Wood carving

Carved wooden cranes Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may also refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures, to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery. For a complete history of wood carving, see history of wood carving. Some of the finest extant examples of early wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Italy and France,[citation needed] where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium in this case

Wood carving of a hobo by Carl Johan Trygg Figural carving seems to have been widespread. The carving to represent one's god in a tangible form finds expression in numberless ways. The early carver, and, for that matter, the native of the present day, has found a difficulty in giving expression to the eye, and at times has evaded it by inlaying this feature with colored material.

Methods and styles of wood carving
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Chip carving Relief carving Scandinavian flat-plane Caricature carving Love spoon Treen Whittling

Techniques of carving

for instance. ease of manufacture. will melt in two to five minutes. which is applied to any material which undergoes a permanent change of shape (a "plastic deformation") when strained beyond a certain point. resistance to various chemical products. is "plastic" in this sense.g. Some important groups in these classifications are the acrylics. in their finished forms. and ionizing radiation. from paper clips to spaceships. Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for manufacturing or product design. namely the molecular units that make up the polymer's backbone and side chains. cross-linking. etc. piano keys and some automobile parts. metal. Some examples of thermoplastics are grocery bags. and much more. while some plastics. bottles. While plastics can be made electrically conductive to some extent. The use of plastics is constrained chiefly by their organic chemistry. Examples of such classes are the thermoplastic and thermoset. versatility. Plastics can also be ranked by various physical properties. or extruded into an enormous variety of shapes— such as films. such as density. boxes. elastomer. will break before deforming — and therefore are not "plastic" in the technical sense. The common word "plastic" should not be confused with the technical adjective "plastic". that allows them to be cast. glass transition temperature. and imperviousness to water. It refers to their malleability. etc. density. They have already displaced many traditional materials—such as wood. Thermosets will keep their shape until they are a charred. leather. • Overview Plastics can be classified by their chemical structure. as condensation. Plastics can also be classified by the chemical process used in their synthesis. Due to their relatively low cost. paper. most plastics will melt or decompose when heated to a few hundred celsius. structural. tensile strength. pressed. oxidation. and their ability to resist heat.(plastos) "molded" [1] [2]. e. if exposed to heat. Aluminum. plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products. but not "a plastic" in the common sense. horn and bone. fibers. plates. smoking mess. polyaddition. etc. There are two main types of plastics. . or plasticity during manufacture. stone. silicones. In particular. and halogenated plastics. Thermoplastics. glass and ceramic—in most of their former uses. thermoplastic and thermoset. tubes. polyesters. polyurethanes. Examples of thermosets are kid's dinner sets and jet skis. which seriously limits their hardness. biodegradable. electrically conductive. organic solvents.

These chains are made up of many repeating molecular units. and automotive fittings. while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. dams. railroad ties. (Some of commercial interest are silicon based. it was found later that a PE . flexible. etc. To vary the properties of plastics. While PE has low resistance to chemical attack. plumbing. while HDPE is used for containers. This customization by repeat unit's molecular structure has allowed plastics to become such an indispensable part of twenty first-century life by fine tuning the properties of the polymer.) The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. and chemically resistant. Plastics are still too expensive to replace wood. known as "repeat units". (LDPE). nitrogen.000 in molecular mass. (usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers before linking monomers together to form the polymer chain). Chemical structure Common thermoplastics range from 20. PEs are cheap. derived from "monomers". LDPE is used to make films and packaging materials.they are still no match for metals like copper or aluminum. concrete and ceramic in bulky items like ordinary buildings. chlorine or sulfur in the backbone. durable.000 to 500. bridges. each polymer chain will have several thousand repeat units. The vast majority of plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and hydrogen alone or with oxygen. and high density polyethylene (HDPE). both the repeat unit with different molecular groups "hanging" or "pendant" from the backbone. pavement.

and is very heavily used in automobiles. Polypropylene (PP). strong. In 1939. The ensuing litigation was not resolved until 1989. Paul Hogan and Robert Banks. or hardener. food trays. . dacron. and for acidic drinks such as fruit or vegetable juices. adhesives. It is common in modern science and technology that the growth of the general body of knowledge can lead to the same inventions in different places at about the same time. J. and composite materials. Polyurethane (PU) was invented by Friedrich Bayer & Company in 1937. Epoxies are a class of thermoset plastic that form cross-links and cure when a catalyzing agent. and shares polyethylene's low cost. and carbon-epoxy composites. but it is much more robust. and "Terylene". working at a small English company with the quaint name of the "Calico Printer's Association" in Manchester. in blown form for mattresses. PET films are used as a base for recording tape. being separately invented about nine times. and would come into use after the war. which was discovered in the early 1950s by Giulio Natta. Polypropylene is similar to its ancestor. Polyethylene would lead after the war to an improved material. Two chemists named Rex Whinfield and James Dickson. It is used in everything from plastic bottles to carpets to plastic furniture. Composites using epoxy as a matrix include glass-reinforced plastic. PET is less gas-permeable than other low-cost plastics and so is a popular material for making bottles for Coca-Cola and other carbonated drinks. Fiberglass is now often used to build sport boats. PET is also strong and abrasion resistant. and is used for making mechanical parts. polyethylene. Polypropylene managed to survive the legal process and two American chemists working for Phillips Petroleum. and other items that have to endure abuse. furniture padding. IG Farben filed a patent for polyepoxide or epoxy. After the war they would come into wide use for coatings. It is also one of the components (in non-blown form) of the fiber spandex. and it would be used for synthetic fibers in the postwar era. and thermal insulation. and heat resistant. and carbon-epoxy composites are an increasingly important structural element in aircraft. with names such as polyester. where the structural element is glass fiber.container could be made much more robust by exposing it to fluorine gas. since carbonation tends to attack other plastics. is added. developed polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) in 1941. in which the structural element is carbon fiber. but polypropylene was an extreme case of this phenomenon. which modified the surface layer of the container into the much tougher polyfluoroethylene. are now generally credited as the "official" inventors of the material. as they are lightweight.

. Another prominent element in 1950s homes was Formica. and could be easily cleaned of stains from food preparation. it was used in gaseous-diffusion processes to refine uranium for the atomic bomb. Gore-Tex is also used for surgical applications such as garments and implants. Teflon strand is used to make dental floss. A Du Pont chemist named Roy Plunkett discovered Teflon by accident in 1938. By the early 1960s. During the war. Teflon was later used to synthesize the breathable fabric Gore-Tex. as it did not absorb. Its structure allows water vapour molecules to pass.One of the most impressive plastics used in the war. One of the most visible parts of this plastics invasion was Earl Tupper's Tupperware. The polyfluoroethylene surface layer created by exposing a polyethylene container to fluorine gas is very similar to Teflon. Thin-film plastic wrap that could be purchased in rolls also helped keep food fresh. With Formica. such as blood or grease. the new plastics that had been developed entered the consumer mainstream in a flood. low-friction protective coating. and Teflon mixed with fluorine compounds is used to make decoy flares dropped by aircraft to distract heat-seeking missiles. After the war. greatly reducing spoilage of foods in storage. It was particularly useful in kitchens. as the process was highly corrosive. Formica was durable and attractive. a very attractive and wellbuilt table could be built using low-cost and lightweight plywood with Formica covering. cheap. casting. New manufacturing techniques were developed. American consumers enthusiastically adopted the endless range of colorful. which can be used to manufacture wet weather clothing that is able to "breathe". The Tupperware line of products was well thought out and highly effective. Teflon adhesion-resistant frying pans were in demand. which could be deposited on metal surfaces as a scratch-proof and corrosion-resistant. was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). a complete line of sealable polyethylene food containers that Tupper cleverly promoted through a network of housewives who sold Tupperware as a means of bringing in some money. to churn out plastic products in vast quantities. using various forming. and extrusion processes. and a top secret. and durable plastic gimmicks being produced for new suburban home life. better known as Teflon. molding. while not permitting water as liquid to enter. rather than expensive and heavy hardwoods like oak or mahogany. a plastic laminate that was used to surface furniture and cabinetry.

Environmental issues . in the 1970s. A more recent animal study suggests that even low-level exposure to BPA results in insulin resistance. present in plastic wrap based on PVC. dental sealants and polycarbonate bottles can increase body weight of lab animals' offspring. plastics often contain a variety of toxic additives. The primary building block of polycarbonates. the monomers used in its manufacture may be toxic. shower curtains and other items. is also of concern. tubing. the European Union has banned the use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate). pure plastics generally have low toxicity in their finished state. vinyl chloride. Research in Environmental Health Perspectives finds that BPA leached from the lining of tin cans. Moreover. bisphenol A (BPA). and Styrofoam was used to line ice coolers and make float toys. Out of these concerns. as a known human carcinogen. in some cases. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. an extremely strong synthetic fiber that was best known for its use in ballistic rated clothing and combat helmets. children's toys and teethers.Composite materials like fiberglass came into use for building boats and. Toxicity Due to their insolubility in water and relative chemical inertness. the most widely used plasticizer in PVC. However. Plastics continue to be improved. cars. Toxic chemicals allegedly released by the reuse of water bottles have been the subject of urban legend. Some compounds leaching from polystyrene food containers have been found to interfere with hormone functions and are suspected human carcinogens. is an estrogen-like hormone disrupter that may leach into food. and will pass through the digestive system with no ill effect (other than mechanical damage or obstruction). Some polymers may also decompose into the monomers or other toxic substances when heated. Kevlar was so impressive that its manufacturer deemed it necessary to release an official statement denying alien involvement. Polyurethane foam was used to fill mattresses. Du Pont developed Kevlar. plasticizers like adipates and phthalates are often added to brittle plastics like polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to make them pliable enough for use in food packaging. For example. while the finished plastic may be non-toxic. which can lead to inflammation and heart disease. and small amounts of those chemical may remain trapped in the product. Traces of these chemicals can leach out of the plastic when it comes into contact with food. as are the volatile organic compounds present in new car smell. General Electric introduced Lexan. The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized the chemical used to make PVC. a high-impact polycarbonate plastic.

To assist recycling of disposable items. PS. siding. PET (PETE). shower curtains. except in life-critical fire suppression systems. trash can liners. Commonly found on certain kinds of food containers. LDPE. and thermoset plastics can be ground up and used as filler. There are methods by which plastics can be broken back down to a feedstock state. food storage containers. HDPE. The molecular bonds that make plastic so durable make it equally resistant to natural processes of degradation. recycling plastics has proven difficult. is any plastic other than the named #1–#6. Typically. . the production of polystyrene contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer. the Plastic Bottle Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry devised a now-familiar scheme to mark plastic bottles by plastic type. water bottles. yogurt containers. cooking oil bottles. non-CFCs are currently used in the extrusion process. drinking straws. A plastic container using this scheme is marked with a triangle of three "chasing arrows".Plastics are durable and degrade very slowly. plastic tableware. cups. however. though the purity of the material tends to degrade with each reuse cycle. clamshell packaging. produce bags. By 1995. Unfortunately. workers sort the plastic by looking at the resin identification code. burning plastic can release toxic fumes. outdoor furniture. OTHER. PVC. other: This plastic category. Prior to the ban on the use of CFCs in extrusion of polystyrene (and general use. meat trays. and so it is labor intensive. legos. take-away food clamshell containers 7. polypropylene: Commonly found on bottle caps. plastic recycling programs were common in the United States and elsewhere. high-density polyethylene: Commonly found on detergent bottles. which encloses a number giving the plastic type: Plastics type marks: the Resin identification code 1. see Montreal Protocol). Thermoplastics can be remelted and reused.[10] In some cases. the manufacturing of plastics often creates large quantities of chemical pollutants. The biggest problem with plastic recycling is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic waste. polyvinyl chloride: Commonly found on plastic pipes. as its name of "other" implies. milk jugs. Since the 1950's. 4. Also. one billion tons of plastic has been discarded and may persist for hundreds or even thousands of years. floor tiles. 6. and Nalgene bottles. polyethylene terephthalate: Commonly found on 2-liter soft drink bottles. polystyrene: Commonly found on "packing peanuts". PP. Tupperware. 2. 3. peanut butter jars. low-density polyethylene: Commonly found on dry-cleaning bags. 5.

wind abrasion and some instances rodent pest or insect attack are also included as forms of biodegradation or environmental degradation. which may result in more consumer product components being re-used or recycled. These unrecycled wastes are typically disposed of in landfills. while disposing of it in landfills will release methane when the plastic does eventually break down. While containers are usually made from a single type and color of plastic. In a case like this. enzymes. Of course. is expensive at present[citation needed]. incinerating nonbiodegradable plastics will release carbon dioxide as well. The German chemical company BASF makes Ecoflex.g. although concern will be for a worse greenhouse gas. such as Biopol. Some researchers have actually genetically engineered bacteria that synthesize a completely biodegradable plastic. incinerated or used to produce electricity at waste-toenergy plants. Recycling certain types of plastics can be unprofitable. A potential disadvantage of biodegradable plastics is that the carbon that is locked up in them is released into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas carbon dioxide when they degrade. there is no net gain in carbon dioxide emissions. Biodegradable plastics Research has been done on biodegradable plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight (e. water or dampness. . such as vegetable crop derivatives or animal products. However. polystyrene is rarely recycled because it is usually not cost effective. Other recyclable materials. but this material. Starch powder has been mixed with plastic as a filler to allow it to degrade more easily. new mechanical sorting processes are being utilized to increase plastic recycling capacity and efficiency. such as metals. bacteria. ultra-violet radiation). However. the resources it would take to separate the plastics far exceed their value and the item is discarded. For example. as well. a consumer product like a cellular phone may have many small parts consisting of over a dozen different types and colors of plastics. methane release. It is clear some of these modes of degradation will only work if the plastic is exposed at the surface. a fully biodegradable polyester for food packaging applications. developments are taking place in the field of Active Disassembly. are easier to process mechanically. while other modes will only be effective if certain conditions exist in landfill or composting systems. but it still does not lead to complete breakdown of the plastic.though common containers like soda bottles can be sorted from memory. though if they are made from natural materials. making them relatively easy to sort out.

The novel. and its manufacture is extraordinarily clean by the standards of plastic production. and oil resistant and sees a 70% degradation in 90 days.[1]PDF (96. PET. sheets and films made with zein (corn protein). PP. water. including: . Flavobacteria and Pseudomonas. came up with a revised process for the material in the mid-1980s to produce "Tencel". Biodegradable plastics based on polylactic acid (once derived from dairy products. now from cereal crops such as maize) have entered the marketplace. these plastics have proven too costly and limited for general use. written in 1971. Tencel has many superior properties over rayon. is the story of what could happen if a bacterium were to evolve—or be artificially cultured —to eat plastics. re-using the plot of the first episode of their Doomwatch series. When such plastic materials are dumped into landfills. It is also possible that bacteria will eventually develop the ability to degrade plastics. were found in 1975 to possess enzymes (nylonase) capable of breaking down nylon. but is still produced from "biomass" feedstocks. for instance as polylactates as disposable sandwich packs.So far. Mutant 59: The Plastic Eater. they can become "mummified" and persist for decades even if they are supposed to be biodegradable. according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's latest MSW report located under "Municipal Solid Waste in the United States": 2003 Data Tables. An alternative to starch-based resins are additives such as Bio-Batch an additive that allows the manufacturers to make PE. called Plastarch Material (PSM). it is likely that bacteria will evolve the ability to use other synthetic plastics as well. PS. and PVC totally biodegradable in landfills where 94. which is regarded as a secondary issue. The Courtauld concern. the original producer of rayon. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana have been working on developing biodegradable resins.8% of most plastics end up. There have been some success stories. and critics have pointed out that the only real problem they address is roadside litter.[11] The latter possibility was in fact the subject of a cautionary novel by Kit Pedler and Gerry Davis (screenwriter). a new type of biodegradable resin has made its debut in the United States. This has already happened with nylon: two types of nylon eating bacteria. Bioplastics Main article: Bioplastic Some plastics can be obtained from biomass. and be let loose in a major city.7 KiB) Recently. It is heat. however. While not a solution to the disposal problem. the creators of the Cybermen. a 16-year-old boy reportedly isolated two plastic-consuming bacteria. In 2008.

One promising alternative may be fructose [14]. disposable cups. plates. Yet in recent years the cost of plastics has been rising dramatically. appliances. and many candidates are in laboratories all over the world. Scientists are seeking cheaper and better alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Common plastics and uses Polypropylene (PP) Food containers. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) carbonated drinks bottles. the raw material that is chemically altered to form commercial plastics. food packaging. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Electronic equipment cases (e. car fenders (bumpers).. Polystyrene (PS) Packaging foam. These catalyze the natural degradation process to speed it up so that the OBD plastic will degrade when subject to environmental conditions to produce to water. food containers. . CD and cassette boxes. the price of petroleum may increase further. computer monitors.g. With some observers suggesting that future oil reserves are uncertain. plastic film. drainage pipe. alternatives are being sought. High impact polystyrene (HIPS) fridge liners. microwavable packaging. A major cause is the sharply rising cost of petroleum. Oil shale and tar oil are alternatives for plastic production but are expensive. cutlery. Price.• • from pea starch film with trigger biodegradation properties for agricultural applications (TRIGGER). greenhouse gas. and the future The biggest threat to the conventional plastics industry is most likely to be environmental concerns. including the release of toxic pollutants. litter. The process is shortened from hundreds of years to months for degradation and thereafter biodegradation depends on the micro-organisms in the environment. keyboards). Oxo-biodegradable (OBD) plastic is polyolefin plastic to which has been added very small (catalytic) amounts of metal salts. environment. Of particular concern has been the recent accumulation of enormous quantities of plastic trash in ocean gyres. printers. carbon dioxide and biomass. Therefore. jars. now known informally as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch or the Pacific Trash Vortex. biodegradable and non-biodegrable landfill impact as a result of the production and disposal of petroleum and petroleum-based plastics. particularly the North Pacific Gyre. For decades one of the great appeals of plastics has been their low price. from biopetroleum. vending cups.

rear light covers for vehicles. and excellent fire resistant polymer. :Car Interior and exterior parts Special-purpose plastics Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) contact lenses.Polyester (PES) Fibers. "Formica"). Polyurethanes (PU) cushioning foams. thermal insulation foams. aerospace mouldings. window frames. Polyethylene (PE) Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags. textiles. Phenolics (PF) or (phenol formaldehydes) high modulus. plastic bottles. glazing (best known in this form by its various trade names around the world. Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS) A blend of PC and ABS that creates a stronger plastic. One of the most expensive commercial polymers. lenses. toothbrush bristles. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (trade name Teflon) Heat-resistant. Perspex. chemical. printing rollers. with the familiar trade name Bakelite. biocompatibility allows for use in medical implant applications. that can be moulded by heat and pressure when mixed with a filler-like wood flour or can be cast in its unfilled liquid form or cast . Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran) Food packaging. eyeglasses. (Currently 6th or 7th most commonly used plastic material. e.g. Polyetherimide (PEI) (Ultem) A high temperature. Oroglas. relatively heat resistant. Polyamides (PA) (Nylons) Fibers. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) (Polyetherketone) Strong. plumber's tape and water slides. for instance the most commonly used plastic found in cars). security windows. fishing line. traffic lights. flooring. chemically stable polymer that does not crystallize. shower curtains. It is a thermosetting plastic. paper laminated products (e. surface coatings.. riot shields. Used for insulating parts in electrical fixtures. fluorescent light diffusers. thermally insulation foams.g.and heat-resistant thermoplastic. Plexiglas). used in things like non-stick surfaces for frying pans. Polycarbonate (PC) Compact discs. under-the-hood car engine mouldings. low-friction coatings. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Plumbing pipes and guttering. aglets.

and used as a multi-colorable alternative to phenolics. "Formica"). Plastarch material biodegradable and heat resistant. Melamine formaldehyde (MF) one of the aminoplasts. and as thermoset difficult to recycle.g.g.g. for instance in mouldings (e. thermoplastic composed of modified corn starch. Polylactic acid a biodegradable. brown). chipboard. once made from dairy products. . Used as a wood adhesive (for plywood. Urea-formaldehyde (UF) one of the aminoplasts and used as a multi-colorable alternative to Phenolics. green. plates and bowls for children) and the decorated top surface layer of the paper laminates (e. "Oasis". hardboard) and electrical switch housings. found converted into a variety of aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid which in turn can be made by fermentation of various agricultural products such as corn starch. thermoplastic. e. break-resistance alternatives to ceramic cups. Problems include the probability of mouldings naturally being dark colours (red.as foam.