General Description
GE Current Type Motor Starting Relays are used for assisting in the starting function of single phase AC motors of resistance start, induction run; and capacitor start, induction run types. Generally, the size of the motor is limited to approximately 1/3 HP, 120 Volts AC and 3/4 HP, 240 Volts AC. The most common applications are household refrigerator and freezer compressors, automatic dishwasher motors, and automatic laundry motors.

GE Consumer & Industrial GE Appliance Controls

3ARR2, 3ARR12, 3ARR12P, 3ARR18 Current Type Motor Starting Relays
out, the contacts open, de-energizing the start winding. The relay is designed for a specific motor and application. Curves of Motor Speed vs. Main Winding Current and Motor Speed vs. Torque are utilized to determine the main winding current at zero speed with minimum expected supply voltage. This value is the maximum allowable pickup current of the relay. Also, the current at the time the motor has sufficient torque to pull the motor up to full speed on the main winding alone must be determined. The latter is the design minimum dropout current of the relay and must be higher than the main winding current at full motor speed with maximum supply voltage.

The Current Type Motor Starting Relay utilizes the changes in the main winding current to actuate the relay contacts to energize and de-energize the start winding. See Figs 1 and 2. The contacts of the relay are open when the motor is stopped. When the motor accelerates from zero to full load speed in the starting process, the main winding has an initial current, or inrush current, which is high due to the low impedance of the motor at low speed. The relay responds to this inrush current and closes the circuit to the start winding. As the motor accelerates to full load speed, the current in the main winding decreases as the back EMF increases, and the main winding current falls below the dropout current of the relay. At that point, as the relay drops

Motor Starting or Running Conditions
Generally, the motors using current type starting relays do not require start capacitors. However, for applications where very high starting torque is required, a start capacitor may be used. Run capacitors have not been extensively used in the past; however, in the moves to improve motor efficiency, there are more run capacitors being used, especially on motors with PTCR starting devices.

Current Type Relays have an advantage over thermal-resistive types such as PTCR’s in that when the motor stops. It is an advantage. 2 . This requires relatively large wire sizes to keep the resistance low and to keep the temperature rise of the coil low during the motor running period. it is not recommended to apply both a start and a run capacitor. The contacts are actuated by a steel plunger assembly. No cooling-off period is required before a restart can take place. single throw. The line of action of the solenoid is vertical. the resistance of the relay coil must be low so that it will not adversely affect the performance of the motor. the relay must be mounted in the vertical position in the application. Typical Circuit Diagrams Gravity and contact spring force. Additionally. the Current Type Relay is calibrated to respond to the speed and torque characteristics of the specific motor in the application allowing the motor system to compensate for load variations that cause variations in the starting time.However. With the relay coil in series with the main winding. and consequently with relatively high currents. double-break contacts that are normally open. Because of this action. When the relay coil is energized. See Fig. acting on the plunger as the current drops down during acceleration. especially in appliances where the motor may cycle frequently. This may cause a relay contact failure due to welding if one capacitor discharges through the contacts to the other. closing the double-break electrical contacts. it sees the full load current of the motor. solenoid actuated electromagnetic relays with single-pole. This resistance is generally below 1/2 ohm. the number of coil turns is very small compared to relay coils intended for operation on voltage signals. the plunger assembly is pulled up into the coil by magnetic action. it is immediately ready for a re-start. Design Features The GE relays are air core. Relays operate on ampere-turns. 3. re-opens the contacts. Because the relay coil is in series with the main winding of the motor.

there are spare terminals for auxiliary connections. 3ARR2 . See the specification sheet for the specific model type. 3ARR18 – For heavier duty relay applications. a “plug-in” version of the 3ARR12 relay is available which plugs directly onto the 3-pin terminals on the compressor shell.g Basic Current Type Starting Relay GE Consumer & Industrial GE Appliance Controls Materials Materials used in the relay are corrosion resistant or plated for long life in typical applications. Quick-Connect terminals are the most commonly used. Available in high rating. Has low and high contact rating capability. Case and cover materials are selected based on the application requirements. For compressor applications. On some models. Each has special features for specific applications. 3 Electrical Contacts The electrical contacts are silver/cadmium oxide (Ag/CdO) composition for reliable making and breaking of the start winding circuit. Basic Model Types There are three types of GE Current Type Starting Relays available. Fig. 3 Terminal Options There are several options of terminal types. 3ARR12. 3ARR12 – More cost effective for specific function. However.Utilizes auxiliary terminals for wiring harness flexibility. 3ARR12P – Plugs onto motor connections on compressor shells. depending on the particular basic model type (like 3ARR2. PTCR type starting devices are essentially timing devices and do not recognize the variations in the acceleration time of the motor under varying load conditions. All three are of the same solenoid actuated types. General Purpose Phenolic is the standard plastic. screw type terminals are available on some models. Melamine Phenolic material which has a much higher CTI is available for more severe application conditions. and 3ARR18). .

and in combination with the case and cover materials have an overall Class B insulation rating with a maximum allowable coil temperature of 110° C when measured by the thermocouple method.L. . Approvals All current relay model types have recognized component listings at U. 3ARR2. Main Winding Amps (Starting and Running Conditions) 2. E27551 Included in U. where the ambient temperature may be 70° C may be limited to a 40° C coil temperature rise. isolated coil and contact configuration is available for use when a start capacitor is employed. common coil and contact circuit. 277 VAC. 50/60 Hz 3ARR18 30 Amps (max). File No. Min Supply Volts Motor Speed vs. 277VAC.Relay Internal Circuits The most common basic internal circuit configuration for current relays is a threeterminal. Some basic model types have listings at VDE under the IEC 730-1 and –2. SA639 U. 50/60 Hz 3ARR12 P and W (Plug-in) 13 Amps (max). 240 VAC. and CSA.L. See the specification sheets for the basic model types for the application details. 277 VAC.) 3.L. 50/60 Hz 3ARR12 KP and KW (Plug-in) 26 Amps (max). It is important for the relay application engineer to know the details of the application requirements. VDE Approved General Application Considerations The parameters and characteristics. 18 U. A four-terminal. 50 Hz 3ARR12 13 Amps (max). Nom. 12. Torque (Starting and Running Conditions) Motor Speed vs. and a relay which is applied to a compressor shell. File No. which must be evaluated for a satisfactory application. All relays must be mounted in a vertical position so that pick up and drop out are not restricted due to friction of the plunger rubbing on the case. Contact Rating Required (See individual specification sheets for available contact ratings. Coil Ampere Rating (Maximum Full Load Main Winding Current) 4 Mounting A variety of mounting brackets and mounting means are available depending on the basic model type. 277 VAC.L. are: 1. 60 Hz 13 Amps (max). 50/60 Hz Coils All coil windings are Class B insulation. 250 VAC. Electrical Contact Ratings: 3ARR2 20 Amps (max). 12 3ARR18 CSA 3ARR2. 50/60 Hz 3ARR12K 26 Amps (max). Motor Curves (Zero to Full Speed) Max. 277 VAC. A relay which is applied in a maximum 40° C ambient is limited to a 70° C coil temperature rise.

Mounting Bracket Type (Select from standard designs) 8. Since the relay responds to changes in main winding current.40° C Typical Compressor Mount – 70° C GE Consumer & Industrial GE Appliance Controls should be examined to see if the shapes of the curves lend themselves to a good application. it is desirable to have a significant change in current for a specific change in speed. 5. coil group can be selected from tables. Number and Type of Terminals Quick Connect or Screws Common or Isolated Coil 7. Mechanical Form Basic Model Type 3ARR2 3ARR12 3ARR12P (Plug-In) 3ARR18 6. motor speed. main winding current 5 .000 operations depending on relay type and load. the curves should exhibit a significant change in main winding current with a change in speed. These curves should be obtained from the motor manufacturer who generally is aware of the characteristics which facilitate the application of current type starting relays. the motor curves for speed vs. See Figures 4 and 5 for typical main winding current and torque vs. Typical Remote Mount . See Figs.000 to 500. Motor Curves Prior to beginning the procedure for determining the functional characteristics of the relay characteristics. Ambient Temperature at Relay Determines allowable coil heat rise. To make a good application. it is difficult to make a good application.g 4. 4 and 5. Otherwise. the Application Procedure (see Appendix A) may be followed using the Motor Curves. Endurance 100. If the curves are "unusually straight". Relay Calibration If customer has determined the Maximum Pickup and Minimum Dropout current values.

Must be less than zero-speed current with minimum supply voltage. Transfer Speed Speed at which start winding is disconnected from the circuit and motor will pull up to normal running speed. Motor in the “run” condition. Ims Main winding current with start winding in the circuit. Crossover Speed Speed above which the running torque exceeds the starting torque. “Maximum” (+ 10 %). Imr Main winding current with start winding out of the circuit.Definitions: Supply (Line) Voltage. Coil Current Rating Maximum current which is applied to the coil when the motor is at full speed with maximum supply voltage. Specified as “Nominal”. 6 . energizing the start winding. Value of voltage at the input terminals of the motor. Coil temperature must not exceed allowable winding temperature. “Minimum” (.15 %). Pickup Current Value of current in the main winding at which the relay picks up.

Motor Speed 7 .g GE Consumer & Industrial GE Appliance Controls Typical Motor Curves for Current Relay Main Winding Current and Torque vs.

3ARR2.Dropout Current Value of current in the main winding at which the relay drops out. Electrical Contact Rating The maximum start winding current with maximum supply voltage and maximum motor speed. However. Within the 3ARR12 type. 3ARR12P. the only specifications are maximum pickup and minimum dropout. These provide the main winding current vs. along with the calibration data. This means reviewing data and preliminary calculations and refining them to provide optimum relay characteristics. Current Type Starting Relays involve compromises to ensure that specific performance requirements are not violated. The more operating information available. Application Procedure General There are various procedures used to select the correct functional elements and characteristics of the relay to be applied. Coil Group Selection If the customer has already determined what pickup and dropout currents are required. 8 . the fact that normally. and selecting a coil which fits the customer specification closely. A very important item of information is the Motor Curves that the relay will be used with. A correct coil design is relatively easy to make. wire diameter and number of turns. motor speed. a decision is required as to whether the “K” version is required for a higher electrical rating of the contacts. numbers and types of terminals. The coil must withstand continuous main winding current without exceeding the allowable heat rise. or 3ARR18. coil design selection may be determined by a review of coil designs already on drawing. deenergizing the start winding. Wire size can be adjusted to meet the requirements. speed from zero to full speed RPM. depending on the amount of information available. Coils – General Information The only real control of the calibration of the relay is the coil design. which is “wire size and number of turns”. Must be higher than the main winding current at full load speed with maximum supply voltage. 3ARR12. The customer can verify its acceptability. mounting means. It is these curves which determine the pick up and drop out specifications for the relay. Other information required is the electrical circuitry of the relay. It must also be of low enough resistance so that it will not affect the motor performance. and torque vs. Each of the relay basic models has a drawing listing all of the coils that have been applied. etc. Key information required to make an application is the basic model type. There are only minor adjustments to the plunger assemblies which may be made . the better.

or “sag” in the supply voltage when the motor is started. Once the coil wire size and number of turns have been selected. the relay must pick up and close its contacts in order to have the start winding in the circuit during the starting operation. when the motor is stopped. or case of the relay which is already assembled with other functional components. If calibration characteristics are not known. Calibration Specifications– From Motor Curves If a new coil design is required. coils are generally listed as “groups”. the Motor Curves must be used to determine the correct calibration for the application. samples must be made and approved. The design procedure for current relay coils is somewhat different from that of the potential relay. For the dropout current. the dropout current of the relay must be higher than full load current (motor running) of a “cold” motor with maximum expected supply voltage. the relay contacts are open. Normally. and the pickup and dropout current values. the pickup calibration will be within 2% to 10% of the dropout value. Coil Design Once the pickup and dropout currents are determined from the Motor Curves. number of turns. If the rise is too . the current relay has a rather small differential between pickup and dropout. unlike potential relays where the coil is a separate component. a safety factor is added to keep the relay from dropping out prematurely if there is a temporary 9 GE Consumer & Industrial GE Appliance Controls “drop”. Normally. This means that the pickup current must be less than the current in the main winding at zero motor speed. the current relay coil is just wire wound around the body. Any coil which is selected from existing coil groups or as a new design from the Motor Curves must be evaluated for heat rise when the motor is running at full speed. However. When the motor is energized. The value selected must be for a hot motor with the minimum expected supply voltage.g On current relays. Because of the nature of the design and the calibration requirements. reviewing the existing Coil Groups from basic model types may yield a presently used coil group designation. The coil of the relay has main winding current flowing at all times the motor is running. On a current relay. the manufacturers full load running current must not cause the temperature of the coil windings to exceed the maximum allowable. It also must not be so high as to take the start winding out of the circuit before the motor has enough torque from the run winding to bring the motor up to full speed after the start winding is de-energized. Consequently. a coil group for a current relay is a listing of the wire size.

any special tooling will be the customer’s responsibility. and no bracket is supplied.000 RPM. If there are special mounting requirements not covered by standard mounting means. on current relays where there are relatively few coil turns. since larger wire sizes increase the bulk of the coil. The size of the coil must not be greater than the dimensions of the relay. whereas a 60 Hz two-pole motor has a synchronous speed of 3. See Appendix “B” for some typical mountings for the various model types. the plunger will ride on the inside of the case where friction will affect the calibration of the relay. Mounting Location The relay should not be mounted in a location where there is close proximity to large pieces of magnetic material which may link the magnetic flux of the relay and change the calibration If another location is not possible.high. Mounting Brackets Mounting means and brackets vary depending on the basic model type. or resetting the relay for the next cycle. On potential relays. the calibration of the relay may be modified to compensate for the effect. usually 60 or less. on the calibration and rating. However. inductive reactive reactance is not a significant factor. where the coils have many thousands of coil turns. Only the necessary increase in wire size should be made. and relays can be used interchangeably on 50 Hz or 60 Hz. some of the mounting brackets are interchangeable. It should be noted that a 50 Hz . the inductive reactance makes substantial effects on the electrical impedance of the coil and consequently. the frequency of the supply does not have any significant effect on calibration or coil rating as it does on potential relays. 10 . The relay should not be located where it is subject to severe vibration or shock which may alter the function. two-pole motor has a synchronous speed of 3.600 RPM. For the 3ARR12 and 3ARR18 type relays. Another consideration of wire size is that the coil resistance should be maintained at ½ ohm or less so that it does not impair the performance of the motor. assuming that the calibrations are correct for both applications and the motor currents are equivalent. If the mounting position is not vertical. Effects of Frequency (50/60 Hz) In the case of current relays. then the coil must be made with a larger wire size to reduce resistance. The relay must be mounted in a vertical position since gravity is the means of dropping out. So it is ignored. There are applications where the customer provides the mounting means.

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