldwide. Easy, fast and »inexpensive« (personnel cost, network, …) access to innovators and inventors. Have a specialised grassroots trendscouting platform. ! Identify emerging industry patterns.

n% cost reduction for CPA of new ventures etc.

n.a.

NGOs

Make own contributions visible.

We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed.

Showcase own achievements and get publicity. Get inspired and reuse / alter existing ideas to own challenges on-site. See what »competition« is doing. Problem identification and solution finding. ! GWI as best practice information database.

n.a.

Governmental Organisations

Nurture future industries; strategically set long-term economic directions and impulses; create general conditions for

We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed.

Benchmark environmental innovation activities of other countries. Observe future trends and directions, worth to support and strengthen also in own country’s business development. Present »green« image of own country and use data

n.a.

37 38

To engage oneself with waste and related environmental topics. ...e.g. of sponsorship, investments, allowences in kind or subscription to premium membership.

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sustainable behaviour in all levels of society.

for place branding activities. Present and showcase governmental regulations, rules and approaches that contribute to a country’s sustainable total balance. Raising the general level of awareness in society, helping government to achieve its environmental goals.

University and Corporate Research Institutes

Stay up-to-date with any technological or social advancement. Exchange and research interesting data / phenomena. ! “What is happening there?”

We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed.

Research platform for new trends and technologies. Place with many kindred-spirited people. Identification of interesting research questions ! GWI as problem identification catalyst.

n% time reduction for recruiting a sample etc.

n.a.

Special Interest Communities and Movements (Green, Eco, Sustainability, ...) »Ordinary People« (some higher others lower involved)

Be up to date and »fight« for own ideas.

We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed. We don’t fully know yet. Research is needed.

New presentation / discussion / network platform / stage for publicity. A pragmatic way to act, not just talk... (GWI cases as blueprints to implement ideas in own action field). Being relieved from a »permanent guilty consciousness« by getting to know ways how to make an own – be it even just a small – contribution. Becoming more aware of environmental issues in general and regarding the waste problems. Seeing how to make a difference. Proudly showcase countries/areas/or own contributions (promote hometown, own community etc.). Find like-minded people (e.g. the waste artists).

n.a.

Our assumptions: Fun, Curiosity and Interest, Entertainment, »Group Pressure«, Incentives, guilty consciousness, …?

This group is the hardest to categorise. We doubt if it makes sense at all, trying to describe them in advance.

Table 5: Key stakeholders motivations / unmet needs / benefits / prospective ROIs

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

5.6 Community Lifecycle

Figure 10: Community Lifecycle (Abelson 2010)

5.7 The Steps of an SROI-Analysis
THE STEPS OF AN SROI-ANALYSIS

According to Emerson et al. (2001, p.139 ff.) we’d have to perform the following steps to really develop reasonable measures that enable us to calculate GWIs SROI: 1) Examining our »social service activity« (what ever this will be) over a given time frame (usually 5-10 years); 2) Calculating the amount of »investment« required to support that activity and analysing the capital structure of GWI supporting that activity 3) Identifying the various cost savings, reductions in spending and related benefits (i.e. innovation and growth opportunities) that accrue as a result of our social service activity; 4) Monetizing those cost savings and related benefits (calculating the economic value of those costs in real dollar terms); 5) Discounting those savings back to the beginning of the investment timeframe using a net present value and/or discounted cash flow analysis; and then 6) presenting the socio-economic value created during the investment time frame, expressing that value in terms of net present value and SROI rates and ratios. Figure 11: The Steps of an SROI-Analysis (Emerson et al. 2001, p.139 ff.)

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

5.8 The Waste Life Cycle

Figure 12: Visualised stages of a waste life cycle (Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2009)

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

5.9 Some Case Studies
5.9.1 SKELETON SEA
BACKGROUND A group of three surfers realized that their favourite surfing spot in the Azores became more and more littered, thus they started collecting trash from the ocean. After separating the waste, a pile of flip-flops reminded them of the skin of a fish. In a 24 hours session they built a fish right on the beach. When asked what to do with it by the local people, they answered that they would release it into the sea. CHALLENGE Next to toxic materials, plastic waste is the biggest threat to the oceans. Because plastic does not decompose, every single plastic particle will stay in the water for good and will inevitable find its way back to its maker. "We want to raise awareness for a cleaner ocean. Plastic does not disappear in the water. It takes a flip-flop 1000 years to disappear. By now, the constant flow of human garbage reaches the deepest and most remote regions on this planet. According to UNO statistics, every square kilometre of ocean contains 120,000 pieces of floating plastic. In certain parts of the ocean, there is six times more plastic than plankton. And yet, macro-waste is still not classified as pollution by law. Mankind turns the sea into a giant waste bin. IDEA Using waste that has been collected from the oceans as an artwork raw-material IMPLEMENTATION Three European surfers, who work as artists, create sea-life sculptures and exhibit them publicly or release them to the oceans. IMPACT Raising awareness on ocean pollution. The artwork is presented on several art-exhibitions worldwide. In 2010 "The Aquarium" in the Basque town of San Sebastian showed 20 pieces of the artists. More than 3,500 visitors and enormous media attention through Spanish TV and newspapers, helped spreading the message of "keeping the oceans clean!", to an even wider audience.

www.skeletonsea.com

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

5.9.2 BIOMER PLASTICS REPROCESSING (BPR)
BACKGROUND BPR claims our perception of waste as merely rubbish and not as a valuable commodity to be the biggest obstacle solving our waste problem. The UK is still one of the biggest contributor for the amount of waste entering landfills in the EU. More than half of consumer goods are packaged in plastic. Currently the vast majority of plastics are shipped to Hong Kong, before reprocessed in China. CHALLENGE The challenge is twofold. On the one hand, due to the decline in mining industry in the UK, people in the Rother Valley face unemployment, loss of livelihood and social problems. On the other hand, it is to find a substitute for shipping used consumer goods that contain PET abroad, by taking part in the PET reprocessing market. IDEA BPR takes a common PET plastic bottle and upcycles it into biodegradable plastic pellets which are used to manufacture medical equipment or perishable food packaging. IMPLEMENTATION BPR is currently seeking funding to build a test facility near Sheffield, United Kingdom. The valley was the industrial heartland of mining, before rapid decline after the events of the miners strikes in the 1980s. IMPACT A clean, cost effective plastic recycling that stimulates local economies.

no website available yet

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

5.9.3 FERTILOO & PEEPOOPLE
BACKGROUND According to the WHO, more than three billion people in the world have no access to improved sanitation. As a consequence open defecation is widely practiced, contaminating water-sources and spreading preventable water-born diseases. CHALLENGE Industrial sanitation solutions are too expensive for developing countries and often disregard local sanitation habits. IDEA Both ideas give access to improved sanitation by designing a low-tech solution. Peepoople is a biodegradable slim bag which is used as a mobile toilet. An inside layer of sterile material prevents all contact with the excrement and guarantees the bag to be odorfree for at least 24 hours. The Fertiloo is a light-weight compost latrine which is installed at Kenyan farms. Its design considers traditional sanitation habits and human waste can later be used as fertilizer. IMPLEMENTATION Peepoople AB was founded 2006 and is based in Stockholm, Sweden. Research for the Peepoo toilet has been conducted in cooperation with the Swedish University of Agricultural Science and the Royal Institute of Technology. It will be available in late-2010. The Fertiloo was designed by the Kenyan social entrepreneur organization Nuru and costs less than $100, which is the amount of money saved by not having to buy industrial fertilizer. IMPACT Safely collecting and reusing human waste not only reduces family health expenses and improves quality of life, but also helps saving 20% of their annual income currently spent on industrial fertilizer and top soil.

www.peepoople.com | no website for Fertiloo available yet

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

5.9.4 CIUDAD SALUDABLE – HEALTHY CITY39
BACKGROUND Solid waste management is a serious problem in Peru. Before Ciudad Saludable started its work, some 1.000 tons of garbage were being generated daily in Cono Norte, one of Lima’s largest slums. Only half of it got collected by official municipal workers. Remainders usually were left to accumulate in stinking waste heaps or strewn along public roads and in vacant lots. Furthermore waste often gets dumped into rivers, contaminating the drinking sources for many poor families. This situation exists in towns throughout the country. CHALLENGE People neither wanted to or couldn’t afford to pay for public waste collection nor had they an awareness of its importance on health issues. Levels of education are low while unemployment and poverty are usually very high. IDEA Ciudad Saludable turned these problems into an profitable opportunity. By working in partnership with municipalities, it brought over 1.500 waste collectors in those slums into employment. Their work in return steadily improved health and living conditions for the over 6 million disadvantaged people living in these areas. IMPLEMENTATION Ciudad Saludable provides highly efficient »low-tech trash collection and processing« as well as waste management services that are more dependable and less expensive than those provided by municipal governments. It encourages people to pay a modest fee by using creative and educating marketing incentives that emphasise the health benefits of waste collection. Paying customers sometimes get rewarded by planting trees in front of their houses and prompt payers even receive gifts such as kitchen baskets. IMPACT 6 Million peoples living conditions have been improved, thousands of jobs were generated and the general level of education and awareness regarding the reasonable handling of waste raised remarkably. While in upscale suburbs where the city government collects the trash, waste collection payment rates are below 40%, the rates in Ciudad Saludable’s microenterprises districts are over 80% now.

www.ciudadsaludable.org

39

Sources: Schwab Foundation (2010), Ciudad Saludable (2010)

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Unit 5G4140 – Strategic Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

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TRENDS AFFECTING/FAVORING GLOBALWASTEIDEAS.ORG

Identified forces/crucibles, where the stresses and tensions will be greatest and thus offer the richest opportunities for companies to innovate and change.
Short Description Source Implication / Importance Criterion Criterion

Level

Trend Area

Trend Label

(Drivers ) not relevant Bisson et al. 2010 tions. The coming decade will be the first in 200 years when emerging-market countries contribute more growth than the developed ones. This growth will not only create a wave of new middle-class consumers but also drive profound innovations in product design, market infrastructure, and value chains. Developed-world economies will need to generate pronounced gains in productivity to power continued economic growth. The most dramatic innovations in the Western 2010 world are likely to be those that accelerate economic productivity. Bisson et al. 2010 The global economy is growing ever more connected. Complex flows of capital, goods, information, and people are creating an interlinked network that spans geographies, social groups, and economies in ways that permit large-scale interactions at any moment. This expanding grid is seeding new business models and accelerating the pace of innovation. It also makes destabilizing cycles of volatility more likely. Bisson et al. 2010 Invention of new models of cooperation between government and business? A collision is shaping up among the rising demand for resources, constrained supplies, and changing social attitudes toward environmental protection. The next decade will see an increased focus on resource productivity, the emergence of substantial clean-tech industries, and regulatory initiatives. Bisson et al. 2010 The often contradictory demands of driving economic growth and providing the necessary safety nets to maintain social stability have put governments under extraordinary pressure. Globalization applies additional heat: how will distinctly national entities govern in an increasingly globalized world? Bisson et al. 2010 Even the most conservative projections for global economic growth over the next decade suggest that demand for oil, coal, iron ore, and other natural resources will rise by at least a third. About 90 percent of that increase will come from growth in emerging markets. Pressure on commodity markets forces companies to innovate with materials, manufacturing processes, recycling processes, etc. GWI is part of the grid / … Bisson et al. Innovate better, collaborate closer, etc. We need to observe these markets and learn with/from them and their (low-tech) innovanot relevant

40

Impact on GWI / GWIs Impact on Trend

Meta-Trends

not relevant

not relevant

Mega-Trends

McKinsey Key global

The great rebalancing

***

+

Trends

The productivity imperative

**

-

The global grid

*

--

Unit 5G4140 – Strategie Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

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Pricing the planet

***

++

The market state

*

--

Environmental

Growing demand

***

++

Trends

40

Drivers can be »PESTLE« and usually bring these trends forwards.

Constrained supply to-access, more costly, and more politically unstable environments. Bisson et al. *** 2010 chains 2010 terials.

As easy-to-tap and high-quality reserves are depleted, supply will come from harder* --

Bisson et al.

Need to reuse / responsible use of raw ma-

Increased regulatory

++

and social scrutiny

Around the world, political leaders, regulators, scientific experts, and consumers are gravitating to a new consensus that is based on fostering environmental sustainability. Climate change may be the most highly charged and visible battleground, but other issues loom: water scarcity, pollution, food safety, and the depletion of global fishing stocks, among other things. For businesses, this new sensibility will present itself in two ways: stricter environmental regulations and increasing demands from consumers—and employees—that companies demonstrate greater environmental responsibility. *

Companies need to be proactive / governments have to monitor developments / regulatory schemes will disrupt entire value

Sociocultural Trends

Sociopolitical Trends

Blurring boundaries between responsibilities

--

and laws *** * ++ --

Butterfly effect

Discontinuities in demo-

graphics and resources *** ++

Growing safety, security

concerns; sensitivity to risk * *** -++

Unit 5G4140 – Strategie Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

- 45 McKinsey Global Institute 2010 The power of the social Web is changing not only how companies connect with customers, but also how they actually make money. McKinsey notes that 70 percent of senior executives report their companies regularly “created value through Web communities.” One good example: Intuit puts its best users to work in customer support by creating a warm and cosy place for people to share problems and solutions — and cutting support costs by 90 percent. McKinsey Global Institute 2010 Making the network, the organization. McKinsey says Dow Chemical, for example, has set up its own social network “to help managers identify the talent they need to execute projects across different business units and functions.” Dow has even extended the network to include retired employees.” Failing to take advantage of your extended network of resources, McKinsey warns, limits your ability “to tackle increasingly complex challenges.”

Rising inequality

Shifting values, social

norms * *** -++

Ubiquity of technology

Technological Trends

McKinsey Tech Trends

Distributed co-creation moves into the main-

2010

stream

Making the network, the

GWI could be a good source to recruit and collaborate…

*

--

organisation

Wiring for a sustainable *** ++ 2010

world impact on earnings. McKinsey Global Institute * 2010

“Clearly,” McKinsey says, “environmental stewardship and sustainability are C-level agenda topics.” Professionals can expect to be involved in developing new management systems designed to continuously track and improve resource use and the

McKinsey Global Institute

The age of the multi-sided

--

business model

MasterCard, for instance, has built a consulting unit based on the data it gathers from its card users. And companies like Skype are free for many in order to provide paid, premium services to a few. Finance and accounting professionals s should be asking: Who might find our data valuable? What would happen if we gave away our product for free? What if a competitor did so first? It happened to newspapers when the Internet came along, could it happen to you? McKinsey Global Institute 2010

Innovating from the

***

++

bottom of the pyramid

Established multinational companies are finding new challenges from the smallest entrepreneurs in the furthest places. China, for instance, hosts Alibaba, a 30-million member business exchange to expedite connections between manufacturers and customers. GE is locating new research centers in Asia and Africa to find upstarts early. McKinsey Global Institute 2010

Producing public good on

*

--

the grid ogy providers, other businesses, nongovernmental organizations and citizens.” Self-explanatory ! no description Self-explanatory ! no description Self-explanatory ! no description

McKinsey states flatly: “The role of governments in shaping global economic policy will expand in coming years.” And it will be enabled by new technologies. Professionals can expect to see “novel, unfamiliar collaborations among governments, technol-

Unit 5G4140 – Strategie Planning for Digital Marketing Communication

- 46 From products to stories From closed IP to open innovation not relevant -

Change of Manufactur-

Citizen R&D

*** * ***

++ -++

ing

41

Networked artisans

Personal design

and fabrication * * ---

Grassroots economics

If you can’t open it, you

don’t own it not relevant -

Consumer Trends

-

-

Fashion Trends

not relevant

not relevant

Figure 13: Trends, drivers and forces affecting/favouring GlobalWasteIdeas.org

41

Drivers: rise of the professional amateur, eco-motivation, platforms for socialbility, access to tools, open source everything, quest for authenticity

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