KALABAGH DAM (Proposed) KEY FACTS Dam Type: Height: Length: Area at retention level Catchment Area: Gros

s Storage Capacity: Live Storage Capacity: Dead Storage: Retention Level: Main S pillway Capacity: Design Flood Discharge: Hydropower Generation: Maximum Dischar ge: Total Volume of Dam: Geology: Earthfill 260 ft. (above riverbed) 11,000 feet 164 miles2 110,500 miles2 7.9 MAF 6.1 MAF 1.8 MAF 915 ft amsl 1.07 million cuse cs 1.92 million cusecs 3,600 MW 1.2 million cusecs (in 1929) 34 million yds3 Bed s of clay stone, silt stone and sand stone Please Insert Sketch of in the file called “Location Map” sent separately in MS Word format. It is a scanned figure. 1.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED KALABAGH DAM PROJECT The Kalabagh Dam Project site is located 210 km downstream of Tarbela Dam and 26 km upstream of Jinnah Barrage on the River Indus. The project envisages the con struction of 260 ft high rock-fill dam. With its maximum retention level at 915 ft., the dam will create a reservoir with usable storage of 6.1 MAF. The project has two spillways on the right bank for disposal of flood water. In the event o f the highest probable flood, these spillways will have a discharge capacity of over 2 million cusecs. On the left bank is the powerhouse, which will be connect ed to twelve conduits, each 36 feet in diameter, with an ultimate generation cap acity of 3,600 MW. It may be noted that the average flow at Kalabagh is 89 MAF, made up of 72 percent from the Indus, 25 percent from the Kabul and 3 percent fr om the Soan. The live storage of 6.1 MAF will be only 7% of the average annual f low. 2.0 INITIALLY PROPOSED KALABAGH DAM PROJECT The initially proposed design of Kalabagh Dam consisted of an earthfill dam of a bout 265 feet height above the average riverbed and 4,150 feet in length. The cr est of the embankment was to be at an elevation of 945 ft and top width 50 feet. The auxiliary dam, situated between the sluiceway and the natural high ground o n the right bank, was to be 4,900 feet long with a maximum height of about 100 f eet. The design features of the auxiliary dam were to be similar to those of the main dam. The proposal included the construction of a sluiceway - diversion str ucture located on the right bank and provided outlet and diversion facilities. P rovisions were made for 33 diversion vents, each 20 feet wide and 25 feet

which has been raised to 3. whereas. Auxilliary gravity spillways were to-be-provided to discharge 1.37. if possible.189 miles2 of land. respectively in the init ial design.33 million cusec s when the reservoir were full at a water level of 925 feet. The capacity at lowest water level was 1. Four low-level outlets were initially provided. The live storage capacity of the reservoir will now be 6. fitted with radial gates with a capacity of discharging 1.5 million cusecs. The water retaining concrete structures.1 MAF with g ross storage equal to 7. having 8 power genera ting units.375 MAF with a live stora ge of 7. low-level o utlets are provided now are also convertible conduits. would be designed and located so that they would not retain more than 160 ft head of water and would be founded on not less than 40 ft thick sandstone.771 MAF. social. Th e dam would be an embankment dam with slopes of 1 on 2.600 MW.037 MAF at the sill of sluices.0 MODIFICATIONS IN THE PROPOSED DESIGN The project was initially developed with a somewhat differing design criteria. 3. such as spillway headw orks.4 mill ion cusecs through 56 gates at 907 ft at sill level of spillway. each with a power waterway and penstock of 36 ft internal diameter.400 M W comprised of 8 units of 300 MW each whereas now 12 units may be installed to p rovide 3. economic and political issues.5 generally. The probable maximum flood inflow was 3. T he maximum capacity of the storage was planned to be 9. Four tunnels have been ad ded for powerhouse enhancement.604 MAF and 1. One gated over flow spillway and one orifice spillway of approximately equal capacity were to b e provided. The initial installed plant capacity was 2.65 million cusecs. The . The power facil ities of the dam were to be similar to Tarbela and Mangla.9 MAF which were 7. No concrete structure should be built over the Kharjwan fault. f) g) h) i) j) k) The Kalabagh reservoir (according to the existing design) will extend 92 miles u pstream reaching 10 miles upstream of the confluence of Kabul-Indus.77 and 9. w hich has been reduced by 10 ft to 915 ft. T he refined criteria were introduced in the subsequent layout optimization studie s to accommodate technical. The level of full reservoir was to submerge 2. Depending upon the sluicing operation. The Orifice Spillway with crest elevation 40 feet below the minimum level of 825 will enable sluicing of silt-laden water of early floods and also h elp in the flushing of the sediment deposited in the narrow gorge of the reservo ir. the useful life of Kalabagh reservoir is almost unlimited. The principal modifications were as follows: a) b) c) d) e) The retention level was 925 ft.high. The power station would be si ted so that large rebound movements due to deep excavations would be avoided.

F and G were not significantly different. about 2 miles d ownstream of Site B. it was reviewed by a Board of International Experts. E. called CE. with a number of borings. to incorporate the favorable power st ation location. Alignment CE was proposed as an adjustment of alignment C. were undertaken which resulted in a preliminary feasibility study in 1956. This area would cover 24.500 acres in the Punjab and 3. D and alignments slightly downstream from Site C. at a 915 ft elevation. Site A has the advantage of hard massive sandstone bedrock. Shortly afterwards. Site B was reviewed by experts who developed an alternative project proposal for the site. upstream from the confluence of the Indus and the So an. which had been developed for alignment E. first undertook engineering investigations for Kalabagh dam site during 1953-54. It is estimated th at the project will submerge 35. local cons ultants were appointed by WAPDA to undertake the feasibility study for the Kalab agh dam project. and it was c oncluded that of the four sites. assisted by consultants. the outfall elevation of which is 958. Site C was the most suitable. They identified the potential advantages of moving further upst ream to a site not previously considered. across the river. Prelimina ry investigations. w hich is located at an elevation of 938 ft. but is situated between two major faults. In 1972. A site was selected about 3 miles downstream of the confluence of the Indus and Soan rivers and about 8 mi les upstream from Kalabagh town (shown in the figure below as Site B). study of various alignments and projec t layouts for Sites C. Neither would it effect the operation of Mardan SCARP. Of this.0 SITE SELECTION The Government of Pakistan.000 acres in the NWFP. would pose no flood risk to Nowshera. E. F and G was continued. and so alignm ents F and G were not carried forward any further in the study.Kalabagh storage. however. While work was in progress. WA PDA and some consultants made detailed investigations at Site A. who suggested that Site D.000 acres of land. In 1966.7 ft. 4. Technically. should also be considered. 27. Comparative studies were undertaken. The cost estimates for the preferred layouts on alignments C.500 acres will re main submerged and shall have to be acquired permanently. which included deep sediment sluices to avoid rapid loss of storage capacity. marked as Site C in the sketch below. While site investigation effort was concentrated on the areas around Site C. Site G was included to test whether there were any significant layout advantages to be obtained by choosing an alignment downstrea m from the next bend in the Indus. . The cheapest was E but the others were all within 5% of E. Extensive investi gations were then concentrated on this site. alignments F and G had more disadvantages than advantages in comparison to C and E.

All other identified sites for dams have a much l onger gestation period. The project will have a useful economic life of over 50 years. ind irect benefits like more industrial and food production. the proposed project shows an Econo mic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) of about 12% with a B. On the basis of the project benefits accruing over a period of 50 yea rs and investment cost for its construction. Additionally. without requiring any major replacement of machines and E&M equipment.18 Million and the project finan cial cost is US$ 6002 Million (inclusive of interest and escalations) at 1998 pr ice level.400 million Kwh of energy annually. hydropower and alleviate floods. within a short period. The initial installat ion will generate 11. Ratio of 1. Kalabagh Dam will augment irrigation supplies. . it will enable enhancement of 600 MW of peaking capability a nd additional 336 million Kwh of annual generation at Tarbela.C.0 APPRECIATION OF THE KALABAGH DAM Kalabagh Dam would enable additional and improved irrigation supplies to all pro vinces.5. Th e project will pay back its investment cost in a period of less than 10 years. a s projected project annual benefits are US$ 628.05:1 at 1 2% discount rate. in the absence of initial studies. As a consequence of con junctive operation. employment and agricult ural boost will accrue.

5.000. where they would also be able to invest t heir compensation money. The pro ject estimate provides for Rs.000 persons will have to be relocated from the Pun jab and 42. the area to be affec ted by the envisaged reservoir has been reduced from 159. This land would remain the property of the original owners for cultivation. OF PLOTS PROPOSED Punjab NWFP Total 17 10 27 7 13 20 9. thus giving them an assured means of livelihood for fut ure. the total population to be relocated because of the pr oject is 120. By dropping the retention level from 925 ft to 915 ft. Of this. non-ag riculturist affectees would be trained in various trades in the Training Institu tes to be established in the Model Villages. 500 acres. Another major incentive provide d for the affectees in the case of this dam. It is proposed to offe r alternative land with minimum 12.700 Facilities Provided at No Cost a) SERVICES Water Supply Power Supply b) COMMUNIT Y BUILDINGS Schools Mosques . Of this. The comprehensive resettlement package prop osed for Kalabagh is both.700 acres in the NWFP.731 million as the cost of land acquisition. According to the plan.000 acres of irrigated land. buildings and other structures at market price in compliance with the Land Acquisition Act. above normal conservation level of 915 feet that could be flooded once in five years. These measures will provide the aff ectees with maximum job opportunities.800 acres falls in the Punjab and remaining 38.5 acres to the land owning families.700 7. 78.500 from NWFP. re settlement and relocation works at June 1991 prices.6. This includes 74% un-cultivable land in both the provinces. 95.000 16. more innovative and attractive than those adopted for Mangla and Tarbela Dams. would be to fully compensate the farmers for the land on the reservoir periphery. not previously offered for such a p roject in Pakistan. trees.0 LAND ACQUISITION AND RESETTLEMENT ISSUE Based on a 1999 estimate. This wou ld require about 74.700 acres to about 134. Resettlement Plan NEW MODEL VILLAGES EXTENDED VILLAGES NO. The basic objective is that the affectees should find themselves in a better socio-economic environment. with the undertaking that they would not claim any damag es to crops for occasional flooding. The project includes compensation for all affectees fo r their properties which include land.

0. In addition. land use and vegetation.20 Billion . Ø Effect on river ecosystem. transportation network and governmen tal administrative structure. 3. in 198 4. like the hi storic town of Makhad. Project Benefits Average Annual Power Benefits Average Annual Irrigation Benefits Averag e Annual Flood Alleviation Benefits Additional Power From Tarbela AVERAGE YEARLY BENEFITS Rs. wildlife and fisheries. Ø Recommendation on management as pects regarding further environmental assessment process and mitigation planning . Ø Effects on the Indus delta. archaeological resources. Ø Submergence of mineral resources by reservoir particularly Tut Oil fields. Ø Interruption of the existing river navigation. Ø Ef fect on wildlife in the probable reservoir area. The report briefly identified the likely environme ntal impacts on existing conditions during construction and operation of the pro posed project. is estimated as US$ 5. It would take 7 years for the first power unit to come in to operation. price escalation and interest during construction.70 Billion Rs. and recommended several actions to enhance the secondary benefits and minimize adverse impacts. The EIA surveyed the existing conditions of the project area with regard to g eomorphology. human population.700 million. water resources. including contingencies.Paved Roads/Streets Hall Dispensary/ Union Council 7. 3.50 Billion Rs. Ø Submergence of archaeological and historical resources. borrow and spoil area issues. 8.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT The sole EIA for Kalabagh Dam was executed by WAPDA. the report brought out the areas whe re further studies would be required.0 COST AND BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT The total project cost at June 1998 price level. and lend use changes by impoundment. through consultants.50 Billion Rs.50 Billion R s. 25. 33. The potential areas of concern identified in the report include the following: Ø Resettlement due to submergence of populati on centres and dislocation of other infra structure facilities.

Asian Development Bank – TA. Engr. up to June 2000. Kinniard College Lahore.216. a masters thesis for Environmental Sciences D epartment. “Annual Report 19992000”. 1990. REFERENCES 1. Pakistan Water & Power Devel opment Authority. “Water Resources of Pakistan”. related to environment.9. 6. Planning Commiss ion. “Federal Govt Public Sector Development Programme 2001-2002”. 1. Dr. 2. . 4. Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Sedimentation and Backwater Study (includ shera Valley) Effect on Operation for Mardan SCARP Waterlogging of Pabbi-MardanSwabi Area Effect on Land Resettlement Action Plan Downstream Degradation Study (for Jinnah Barrage) Effect on Salaiba Cultivation (for riverain areas) Impact o n Navigation and Fisheries Sea Water Intrusion in Indus Estuary The total expenditure incurred by the Government of Pakistan. Nazir Ahmad. Planning Commissio n. f or the proposed Kalabagh Dam Project is Rs. “Review the critical problems related t o Kalabagh Dam in order to analyse the positive and negative scenarios and devel op recommendations for the country”.5 million.0 RECENT STUDIES The following aspects of the proposed Kalabagh Dam. Lahore September 1993. September 2001. Miraj uddin Press. Farhan Sami and Saira Shafi. “National Water Sector Profile”. Dr Izhar ul Haq. 2001. April 2002. “Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11& Three Year Development Programme 2001-04”. 7. 3. have been studied in the year 2000. Water Resour ces Sector Strategy. 5. “Barrag es and Dams in Pakistan” for Pakistan Engineering Congress. Govt of Pakistan. Govt of Pakistan (Sep 2001). J une 2001.

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