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_____________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 14, No.2 Summer, 2003 _____________________________________________________________________________________________
ISEE members. Please turn to the last page of the newsletter and vote for ISEE Vice-President now, before you forget! Ballots must be postmarked by August 20, 2003. The Vice-President organizes the Eastern Division APA ISEE sessions. After a three year term, the Vice-President automatically becomes President. ISEE thanks the candidates for their willingness to serve the organization. ISEE Sessions at the APA Pacific Division Meeting, in San Francisco, March, 2003. Session 1: Environmental Virtue Ethics. Chair: Geoffrey Frasz (Community College of Southern Nevada). Speakers: Louke van Wensveen (Loyola Marymount University), "Virtues and the Flux of Nature" and Ronald Sandler (Northeastern University) "The Normativity of Environmental Virtue." Commentators: Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (Colorado College), Jennifer Everett (University of Alaska) and Philip Cafaro (Colorado State University). Session 2: Deep Ecology, Natural Values, Forestry Ethics. Chair: Philip Cafaro. Speakers: George Sessions (Sierra College), "A Reassessment of Deep Ecology," Thomas Heyd (University of Victoria), "Natural Landscapes and Natural Heritage," and Peter List (Oregon State University), "Leopoldian Ethics in American Professional Forestry." Commentators: Laura Westra (York University), Petra Andersson (Goteborg University), Christopher Preston (University of South Carolina), Jason Kawall (Colgate University), Jennifer Wells (University of California/Berkeley) and Geoffrey Frasz. The Pacific Division meeting also included an APA main session on "Epistemological Issues in Environmental Ethics," organized and chaired by Christopher Preston. Speakers: Steven Vogel (Denison University), "The Silence of Nature" and Irene Klaver (University of North Texas), "Language at Large: Nature and Translation." Commentators: Philip Cafaro and Lori Gruen (Wesleyan College). ISEE Session at the APA Central Division Meeting, in Cleveland, May. 2003. Chair: James Liszka (University of Alaska). Author Meets Critics: Donald Brown (Pennsylvania Consortium for Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy), American Heat: Ethical Problems with the United States' Response to Global Warming. Critics: Kristin ShraderFrechette (University of Notre Dame); Sharon Anderson-Gold (Rensselaer Polytechnic University). Conservation in Practice is the title of a new journal from the Society for Conservation Biology and a variety of partners, including the National Park Service and the World Wildlife Fund. It aims to provide cutting-edge scientific discussions of practical conservation issues. To learn more or for a free introductory copy, see www.conservationbiology.org.
CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS
ISEE Sessions. Proposals are invited for individual papers or group sessions for the APA Western, Central and Eastern Division meetings. For the Western, contact Philip Cafaro, acting on behalf of ISEE treasurer Lisa Newton, at firstname.lastname@example.org. For the Central, contact ISEE secretary Paul Thompson, email@example.com. For the Eastern, contact ISEE Vice-President Dale Jamieson, firstname.lastname@example.org. Snail mail addresses and telephone numbers at the end of the newsletter. The deadline for proposals is September 1 for the Western and Central, March 1 for the Eastern. Ethics of Seeing: Consuming Environments. A call for papers for a special issue of Ethics & the Environment, guest edited by Kevin DeLuca and Christine Harold. “Consuming environments” addresses a tendency for those of us living in industrialized cultures to visually and materially consume the natural world. That is, “nature” often serves the dual roles of providing the raw materials of industry as well as providing the beautiful scenery in which laborers (as consumers) spend their leisure time. The phrase simultaneously addresses the ways in which our cultural environments (largely visual in character) promote and intensify our roles as consumers. These cultural environments can include commercial media ecologies (e.g., television, Internet) as well as physical public landscapes that are increasingly saturated by commercial messages and imagery. “Ethics of seeing” refers to the fact that, as many contemporary philosophers have asserted, unlike “morals” which describes an a priori commitment
to a somewhat static set of principles, “ethics” must necessarily emerge out of specific situations. With this in mind, the editors encourage papers, from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, that resist the urge to condemn this or that environment or practice as “right” or “wrong” and instead explore the different constraints, effects, affects, and provocations they produce. Among the questions this issue will consider are: Given the increasingly intensified role of the visual in contemporary life, what are the ethical implications and obligations of the ways we are conditioned to see? How has consumerism changed the way we view nature? How has the urbanization and commercialization of the landscape changed what counts as the “environment,” and with what ethical and political effects? What are the different modes of ethical response made available by “natural” environments and/or “cultural” environments? Mail hardcopy of manuscript, including a 500-word abstract, to Christine Harold, Department of Speech Communication, The University of Georgia, 234 Terrell Hall, Athens, GA 30602. Tel: (814) 542-3259. Conflicted Science: Corporate Influence on Scientific Research and Science-Based Policy. The Center for Science in the Public Interest's project on Integrity in Science (www.integrityinscience.org) held a landmark conference to address corporations' use of science and scientists to manipulate public opinion and influence public policy on health and the environment, July 11, 2003, in Washington, D.C. Corporate dollars and tactics exert a powerful influence on the conduct of scientific researchers, physicians, academic institutions, and science/regulatory policy makers. Resulting financial conflicts of interest can skew the judgment of trusted professionals, threaten the credibility of research institutions and scientific journals, compromise the safety of human research, and ultimately threaten the health and wellbeing of individuals, communities, and the environment. Conferees discussed remedies to prevent conflicts of interest and reassert norms of openness in academic research, improve the federal scientific advisory process, enhance the media's role in disclosing conflicts of interest, and prevent corporate harassment of scientists. Speakers included: Lisa A. Bero (Univ. of California/San Francisco), "Risky Business: Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Scientific Research." JoAnn M. Burkholder (North Carolina State University), "Industry Responses to Publicized Links between Water Quality Degradation and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations." Sheldon Krimsky, (Tufts University), "The Hidden Costs of Science in the Private Interest." David Rosner ( Columbia University), "Deceit and Denial in the Lead Industry." Herbert Needleman (M.D., University of Pittsburgh), "Poisoning our Minds: Industry Attempts to Silence the Science of Childhood Lead Poisoning." Marion Nestle (New York University), "Co-Opting the Nutrition Professionals: Food Industry Influence on Federal Dietary Guidelines." For more information on the conference, go to http://www.cspinet.org/integrity/conflictedscience_conf.html. Nature, Science, Technology and Religion : Our New Bioethical Issues–an International Dialogue, will take place in Chennai (formerly Madras), India, November 25-29, 2003. This wide-ranging conference will be the first major environmental ethics conference in India. To learn more contact conference organizer Dr. Jayapaul Azariah, No. 4, 8th Lane 5th Cross Street, Indira Nagar, Chennai – 600 020 India. Phone: 91-44-24412105. Fax: 91-44-24910910. Email: email@example.com. The Simplicity Forum is a group of leaders in various fields, mostly in the U.S., interested in promoting simple living. It includes noted activists and authors such as Duane Elgin (Voluntary Simplicity), Cecile Andrews (The Circle of Simplicity), John DeGraaf (Affluenza) and Vicki Robin (Your Money or Your Life). The Forum’s Research Committee held a workshop in June, at Allegheny College, with the goal of supporting research into simplicity in a variety of disciplines. For more information, contact the chair of the committee, Dr. Tim Kasser, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS
Thanks (again!) to Mary McAfee Sealing, Grand Junction, Colorado, for editorial help in assembling the bibliography. --Abel, TD, "Review of: Myers, Norman, and Jennifer Kent, Perverse Subsidies: How Tax Dollars Can Undercut the Environment and the Economy", Society and Natural Resources 15(no.4, 2003):363-364. --Abelson, Raziel, and Friquenon, Marie-Louise, eds., Ethics for Modern Life, 6th edition. Martin's, 2003. Contains, on environmental ethics: -Gore, Al, "The Need for Environmental Protection," -Kaufman, Wallace, "The Excesses of Environmentalism," and, on animal rights: -Regan, Tom, "Animals Have Rights," -Cigman, Ruth, "Animals Do Not Have Rights," -Hof, Christina, "Immoral and Moral Uses of Animals." Boston: Bedford/St.
--Adler, Matthew D., and Posner, Eric A., "Rethinking Cost-Benefit Analysis," The Yale Law Journal 109(1999):165247. A book-length article. CBA is a useful decision procedure and it should be routinely used by agencies. CBA is superior to rival methodologies. It allows agencies to take into account all relevant influences on overall well-being,
unlike simpler decision procedures such as risk-risk; and it enables agencies to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of projects in a clear and systematic way, unlike more complex decision procedures. However, CBA serves these useful purposes only under certain conditions. First, CBA must give way to important nonwelfarist concerns, such as deontological rights. Second, CBA must give way when the endowments of affected people vary a great deal. Third, CBA may need to be adjusted to account for uninformed or distorted preferences. Interestingly, agencies already seem to depart from textbook CBA in order to respond to these concerns. Adler is in law, University of Pennsylvania. Posner is in law, University of Chicago. --Alberini, A; Boyle, K; Welsh, M, "Analysis of contingent valuation data with multiple bids and response options allowing respondents to express uncertainty", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.1, 2003):40-62. --Albright, KM, "The Extension of Legal Rights to Animals under a Caring Ethic: An Ecofeminist Exploration of Steven Wise's Rattling the Cage", Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):915-938. --Anderson, Johan, Vadnjal, Dan, and Uhlin, Hanz-Erik, "Moral Dimensions of the WTA-WTP Disparity: An Experimental Examination," Ecological Economics 32(2000):153-162. Economists puzzle over the fact that in willingness-to-pay (WTP) versus willingness-to-accept payment (WTA) surveys regarding environmental goods, in theory there should be no difference between WTP and WTA. But in empirical studies WTA exceeds WTP; these authors conduct surveys that lead them to conclude that the valuation disparity increases with a corresponding increase in the sense of moral responsibility at stake. The authors are in the Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. --Aplin, Graeme, Australians and their Environment. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Aplin is at Macquarie University, Australia. --Arler, Finn, "Aspects of Landscape or Nature Quality," Landscape Ecology 15(2000):291-302. Landscape or nature quality has become a key concept in relation to nature policy and landscape planning. In the first part of the article it is argued that these qualities should not be conceived as mere expressions of private or subjective preferences. Even though there may not be any "objective" or "scientific" method dealing with them, they are still values which can be shared, reflected on, and discussed in a reasonable way. The connoisseurs are introduced as experienced persons, who are particularly capable of identifying different kinds of qualities, bridge builders between cognition and evaluation. The second part of the article deals with four central sets of landscape or nature qualities: qualities related to species diversity, qualities related to "the atmospheres" and characters of places, pictorial qualities, and qualities related to narrativity. It is argued that experience of these and similar qualities are an important part of human flourishing, and that they should therefore all have a prominent place in landscape planning. Arler is in philosophy, Arhus University, Denmark. --Armstrong, Susan J. and Botzler, Richard G. (eds.), Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, Third Edition. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003). This anthology is designed to help students develop their own environmental ethic, based on a sympathetic but critical look at all of the major contemporary approaches, including ecofeminism and multicultural perspectives. The anthology encourages students to incorporate moral, aesthetic, scientific, historical, political and economic perspectives in developing their environmental ethic. This third edition is 60% new, with expanded attention to application of theories, including biotechnology, and includes case studies. --Ashley, MV; Willson, MF; Pergams, OR; Odowd, DJ; Gende, SM; Brown, JS; "Evolutionarily enlightened management", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):115-123. --Audley, J, "Lemons into Lemonade: Environment's New Role In U.S. Trade Policy", Environment 45(no.2, 2003):29-35. --Baillie, Harold W., "Genetic Engineering and our Human Nature," Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 23(nos. 12, 2003):28-31. "Understanding the sacred helps us identify elements in nature and human nature that ought to be preserved...." "There is a richness of content derived from the rootedness of the sacred in a larger reality, a reality that transcends the human, and to which humans need access." Baillie is in philosophy, University of Scranton. --Bandara, R; Tisdell, C, "Comparison of rural and urban attitudes to the conservation of Asian elephants in Sri Lanka: Empirical evidence", Biological Conservation 110(no.3, 2003):327-342. --Bansal, S; Gangopadhyay, S, "Tax/subsidy policies in the presence of environmentally aware consumers", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):333-355. --Baumslag, David, "Choosing Scientific Goals: The Need for a Normative Approach," Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 29(no. 1, 1998):81-96. One needed normative goal is that appreciation of nature should be a
goal of science equally with understanding of nature. Environmental philosophy has helped to shift the goals of science in this direction. Baumslag is in philosophy, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. --Bavington, D, "Managerial Ecology and its Discontents: Exploring the Complexities of Control, Careful Use and Coping in Resource and Environmental Management", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):3-22. --Bavington, D; Slocombe, S, "Moving Beyond Managerial Ecology: Contestation and Critique", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):1-2. --Bergen, LK; Carr, MH, "Establishing Marine Reserves: How Can Science Best Inform Policy?", Environment 45(no.2, 2003):8-19. --Berry, R. J. ("Sam"), God's Book of Works: The Nature and Theology of Nature. London: T&T Clark. New York: Continuum, 2003. Gifford Lectures at the University of Glasgow, 1997-1998. Representative chapters: Design and Deity, Theology of DNA, Green Religion, Green Science, Running out of World, Governments and Greens, Convergence and Stewardship, Awe and Wonders, Science and the Cross. "The underlying theme of everything in this book is the relation of God to his creation. In examining this relationship, I have had to assume the existence of God. If he does not exist, this obviously rules out any interaction and condemns my enterprise; natural theology (and the theology of nature) will be no more than a misleading vapour. My approach has been to explore the credibility and anticipated results (or the coherence) of the relationship in as rigorous a way as possible, and thence face the decision whether this leaves us with any firm results on which to ground a natural theology, never mind an understanding of God himself. In adopting this approach, I am following the methodology of natural science rather than theology. I am setting out to test a hypothesis" (p. 234) "Stewardship is a rational conclusion from a study of the natural world and its misuse; when awe is added to stewardship it provides a motive for action as well as an occasion for enjoyment. Awe can be regarded as an empowerment of stewardship. ... If we couple awe to stewardship, we have a powerful engine for creation care." Berry is professor of genetics (emeritus) at University College, London, and a past president of the British Ecological Society. --Biodiversity Project, Ethics for a Small Planet. Madison, WI: Biodiversity Project, 2003. A communications handbook on the ethical and theological reasons for protecting biodiversity. www.biodiversityproject.org --Biological Conservation 112 (nos. 1-2), 2003, is a special issue on the Cape Floristic Province, South Africa, and conservation issues and management plans there. --Bonnie, R; Schwartzman, S; Stier, SC; Siebert, SF, "Tropical Reforestation and Deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):4-5. --Booth, Douglas E., Searching for Paradise: Economic Development and Environmental Change in the Intermountain West. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. The current growth, especially residential sprawl, in the Intermountain West in the United States is rapidly and irreversibly degrading the environment, and undermining ecosystem health, biodiversity, and quality of life. Booth is at Marquette University. --Borenstein, Seth, "Study Finds Oceans in Crisis, but Fixable," Philadelphia Inquirer, June 5, 2003, A21. The Pew Oceans Commission report, a three-year, $ 5.5 million study, finds that the oceans bordering the U.S. are overfished, polluted, infested with invasive species, dotted with dead zones, and in a state of crisis, but they can be saved. Bringing the oceans' ecosystems back from the edge of collapse requires dramatic, controversial and expensive efforts to limit fishing, coastal development, and runoff from cities and farms. --Bowker, JM; Newman, DH; Warren, RJ; Henderson, DW, "Estimating the Economic Value of Lethal Versus Nonlethal Deer Control in Suburban Communities", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.2, 2003):143-158. --Bowler, I, "Review of: Brookfield, H., Exploring agrodiversity", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.1, 2003):123. --Brecher, Jeremy, Costello, Tim, and Smith, Brendan, Globalization from Below: The Power of Solidarity. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2000. Will the growth of broad grassroots protest movements succeed in entering the political lists and transform the corporate-led global agenda? --Brookshire, DS; Burness, HS; Chermak, JM; Krause, K, "Western Urban Water Demand", Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):873-898. --Brunnermeier, SB; Cohen, MA, "Determinants of environmental innovation in US manufacturing industries," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):278-293.
–Bruno, John F., Stachowicz, John J., and Bertness, Mark D., “Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution (TREE) 18(no. 3, 2003):119-125. A controversial push to focus on positive ecological interactions rather than competition and predation has ignited a debate among ecologists. A new group of ecologists argue that much of modern ecological theory stems from a misleading fixation on the roles of competition, predation, and externally imposed stress in shaping natural communities. Missing from core concepts, they argue, is the growing realization that species can interact in positive ways--a process called facilitation--with major consequences for community structure. See also: Shouse, Ben, "Conflict over Cooperation," Science 299(31 January 2003):644646. --Buckley, RP, "The Rich Borrow and the Poor Repay: The Fatal Flaw in International Finance", World Policy Journal 19(no.4, 2003):59-65. --Burg, J, "The World Summit on Sustainable Development: Empty Talk or Call to Action?", Journal of Environment and Development 12(no.1, 2003):111-120. --Castree, N, "Environmental issues: relational ontologies and hybrid politics", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.2, 2003):203-211. --Castro, AP, "Book Review: Hunter, Malcolm L., ed., Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999)", Human Ecology 31(no.1, 2003):167-170. --Charles, Daniel, Lords of the Harvest: Biotech, Big Money, and the Future of Food. Perseus Publishing, 2001. Seed--what used to be considered a gift of nature and a public good, like rain and sunshine, has been turned into a profit-driven market regulated by patents and license fees, just like computer software. --Cheng, AS; Kruger, LE; Daniels, SE, "`Place' as an Integrating Concept in Natural Resource Politics: Propositions for a Social Science Research Agenda", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.2, 2003):87-104. --Cheyne, Ilona, "Law and Ethics in the Trade and Environment Debate: Tuna, Dolphins and Turtles," Journal of Environmental Law (Oxford University Press) 12 (no. 3, 2000):293-316. The author's conclusions "throw doubts on the rhetoric of sustainable development ... as an overriding policy framework under which the three human goals of environmental protection, economic welfare ... and social justice can be harmonised. While as a purely empirical matter the three goals may sometimes be combinable, they are essentially incommensurable and competing. Examination of the ethical dimension in particular exposes competing conceptions of sustainability which must be explicitly articulated to prevent protagonists at any level of the trade and environment debate talking past each other" (p. 313). "There are obvious problems in adopting even enlightened anthropocentric reasons when making decisions that are intended to protect the environment. Policies may be short-lived if human preferences change, or it turns out that human interests are affected detrimentally. There is also the risk of ignoring the value of species with which we have little or no affinity" (p. 314). Cheyne is in law, Newcastle Law School, UK. --Clifford, Hal, Downhill Slide: Why the Corporate Ski Industry is Bad for Skiing, Ski Towns, and the Environment. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2002. Fueled by mergers and buyouts, America's corporate ski resorts are more about real estate than ski runs. Skiing morphed from a more or less environmentally benign outdoor experience into a destructive, extractive industry. The ski industry depends on U.S. Forest Service co-operation (also interested in the monetary gains), demands both forests and water and power to make snow. A major resort spends $ 1 million annually on its power bill for snowmaking and resorts will (if they can) drain the rivers at their lowest flow in winter, adversely affecting riparian ecology. But the money is not made from skiing. The real money is made at the bottom of the ski runs, in the glitzy real estate, now sprawling widely across the valleys below the runs, and also demanding consumption of natural resources, straining the support capacities of the montane ecosystems. Clifford lives in Telluride, Colorado. --Clotworthy, B, "Review of: Smith, Eric R.A.N., Energy, the Environment, and Public Opinion," Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):981-984. --Craig, RK, "Taking the Long View of Ocean Ecosystems: Historical Science, Marine Restoration, and the Oceans Act of 2000", Ecology Law Quarterly 29(no.4, 2003):649-706. --Crocker, David A., "Development Ethics and Globalization," Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 22 (no. 4, Fall 2002):13-20. Development ethics in the light of trends toward globalization, summary of main trends and issues. How much are local peoples likely to benefit from globalization? Should peoples be open to globalization, crossboundary markets, multinational powers, or should they emphasize instead their local well-being? What is the relationship of desired development to economic growth? Are there development goals and principles valid for all societies, or are such goals particular to particular peoples? Crocker favors a "capabilities" approach. Crocker is at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland.
--Cvetkovich, G; Winter, PL, "Trust and Social Representations of the Management of Threatened and Endangered Species", Environment and Behavior 35(no.2, 2003):286-307. --Deane-Drummond, Celia, "The Earth, Wisdom and the New Ecology," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences) Bulletin 22 (no. 2, 2002):3-9. "Perhaps a return to a virtue ethic--particularly that of wisdom [with reference to Biblical wisdom literature]--offers a way of affirming the earth, while at the same time recognizing it as `other' than human." Deane-Drummond is in theology and biological sciences at Chester College of Higher Education, Chester, UK. --Deane-Drummond, Celia, Creation Through Wisdom: Theology and the New Biology. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000. "The wisdom motif [in the Bible] as a basis for a theology of creation ... one that is grounded in the realities confronting us in the new biology" (p. 2). The author maintains an awareness of suffering in biological creation, promotes an academically grounded, yet earthy spirituality that embrace God's immanence in the world without romanticizing it, preserves the theological coupling of creation with redemption, and promotes a theology capable of supporting a robust ethic from which to address the complex maze of decision-making we encounter in the new biology, from ecology to genetics. She advocates "pansyntheism," that God is with all creation, as preferable to panentheism, that God is in all things and all things are in God. --DeYoung, T, "Review of: Glennon, Robert J., Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters," Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):978-980. --Donahue, John M., and Johnston, Barbara Rose, eds., Water, Culture, and Power: Local Struggles in a Global Context. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998. --Dyar, JA; Wagner, J, "Uncertainty and species recovery program design", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):505-522. --Dykaar, BB; Schrom, DA, "Public Ownership of US Streambeds and Floodplains: A Basis for Ecological Stewardship", Bioscience 53(no.4, 2003):428-239. --Eagles, P.F.J. and McCool, S. F., Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas: Planning and Management. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Eagles is at University of Waterloo, Canada; McCool is at the University of Montana. --Ericsson, G; Heberlein, TA, "Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):149-159. --Esty, Daniel C., "Toward Optimal Environmental Governance," New York University Law Review 74(December 1999):1495-1574. Better environmental results depend less on fine tuning theories of environmental federalism than on improving regulatory performance. Simply put, how we regulate is more important than where we regulate. Current environmental policy efforts fall short for a number of reasons: technical information shortcomings, "structural" or jurisdictional mismatches, and public choice distortions. A theory of optimal environmental governance must seek to address each of these sources of regulatory failure. A long article. Esty is Associate Dean, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, also in Law, Yale Law School He was earlier Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. --Fay, James A., and Golomb, Dan S., Energy and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. The worldwide growth of energy use and the destructive relationship between this energy use and environmental degradation. Fay is at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Golomb is at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. --Fennell, D. A., and Dowling, R. K., eds., Ecotourism Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Fennell is at Brock University, Ontario, Canada; Dowling is at Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia. --Fischer, WC, "Review of: Stephen J. Pyne, Fire: A Brief History; and Stephen J. Pyne, Year of the Fires: The Story of the Great Fires of 1910", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):144. --Fischman, RL, "The National Wildlife Refuge System and the Hallmarks of Modern Organic Legislation", Ecology Law Quarterly 29(no.3, 2002):457-622. --Fisher, C, "Review of: Jacoby, Karl, Crimes Against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hidden History of American Conservation," Journal of Environment and Development 12(no.1, 2003):138. --Foster, D; Swanson, F; Aber, J; Burke, I; Brokaw, N; Tilman, D; Knapp, A, "The Importance of Land-Use Legacies
to Ecology and Conservation", Bioscience 53(no.1, 2003):77-88. --Freyfogle, ET, "Conservation and the Culture War", Conservation Biology 17(no.2, 2003):354-355. --Froelich, A, "Army Corps: Retreating or Issuing a New Assault on Wetlands?", Bioscience 53(no.2, 2003):130. --Fuller, RA; McGowan, PJ; Carroll, JP; Dekker, RW; Garson,PJ, "What does IUCN species action planning contribute to the conservation process?", Biological Conservation 112(no.3, 2003):343-349. --Garcia, Ramon MD, "Globalization and international geography: the questions of languages and scholarly traditions", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.1, 2003):1-6. --Garside, N, "The Obscured Potential of Environmental Politics", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):37-54. --Gaston, KJ; Rodrigues, ASL, "Reserve Selection in Regions with Poor Biological Data", Conservation Biology 17(no.1,203):188-195. --Gauna, E, "An Essay on Environmental Justice: The Past, the Present, and Back to the Future", Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):701-722. --Gelbard, JL; Belnap, J, "Roads as Conduits for Exotic Plant Invasions in a Semiarid Landscape", Conservation Biology 17(no.2, 2003):420-432. --Gellert, P.K., "Review of: Ross, Michael L., Timber Booms and Institutional Breakdown in Southeast Asia," Society and Natural Resources 16(no. 3, 2003):265-267. --Gilpin, Robert, and Gilpin, Jean M., Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001. Multinational corporations have much potential to influence political as well as economic life. The largest multinational corporations, such as General Motors, Ford and Mitsubishi enjoy total sales that exceed the gross national product of all but the most productive nations in the world. But the state can and ought retain its power. The authors advocate a "state-centric realism." The widening gap between the rich and the poor is almost invisible in this analysis. --Gobster, PH; Palmer, JF; Crystal, JH, "Ervin H. Zube (1931-2002): The Significance and Impact of His Contributions to Environment-Behavior Studies", Environment and Behavior 35(no.2, 2003):165-186. --Gonzales, P, "Review of: Robert Picciotto, Warren van Wicklin & Edward Rice, Involuntary Resettlement: Comparative Perspectives", Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):985-987. --Graham, OL, "Review of: Jeanne Nienaber Clarke and Hanna J. Cortner, The State and Nature: Voices Heard, Voices Unheard in America's Environmental Dialogue" Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):155-156. --Green, DM, "The ecology of extinction: population fluctuation and decline in amphibians", Biological Conservation 111(no.3, 2003):331-343. --Grijalva, TC; Berrens, RP, "A Question of Standing: Institutional Change and Rock Climbing in Wilderness Areas", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.3, 2003): 239-248. --Gupte, M, "Reexamining Participatory Environmental Policy: Social Stratification and the Gender Dimension", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.4, 2003):327-334. --Hall, MHP; Fagre, DB, "Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850-2100", Bioscience 53(no.2, 2003):131-140. --Harmon, David, In Light of our Differences: How Diversity in Nature and Culture Makes Us Human. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003. Why we ought to be concerned about the loss of diversity in both nature and culture. Insights from conservation biology, evolutionary theory, linguistics, geography, psychology, philosophy, and ethics. When more and more elemental differences are erased from the natural world and human societies, the field of possible experience becomes more constricted and our essential humanity becomes jeopardized. Harmon is Executive Director, The George Wright Society, Hancock, Michigan (a society dedicated to the protection, preservation, and management of cultural and national parks and reserves). --Hayes, Shelley, and Egli, Daniel, Directory of Protected Areas in East Asia. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2002.
--Healey, M, "Review of: Gibbs, D., Local economic development and the environment", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.1, 2003):129. --Hibbard, CM; Kilgore, MA; Ellefson, PV, "Property Taxation of Private Forests in the United States: A National Review", Journal of Forestry 101(no.3, 2003):44-49. --Hilty, J; Merenlender, AM, "Studying Biodiversity on Private Lands", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):132-137. --Hobbie, JE; Carpenter, SR; Grimm, NB; Gosz, JR; Seastedt, TR, "The US Long Term Ecological Research Program", Bioscience 53(no.1, 2003):21-32. --Howard, George S., How Should I Live My Life? Psychology, Environmental Science, and Moral Traditions. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. Ties between personal values, moral traditions, and the looming environmental crisis. --Hughey, KFD; Cullen, R, Moran, E, "Integrating Economics into Priority Setting and Evaluation in Conservation Management", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):93-103. --Hulse, David, and Ribe, Robert, "Land Conversion and the Production of Wealth," Ecological Applications 10(no. 3, 2000):679-682. Values associated with land conservation and development are typically couched in seemingly scientific terms, often those of ecology, but such value judgments are more normative than appears in the quasiscientific vocabulary. Providing the theoretical and empirical basis for appropriate marginal evaluations of ecological worth may require considerable advances in ecological science and in environmental philosophy. The authors are in landscape architecture and sustainable development, University of Oregon, Eugene. --Humphries, CJ, "Captivating Life: A Naturalist in the Age of Genetics", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):275-276. --Huntzinger, M, "Effects of fire management practices on butterfly diversity in the forested western United States", Biological Conservation 113(no.1, 2003)1-12. --Islam, Nazrul, et al., eds., Environmental Law in Developing Countries: Selected Issues. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001. --Jarrell, TC, "Review of: Carter, Neil, The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy", Journal of Environment and Development 12(no.1, 2003):129-130. --Jeanrenaud, Sally, Communities and Forest Management in Western Europe. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001. --Jenkins, M; Green, RE; Madden, J, "The Challenge of Measuring Global Change in Wild Nature: Are Things Getting Better or Worse?", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):20-23. --Jensen, MN, "Coming of Age at 100: Renewing the National Wildlife Refuge System", Bioscience 53(no.4, 2003):321-327. --Johnsingh, AJ; Negi, AS, "Status of tiger and leopard in Rajaji-Corbett Conservation Unit, Northern India", Biological Conservation 111(no.3, 2003):385-393. --Jones, Christopher D., and Hollenhorst, Steven J., "Toward a Resolution of the Fixed Anchors in Wilderness Debate," International Journal of Wilderness 8(no. 3, December 2002):15-20. Debate continues about technical climbers using fixed anchors in wilderness. Climbers and (other) environmentalists agree that if used they must be set by hand drill, not battery operated drill, but on little else. Many such fixed anchors were set before wilderness designation; some set by David Brower himself. Proponents say this insures legitimate and safe recreational use, in keeping with the intention of The Wilderness Act. Opponents say the bolts are forbidden "installations" and that climbers ought to face the mountains as did the first climbers, without preset aids. With such aids, the experience is less wild and less bold. In 1998 U.S. Forest Service Chief Dombeck banned fixed anchors nationwide. There were many protests, and a powerful lobbyist, Recreational Equipment Incorporated (REI), headquartered in Washington state got their Senator to add a rider to the U.S.F.S. budget reversing the fixed anchor ban. A subsequent decision placed resolution in an appointed body of 23 stakeholders, if they could reach consensus; but they could not, so the matter remains unresolved. A big problem is the escalating number of climbers (especially now that climbing is safer with such aids), estimated at 8 million in the U.S. "A total ban of all fixed anchors would clearly have a major impact on the majority of wilderness climbers, a visitor group that has traditionally supported wilderness values and has been a strong voice in the wilderness movement. Yet, allowing unchecked fixed anchor installation represents a step
backward in the century-old effort to protect wilderness values" (p. 19). Jones teaches physical education and recreation, Utah Valley State College, Orem, UT. Hollenhorst teaches recreation resources, University of Idaho. --Jones, RE; Fly, JM; Talley, J; Cordell, HK, "Green Migration into Rural America: The New Frontier of Environmentalism?", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.3, 2003):221-238. --Kada, N, "Review of: Rock, Michael T., Pollution Control in East Asia: Lessons from Newly Industrializing Economies," Journal of Environment and Development 12(no.1, 2003):131-135. --Kagen, Shelly, "Rethinking Intrinsic Value," The Journal of Ethics 2:(1998):277-297. --Karp, L; Zhao, J; Sacheti, S, "The long-run effects of environmental reform in open economies", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):246-264. --Kates, RW; Wilbanks, TJ, "Making the Global Local: Responding to Climate Change Concerns from the Ground Up", Environment 45(no.3, 2003):12-23. --Keith, David W., "The Earth is not yet an Artifact," IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 19(no. 4, 2000):25-28. Replying to the claim made by Brad Allenby that "the earth has become a human artifact." Earth's systems have indeed been much modifed by human actions, but some more, some less. Affecting an ecosystem does not make an artifact of it; intentional management is required to make an artifact. We still need to think of fitting our agricultural and industrial processes in with earth's ecosystems, not of actively managing the whole planet. "We would be wise to walk before we try to run, to learn to mitigate before we try to manage" (p. 28). Keith is in engineering and public policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh. --Kinnaird, MF; Sanderson, EW; Obrien, TG; Wibisono, HT; Woomer, G, "Deforestation Trends in a Tropical Landscape and Implications for Endangered Large Mammals", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):245-257. --Kiser, LK, "The Garden of St. Francis: Plants, Landscape, and Economy in Thirteenth-Century Italy", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):229-245. --Knapp, SM; Russell, RE; Swihart, RK, "Setting priorities for conservation: The influence of uncertainty on species rankings of Indiana mammals", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):223-234. --Knight, Richard L., and Riedel, Susanne, eds., Aldo Leopold and the Ecological Conscience. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Twelve personal essays describing the impact Leopold has had on ecologists, wildlife biologists, and other professional conservationists. Knight is in wildlife biology at Colorado State University; Riedel is at the North Carolina Zoological Park. –Kwiatkowska, Teresa and Issa, Jorge (eds). Los Caminos De La Etica Ambiental II. Published by Plaza Y Valdes, Conacyt, Mexico, 2003. 270 pp. The second volume of the first Spanish language textbook in environmental ethics. Includes: -Etica ambiental de la virtud - Philip Cafaro 15-19. -Suspirando por la nturaleza: Reflexiones sobre la etica ambiental de la virtud - T.Kwiatkowska. -Walden - Henry David Thoreau. -El mundo real que nos circunda - Rachel Carson. Thoreau, Leopold y Carson: Hacia una etica ambiental de la virtud - Philip Cafaro 45-61. -Valores de la naturaleza - Stephan R. Kellert -El giro pragmatico en etica ambiental - Jorge Issa. -Mas alla delvalor intrinseco: El pragmatismo en la etica ambiental - Anthony Weston. -Por que no soy no-antropocentrista: Callicot y el fracaso - Bryan G. Norton. -Pragmatismoen etica ambiental:Democracia, pluralismo, administracion - Ben A. Minteer y Robert E.Manning. -Integridad: un proyecto o una ilusion? - Teresa Kwiatkowka y Ricardo Lopez Wilchis. -De Aldo Leopold al Proyecto de las Areas Silvestes: la etica de la integridad - Laura Westra. -La inregridad ecologica y los objetivos de Proyecto de Integridad Global - Laura Westra, Peter Miller, James R. Karr, William E. Rees y Robert E Ulanowicz. -Restauracion ecologic:limitaciones academicas y tecnicas - Teresa Kwiatkowska y Ricardo Lopez Wilchis. -Falsificando la naturaleza - Robert Elliot. -La gran mentira: la restauracion humana de la naturaleza - Eric M. Katz. -Restauracion ecologica y la cultura de la naturaleza: una perspectiva pragmatica - Andrew Light.
--Lach, D; List, P; Steel, B; Shindler, B, "Advocacy and Credibility of Ecological Scientists in Resource Decisionmaking: A Regional Study", Bioscience 53(no.2, 2003):170-178. --LaFollette, Hugh, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Contains: -Frey, R. G., "Animals" -Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, "Environmental Ethics." New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
--Landres, Peter, Shannon Meyer, and Matthews, Sue, "The Wilderness Act and Fish Stocking: An Overview of Legislation, Judicial Interpretation, and Agency Implementation," Ecosystems 4(2002)287-295. Many high-elevation lakes in designated wilderness areas are stocked with native and non-native fish to provide recreational opportunities, sometimes in waters that originally had no fish. There is a long-standing controversy about the extent to which this compromises other wilderness values. Landres and Meyer are with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Missoula, MT); Matthews is with the Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, MT. This issue of Ecosystems is a theme issue on fish stocking impacts to mountain lake ecosystems. --Langston, N, "Review of: Christopher J. Huggard and Arthur R. Gomez, eds., Forests Under Fire: A Century of Ecosystem Mismanagement in the Southwest", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):150. --Larsen, FW; Rahbek, C, "Influence of scale on conservation priority setting--a test on African mammals", Biodiversity and Conservation 12(no.3, 2003):599-614. --Lear, L, "Review of: Barbara T. Gates, ed., In Nature's Name: An Anthology of Women's Writing and Illustration, 1780-1930; and Lorraine Anderson and Thomas S. Edwards, eds., At Home on This Earth: Two Centuries of U.S. Women's Nature Writing" Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):157-159. --Levine, JM; Dantonio, CM, "Forecasting Biological Invasions with Increasing International Trade", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):322-326. --Lindell, C; Smith, M, "Nesting bird species in sun coffee, pasture, and understory forest in southern Costa Rica", Biodiversity and Conservation 12(no.3, 2003):423-440. --Lodge, DM; Shrader-Frechette, K, "Nonindigenous Species: Ecological Explanation, Environmental Ethics, and Public Policy", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):31-37. --Lowenthal, David, "Nature and Morality from George Perkins Marsh to the Millennium," Journal of Historical Geography 26(2000):3-27. George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was the first comprehensive study of human impacts on the natural environment, a remarkable work. Marsh stressed unforseen and unintended consequences, as well as the heedless greed of technological enterprise. Despite recent tendencies to belittle Marsh's insights as derivative elitist, anthropocentric, or narrowly utilitarian, he remains modern environmentalism's pre-eminent pioneer. Lowenthal is a geographer, University College, London. --Maddison, D; Bigano, A, "The amenity value of the Italian climate", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):319-332. --Maher, NM, "Review of: Daniel D. Richter, Jr. and Daniel Markewitz, Understanding Soil Change: Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):145-146. --Mainka, Sue and Trivedi, Mander, eds., Links between Biodiversity Conservation, Livelihoods and Food Security: The Sustainable Use of Wild Species for Meat. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2002. The global use of wild animals for meat is now the primary illegal activity in many protected areas, and growing human populations and a lack of livelihood options suggest that demand for wild meat is likely to continue to rise. Are there ways of sustaining the use of wild meat? --Manning, Robert, Valliere, William, and Minteer, Ben, "Values, Ethics, and Attitudes Toward National Forest Management: An Empirical Study," Society and Natural Resources 12(1999):421-436. A study measuring environmental values and ethics and exploring their relationships to attitudes toward national forest management. Case study: Green Mountain National Forest, Vermont. Respondents (1) favor nonmaterial values of national forests, (2) subscribe to a diversity of environmental ethics, including anthropocentric and bio-/ecocentric, and (3) support emerging concepts of ecosystem management. The authors are in the School of Natural Resources, University of Vermont.
--Mascia, MB, "The Human Dimension of Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas: Recent Social Science Research and Its Policy Implications", Conservation Biology 17(no.2, 2003):630-632. --Matthewson, K, "Review of: Murphy, A.B. and Johnson, D.L., editors, Cultural encounters with the environment: enduring and evolving geographic themes", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.2, 2003):245-246. --McCluskey, JJ; Rausser, GC, "Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):166-176. --McNeeley, Jeffrey A., et al., eds., Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001. --McShane,TO, "The Devil in the Detail of Biodiversity Conservation", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):1-3. --Micklin, M, "Review of: Mol, Arthur P. J., Globalization and Environmental Reform: The Ecological Modernization of the Global Economy", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.3, 2003):270-274. --Milazzo, P, "Review of: Shannon Petersen, Acting for Endangered Species: The Statutory Ark", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):337. --Miller, Char, ed., American Forests: Politics, Nature, and Culture. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1997. --Miller, Char and Staebler, Rebecca, The Greatest Good: 100 Years of Forestry in America. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters, 1999. A photographic history, with commentary. --Mol, APJ, "Joint Environmental Policymaking in Europe: Between Deregulation and Political Modernization", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.4, 2003):335-348. --Monroe, MC; Long, AJ; Marynowski, S, "Wildland Fire in the Southeast: Negotiating Guidelines for Defensible Space", Journal of Forestry 101(no.3, 2003):14-19. --Moxnes, E, "Uncertain measurements of renewable resources: approximations, harvesting policies and value of accuracy", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.1, 2003):85-108. --Muszynski, A, "Two Classical Concepts of Nature Revisited", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):75-78. --Nash, L, "Finishing Nature: Harmonizing Bodies and Environments in Late-Ninteenth-Century California", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):25-52. --Norris, S, "Neutral Theory: A New, Unified Model for Ecology", Bioscience 53(no.2, 2003):124-129. --Nye, DE, "Technology, Nature, and American Origin Stories", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):8-24. --Orr, David W., The Nature of Design: Ecology, Culture, and Human Intention. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Re-designing society--politics, buildings, economics, lifestyles--so as to re-calibrate what humans do in the world according to how the world works. Orr is at Oberlin College. --Oslund, K, "Review of: Susan Kollin, Nature's State: Imagining Alaska as the Last Frontier", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):154. --Owen, D, "Prescriptive Laws, Uncertain Science, and Political Stories: Forest Management in the Sierra Nevada", Ecology Law Quarterly 29(no.4, 2003):747-804. --Parson, Edward A., Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Parson is at Harvard University. --Patterson, Michael E., Watson, Alan E., Williams, Daniel R., and Roggenbuck, Joseph R., "An Hermeneutic Approach to Studying the Nature of Wilderness Experiences," Journal of Leisure Research 30(no. 4,1998):423-452. Most studies attempt to understand and measure wilderness experience as some preference satisfied with more or less quality. But these authors study the quality of wilderness experience as acquiring stories that enrich one's life. The nature of human experience is best characterized by situated freedom in which the environment sets boundaries that constrain the nature of the experience but that within those boundaries recreationists are free to experience the world in unique and variable ways. Patterson is in the School of Forestry, University of Montana. Watson is at the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Missoula, MT. Williams is at the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. Roggenbuck is in forestry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, VA. --Pavlik, BM, "Plants that protect ecosystems: a survey from California", Biodiversity and Conservation 12(no.4, 2003):717-729. --Pearce, David, "The Political Economy of the Global Environment," Scottish Journal of Political Philosophy 44(no.4, 1997):462-483. Many of the global agreements today are couched in terms of a common good. "If the economists of the Scottish empirical tradition were resurrected today and asked to advise on global environmental problems, we can hazard the judgement that they would not approve of the presumptions underlying the environmental agreements in force or being negotiated. They would have advised in favour of less government and less reliance on motives that run counter to Hume's `self-love'. They would surely have identified a large area where mutual selfinterest would enable the various stakeholders each to be better off with an agreement than they were without it. The framework for such global bargains does, indeed, involve governments, but in a fairly minimal role as facilitators, something Smith would surely have approved of. The Scottish tradition of political economy remains of great relevance. ... Environmental problems require practical and politically realistic solutions, the search for which also defines the Scottish tradition. If the global commons are to be saved, it is more likely that success will come from the pragmatists than from the moralists, and more likely still that it will come from a combination of the two, as in Scottish political economy" (p. 282). Pearce is in economics, University College, London, and University of East Anglia. --Princen, Thomas, Maniates, Michael, and Conca, Ken, eds., Confronting Consumerism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. 14 chapters, ten authors. Spending efficiency, responsible shopping, consumer sovereignty ("the consumer knows best"), consumption externalities both environmental and social, eco-technologies, quality of life/quantity of livelihood, the economics of happiness. Many authors are deliberately provocative, though none propose a no-growth economy. Consumption is an issue not only in rich countries, but in developing and transition countries. In developing nations there are over a billion people with enough income to enjoy an affluent lifestyle. Their aggregate purchasing power (as measured in local terms) already matches that of the United States. China alone will soon exert an environmental impact to rival that of the United States. Reviewed by Norman Myers in Nature 418 (22 August 2002):819-820. --Pritchard, J, "Review of: Mark Daniel Barringer, Selling Yellowstone: Capitalism and the Construction of Nature", Environmental History (no.2, 2003):331-332. --Pullin, A, "Protecting Biological Diversity: Roles and Responsibilities", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):278279. --Pullin, AS, "The Farm as a Natural Habitat: Reconnecting Food Systems with Ecosystems", Biological Conservation 112(no.3, 2003):461. --Minckly, WL; Marsh, PC; Deacon, JE; Dowling, TE; Hedrick, PW; Matthews, WJ; Mueller, G, "A Conservation Plan for Native Fishes of the Lower Colorado River" Bioscience 53(no.3, 2003):219-234. --Pyare,S; Berger, J, "Beyond demography and delisting: Ecological recovery for Yellowstone's grizzly bears and wolves", Biological Conservation 113(no.1, 2003):63-73. --Pyne, SJ, "Review of: J. Donald Hughes, An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):316.--Rappole, JH; King, DI; Rivera, JHV, "Coffee and Conservation" Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):334-336. --Redford, KH, "Review of: Mahesh Rangarajan, India's Wildlife History: An Introduction", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):318-319. --Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph, "Biological Organicism and the Ethics of the Human-Nature Relationship," Theory in Biosciences/Theorie in den Biowissenschaften 119(2000):334-354. A "hermeneutic approach" to organisms where their description as organisms matters ethically. The term "organism" seems to have been introduced in the early 1700's in contrast to "mechanism." "Organism" can be used to transcend "mechanism" and to specify the ontological difference. This ontological analysis has ethical implications. Rehmann-Sutter is with the Institute für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin der Universität Basel, Switzerland. --RichardsonKageler, SJ, "Large mammalian herbivores and woody plant species diversity in Zimbabwe", Biodiversity and Conservation 12(no.4, 2003):703-715. --Rohr, C, "Review of: Simon Stoddart, ed., Landscapes from Antiquity" Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):323. --Root, KV; Akcakaya, HR; Ginzburg, L, "A Multispecies Approach to Ecological Valuation and Conservation", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):196-206.
--Rosenzweig, Michael, Win-Win Ecology: How Earth's Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Conservation must discover how we can blend a rich natural world into the world of economic activity. Rosenzweig is at the University of Arizona. --Rossman, E. J., "Review of: Vira, Bhaskar, and Jeffery, Roger, eds. Analytical Issues in Participatory Natural Resource Management," Society and Natural Resources 16(no. 3, 2003):268-269. --Rothman, HK, "Review of: Ted Steinberg, Down to Earth: Nature's Role in American History", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):324-325. --Salafsky, N; Margoluis, R, "What Conservation Can Learn from Other Fields about Monitoring and Evaluation", Bioscience 53(no.2, 2003):120-123. --Schelhas, J, "Race, Ethnicity, and Natural Resources in the United States: A Review", Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):723-764. --Schwartz, J, "The Impact of State Capacity on Enforcement of Environmental Policies: The Case of China", Journal of Environment and Development 12(no,1, 2003)50-81. --Sellers, C, "Review of: Adam Rome, The Bulldozer in the Countryside: Suburban Sprawl and the Rise of American Environmentalism", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):141-143. --Service, Robert F., "`Combat Biology' on the Klamath," Science 300(4 April 2003):36-39. Biologists charged with protecting endangered species are caught in a battle over water rights; a critical National Academy of Sciences report has exposed them to heavy fire. The Klamath River basin is in southern Oregon and northern California. Issues about how much water is enough for endangered salmon. Also issues about which side to err on when the science is uncertain. --Shantz, J, "Solidarity in the Woods: Redwood Summer and Alliances Among Radical Ecology and Timber Workers", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):79-94. --Simmons, I, "Review of: John Sheail, An Environmental History of Twentieth Century Britain", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):321. --Singh, Satyajit, Taming the Waters: The Political Ecology of Large Dams in India. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, 2002. Singh is at the University of Sussex, UK. --Slobodkin, Lawrence B., A Citizens Guide to Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Slobodkin is at SUNY, Stony Brook. --Smith, DW; Peterson, RO; Houston, DB, "Yellowstone after Wolves", Bioscience 53(no.4, 2003):330-340. --Smith, MB, "Review of: Andrew Jamison, The Making of Green Knowledge: Environmental Politics and Cultural Transformation", Environmental History 8(no.2, 2003):335-336. --Smolková, Eva, "K Problému Vztahu Hodnotenia a Poznania v Environmentálnom-myslení (Towards the Relationship between Evaluation and Knowledge in Environmental Thinking)," Filozofia 55(no. 7, 2000):545-556. In Czech. This paper examines the importance of the relationship between evaluation and knowledge in environmental thinking. It focuses on the impact of scientific knowledge on value structures, as well as on the process of creating acceptance of values, especially those having existential meaning and ontological status. The author sheds light also on the separation of facts from values and on the distinction between knowledge and evaluation as taking place in modern culture. She analyses particularly the impact of these processes on creating and accepting values in environmental issues. Smolková is in philosophy, Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovakia. --Smolková, Eva, "K otázke limitov environmentálnej etiky (Limits of Environmental Ethics)" Filozofia 54(no. 8, 1999):569-579. In Czech. Why some problems in environmental ethics remain unresolved. Limits of our ethical thinking as well as the possibility of a new ethics. Ways of making anthropocentric and environmental values equal. Presuppositions of the practical acceptance of environmental values. The possibility of an applied ethics offered by the concept of sustainable development. Smolková is in philosophy, Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovakia. --Sorlin, S, "Review of: Alf Hornborg and Gisli Palsson, eds., Negotiating Nature: Culture, Power, and Environmental Argument", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):132-134.
--Southgate, Christopher, "God and Evolutionary Evil: Theodicy in the Light of Darwinism," Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 27(2002):803-824. Southgate's evolutionary theodicy (going beyond his evaluation of accounts of Thomas Tracy, Holmes Rolston, Arthur Peacocke, and John Haught) explores whether Christians in their environmental ethics ought to become redeemers of the evils in evolutionary nature. Rolston finds a "cruciform nature," but it is not enough (as with Rolston) for nature to be regenerated and to evolve higher forms; all the "victims" that have suffered during evolutionary development need also to be redeemed. Nor is it sufficient to have all these myriads of creatures caught up in the evolutionary struggle merely remembered by God. "Humans have a calling, stemming from the transformative power of Christ's action on the Cross, to participate in the healing of the world" (p. 817). "A calling to be co-redeemers offers humans a more positive role than most proposals in environmental ethics, which tend to emphasize the need for humans to back off from nature. ... Perhaps it is only in being involved, in however deep a humility, in the healing of nature that we can become human beings fully alive. ... Here I postulate that it is humanity that contains the seeds of nature's transformation. ... A redeemed humanity transcends its nature and can thus act on nature to assist in its healing" (pp. 818-819). Southgate wonders also if the non-human victims of the evolutionary process in the past might not also be redeemed. Christians may need to posit a "pelican heaven" (Jay McDaniel), in which the lives sacrificed in the evolutionary struggle can fulfil their being. Southgate is in theology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. --Soward, AM, "Review of: James Kates, Planning a Wilderness: Regenerating the Great Lakes Cutover Region", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):147. --Stackhouse, Max L., with Paris, Peter J., eds., God and Globalization, Volume 1: Religion and the Powers of the Common Life. With Browning, Don S., eds., God and Globalization, Volume 2: The Spirit and the Modern Authorities. With Obenchain, Diane B., God and Globalization, Volume 3: Christ and the Dominions of Civilization. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2001, 2002. Thinking globally and trying to make sense of a shrinking world. Ecumenical and interfaith movements constitute a religious dimension of globalization. Religion in various forms is--and should be--an actor in globalization. Globalization should neither be welcomed uncritically nor dismissed as wholly deleterious. We need better conceptions of global justice and of human redemption. --Stanfield, BJ;Bliss, JC; Spies, TA, "Land ownership and landscape structure: a spatial analysis of sixty-six Oregon (USA) Coast Range watersheds", Landscape Ecology 17(no.8,2002):685-697. --Sutter, P, "What Can U.S. Environmental Historians Learn from Non-U.S. Environmental Historiography?", Environmental History 8(no.1, 2003):109-129. --Symstad, AJ; Chapin, FS; Wall, DH; Gross, KL; Huenneke, LF; Mittelbach, GG; Peters, DPC; Tilman, GD, "LongTerm and Large-Scale Perspectives on the Relationship between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning", Bioscience 53(no.1, 2003):89-97. --Tannsjo (Tännsjö), Torbjörn, Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003. Chapter 8 is on Environmental Ethics. Tännsjö is in philosophy, Stockholm University. --Tarasofsky, Richard G., Towards a Mutually Supportive Relationship between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the World Trade Organization. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2002. --Taylor, Anguls, Animals and Ethics: An Overview of the Philosophical Debate Guelph, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2003. Traces the background of these debates from Aristotle to Darwin, and he provides fair-minded commentaries on the positions of such influential and contemporary philosophers as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, R.G. Frey, and Peter Carruthers. Discussions of virtue ethics and Rawlsian contractarianism. A previous edition of this book appeared under the title Magpies, Monkeys, and Morals. --Thompson, Adeyinka Christopher, Ethics in International Politics? The Contradictions and Ethical Implications of Foreign Aid in Africa, Ph.D. thesis, Michigan State University, 2000. Independence brought, for many African peoples, a return not only to repressive government, but also to economic decline and hardship. Some have blamed the international community--primarily the Western or developed nations. I make an ethical analysis of the relationship between African nations and the developed world--with specific reference to foreign aid. Normative questions are central to international relations; actors in international relations cannot but raise normative questions. There is an obligation for Western developed nations to assist poor under-developed Third world (in particular African) nations. A case study of aid to Somalia. Three key issues facing African nations--(1) what type of democracy is suitable; (b) corruption; and (c) compromising sovereignty by allowing intervention. This complexity reinforces the need for ethics in international politics. Without morality to evaluate our actions we will be unaware of what we are doing. The advisor was Martin Benjamin. --Toadvine, Ted, "Naturalizing Phenomenology," Philosophy Today 43, SEEP Supplement (1999):124-131. "Most of us would like to find a secure home somewhere between uncritical nostalgia for the pristine wilderness that never was and those strands of social constructionism that deny the plausibility of any reference to reality apart from
human interpretation" (p. 124) "Environmental thinking needs phenomenology, but also ... phenomenology needs environmental thinking, ... it requires the insights inspired by our current ecological consciousness to revise its own methodological procedures." This requires a "naturalized phenomenology" (p. 125. Toadvine is in philosophy, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS. --Townley, Cynthia, "Intellectual Property and Indigenous Knowledge," Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 22 (no. 4, Fall 2002):21-26. Westerners see indigenous knowledge as property to be obtained and used as a commodity. Indigenous peoples are more likely to see knowledge as a gift. But receiving such a gift involves respect for the giving persons and traditions, not just treating the knowledge as a commodity separable from the givers. Townley is in philosophy, University of Nevada at Las Vegas. --Turner, MG; Collins, SL; Lugo, AE; Magnuson, JJ; Rupp, TS; Swanson, FJ, "Disturbance Dynamics and Ecological Response: The Contribution of Long-Term Ecological Research", Bioscience 53(no.1, 2003):46-56. --Vanderpoorten, A; Engels, P, "Patterns of bryophyte diversity and rarity at a regional scale", Biodiversity and Conservation 12(no.3, 2003):545-553. --Vaske, Jerry J., and Donnelly, Maureen P., "A Value-Attitude-Behavior Model Predicting Wildland Preservation Voting Intentions," Society and Natural Resources 12(1999):523-537. A survey of Colorado residents. The biocentric/anthropocentric value orientation continuum predicts a respondent's attitude toward the preservation of wildlands. The attitude fully mediated the relationship between value orientation and behavioral intention to vote for wildland preservation. The authors are in Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism, Colorado State University. --Virtanen, P, "Local Management of Global Values: Community-Based Wildlife Management in Zimbabwe and Zambia", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.3, 2003):179-190. --Waage, S, "Collaborative Salmon Recovery Planning: Examining Decision Making and Implementation in Northeastern Oregon", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.4, 2003):295-308. --Walker, PA, "Reconsidering `regional' political ecologies: toward a political ecology of the rural American West", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.1, 2003):7-24. --Wallace, RL, "Social Influences on Conservation: Lessons from U.S. Recovery Programs for Marine Mammals", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):104-115. --Watkins, RZ; Chen, J; Pickens, J; Brosofske, KD, "Effects of Forest Roads on Understory Plants in a Managed Hardwood Landscape", Conservation Biology 17(no.2, 2003):411-419. --Weaver, David B., ed., The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Weaver is at Griffith University, Australia. --Wells, NM; Evans, GW, "Nearby Nature: A Buffer of Life Stress Among Rural Children", Environment and Behavior 35(no.3, 2003):311-330. --Western, D, "Conservation Science in Africa and the Role of International Collaboration", Conservation Biology 17(no.1, 2003):11-19. --Wiles, R. David, Neo-Aristotelian Environmental Virtue Ethics. M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, spring 2003. Neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics has recently emerged as an important ethical alternative, challenging Kantianism and utilitarianism for theoretical dominance. This thesis argues that virtue ethics is indeed the best ethical theory available, both generally, and as a grounding framework for environmental ethics. An environmental virtue ethics uniquely recognizes the intricate connections between a healthy environment and human flourishing. It also recognizes the diverse values that nature affords in our quest for eudaimonia, and provides good reason for protecting and preserving these values. Specifically, environmental virtue ethics recognizes the importance of living materially simple lives in our quest for the good life, and stresses the fact that material simplicity is needed to ameliorate the environmental crisis caused by over-consumption. Living close to nature, endorsed by an environmental virtue ethic, facilitates a materially simple lifestyle, which facilitates eudaimonia. Solitary time spent in nature gives us the "mind-time" needed for wisdom. With wisdom, we come to see how truly important nature is for living well. The advisor was Philip Cafaro. Wiles is now a Ph.D. student in the program in religion and nature, University of Florida. --Wills, J., "Review of: Munck, R. Globalization and Labour: The Great New Transformation," Progress in Human Geography 27(no. 2, 2003):244.
--Wilson, G, "Review of: Pavlinek, P. and Pickles, J., Environmental transitions: transformation and ecological defence in central and eastern Europe, and O'Riordan, T., editor, Globalism, localism and identity: fresh perspectives on the transition to sustainability", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.2, 2003)248-250. --Worthy, Trevor H., and Holdaway, Richard N., The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2002. In New Zealand, much of the biodiversity crisis is over. People won; native plants and animals lost. Before Polynesians arrived, New Zealand had at least 38 species of birds that could not fly. Of these 29 are now extinct and most of the other 9 are endangered. Including the satellite islands, humans have wiped out about half (70 of 145) of the native species of landbirds, flying or flightless, with most of the losses occurring before the Europeans arrived. Another finding of interest is that, apart from the human disruption, the vertebrate faunas were rather stable rather than dynamic for the last 100,000 years. On every Pacific island group with a relatively long fossil record, the evidence points to pre-human faunal turnover several orders of magnitude slower than that usually proposed by ecologists, lately enamored of change. --Yaffee, Steven L., "Three Faces of Ecosystem Management," Conservation Biology 13(no. 4, 1999):713-725. People mean different things when they advocate ecosystem management, here analyzed in three categories: (1) Environmentally sensitive multiple use, (2) An ecosystem approach to resource management, and (3) Ecoregional management. Environmentally sensitive multiple use takes an anthropocentric approach. An ecosystem approach incorporates a biocentric view in which ecosystems are understood as a metaphor for holistic thinking. Ecoregional management takes an ecocentric perspective. The diverse approaches may not be undesirable but sometimes complementary. Yaffee is in the School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. --Yiming, L; Zhongwei, G; Qisen, Y; Yushan, W; Niemela, J, "The implications of poaching for giant panda conservation", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):125-136. --Zhang, L; Wang, N, "An initial study on habitat conservation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), with a focus on human elephant conflict in Simao, China", Biological Conservation 112(no.3, 2003):453-459.
Dolphins in Iraqi war. For the first time, the U.S. Navy has deployed an undisclosed number of bottlenose dolphins to recognize mines using their echolocating solar and to mark the locations of the mines with special buoys. Dolphins have been previously used for "swimmer defense," to search for scuba divers who might have been trying to attach explosives on U.S. Navy vessels. The U.S. Navy also works with sea lions who have been taught to attach leg restraints to human interlopers they detect. See Tim Friend, "A Wartime First: Dolphins Called to Clear Mines," USA Today, March 27, 2003. "Jesus was the prince of peas: Follow him--go vegetarian." Christians complained about this billboard sponsored by PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) in Pensacola, Florida. They complained even more at a sign north of Wilmington, N.C., which pictured a pig with the words: "He died for your sins. Go vegetarian." After the complaints, PETA replaced the pig sign with one that reads: WWJE, What Would Jesus Eat? Not animals from today's factory farms. Atlanta Journal Constitution, May 5, 2003.
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Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics. Enclosed are dues: _____. Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15 Regular, $10 Students; Outside U.S., $20 Regular, $15 Students. Members outside the U.S. should send the equivalent of U.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates.
Name: _______________________________________________________________ Position or Affiliation:____________________________________________________ Address (Include Postal Code):____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Phone: (______)_________________ Fax: (_______)______________________ E-mail: _______________________________________________________________ Send with payment to Dr. Lisa Newton, ISEE Treasurer, Program in Environmental Studies, Fairfield University, Fairfield, Connecticut 06824. Or become a member or renew memberships from the membership page of the ISEE website at http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html using a credit card.
Congratulations to Holmes Rolston, III, founding president of ISEE, winner of the 2003 Templeton Prize for Progress Toward Research or Discoveries about Spiritual Realities, from the members of ISEE. “Inherit the Earth! That is really what the preceding maxims are all about. At this scale of vision, if we ask what is principally to be protected, the value of life arising as a creative process on Earth seems a better description than Earth as a human resource, and a more comprehensive category. Humans who see nature only as a resource for their human development are not yet true to their Earth. They do not understand biological conservation in this deep sense. To elevate human intrinsic values is authentic development; but to elevate human values above all else, degrading nature in result, is retrograde. Human ‘responsibility’ on Earth is a better word than human ‘dominion’ over Earth, for it captures what dominion originally meant in the famous Genesis charge to Adam and Eve, or what it ought to mean, a stewardship over something entrusted into one’s care, the prolific Earth with its swarms of creatures found to be very good.”
–Holmes Rolston, III, Conserving Natural Value CANDIDATES FOR VICE PRESIDENT / PRESIDENT ELECT OF ISEE
Clare Palmer (PhD, Oxford) is a tenured member (equivalent: Associate Professor) of the Institute for Environment, Philosophy and Public Policy at Lancaster University, UK. She is Director of the Undergraduate Program in Philosophy and teaches environmental ethics on the MA program in Values and the Environment. An associate fellow of the Oxford Centre for Environment, Ethics and Society at Mansfield College, Oxford and of the Centre for Environmental History at St Andrews/Stirling Universities in Scotland, Dr. Palmer is the founding editor of the journal Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion and serves on the editorial boards of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy and Geography. Her books include Environmental Ethics (ABC-Clio) and Process Thinking and Environmental Ethics (OUP). She is coediting a 4-volume collection Critical Concepts in Environment: Environmental Philosophy for Routledge; and is coeditor of and contributor to Killing Animals, a collection to be published by University of Illinois Press in 2004. Current projects include a book on animal ethics contracted to Columbia University Press. Dr Palmer's recent articles have been published in journals such as Social and Cultural Geography, Ecotheology, Journal of Social Philosophy, Society and Animals and Environmental Ethics. Val Plumwood , Australian Research Council Fellow at the Australian National University, has published 4 books and over 100 papers, mostly in environmental philosophy. “Shaking philosophy to its foundations” said one reviewer of Plumwood’s book Feminism and the Mastery of Nature, Routledge 1993. Val told an interviewer last year that she grew up living in and learning from the Australian bush and reading Alice in Wonderland. Alice was a good philosophical model because she asked challenging questions and talked to the flowers. A critic of anthropocentrism since 1975, Val Plumwood’s newest book is Environmental Culture: the Ecological Crisis of Reason , Routledge 2002. A recent biographical essay can be found in 50 Key Thinkers on the Environment, ed. Joy A. Palmer, Routledge 2001, 283-290 and “Towards a Communicative Ethic: Australian Contributions to Ecophilosophy” in Martin Mulligan and Stuart Hill, Ecological Pioneers, Cambridge University Press 2001, 274-300. Val contributed some strategic thinking to Environmental Politics’ 10th year anniversary issue, “Green Thinking – from Australia,” Environmental Politics 10(4) 2001, 85-102.
BALLOT FOR VICE PRESIDENT-PRESIDENT ELECT OF ISEE
Vote for one: ________ Clare Palmer ________ Val Plumwood
Please mail completed ballot to: Ned Hettinger, Chair ISEE Nominations, Philosophy Department, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA. Ballots must be postmarked by August 20, 2003!
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