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Types of Dimensioning in Engineering drawing
Linear Dimensioning Angular Dimensioning Dimensioning Diameters
What Is GD&T?
GD&T stands for geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. It is a system of symbols, rules and definitions used to define the geometry of mechanical parts. GD&T is one of the most powerful tool available that can improve quality, reduce cost and shorten delivery time. All of this is possible when the concurrent engineering team is involved with the creation of the drawing. The drawing is a common thread that ties these groups together. They all are involved with the engineering drawing. GD&T on the drawing must first and foremost capture design intent. However, the best design in the world is worthless if it cannot be produced. That is why it is necessary for production/vendors and quality to be involved with the requirements that are placed on the drawing. When they are not involved, the drawings often have overly tight tolerances and result in non-producible parts. At least not producible at the quality level, cost and timeliness expected by industry. In short GD&T is ………..
•Symbols •Rules •Vocabulary •Mathematical definition (ASME Y14.5.1) •A National Standard (ASME Y14.5M-1994) •An International Standard (ISO 1101)
with material information. part name. features and precision of physical objects.the ASME Y14.. size. Basic Information Included in a Drawing • Projected Views: Show as many sides as needed for completeness. Drawing Standards Just like written language has standards. • Cross Sections: A view that is good for showing interior features. and finally • DIMENSIONS!!!: These are the most important and most complicated part of the drawing. the “grammar” of technical drawing is defined by. designer etc.5 or the ISO 1101 standard The ASME standards must be understood to read a drawing.. Drawing is the universal language of engineering.Why Engineering Drawings? Engineering drawing is a formal and precise way of communicating information about the shape. • Table: Lower right corner. There is more to it than just the numerical values! 4 .
5 . The standard also lets the inspector know what are the important features to inspect form.GD&T STANDARDS The ANSI standard was revised in 1982.5. the standard was moved form ANSI to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the name changed to ASME Y14. In 1994. This standard lets the designer inform the machinist. GD&T uses symbols to communicate the information to those involved in making the part to eliminate any misunderstanding. The standard was also revised into its current form of ASME Y14. toolmaker or fabricator what are the important features of the design when they are making the part. GD&T – Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Establishes the standard by which designers can communicate the intended function of the part to the machinist making the part and the inspector checking the part.5-1994. Word explanations can be confusing especially with the global market and the translations of words into different languages.
It makes sense to dimension the distance between the holes. or else the flange (or part) won’t fit. Dimension placement matches intent Dimension placement does NOT match intent 6 .showing that placement should match intent These drawings show bolts holes for mounting a flange onto a plate.A Dimensioning Example. the position of the holes with respect to each other is very important. instead of the distances to the edge. When mounting the flange.
Things Like: Straightness. Angularity. Circularity. Concentricity and more…. Cylindricity. Perpendicularity. Geometric Tolerancing are shown on a drawing with a feature control frame. Geometric Tolerancing Geometric Tolerancing is used to specify the shape of features. Flatness.Types of Dimensional Tolerances Limit Dimensioning Plus & Minus Tolerancing Both methods are acceptable. Profiles. 7 .. Parallelism.
Co-ordinate Tolerancing System Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 8 .
9 .Disadvantage of Co-ordinate Tolerancing System Consequence : Good parts could be rejected. Hole location is critical when the hole is at Minimum limit (MMC) Co-ordinate tolerancing does not allow cylindrical tolerance zones and tolerance hole that increases with the hole size.
Disadvantage of Co-ordinate Tolerancing System (A) x (B) x This method for part Measurement? OR This method for part Measurement? Consequence : Bad parts could be accepted. •Avoid tolerance stacking 10 . •Datums specified in order to precedence. Benefits of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing •Cylindrical tolerance zones. •Maximum material condition.
Feature & Feature control frame Feature of size Diameter symbol Geometric characteristics symbol Datum Tolerance Maximum material condition 11 .
12 .Geometric Characteristic Symbols These are a set of fourteen symbols used in the language of Geometric tolerancing.
Features A Feature is a general term applied to a physical portion of part. such as a surface. A – Hole surface B – Back face of surface E C – Right face D – Bottom face E – Left face F – Top face G – Back face of surface C The above part described with A.D.E.C. The part has seven features.B.F&G are surfaces of the part. hole or slot. 13 .
Feature of size are features which do have diameter or thickness. central line or plane contained within it. External FOS External FOS External FOS Non FOS Internal FOS Non FOS Internal FOS External feature of size are comprised of part surface that are external surface. Internal feature of size are comprised of part surface that are internal surface.Feature of size This could be a cylindrical surface or a parallel surface associated with size dimension which has an axis. 14 .
they are features of size. The left end of the caliper shown is used if the feature being measured has opposed points. This rule of thumb is intended to help you identify features of size and is not intended to suggest that calipers are the best way to measure size dimensions. Toleranced dimensions that are measured using the probe on the other end of the caliper do not have opposed points and are not features of size. Since these features have a toleranced dimension and contain opposed points. 15 .Opposed Points This rule is not found in the Standard but it is pretty helpful.Feature of size Caliper Rule -.
These are common modifiers used in geometric tolerancing. TERM MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE TANGENT PLANE DIAMETER RADIUS CONTROLLED RADIUS REFERENCE REGARDLESS FEATURE OF SIZE FREE STATE UNILATERAL RFS DIA R CR () ABBREVATION MMC LMC SYMBOL 16 .Modifiers Modifiers convey additional information about the drawing or tolerancing of the part.
Material conditions MMC vs. LMC Largest shaft Smallest shaft Smallest hole Largest hole “Maximum Material Condition” “Least Material Condition” 17 .
RFS In the below example Regardless of Feature Size is implied. Although the size may not be less than 9.5mm to 10.2mm. 18 .5mm should be rejected for size even though they may function.8mm or greater than 10. This is the most restrictive (expensive) control. Any holes made from 9.5mm.Regardless feature of size .5mm to 9.2mm to 10. the hole may act like 9.8mm or from 10.
7mm due to bonus tolerance. Although the inner boundary did not change. This could cause shift problems if this hole is being used to locate parts in an assembly. 19 .7mm.2mm size hole may be out of position by as much as 0.9mm since a 10.Maximum material condition . a bonus is allowed that could permit the hole to be out of position by as much as 0.MMC By using the MMC modifier. the outer boundary has grown to 10.
7mm. This time the outer boundary did not change from the first RFS example.LMC By using the LMC modifier. This could cause fit problems in an assembly.7mm due to bonus tolerance. 20 .8mm size hole may be out of position by as much as 0.Least material condition .1mm since a 9. the inner boundary could be as small as 9. but. a bonus is allowed that could once again permit the hole to be out of position by as much as 0.
it should be clear which surface is the interface and should be shown in the drawing.Projected tolerance When a fastener mates with a threaded hole or a pin pressed in to a hole. it is good idea to specify a projected tolerance zone. When specifying projected tolerance zone for a blind hole or a through hole. 21 . or even when there is a very close fit.
The tangent plane modifier. This modifier works well where it is expected that the process will create a surface that is concave. The flatness deviation in the surface would be ignored when the surface profile tolerance is inspected. A flat plate placed against the surface would have to be in the profile tolerance centered at the 14mm basic dimension relative to the datum reference frame. means that the tolerance applies to a plane established by the high points of the surface. the letter T in a circle. 22 .Tangent plane Here the Disk contacts the high points of the flat surface on the Drive Shaft.
A Free state tolerance is defined for fragile and thin sections parts which are susceptible to deformation under stress.Free state When a tolerance is defined under free state. the measurement is to be done after removal of all restraining forces on the part. Mainly used in plastic and rubber components 23 .
Ø The diameter symbol is used two ways. One inside the feature control frame to denote the shape of the tolerance zone and outside to denote as diameter for the feature of size. Inside the feature control frame Outside – Feature of size 24 .Diameter Modifier .
6 Controlled Radius .6 25 .A radius with no flats or reversals allowed.Radius & Controlled radius – R & CR Radius .4 Min radius 14. Flats and reversals are allowed. Flats and reversals are not allowed. Max radius 15.4 Min radius 14. The symbol for a controlled radius is "CR.A straight line extending from the center of an arc or circle to its surface." Part contour must be within the tolerance zone. Part contour must be within the tolerance zone. Max radius 15.
Hole symbols Counter bore or Spot face Symbol Depth symbol Counter sink symbol 26 .
0 16. which sequence the part is to contact the inspection equipment for the measurement of dimension.Why Datum system ? It allows the designer to specify …… which part surfaces are to contact the inspection equipment for the measurement of dimension ….4 12.4 16.0 12.4 12.4 16. 27 .0 Method 1 16. dimension 12.0 Method 2 Surface plate Benefits of datum system: Surface plate It aids in making the dimensional measurement as intended by the designer It aids in communicating part functional relationship Consequences: Good parts are rejected and Bad parts are accepted.
Importance of Datum Two possible parts according to first drawing. 28 .
29 . A true geometric counterpart is the theoretical perfect boundary or best fit tangent plane of a datum feature.Datum A Datum is theoretically exact plane. point or axis from which a dimensional measurement is made. It is a true geometric counterpart of a datum feature.
Datum representation Indication of datum feature Filled or Unfilled is ok Datum with letter Datum with tolerance control frame The datum triangle is placed on a feature surface and an extension line Placement of datum feature symbols on feature of size. 30 .
Datum representation Datum reference in feature control frame Primary datum : A Secondary datum : B Tertiary datum: C Basic dimension symbol Placement of datum feature symbol in conjunction with a feature control frame 31 .
Datum feature of part / Stimulated datum Datum plane A True geometric counterpart of datum feature A Datum feature – Actual part surface Part Surface plate Or datum feature stimulator Stimulated datum is established by inspection equipment Stimulated datum plane A Plane derived from the datum feature stimulator 32 .
33 . It restricts two additional degrees of freedom.Datum reference frame A Datum reference frame is a set of three mutually perpendicular datum planes. It restricts last degree of freedom. It restricts three degree of freedom. Primary datum establishes the orientation of the part to datum reference frame. Secondary datum locates the part within the datum reference frame. The datum reference frame provides direction as well as an origin of dimensional measurement. Tertiary datum locates the part within the datum reference frame.
Degrees of freedom 34 .
Degrees of freedom 35 .
Degrees of freedom 36 .
the triangles are placed inline with the size dimensions. To do this. This approach would be used if the pattern of holes should remain centered on the plate regardless of the actual length and width. 37 .Datum symbol placement The below drawing illustrates establishing datum center planes for datum B and datum C.
the datum triangles may be offset as shown in the below drawing. 38 . the symmetry of the part is lost and may cause confusion at inspection. Although. the pattern will be controlled better to one side than the other. Depending on the actual size of the part. Datum planes are established by the sides of the part. this approach is usually preferred by manufacturing.Datum symbol placement If the centering of the pattern of holes is not important.
Datum symbol placement
Placement of the new datum feature symbol (triangle) can be critical. In the first three views below the datum feature symbol is associated with the size dimension of a feature of size. They indicate that a datum axis should be established using the feature indicated.
Datum symbol placement
In the view below, the datum may be interpreted as a line lying in a plane tangent to the feature indicated. If line contact is desired a datum target line should be indicated.
Datum center plane MMC primary
A internal FOS as a datum feature An external FOS as a Datum Feature
Datum feature stimulator Gauge element width – 7.7mm.
Datum feature stimulator Gauge element width – 20.4mm.
Datum center plane C Center plane of gauge
Datum center plane C Center plane of gauge
8 diameter) Datum plane A Surface plate as datum feature stimulator 42 .Datum axis MMC secondary Datum axis B Datum feature stimulator (90° to datum plane A Fixed s ize Ø17.
straightness. circularity and cylindricity. the word perfect form means perfect flatness. The form tolerance increases as the actual size of the feature departs from the MMC towards LMC.Rules of GD&T Rule # 1 This rule is referred to as the “ Individual feature of size rule” In industry rule 1 is phrased as “Perfect form at MMC” or the “Envelope rule” When no geometric tolerance is specified. No element of feature shall extend beyond the MMC boundary of perfect form. In this rule. the dimensional tolerance controls the geometric form as well as the size. In other words parts produced at MMC have perfect form 43 .
2 boundary of perfect form at MMC LMC size limit Ø9.Rule 1 applied to………… External feature of size MMC size & form boundary Size and form must allow the part to pass through the boundary Ø10.8 Each two-point measurement must be within the specified tolerance 44 .
8 boundary of perfect form at MMC LMC size limit Ø10.2 Each two-point measurement must be within the specified tolerance 45 .Rule 1 applied to………… Internal feature of size MMC size & form boundary Ø9.
RFS is the default for tolerance and datum reference (as appropriate) Rule # 2a (OLD) as per 1982 standard It is an alternative practice of rule # 2 according to which RFS may be specified as a symbol in feature control frame if desired and applicable. For a tolerance of position.Rules of GD&T Rule # 2 (NEW) as per 1994 standard RFS automatically applies to individual tolerances and to datum feature of size. RFS may be stated for the tolerance and datum references (as appropriate) 46 . MMC & LMC must be specified where required.
47 . RFS automatically applies. All geometric tolerance specified for gears and splines must designate the specific feature (such as major dia or minor dia) at which each applies Rule # 5 When a datum feature of size is controlled by a geometric tolerance and is specified as secondary or tertiary datum. Rule # 4 All geometric tolerance specified for screw threads apply to the axis of the thread derived from the pitch diameter. the datum applies at virtual condition with respect to orientation.Rules of GD&T Rule # 3 (1982 standard) For all other geometric controls. Exceptions must be specified by a note (such as major dia or minor dia).
Revision of Standard 48 .
which in part states that “the boundary of perfect for at MMC”. This condition is the boundary established by the collective effect of size and geometric tolerance.Virtual condition The virtual condition of a part is the condition that defines the boundary of acceptability. Virtual condition is the boundary (locus) at which the features are no longer acceptable. In certain applications. The letter denoted by VC. the geometric tolerance and the modifiers will exceed the boundary of perfect form. the combined effect of actual mating size. The boundary (locus) may violate rule #1. geometric tolerance and the modifiers. Virtual condition is not a control but a condition of a feature as a result of size. 49 .
75 03 50 .Virtual condition – Internal feature of size @ MMC The virtual condition for a internal feature is the constant value equals to its maximum material condition size minus its applicable tolerance of form or location Stimulated Gauge Plug gauge .05 Virtual condition = 24.21 diameter 02 Functional gauge Ø24.8 – 0.75 diameter Virtual condition = MMC – Geometrical tolerance VC = 24.8 diameter 01 Plug gauge – NO GO Ø25.GO Ø24.
Virtual condition – External feature of size @ MMC The virtual condition for a external feature is the constant value equals to its maximum material condition size plus its applicable tolerance of form or location Stimulated Gauge Snap gauge – Go Ø45.2 diameter No G o .40 diameter Virtual condition = MMC + Geometrical tolerance VC = 45.2 + 0.40 03 51 .Ø44.20 Virtual condition = 45.79 diameter 01 & 02 Functional gauge Ø45.
3 2.5 0. 2.2 0.2 0. an increase in the stated tolerance .4 0.0 LMC .6 0.2 0.4 0.7 Gauge Interpretation opening 0.0 0. When the actual mating size of FOS departs from MMC towards LMC.2 0.3 0.Introduction to BONUS Tolerance When a MMC modifier is used in the feature control frame.3 0.1 0.2 2. it means that the stated tolerance applies when the FOS is at its MMC. This increase or extra tolerance is called Bonus tolerance.7 52 Maximum bonus occurs when the actual mating envelope is at LMC 2.equal to the amount of departure is permitted.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 bow At MMC Feature AME Straightness tolerance Bonus tolerance Straightness Tolerance zone 2.2 0.1 2.4 0.5 MMC 2.
20 out of size tolerance Total Tolerance 0.12. 0.05 0.05 0.05 ‘Bonus’ Tol.10 0.39 MMC .Example – Condition .20 0.50 12.40 12.61 Geometric Tol.55 LMC .05 0.05 0.45 12.60 12.15 0.MMC/LMC/RFS AME 12.12.15 0. out of size tolerance 0.10 0.25 53 .05 0.05 0.00 0.
05 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.39 MMC .25 0.60 12.Example – Condition .50 12.05 0.20 0.20 0.45 12.MMC/LMC/RFS AME 12.55 LMC .05 ‘Bonus’ Tol.61 Geometric Tol. out of size tolerance 0.00 out of size tolerance Total Tolerance 0.10 0.05 54 .12.05 0.15 0.15 0.40 12. 0.12.
Example – Condition .00 out of size tolerance Total Tolerance 0.45 12. out of size tolerance 0.60 12.40 12.05 0.61 Geometric Tol.05 0.MMC/LMC/RFS AME 12.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.39 MMC .05 55 .55 LMC .12.05 0.50 12.00 0.05 ‘Bonus’ Tol.12.05 0.
FORM TOLERANCE Straightness Flatness Circularity Cylindricity 56 .
Straightness Straightness is a condition where one line element of a surface or axis is in a straight line. a distance ‘t’ apart. The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines. The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter ‘t’ if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign Ø 57 .
Take lowest and highest reading. At each measuring position along longitude.Straightness On Drawing Means this Place the part on V-Blocks. move dial indicator around circumference. 58 .
b.04 variation in straightness. With the pin at min. At least four sections must be measured. The maximum diameter of the pin with perfect form is shown in a gauge with a 16.Straightness On Drawing a. c. 59 .15 variation in straightness. For ‘M’ modifier use functional gauges. Measurements are taken along longitudinal sections.0. With the pin at max. This holds good for RFS condition. dia 15. At least three points must be measured in each section. the gauge will accept the pin with up to 0. dia 16.04 diameter hole.89. the gauge will accept the pin with up to 0. Part is held between centers.
Exercise On Drawing Functional gauge 60 .
Flatness Flatness is the condition of a surface having all of its elements in one plane. General representation Two parallel planes 0. The tolerance zone for a flatness control is three dimensional. The distance between the parallel planes is equal to the flatness control tolerance value. 61 .2 apart Surface plate Interpretation of Flatness tolerance: It consist of two parallel planes within which all the surface elements must lie.
As a result. In the second illustration. the gage blocks should be placed under the high points on the surface. Of course. the CMM will mathematically "level" the points of the surface contacted by the probe. an out of spec surface may be accepted. In the first case. Ideally. 01 02 03 In the third illustration. If the surface is convex. 62 . Otherwise. Three possible inspection methods are illustrated as below.Flatness In this example. the part is leveled on the surface plate. Often insufficient points are taken to evaluate the flatness error. the part will rock making it difficult to determine the minimum indicator reading over the entire surface. the indicator movement may not be the lowest possible. the surface is leveled by placing it on three equal height gage blocks. the flatness has been applied to datum feature A. a CMM will automatically align the points to evaluate the flatness error. The indicator is then moved across the surface.
e. The dial indicator should be stationary. The deviation or circular error is the difference between the highest and lowest reading. the circumference of shaft or hole.g. at any cross section of shaft.Circularity Circularity is a condition. which is perpendicular to its axis are equidistant from that axis. For example a shaft may be bowed or bent yet still meets the requirement because it does not control relative positions of the tolerance zone. A circular tolerance is given to control a roundness of a feature. General representation Measuring principle of circularity Place the shaft on a V-Block which is kept on a surface plate. where all points on the periphery of a surface of revolution. 63 . Measurement at one line on surface when part is rotated.
The circularity control tolerance must be less than the size tolerance. Here the inner boundary is Ø4.3.6.Interpretation The shaft diameter to be within Ø4.Circularity .70 – Ø5.2mm.2) 64 . The shaft diameter should be within size tolerance and form (out of round) should be within the circular tolerance (4. The size tolerance is 0.3 with a circular tolerance of 0.3) Circular tolerance – (0.7 and outer boundary is Ø5.7) (5.
Measurement at all points on surface when part is rotated and moved length wise. It composite control that limits the circularity. straightness and taper of a diameter simultaneously. Place the shaft on a V-Block which is kept on a surface plate. Cylindricity is a condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are equidistant from a common axis. The dial indicator should be stationary. Cylindricity controls deviations such as concavity and convexity of a shaft. 65 .Cylindricity Cylindricity controls roundness of a feature over its entire surface. The deviation or cylindrical error is the difference between the highest and lowest reading through out the surface.
A computer then evaluates the points to fit them between two concentric cylinders that may not have a radial separation greater than 0. each feature is inspected independent of the others. Cylindricity is an individual control. the cylindricity has been applied to 5 features. Cylindricity is a composite of circularity.Cylindricity In this example. surface straightness and taper. An electronic probe gathers many points on the surface. location and orientation of the feature are ignored.02. Therefore. The actual size. 66 .
PROFILE TOLERANCE Profile of any line Profile of any surface 67 .
Profile of any line Profile of any line is a two-dimensional cross section tolerance. The profile tolerance is assumed a bilateral tolerance. XY Uses profile of a line to control all around of a cross section of a wing. 68 . which is the tolerance both above and below the true profile line. The line profile tolerance is used where parts have changing cross section along their length and do not have to be along the entire feature. Cross section of a simple contour that is controlled by line profile tolerance.
We do not know why we use it. many practice to change to a general profile of a surface tolerance with datum referencing. we just do. general tolerances found in the titleblock of a drawing. Since this will usually be most of the dimensions.Profile of any Surface Most of us still use ± linear. the only reason to put any geometric tolerances on the field of the drawing is for refinements of orientation. 69 ." This general note causes much confusion because it does not relate tolerances to a datum reference frame. This requires that the dimensions describing surfaces be basic. Since the general profile tolerance controls location of the entire surface of each feature. allows tolerance accumulation and wedge shaped tolerance zones. "That's the way we've always done it. This note eliminates a lot of boxes on the drawing. size and form. To clear up the drawing's meaning. it is becoming a common practice to add the note "UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE BASIC".
We cannot apply the MMC modifier to a profile tolerance because it is a surface control. however.Profile of any Surface MMC May Be Applied to Datum References in a Profile tolerance callout. Here the secondary and tertiary datum features are features of size 70 . apply MMC or LMC to the datum references of a profile tolerance where the datum features are features of size. We can. but not to the Profile Tolerance.
No need for all of those boxes around the dimensions. By stating that ALL UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE BASIC and specifying a general profile tolerance relative to a datum reference frame.Profile vs Direct tolerancing A better approach is shown on the revised drawing below. Better. several improvements have been made to the drawing. Life made easy 71 . Tolerance accumulation is reduced / avoided compared to conventional tolerancing.
Another advantage of profile tolerancing Imagine trying to inspect the R8 dimension if it had been toleranced without GD&T as is shown here. By the way. how centered does the Ø36 have to be on the Ø28. Try to determine if the center of the 4X R8±0. if you want to do an inadequate job of inspecting a part using calipers-go ahead. the drawing with GD&T has "one clear meaning.1 and at the implied 90°±0°30'. regardless of how the part is toleranced. However. Dimensioning without GD&T Dimensioning with GD&T Better. There are many ways to "interpret" this drawing. Life made easy 72 ." Bottom line.1 are on the Ø36±0.
73 . the value that follows the U in a circle is the amount of tolerance zone that applies outward from the surface. Of course. This may also be used to indicate a unilateral profile tolerance.51994 so everyone reading the drawing knows where to find the meaning.41-2003 as well as ASME Y14. you should reference ASME Y14.41 standard. if you want to use this new symbol.Profile equal and unilateral According to the Y14.
ORIENTATION TOLERANCE Angularity Perpendicularity Parallelism 74 .
It limits the amount of surface. Measurement method – Placing the block on sine bar and measuring high and low limits which should fall under 0. center plane or axis is permitted to vary from its specified angle.Angularity Control Angularity is a condition of a surface. Angularity tolerance to a surface given with two datum references.2mm. center plane or axis being exactly at the specified angle. Tolerance zone for surface are two parallel planes and for cylindrical FOS will be a cylinder. 75 . Angularity are applied to surface and cylindrical FOS. Use two datum reference for Angularity.
2 apart With ref.Angularity Control Angularity are applied to cylindrical FOS. Axis can lie on Ø0. Axis of hole must lie between the tolerance zone. Tolerance zone is oriented relative to the datum plane by a basic angle.4 With ref. Tolerance zone for cylindrical FOS will be a cylinder or parallel planes based on notation given to tolerance. to datum A 76 . to datum A Axis can lie between two planes 0.
Size to be within 29. center plane or axis being exactly parallel to the datum.3 mm. It limits the amount of a surface.7 to 30.3 Datum A Parallelism to be within 0. to datum A Datum A 77 . center plane or axis is permitted to vary from being parallel to datum. It is applied to a surface and cylindrical FOS.1 with ref.7 30. Parallelism applied to a surface 29.Parallelism Control Parallelism is a condition of a surface.
0 Total Tolerance zone 0.1 0.4 0.1 apart with ref. to datum A.2 0.0 7.Parallelism Control Bonus tolerance is permissible. Parallelism tolerance zone limits the flatness of the toleranced feature.5 at LMC 78 . to datum A.8 MMC Parallelism tolerance 0.1 Datum A The axis can lie on Ø0. Bonus tolerance allowed up to 0.5 0.1 with ref.1 Bonus tolerance 0. A fixed gauge can be used to verify parallelism.3 0. Parallelism applied to a cylindrical FOS at MMC AME 8. Bonus tolerance allowed up to Ø0.5 at LMC Datum A The axis can lie between two planes of 0.2 LMC 8.1 0.
Perpendicularity Control Perpendicularity is a condition that results when a surface. Surface to lie within parallel planes 0. axis or center plane is permitted to vary from being perpendicular to the datum. It is applied to surface. to datum A Datum A Datum A 79 . It limits the amount of surface. axis or center plane is exactly 90 degree to a datum ref.2 apart and 90° with ref. separation of parallel planes to lie within parallel planes 0. planar FOS and cylindrical FOS.2 apart and 90° with ref. to datum A Center plane established from max.
Gauge ID Ø50.1 apart with ref.Perpendicularity Control Perpendicularity applied to cylindrical FOS. Bonus tolerance is permissible.2 MMC 50. Perpendicularity applied to a cylindrical FOS at MMC AME 50.1 0.3 at LMC.3 80 .1 0.2 Total Tolerance zone 0.1 with ref. to datum A and 0.2 0. to datum A and Ø0.3 at LMC.0 LMC Perpendicularity tolerance 0.3 Axis of Ø50 can lie on Ø0. Gauge ID Ø50.1 Bonus tolerance 0.1 0.1 0.3 Axis of Ø50 can lie between two planes 0.1 50.0 0.
LOCATION TOLERANCE Position Concentricity Symmetry 81 .
2 Cylindrical tolerance zone perpendicular to Datum A From Datum B 82 . It can control distance between FOS (SLOTS). coaxiality between FOS.8 – Ø12.2 From Datum C Ø0. Tolerance of position (TOP) can control is a geometric tolerance that defines the location tolerance of a FOS from its true position. Interpretation True position of Ø11.Position Control True position is the theoretically exact location of a FOS as defined by basic dimension. location of FOS (HOLES).
2 square Cylindrical tolerance allows 57% more tolerance for the hole Cylindrical tolerance allows Ø0. Permits the use of functional gauges. Permits additional tolerance – Bonus and datum shift.Advantage of Position Tolerancing Cylindrical tolerance zone are 57% larger than square zones. Prevents tolerance accumulation. Co-ordinate Tolerancing TOP Tolerancing Co-ordinate tolerance allows 0.28 83 . Protects part function and lowers manufacturing cost.
10 0. Functional Gauge – Used to check the function of part feature Plug gauge Ø12.60 12. Also called attribute gauge or fixed gauge. Functional gauge only provides a pass or fail assessment of a part feature.00 Total Tolerance zone 0.Inspection of TOP applied at MMC A TOP applied at MMC can be verified in number of ways like Variable gauges.20 Datum C Datum B 84 .20 0.50 MMC Position tolerance 0. does not provide numerical reading of a part parameter.70 12. It represents the virtual condition of the tolerance FOS.30 0.30 0. Functional gauge is a gauge that verifies functional requirements of a part feature.e.0 Datum A AME 12.40 0.50 0.20 0.20 Bonus tolerance 0. CMM and functional gauging.20 0. i.20 0.80 LMC 12.
Functional Gauge 85 . •No special skills are required to read the gauge or interpret the results. •Parts can be verified quickly. •A functional gauge is economical to produce. •In some cases a functional gauge can check several part characteristics simultaneously.Benefits of Functional gauges •The gauge represents the worst case mating part.
4 86 .0 0. Variable gauges are used. Functional gauges are not used on RFS condition. Axis of Ø20 (Datum A) Ø0.4 with reference to datum A regardless feature of size.4 Tolerance of position AME 45.Co-axial diameters controlled by TOP (RFS) Interpretation : The axis of Ø45 can lie on tolerance zone of Ø0.00 44.90 Position tolerance 0.4 0.10 45.0 Total Tolerance zone 0.4 Bonus tolerance 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.
Bi – Directional TOP (Locating a hole in two directions) In this application the tolerance zone are parallel boundaries in the direction of TOP control. The shape of the tolerance zone is rectangular. Tolerance zone 87 .
Use TOP to locate an elongated hole For elongated hole – bonus tolerance is are permissible. Outer boundary Inner boundary 88 . The size should meet the functional requirements.
5-12)/2 =0. This is called fixed fastener assembly Calculating position tolerance: T – Position tolerance diameter ? H – MMC of clearance hole (Top plate) F – MMC of fastener T = (H-F)/2 =(12. the holes in one of the component in assembly are clearance hole and other would be threaded to held the fastener.Use TOP in fixed fastener assembly A fixed fastener assembly is where the fastener is fixed or restrained in to one of the components of the assembly. Often.25 89 .
Concentricity Control A concentricity or coaxiality is a condition where the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a cylinder are congruent with the axis of the datum feature. It is used when precise balance of part is required. Datum axis A Tolerance zone Ø 0. equal wall thickness are required. equal distribution of mass.1 Median points of all diametrically opposed to be congruent with datum axis A 90 .
since it requires deriving the features median points to determine if they are contained within the specified tolerance zone which is centered on the datum axis or datum center plane 91 . It is applied to features that are shown symmetrical to the datum center plane. It is difficult to measure.Symmetry Control Symmetry is a condition where the median points of all opposed elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or center plane of a datum feature.
1.Symmetry Control Symmetry tolerance added to a line or axis. Here the tolerance is given to the axis of a lever.1 apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to datum A.B&C. The axis of the hole to be contained between two parallel planes 0. Use a mandrel and measure the dimensions of A and B 92 . The difference between dimensions A and B must not exceed 0.
circular runout will not detect changes in size. Any barreling. 93 . Circular elements that are contained within a cylindrical feature that is shown centered on the datum axis. Because of this. waisting or taper should be ignored. These conditions will be controlled by the size tolerance.Circular Runout Circular runout requires inspecting circular elements individually.
Total runout requires determining the full indicator movement over the entire feature. Total runout, therefore, detects any changes in size, i.e. barreling, waisting or taper. Although changes in size are controlled, the actual size of the feature is determined and controlled by the size dimension and tolerance. A feature may be manufactured to a very tight size tolerance but due to eccentricity, the runout could be large. Total runout controls form, orientation and location but not size. Cylindrical features shown centered on the datum axis. Controls all geometric characteristics except size.
Runout (Circular Vs Total)
The worst circular runout error occurs at the slice with the greatest variation. In this case two slices vary a total of 0.03. Total runout is the difference between the highest and lowest readings found over the entire feature. The highest reading was +0.02 and the lowest reading was -0.09. Therefore, the total runout for the feature is 0.11, the difference between +0.02 and -0.09.
(Runout Vs Concentricity)
Avoid specifying concentricity. Concentricity requires deriving the median line of a feature. All of the features shown below are concentric. Usually, designs require that a feature be round as well as concentric like example A. A better geometric control is usually circular runout. Circular runout controls circularity (roundness) as well as concentricity.
“When in doubt use Runout”
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