Bei William

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine


Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehrshtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

Do you speak English? (informal)

I (don't) speak...

Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand.

Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know.

Kannst du mir helfen? kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal)

Natürlich nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me?

Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ?

Es gibt... ess geept There is / are...

Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-gehsen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German Vowels [i] viel [y] kühl English Pronunciation meet, eat ee rounded / long


Notice that the pronunciation of the German r changes according to the location in the countries that speak German. suit muss put. goat Stock caught. [R] in northern Germany and [r] in southern Germany. bought bitte cut. how toy. why cow. now. o. is generally pronounced as [e]. though it can be pronounced as [ɛ] in some dialects. Pferd. Pfanne How to pronounce: Make yuh sound voiceless (no vibration of vocal cords) Make kuh sound a fricative (continuous airflow) Pronounce together as one sound 4 . nicht Buch. so determining the pronunciation based on the spelling is not possible. lachen. The other umlauted letter.e. Austria and Switzerland. [ɔɪ] Gebäude English Pronunciation eye. foil German Consonants There are a few German consonants that do not exist in English. whereas the long vowels / i y u e ø o / can occur at the end of the syllable or word. German Diphthongs [aɪ] ein. what uhr / also short Wetter vowel like [ə] Vowels highlighted in blue do not exist in English. not ah / longer vowel kam than [a] gut boot. wait ay rounded / long schön vowel Bett met. buy. kaufen neu. and some consonant combinations that are not common in English. boy. wet eh rounded / short zwölf vowel Mann mop. soot Sohn coat. Notice that words spelled with ö and ü can be pronounced with a long or short vowel. mich.[ɪ] [ʏ] [e] [ø] [ɛ] [œ] [a] [ɑ] [u] [ʊ] [o] [ɔ] [ə] [ ɐ] vowel Tisch mitt. mein [aʊ] auf. Spelling IPA ch (with vowels e and [ç] i) ch (with vowels a. [x] u) pf [pf] Sample words Chemie. it ih rounded / short hübsch vowel Tee mate. A general rule for pronunciation. states that the short vowels / ɪ ʏ ʊ ɛ ɔ / must be followed by a consonant. however. ä. i. kochen Apfel.

z j qu st / sp (at beginning of syllable) sch th v w ß s (before vowel) [ts] [j] [kv] [ʃt] / [ʃp] [ʃ] [t] [f] [v] [s] [z] Zeit. where the stress falls on the last syllable (especially with French words. schlafen Theater. Zug. Quiz. Male persons or animals. and [g] lose their voicing at the end of a syllable. and it is not used at all in Switzerland. -keit. and [k]. warm Straße. -ik. pronounced like [s]. Januar. -ei. the seasons. -tät. so you must memorize the gender of each noun. -ie. However. and days are all masculine. -ig. -anz. groß Salz. Quitte Stadt. Sitz Pronounce together as one sound yuh kv sht / shp sh t f v s z In addition. [d].) 3. ß (es-zet ). -sis. the spelling does not reflect the pronunciation. -ast. Nouns and Cases All nouns have a gender in German. this letter is only used after long vowels or diphthongs. months. -ich. the sounds [b]. as are nouns ending in -ant. respectively. -in. feminine or neuter. However. -schaft. except in words borrowed from other languages. so they are pronounced as their voiceless counterparts [p]. verboten Wasser. -sion. and numerals are all feminine. -heit. -ling. as are nouns ending in -a. -ung 5 . Female persons or animals. Stress Stress generally falls on the first syllable of the word. Thron Vater. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender. 4. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee j k l m n o p q r yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr s t u v w x y z ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset There is another letter in written German. either masculine. -enz. -ismus. Tanz ja. -or and -us. Junge Quote. [t]. seit. -tion. sprechen schenken.

-tel. -iv. -ät. and the ones you look up in a dictionary. Fem. as well as most words with the prefix ge. That. Other der-words are: jeder-every. -an. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words. metals. letters of the alphabet. however. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Young persons or animals. but remember that English uses cases also. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. or indirect object instead of dative. -icht. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. -it. Those) This / These That / Those Masc. as are nouns that end in -chen. and -um. The book of the girl. cinemas. but they are used almost always in the plural. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. -ent. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. -ar. Dat. Nouns referring to things that end in -al. they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. Fem. -ier. will be in the nominative case. -ma. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. Pl. -ment. 5. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. Articles and Demonstratives Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A. we would say direct object instead of accusative. We give it to the guide. chemical elements. These. restaurants. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult. -lein. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. -ett. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This. Note: The nouns I give you. Neu. die die den der Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those.and -ur. Gen. -o and -on. These may seem strange. -tum. but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Neu. dieser diese dieses diese der die das diesen diese dieses diese den die das diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des Nom. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. hotels. 6 . continents.and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. countries and provinces are all neuter. Pl. and welcherwhich. Masc. -il. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. We see the guide. Acc.

es. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns Subject Pronouns ich du ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie. Ich habe Langeweile. Ich habe Angst. er. = I am bored. I will leave them out of future conjugations.. to Have.). the definite articles der. du. Ich habe Hunger. = I am afraid. 8. one Note: Man can be translated as one..6. and to Become Present tense of sein .to become (vair-den) habe hah-buh haben hah-ben werde vair-duh werden vair-den hast hahst habt hahbt wirst veerst werdet vair-det hat haht haben hah-ben wird veert werden vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden vahhahhahvoorvoorwar var waren hatte hatten wurde wurden ren tuh ten duh den hahhahvoorvoorwarst varst wart vart hattest hattet wurdest wurdet test tet dest det vahhahhahvoorvoorwar var waren hatte hatten wurde wurden ren tuh ten duh den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Sie veer we eer zee you (all) they. = I am homesick. however. However. = I am thirsty. we. 7. mahn he. To Be.) du bist doo bihst you are ihr seid eer zide He/she/it is er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich. they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden . ess. Present tense of haben . = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. you use er for masculine be (zine) I am ich bin ikh bin we are wir sind veer zint You are (fam. Ich habe Heimweh. sie and es to show more emphasis. man air. sie. she. zee. it. you (formal) er. Useful Words and but very or und aber sehr oder oont ah-ber zair oh-der really together all now wirklich veerk-lish right! tsoo-zahzusammen anyway men alle jetzt ahl-luh yetst enough exact(ly) stimmt shtimt oo-berüberhaupt howpt guhgenug nook genau guh-now 7 . die and das can be substituted for er.

here also both hier auch beide here owkh so another already isn't it? too bad gladly also noch ein al-zoh sometimes manchmal always never often immer nie oft mahnchmal im-er nee ohft klahr by-duh ehtsome etwas vahss only nur noor veeagain wieder der hohhopefully hoffentlich fentlikh zvishbetween zwischen en destherefore deshalb halp a lot. Question Words Who What Why When How Wer Was Wann Wie vehr vahs vahn voh vee Whom (acc. 9.velsh Where Wo 10. Numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 null eins zwei drei vier fünf sechs sieben acht neun zehn elf zwölf dreizehn vierzehn fünfzehn sechzehn nool ines tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn 8 .) Wen Whom (dat. many viel(e) nohkh ine schon shone nikht vah nicht wahr r schade shah-duh gern gehrn zoh-fort zikh-erlikh zohndehrn shleesslikh of course klar perhaps a little a little not at all not a bit vielleicht fee-likht ein ine bissbisschen khen ein wenig ine vaynikh immediately sofort sure(ly) rather sicher(lich) sondern schließlich gar nicht gar nikht kine kein bissbisschen khen feel(uh finally ) Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.) Wem Wieso Where from Where to Which vain vaim vee-zo Warum vah-room How come Woher vo-hair Wohin vo-hin Welch.

months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . 11. e) heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend.17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. Tuesdays. nächsten ." All days. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays.every. i.000 siebzehn achtzehn neunzehn zwanzig einundzwanzig zweiundzwanzig dreißig vierzig fünfzig sechzig siebzig achtzig neunzig (ein)hundert (ein)tausend zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of zwei to avoid confusion with drei. vorigen . Austria and Switzerland. letzten . 9 . use am. while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German.last (as in the last of a series).previous. etc.e.000 would be 1 000. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä.

use im. 14. Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck 10 .12. Directions North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. use im. 13. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season).

not half past. Notice that halb + number means half to. Es ist kalt schön heiß klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoytuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert 11 ... 17. such as for bus and train schedules.. Um 8 Uhr. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist zwei Uhr nachts Es ist zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens / frühs abends Es ist genau. It's cold beautiful hot clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns / frews aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time. always uses the 24 hour clock.. At 8. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like brown gray white green schwarz braun grau weiß grün cube sphere cone cylinder der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. so you have to use the hour that comes next.

However. 19. er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the know facts kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun weiß vise wissen vih-sun kennst kenst kennt kent weißt vighst wisst vihst kennt kent kennen ken-nun weiß vise wissen vih-sun 20. To Know People and Facts kennen .to know people wissen . Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. here are some rules that can help: 12 . so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö.The weather is clearing Das Wetter klärt sich auf. e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä. is bad ist schlecht dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18.

Neuter Plural Definite den die das die Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. Junge. o . Masc. Vorfahre. Neffe. unser-our. Riese. but neuter plural nouns ending in -e don't. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. euer-your (ihr form). 22. and the following nouns: Elefant. Mensch. Polizist. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). Kunde. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. mein meinen meinem meines Fem. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. 13 . Zeuge). Gen. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. Journalist). Patient. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Nachbar. u or au. Löwe. Possessive Adjectives Nom. ihr-their. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. u or au add an umlaut. eine Lampe zwei Lampen eine Tür zwei Türen eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2.1. seinhis/its. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Soldat. Fem. Acc. Tourist. and kein-no/not any. Ihr-your (Sie form). Dat. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein (my) are: ein . Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. Student. mein mein meinem meines Pl. ihr-her. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. Komponist. dein-your (du form). Herr. o.a/an.

Take. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Fem. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Neuter Plural Definite dem der dem den Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. 23. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. if you were to change word order. For proper nouns. or an -es if the word is one syllable. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun. whereas English relies mainly on word order. unless they already end in an -n or -s. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. 14 . more often in writing than in speech. 24. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. In German. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case.Personal Pronouns . but in English. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. I give (to) my brother a tie. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. Usually. you would have to say the apple eats me. Usually in English.Nominative & Accusative ich I mich me wir we uns us du you dich you ihr you euch you er he ihn him sie they sie them sie she sie her Sie you Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. I give it to my brother. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). for example. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. When speaking. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. German only adds an -s to the noun. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning.

the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural. Work and School worker architect lawyer doctor bank mechanic Automechaniker Automechanikerin employee librarian Bibliothekar Bibliothekarin conductor TV Fernsehreporter Fernsehreporterin hairdresser reporter engineer Ingenieur Ingenieurin custodian cook Koch (ö.to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. To Do or Make Machen . German does not use articles before professions.There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. Definite Indefinite des der des Plural der eines einer eines keiner 25. Neu. School University Foreign languages Literature die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur High School Subject Linguistics History die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä. e) Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. e) Köchin cashier pilot Pilot (en) Pilotin waiter police Polizist (en) Polizistin nurse officer postal president Präsident (en) Präsidentin worker priest Priester Priesterin judge secretary Sekretär Sekretärin writer flight Flugbegleiter Flugbegleiter (in) salesperson attendant taxi driver Taxifahrer Taxifahrerin dentist male Arbeiter Architekt (en) female Arbeiterin Architektin male Anwalt (ä. die Farbe des Vogels . er) Linguistik Geschichte 15 . Also. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural.the size of the house die Tasche meiner Mutter .the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Fem. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpfleger Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä.my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter.

town or place) with. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü.Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. that take the Dative case out (of). er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. students must pass das Abitur in order to graduate from high school. this final exam is called die Matura.) die Aufgabe (n) In Germany. from (country. e) Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) hard easy Vacation Assignment Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. 27. by means of (transportation) 16 . In Austria. Prepositions durch gegen um für ohne aus mit Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps.

He hangs the picture over the sofa. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. Es ist unter dem Tisch. The bottles are in front of the door. Drive the car behind the house. to. at home of or place of business after. open space.) and nach Hause . The car is behind the house. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. by since. before zwischen between For the two-way prepositions: The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? The dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. next to über over. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. But one exception is zu Hause . It is under the table. below. It's lying on the table. or direction). an at. Es ist neben dem Haus. across.von seit bei nach zu gegenüber außer from ( home (dat. among. Put the bottles in front of the door. about unter under. on (horizontal surfaces). that may take Acc. into (building. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus.(to) home (acc. on (vertical surfaces. to (cities and countries) to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) across from except for.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. Er ist in der Küche. Write it on the board. above. He is in the kitchen. Stell es unter den Tisch. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. It is on the board. Es steht an der Tafel. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of (an)statt instead of wegen because of außerhalb outside of innerhalb inside of Preps. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. Schreib es an die Tafel. 17 . Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. feminine or plural countries) neben beside. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. It is beside the house. Er geht in die Küche. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa. to (some public buildings) hinter behind in in. or Dat. Put it on the table. He goes into the kitchen. for near. Put it under the table. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. at. The picture hangs over the sofa. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. enclosed space. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. besides Preps. Put it beside the house. Stell es auf den Tisch. beneath vor in front of.

Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from.Note: Stellen. of the to the through the around the 29. 28. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Adjective / Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch 18 . while stehen. legen and setzen use the accusative case. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Fem. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Deutschland England England France Frankreich USA die USA Russia Russland Switzerland die Schweiz Italy Italien Spain Spanien Japan Japan China China Austria Österreich Australia Australien Belgium Belgien Canada Kanada Denmark Dänemark Finland Finnland Greece Griechenland Holland Holland Netherlands die Niederlande Ireland Irland Korea Korea Mexico Mexiko Norway Norwegen Portugal Portugal Sweden Schweden Poland Polen Masc.

To and From Countries and Cities To nach From aus In in Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries.I am from Switzerland. the definite article must also be used. And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. Heute ist es nicht kalt. Heute ist es kalt. or it could negate any part (verb. not a. To Come and to Go kommen . Das ist meine Frau. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. können .Egypt Ägypten Ägypter Ägypterin Ägyptisch. Ich fliege nach Deutschland .to be able to müssen .to be allowed to kann können muß müssen darf dürfen kannst könnt mußt müsst darfst dürft 19 . ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. Ich bin aus Deutschland . The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. That's my wife. Ist das eine Katze? Is that a cat? have to dürfen . Nicht also follows expressions of time.I'm flying to Germany. nicht comes last. noun. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. It is declined as an ein-word. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. It you want to negate an entire sentence. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. It is cold today. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. adjective) or all of a sentence. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive go komme koh-muh kommen koh-men gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in kommst kohmst kommt kohmt gehst gehst geht gate kommt kohmt kommen koh-men geht gate gehen geh-in 33. but nicht means not and kein means no. or not come gehen . Arabisch 30. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Modal Verbs German has 6 of them. 31. It is not cold today.I am from Germany. Das ist nicht meine Frau. Nicht always follows the verb.I'm flying to Switzerland. That's not my wife. Ich bin aus der Schweiz . 32. das ist keine Katze. They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb. No. that's not a cat.

Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. sollen . Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. you. I do run. such as I run. Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. 34. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t -t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense. they run vs. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. To form regular verbs in German. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be 20 . desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. he/she/it runs).to ought to wollen .to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen .) However.kann können muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. no ending and -s ending (I. Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. we. Nicht dürfen translates to must not. I am running. Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it. The following table is in the same format.

translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative mich dich sich uns euch sich dir Dative mir uns euch sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. In other words. 35. however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. Usually the -self words are a clue in English.I don't feel well. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. not a possessive. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern sich freuen sich hinlegen sich beeilen sich erholen to get angry to be happy to lie down to hurry to relax sich aufregen sich erkälten sich anziehen sich ausziehen sich setzen sich vorstellen to get excited to catch a cold to get dressed to get undressed to sit down to imagine sich ausruhen to rest sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) sich verletzen to get hurt Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über sich erinnern an sich freuen über sich gewöhnen an sich kümmern um sich interessieren für sich verlieben in to be angry at/about to remember to happy about to get used to to take care of to be interested in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 21 . This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. Examples in English would be: I wash myself.I'm taking off my coat. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. we hate ourselves. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus . Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. he hurts himself.

sprechen-to speak. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 22 . essen-to eat. sterben-to die. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. waschen-to wash. add an e before three endings. treffen-to meet. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to read. schlafen-to sleep. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. befehlen-to command. helfen-to help. have -t for du form ending instead of -st. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. tragen-to carry.36. Reden-to speak rede reden redest redet redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. geschehen-to happen. empfehlen-to recommend. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break.

vorbei. but ankommen is to arrive. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at" But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3.nach.bei. Kommen is to come." Verbs with Separable Prefixes abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen anzünden ausgeben anziehen to listen to to take with to board to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes vorbeikommen to come by 23 . but the prefix remains attached.los.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form. Separable Prefixes ab. When conjugated.zurückan. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now.6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms.zu. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of." With modals.aus.vorweg. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37.

as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. Land der Dome. 24 . with heart and hands. and versprechen . Land der Äcker. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen .to entertain. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe vorschlagen to suggest zurückkommen to come back auswandern to emigrate 39.aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to look like. überholen .to undertake. erzählen . they are inseparable. Let us all pursue this purpose they are separable. Unter and über can function as separable promise. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to take off clothes to look win. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. The Austrian National Anthem: Österreichische Bundeshymne by Paula von Preradovic Land der when they are not stressed. zukunftsreich! Heimat bist du großer Söhne.veremp. Land am Strome. When prefixes are stressed. Inseparable Prefixes be. Land der Hämmer.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. and übersetzen .to overtake. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes.miss. The German National Anthem: Deutschland-Lied by Heinrich Hoffman von Fallersleben Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit für das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben brüderlich mit Herz und Hand! Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit sind des Glückes Unterpfand Blüh im Glanze dieses Glückes blühe deutsches Vaterland! Unity and right and freedom for the German fatherland. gewinnen . flourish. German fatherland. unternehmen .to translate. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix. Flourish in this blessing's glory. Unity and right and freedom are the pawns of happiness. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten .

With courage. Find' ich dich im Sternenheer.Volk. Land of fields. Einig laß in Brüderchören. our country. Highly praised Austria. Land of mountains. Much tried Austria. Gott. Strongly fought for. Betet. Kommst im Abendglühn daher. A nation blessed by its sense of beauty. You are the home of great sons. den Herrn. Seh' ich dich im Strahlenmeer. den Herrn. land of spires. Gott. Land of hammers. with a rich future. Dich. du Hocherhabener. betet! Eure fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. Watch us striding free and believing. The Swiss National Anthem: Schweizerpsalm by Leonhard Widmer Trittst im Morgenrot daher. Liebender! In des Himmels lichten Räumen Kann ich froh und selig träumen! Denn die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. Working cheerfully and full of hope. Arbeitsfroh und hoffnungsreich. Our much beloved Austria. Mutig in die neuen Zeiten. You are in the centre of the Continent Like a strong heart. Vielgeliebtes Österreich. In fraternal chorus let us take in unity The oath of allegiance to you. freie Schweizer. 25 . dir Treue schwören. The burden of a high mission. im hehren Vaterland. land of streams. Heiß umfehdet. You have borne since the earliest days. Hast seit frühen Ahnentagen Hoher Sendung Last getragen Vielgeprüftes Österreich. du Menschenfreundlicher. Vaterland. begnadet für das Schöne. fiercely contested. Frei und gläubig sich uns schreiten. im hehren Vaterland. Herrlicher! Wenn der Alpenfirn sich rötet. Dich. Vielgerühmtes Österreich. wild umstritten leigst dem Erdteil du inmitten einem starken Herzen gleich. into new eras.

allmächtig Waltender. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. but aufstehen takes sein. and then add the prefix to the beginning. 2. especially in conversation. Sagen is to ask. Studieren is to study and studier. Logically. the prefix comes before the ge. The verb is intransitive (i. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. as well as reflexive verbs. if and only if. then the past participles of the modals are used. therefore gesagt is the past participle.I asked my brother. but a few use sein. I broke my arm. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. and the stem. therefore gemacht is the past the stem. cannot take a direct object. Haben or Sein Most verbs use a past participle. die fromme Seele ahnt. stehen takes haben. Du. However. both of these conditions are met: 1. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et. so studiert is the past participle. Gott. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. den Herrn. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. Ewiger! Aus dem grauen Luftgebilde Tritt die Sonne klar und milde. For example. Fährst im wilden Sturm daher. use haben in the present perfect tense. the past participle is not used. Such' ich dich im Wolkenmeer. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end. die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. 26 .is the stem. Gott. Ja. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. du Unergründlicher. With separable prefixes. and -sag. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. Past participles are made by adding ge. All modals. Arbeiten is to work. From the participle of the base verb. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt.Ziehst im Nebelflor daher. Und die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. Dich. im hehren Vaterland. den Herrn. and -arbeit. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. Machen is to do/make.e.) Double Infinitive: When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. Bist Du selbst uns Hort und Wehr. im hehren Vaterland ! 40. Rettender! In Gewitternacht und Grauen Lasst uns kindlich ihm vertrauen! the stem.

They form their past participles like regular verbs.prefix when forming the past participle. (Ge-stem-t) 27 . allow suffer lend read recline lie. All of the following irregular past participles use haben as the auxiliary verb.With inseparable prefixes. water reach hold hang. there is no ge. 41. Irregular Past Participles with Haben These irregular past participles end with -en. like all irregular verbs. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. anfangen aufstehen befehlen beginnen beissen bekommen bewerben binden bitten brechen einladen empfehlen essen finden fressen frieren geben gewinnen gießen greifen halten hängen heben heißen helfen klingen lassen leiden leihen lesen liegen lügen nehmen pfeifen begin get up order. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. whether the verb is regular or irregular. fib take whistle angefangen aufgestanden befohlen begonnen gebissen bekommen beworben gebunden gebeten gebrochen eingeladen empfohlen gegessen gefunden gefressen gefroren gegeben gewonnen gegossen gegriffen gehalten gehangen gehoben geheißen geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten geliehen gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gepfiffen raten reissen riechen rufen scheinen schieben schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen singen sitzen sprechen stehen stehlen streiten tragen treffen trinken tun verbieten vergessen verlassen verlieren versprechen verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen advise tear smell call shine push sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see sing sit speak stand steal quarrel wear meet drink do forbid forget leave lose promise understand forgive wash throw pull geraten gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschoben geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden gestohlen gestritten getragen getroffen getrunken getan verboten vergessen verlassen verloren versprochen verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. suspend lift be called help sound let. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. receive apply tie ask break invite recommend eat find eat (of animals) freeze give win pour. and some have vowel changes in the stem. such as besucht and verloren. command begin bite get.

Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. and many have irregular past participles. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) der Tee das Steak der Kuchen bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä. e) das Wasser der Wein silverware das Besteck 28 . aufwachen wake up bleiben ertrinken fahren fallen fliegen folgen gebären gehen gelingen joggen klettern kommen kriechen remain drown fall fly follow be born go succeed jog climb come creep erscheinen appear aufgewacht laufen geblieben ertrunken gefallen geflogen gefolgt geboren gegangen gelungen gejoggt geklettert gekrochen passieren reiten rennen sein sinken springen steigen sterben wachsen wandern erschienen reisen run happen travel run be sink jump climb die step grow hike become gelaufen passiert gereist gerannt geschwommen gewesen gesunken gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen gewandert geworden ride (horseback) geritten drive. go. Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwuß- Past Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt 42. travel gefahren schwimmen swim geschehen happen geschehen treten gekommen werden 43. Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate tea steak cake das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä.

Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. and der Kurkuruz is corn.ein Stück Pizza 29 . a glass of water . e) der Fisch (e) In Austria.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive. Fruits. The genitive case implies of. 45. die Frisolen is green beans.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake . der Karfiol is cauliflower. you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case. er) der Truthahn (ä. e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä. e) das Huhn (ü.chicken coffee fish ham jam rice salad soup das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken die Marmelade der Reis der Salat die Suppe beer milk egg honey snack cheese mustard pie das Bier die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse der Senf die Torte (n) soft drink die Limonade ice cream das Eis 44. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin olive raddish lettuce tomato onion green beans corn meat roast veal lamb beef pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish der Kürbis (e) die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) die grüne Bohnen der Mais das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . so to say a glass of water.

Hans will call you. nachdem-after. While you are in Berlin. I am sick. da-since. währendwhile. minus -(s)t Geh! conjugated form Geht! conjugated form with wir following Gehen wir! conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. bis-until. The wir forms translate as Let's + verb in English. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. 30 . and hat must go to the end.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. bevor-before. 2. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. Sie kommt nach zu dir. ob-whether. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. denn . weil ich krank bin. I'm staying home because I am sick. conjunction. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. Ich bleibe zu Hause. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones.) However. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. Sie hat gegessen. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. Und. Some examples are als-when. She has eaten. während Sie in Berlin sind. I'm staying home. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. and bin must go to the end. Während Sie in Berlin sind. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. dass-that. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. All commands require an exclamation point. Ich bin krank. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. sondern . (nachdem is the sub. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. weil-because. damit-so that. aber.for/because.) Ich weiß nicht. Ich bleibe zu Hause. nachdem sie gegessen hat. and wie-how.but (on the contrary) and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. She's coming to your place. 1. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. wenn-if/when. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. and they do affect word order. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. obwohl-although.46. Commands du form ihr form wir form Sie form Gehen-to go conjugated form. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. I don't know if he wanted to come along. Imperative of Sein du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. when a double infinitive construction is involved. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction.

Ich habe ihm geholfen. I see him coming. Er ist immer müde. 48. I helped him. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something.(während is a subordinating conjunction. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. English often uses a present participle. I heard him coming.) 3. 4. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. wenn er früh aufsteht. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) der Laden (ä) das Museum strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um pharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop dry cleaner's bookstore airport die Apotheke (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) die Reinigung (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen ah-poh-tekuh fah-breek mets-geh-rie rien-ee-gunk booch-lahden flook-hahf- die Drogerie (n) droh-ger-ee 31 . following the infinitive. Helfen. He is tired when he must get up early. Usually. the modal goes last. Ich sehe ihn kommen./We're building a house. Er ist müde. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. I'm having my son pick up the mail. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. Like the modals. the prefix remains attached to the verb. 50. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. and the entire verb goes to the end of the clause. He is always tired when he gets up early. lassen means to let or allow. We're having a house built. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. After verbs of this type. lassen and the senses Helfen. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. but German uses a dependent infinitive. telefoniert.

e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome das Dorf (ö. Simple Past / Imperfect Tense In English. It is used more often in writing to tell a sequence of past events. this tense corresponds to I did. er) dorf der Friedhof (ö. er) das Lebensmittelgeschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) das Krankenhaus (ä. 52. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü.. The one exception is streetcar. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. werden. er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä.(Museen) church square monument building house grocery store library hospital stadium die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). the simple past tense is commonly used clauses that begin with als (when). e) das Denkmal (ä. 32 . etc. Nevertheless. use mit dem and the noun. haben. etc. freed-hoff e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) beck-er-ie shoo-gehsheft movie theater das Kino (s) hardware store stationery store das Eisenwarengeschäft (e) das Schreibwarengeschäft (e) 51. train. sein. shlohss er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. he cried. even in conversational German. In addition. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. er) das Stadion (Stadien) keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-ohtek krahnk-enhouse shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-warengeh-sheft shribe-varengeh-scheft garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store (ä) die Garage (n) en gah-rahzhuh das Rathaus (ä) raht-house das Schloss (ö. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. you saw.

es wir ihr sie war warst war waren wart waren haben hatte hattest hatte hatten hattet hatten werden wurde wurdest wurde wurden wurdet wurden For the modal verbs. 33 . sie. es konnte The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. you must add different endings depending on the subject. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. sie. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. Simple Past of sein. Simple Past of Mixed Verbs bringen denken kennen brennen brachte dachte kannte brannte brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest brachte dachte kannte brannte brachten dachten kannten brannten brachtet dachtet kanntet branntet brachten dachten kannten brannten ich du er. You will have to memorize these stems. Remember the simple past forms given below are just the stems. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. Simple Past of Modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich du wir ihr sie konnte mußte mußte mußtet durfte durfte durftet sollte sollte solltet wollte wollte wolltet mögen mochte mochte mochtet konntest mußtest durftest solltest wolltest mochtest konnten mußten konntet konnten mußten durften sollten wollten mochten durften sollten wollten mochten er.All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t. Irregular Stems in Simple Past / Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. es wir ihr sie wissen wußte wußtest wußte wußten wußtet wußten nennen nannte nanntest nannte nannten nanntet nannten rennen rannte ranntest rannte rannten ranntet rannten wenden wandte wandtest wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. as they can be unpredictable (and unlike the past participles). haben & werden sein ich du er. add an -e before all endings for ease of pronunciation. sie. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well.

. bend offer ask blow remain break invite decide recommend appear drown eat drive.. travel fall catch find fly eat (of animals) freeze give be born go succeed happen win pour. an stand .. go. command begin bite comprehend get. aufstehen auf befehlen befahl beginnen begann beissen biss begreifen begriff bekommen bekam bewerben bewarb binden band biegen bog bieten bot bitten bat blasen blies bleiben blieb brechen brach einladen lud . suspend lift be called help sound come creep let.. receive apply tie turn. ein entscheiden entschied empfehlen empfahl erscheinen erschien ertrinken ertrank essen aß fahren fuhr fallen fiel fangen fing finden fand fliegen flog fressen fraß frieren fror geben gab gebären gebar gehen ging gelingen gelang geschehen geschah gewinnen gewann gießen goss greifen griff halten hielt hängen hing heben hob heißen hieß helfen half klingen klang kommen kam kriechen kroch lassen liess laufen lief leiden litt Infinitive Past Participle angefangen aufgestanden befohlen begonnen gebissen begriffen bekommen beworben gebunden gebogen geboten gebeten geblasen ist geblieben gebrochen eingeladen entschieden empfohlen ist erschienen ist ertrunken gegessen ist gefahren ist gefallen gefangen gefunden ist geflogen gefressen gefroren gegeben ist geboren ist gegangen ist gelungen ist geschehen gewonnen gegossen gegriffen gehalten gehangen gehoben geheißen geholfen geklungen ist gekommen ist gekrochen gelassen ist gelaufen gelitten Translation begin get up order.. water reach hold hang.. allow run suffer 34 .Simple Past anfangen fing .

fib take whistle advise tear ride (horseback) smell call shine push shoot sleep hit shut cut write cry be silent swim swing see be sing sink sit spin speak jump stand steal climb die quarrel wear meet play sports step drink do forbid forget compare leave lose promise understand 35 .leihen lesen liegen lügen nehmen pfeifen raten reissen reiten riechen rufen scheinen schieben schiessen schlafen schlagen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen geliehen gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gepfiffen geraten gerissen ist geritten gerochen gerufen geschienen geschoben geschossen geschlafen geschlagen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen ist schwimmen schwamm geschwommen schwingen schwang geschwungen sehen sah gesehen sein war ist gewesen singen sang gesungen sinken sank ist gesunken sitzen saß gesessen spinnen span gesponnen sprechen sprach gesprochen springen sprang ist gesprungen stehen stand gestanden stehlen stahl gestohlen steigen stieg ist gestiegen sterben starb ist gestorben streiten stritt gestritten tragen trug getragen treffen traf getroffen treiben trieb getrieben treten trat ist getreten trinken trank getrunken tun tat getan verbieten verbot verboten vergessen vergaß vergessen vergleichen verglich verglichen verlassen verliess verlassen verlieren verlor verloren versprechen versprach versprochen verstehen verstand verstanden lieh las lag log nahm pfiff riet riss ritt roch rief schien schob schoss schlief schlug schloss schnitt schrieb schrie schwieg lend read recline lie.

to invent). and schneiden (schnittst. to suffer).) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü. vorschlagen vorgeschlagen vor wachsen wuchs ist gewachsen waschen wusch gewaschen werfen warf geworfen ziehen zog gezogen Irregular Endings -en -st -t -en forgive suggest grow wash throw pull Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). stehen is conjugated without the -e.are braten (brietst. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. to roast). leiden (littst.(du verstandest. e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form.) Similarly.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d. For example. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. 54. finden is conjugated without the -e.verzeihen verzieh verziehen schlug . but some do not. erfinden (erfandst. to invite).(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e. laden (ludst. e) 36 . to cut).(du befandest dich. er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö.. e) der Topf (ö. e) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e.. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest.

I'm going to church. or at public buildings before name of place or business where someone lives or works Ich bin in der Kirche. and cities that have definite articles* open spaces or public buildings specifically named buildings or places. Ich gehe in die Kirche. die Niederlande (pl. I come from the USA. such as der Iran (m. die Schweiz (f. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. in auf zu nach * Only a few countries include the articles. The picture is on the wall. ceiling die Decke (n) door die Tür (en) garden. I'm flying to Austria. I know it from him. yard der Garten (ä) 55. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. Clothing 37 . Ich weiß es von ihm. an. and die USA (pl. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. Ich gehe zur Bank.). Wir sind in der Schule. Ich fliege nach Österreich. I'm flying to the USA. and people countries and cities that have no articles Er geht auf den Markt. Es ist auf dem Tisch. Ich komme aus den USA. such as country.). e) der Rasen blanket. They're going to McDonald's I'm going to the bank. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used. because they are not neuter.). She's going to the beach. I live at my Aunt's (house). Location vs. He's going to the market. I work at McDonald's.). She comes from the bedroom. in an auf enclosed spaces denotes border or limiting area on surfaces.). He is at the lake. They are at the bank. Das Bild ist an der wall lawn die Möbel die Wand (ä. Sie sind auf der Bank. particular direction or person When talking about directions or going to a place. I'm flying to Paris. Er ist am See. We are at school. Ich fliege nach Paris. Direction When talking about locations. Sie geht zum Strand. Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. Sie gehen zu McDonald's. Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. building or enclosed space. I'm at church. 56. It's on the table. countries Ich fliege in die USA. The car comes from the right. die Türkei (f. Das Auto kommt von rechts. bei comes from enclosed or defined aus space. the prepositions in. town or building von comes from open space.

You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). Use a question word + verb + subject 4. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. etc. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. Asking Questions 1. in both German and English. My friend should be home now. Invert the verb and subject 3. To express present or future probability. yet it uses the present tense. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. and implies a future action. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. (Expresses probability) 58. Werden werde wirst wird werden werdet werden I will fly to Germany.jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf die Jacke (n) das Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. to do so. and uses time expressions. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. tomorrow. e) woman's suit das Kostüm (e) sports jacket das Sakko (s) bag. Wir werden Latein lernen. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. e) 57. Simply add a question mark 2. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement 38 . e) swimsuit der Badeanzug (ü. such as tonight.

Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich high. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Dat. adjectives used with ein words. The rest of the endings are the same. Plural Nom. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. andere (other). but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Freunden Gen. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Dat. Neu. Fem.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. they turn into manch ein and so ein). Fem. wenige (few). 60. Neu. thick thin narrow weak strong deep hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig 39 . einige (some). guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Freunde Note: Viele (many). dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. der gute Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Acc. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Neu. In the singular. The bread is fresh. kein guter Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Acc. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. Plural Nom.59. and neuter accusative. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. Fem. and independent adjectives. Plural Nom. tall wide fat. keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Freunde Acc. guten Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Freunde Dat. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen.

lang. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. Comparative 1. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. 2. roh. warm. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. froh. The adjectives that end in -el. klug. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. jung. stolz. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. groß. toll. voll and zart. Superlative 1. -t. To form the superlative. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. 40 . A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. drop the -e in the comparative form. or an s sound. Adjectives that end in -el. The kitchen is as big as the living room. such as alt. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. kurz. -en or -er. scharf. followed by als (than). hart. Jens runs faster than Ernst. schlank. rasch. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. schwach. add -(e)st to the adjective. German always uses the -er ending. arm. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother.dear famous different easy difficult pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful lieb berühmt leicht schwierig hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar lazy cheap early near nice expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic faul billig dumm früh nah nett teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung shy nervous worried right wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy schüchtern nervös besorgt richtig falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig unterschiedlich dumb comfortable bequem inexpensive preiswert interessant sick fantastisch ready 61. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. stark. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. -en. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. dumm. o. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. add -er to the adjective or adverb. A radio is cheaper than a TV. krank. klar. oft. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. kalt. grob.

Hans is am jüngsten. Sie ist am intelligentesten. Je mehr Geld er hat. She is the most intelligent. / Adv.2. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. Comparative lieber besser höher näher mehr Superlative am liebsten am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten 62. desto glücklicher ist er. These suits are the least expensive. the happier he is. the better. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. Die preise werden immer höher. Julia wird immer hübscher. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 41 . desto besser. The prices are getting higher and higher. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. The more money he has. Hans is the youngest.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. gern gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative Je mehr. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. t or s sound. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. Irregular Forms Adj. The more. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten.

er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. even if they take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: 42 . then the dative noun will be first. one accusative and one dative. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. e) das Land (ä.) sie they Sie you (pol. then the accusative pronoun will be first.) Direct Objects (Acc. e) die Straße (n) das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. the pronoun will be first.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note about word order: If there are two nouns in a sentence. e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. However. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) meadow die Wiese (n) der Bauernhof (ö. e) leaf 64. e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge stream sky island air desert pond grass flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle der Bach (ä. er) das Tal (ä. one accusative and one dative. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü.63.) ich I du you (fam. if there are two pronouns. Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm field forest plant city sea bay mountain range die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. In sentences with one noun and one pronoun (regardless of which is accusative or dative). er) die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case).

e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66. e) die Hand (ä. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to.words that correspond to who. Das is der Mantel. e) das Fussgelenk (e) das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. that through Vienna flows. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. it is accusative. that and which in English. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. therefore. der Acc.helfen to help gratulieren to congratulate begegnen to meet fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65. 43 . and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". These may be omitted in English. (In the following example. Dat.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. is called the Danube. heißt Donau. die die der das das dem Plural die die denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. Gen. Neu. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . but must be included in German. Nominative den dem Fem. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. Nom. den ich gestern gekauft habe. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. der durch Wien fliesst. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö. e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü. The river. whom.

ausser. However.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. Wer war die Frau. mit der ich dich gesehen habe? Who was the woman.The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe. that I last week seen have. Ohne. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) Da(r) Compounds daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them dagegen against it/them darin daran darauf in it/them in it/them on top of it/them behind it/them darüber darunter daneben over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them dazwischen between it/them dabei on me/you that's why through it/them dahinter for it/them davor in front of it/them darum Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. Accusative The dog. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. to whom I nothing about it told have. That's why you have no luck. and here are others that cannot: 44 . was Julia's. Da and Wo Compounds Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. a compound using da. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. when you need to refer to a thing. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. war Julias. and seit can never form a da(r) compound. Der Hund. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. Dative My father is the only person.(or dar. the preposition determines the case.

hat ein großes Konzerthaus. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. with which he travels. worin wir wohnen. Animals animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. has a large concert hall. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. 68. Ich denke daran. The city. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. When asking about people. I'm talking about it. The watch. in der wir wohnen. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. e) der Wurm (ü. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö.as the prefix. I'm thinking about it.ohnedies bis dahin seit dem without it stattdessen until then trotzdem since deswegen instead nevertheless for that reason ausserdem besides währenddessen in the meanwhile There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. womit er reist. use a preposition and wen/wem. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. mit der er reist. = Die Stadt. Likes and Dislikes 45 . e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. in which we live. hat viel gekostet. hat viel gekostet. cost a lot. Die Stadt. Die Uhr. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. = Die Uhr.

and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. Ich spiele gern Fussball. I like to play soccer.. I had lived in Wiesbaden.. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences.. wann er kommt. To use it correctly. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore.. lieber. as well as in future time. nicht gern. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. I like soccer.. wenn is used to mean whenever or if. Wenn er kommt. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes.. And of course. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes..Use the words gern. I like to play tennis most of all. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. but it becomes the subject in German. I prefer to play hockey. Das Zimmer is the object in English... Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. When he comes. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern.. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. The room pleases me. (followed by simple past tense) Whenever he comes. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I).) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event. It is always in the dative case in German. If he comes. I don't like to play Basketball. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. Ich weiß nicht. 70. I like the room. 46 . I don't like the restaurant. When I found him. Als. you must switch the object in English with the subject in German.. Als ich ihn fand. It literally means to please. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. Ich habe Fussball gern. I like Julia most of all.

obwohl-although. bevor-before. Er ist müde. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. these conjunctions use normal word order: undand. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. I believed you. the verb in the dependent clause is last. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. He is always tired when he gets up early. but the subject follows it. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. nachdem-after. Ich habe dir geglaubt. bis-until. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. wenn er früh aufsteht. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object.72. the prefix remains attached to the verb. following the infinitive. 8. da-since. Wenn ich krank bin. 2.time . oder-or. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). bleibe ich im Bett. denn-for/because. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. the modal goes last. aber-but. If the direct object is a pronoun. Er ist immer müde. währendwhile. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. 7.manner . I stay in therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. Then the verb is still in the second position. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). I stay in bed when I am sick. weil-because. 47 . Ich bleibe im Bett. When I am sick. it goes before the indirect object. such as als-when. 6. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. damit-so that. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. I want to go home. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. dass-that. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. He is tired when he must get up early. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. it acts as an element. I give my brother a tie. However. When asking questions. ob-whether. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. and wie-how. 3. the order is subject .verb . wenn ich krank bin. wenn-if/when. 9. Review of Word Order 1. Ich will nach Hause gehen. In most sentences. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. 4. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. I give it to my brother.

(Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. just sometime. Es ist niemand zu Hause. Er haßt es. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. counteracts negative statement. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. He hates not knowing anything about it. No one is at home. of course really is it ever well then right now only. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. These words are mostly for emphasis. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. bloss mal yes. He does as he pleases. someday 74. Es begins the sentence. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. Everything is fine. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. Other idioms: Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. nichts davon zu wissen. (Literally: Everything is in butter.) 48 . She makes her judgments rather quickly. and the true subject follows the verb. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. Ich kann es nicht glauben.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. used for persuasion.) Alles ist in Butter.73. Three children are coming today. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. it's raining). Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. but it is not incorrect to say it. or softens commands doch ja aber denn gerade nur.

klar (clear) .Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers. wandern (to hike) . The exceptions are erste. der Alte . and achte. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun. The definite article precedes the adjective.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less. Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. and using the gender of the last word. the prefix un.Architektin (female architect) 76.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place.everything that is old die Alten . Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between). first second third fourth fifth sixth erste zweite dritte vierte fünfte eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth elfte zwölfte dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte sechste sixteenth 49 a word a negative or opposite meaning.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English. siebte.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun.the old man die Alte . just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19.the old people 77.the old woman das Alte . adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns. and -ste for 20 and up. Frankfurt (a city) . Architekt (male architect) . das Ende (the end) . das Kind (the child) . dritte. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine.

seventh siebte eighth ninth tenth achte neunte zehnte

seventeenth siebzehnte eighteenth nineteenth twentieth achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste

In writing dates, German uses the number followed by a period. On February 2nd would be am 2. Februar. However, when saying this out loud, you would say am zweiten Februar. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. On May 18th. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Today is October ninth.

78. Passive Voice
To change a sentence from the active to the passive, change three things: 1. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence, if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. = This novel is read by many students. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. = This novel was read by many students. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. Many students will read this novel. = This novel will be read by many students. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students have read this novel. = This novel has been read by many students. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students had read this novel. = This novel had been read by many students. *Notice that in the passive voice, the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire, wind, etc.); but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft, the actual construction is Das Haus hat


verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence, but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses.

79. Problems with the Passive
False Passive Grammatically, the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive, while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition), while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject, or no apparent subject at all. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. But sometimes there is no accusative object. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question, es is used as the subject. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence, but if it were turned into the passive, there would be no accusative object. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject, es.) But if another element, such as a dative object or time expression, can be put in the first position, then es is omitted. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. There is no apparent subject, only an implied es, so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es.

80. Avoiding the Passive
1. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. Man translates to one, you, we, they, people and constitutes the subject. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. They caught the thief. 2. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. The stain cannot be removed. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. We can't remove the stain. 3. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. That can be done quickly. Das ist schnell zu machen. That is quickly done. 4. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. Das kann gemacht werden. That can be done. Das läßt sich machen. That can be done.


Die Lorelei
Heinrich Heine Ich weiß nicht, was soll es bedeuten Daß ich so traurig bin; Ein Märchen aus alten Zeiten Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn. Die Luft ist kühl und es dunkelt, Und ruhig fließt der Rhein; Der Gipfel des Berges funkelt Im Abendsonnenschein. Die schönste Jungfrau sitzet Dort oben wunderbar, Ihr gold'nes Geschmeide blitzet Sie kämmt ihr gold'nes Haar. Sie kämmt es mit gold'nem Kamme Und singt ein Lied dabei; Das hat eine wundersame Gewaltige Melodei. Den Schiffer im kleinen Schiffe ergreift es mit wildem Weh, Er schaut nicht die Felsenriffe, Er schaut nur hinauf in die Höh'. Ich glaube, die Wellen verschlingen Am Ende Schiffer und Kahn; Und das hat mit ihrem Singen Die Lorelei getan. I know not, what it is portending that I am so depressed; a legend from olden days past will not leave my mind alone. The breeze is cool and it darkens, and peaceful flows the Rhine; the peak of the mountain sparkles with evening's setting sun. The fairest maiden sits perched right up there wondrously, her golden jewelry flashes she combs her golden hair. She combs with a comb all golden and thus she sings a song; that has a mysteriously tyrannical melody. The sailor in tiny vessel is seized with a savage woe, he sees not the rocky reef edge, he looks only up toward the height. I think that the waves have devoured at last the sailor and boat; and that's the deed, by her singing the Lorelei has done.

81. Showing Purpose
Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action; however, damit and um… zu (so that, in order to) show the goal of an action. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause, whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. Sie macht das Fenster zu, damit sie nicht friert. = Sie macht das Fenster zu, um nicht zu frieren. She closes the window, so that she won't freeze . = She closes the window, in order to not freeze. Commonly, you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause, and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause.

82. Shopping
box VCR die Schachtel der Videorecorder


ohne mich anzusehen. He came in order to pick up the book. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used. She said it.. sollten wir ihn suchen. video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen.. and translated as present participles in English. Hast du Lust.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly.zu are used with infinitives.zu and anstatt. um das Buch abzuholen. They introduce infinitival clauses.) Er kam. while ohne.. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. zu is used to indicate purpose. without looking at me. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. (Um.. we should look for him. but the construction is far more common in German. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark rubber band ink pad string der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera security guard drive-thru window safe der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage die Wache der Autoschalter der Tresor 84... 53 . Statt hier zu sitzen. Um. Instead of sitting here. durch die Stadt zu fahren. It is too early to get up. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive.. Sie sagte es. It takes a long time to drive through the city.

e) die Abfahrt (en) 54 . Office / School Supplies compact disc die Compact Disc disc die Diskette document das Dokument der Komputer (or computer Computer) monitor der Monitor keyboard die Tastatur mouse die Maus printer der Drucker memo die Mitteilung paper das Papier photocopier das Fotokopier die typewriter Schreibmaschine software die Software file die Akten cabinet der Schrank briefcase die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. In der Nacht wird es kalt. 85. in and vor are in the dative case. It gets cold at night.Das ist nicht zu machen. We must return on Sunday. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. Last Sunday I stayed home. 87. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. She's going to Germany next week. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. One morning he'll be late. That can't be done. That can be found in any store. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. One day he was sick. Time expressions with the prepositions an. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. Expressions of Time The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. and may refer to the future or past. Three years ago it was just as cold here. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. Eines Tages war er krank. He visited us last year.

Noch ein means one more. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray der Haarfestiger hair dryer der Fön nail polish der Nagellack mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser shaving cream die Rasiercreme 90.arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. and ander. dann) statements and conditional sentences. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood.and noch ein. They are not the same!) 55 . Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) die Ankunft (ü.... Ein(e) ander. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse.. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. (If you study other languages with a subjunctive mood. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. Another Ein(e) ander.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. please don't confuse it with the German subjunctive.both mean another.then (wenn.means a different one. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I. but they cannot be used interchangeably.

(then) I would have gone to the movies. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. Present Subj. If I had had time. For weak (regular) verbs. then he'll come tomorrow. adds an umlaut where possible. It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. stehen. sterben. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. Kommt er heute nicht. and rennen. modals and wissen which use the same endings as the simple past: Imperfect Subjunctive II brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte wußte brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen. If I had time.. These eight verbs 56 . II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. brennen. and then adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include the mixed verbs. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. Past Subj. kennen. dann) pattern in both English and German. nennen. and in this case. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. except with these eight verbs: helfen. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. (so) kommt er morgen. Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if.. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. For strong (irregular) verbs. If he's not coming today. wenn er zu heiß ist. the present tense of the subjunctive II uses the stem of the simple past.. the subjunctive II is the same as the simple past tense. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so.The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the simple past / imperfect tense of the indicative. (then) I would go to the movies. then (wenn. werfen.. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause.

) These three distinctions are quite subtle. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. dann ginge ich ins Kino. please. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: 57 . = We would like two colas. Wenn ich Geld hätte. haben or sein. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich du wir ihr sie könnte müsste müsste müsstet dürfte dürfte dürftet sollte sollte solltet wollte wollte wolltet mögen möchte möchte möchtet könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest möchtest könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten könntet könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten er. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. es könnte Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. In everyday conversation. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? 92. I would go to the movies. although they are important. For this reason. 91. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. sie. sein. bitte. Moreover. haben and werden. If I had money. However. this construction cannot be used with the modal auxiliaries. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. If I had time. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts.use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. impartial way. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. I would fly to Germany.

simply add -d to the infinitive. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. In certain cases. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. 93. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. Present Participle To form the present participle. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) (one-way) street die (Einbahn)straße (n) windshield wiper der Scheibenwischer (-) 94. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time.sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. e) der Reifen (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. e) der Kofferraum (ä. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. In the Ocean 58 . In this case. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä.

97. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte." Both introduce a dependent clause. they both mean "as if" or "as though. In Space astronaut space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit der Astronaut die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug beaker test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings das Becherglas das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe 59 . Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. In addition.scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher shipwreck der Wasseranzug helm die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker der Helm der Schiffbruch 96. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. both require the subjunctive II. so the conjugated verb must go to the end.

Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. It will have become dark. Er wird gegangen sein. Ich werde es genommen haben. and the past participle. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. He will have gone.lunar rover das Mondfahrzeug crater der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät stars space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen comet rocket der Meteorschwarm robot das Sternbild das Sonnensystem nebula laboratory das Labor 98. so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. I will have taken it. It is formed with the future of haben or sein. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. When using modals. That will have been Rudi. 99. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy elf giant tower knight squire der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild das Schwert die Lanze die Axt der Elf / die Elfe sword der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe lance ax drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown die Krone 60 . / That was probably Rudi.

Write ss after a short vowel. Gen. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Dat. Leid tun… 3. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. 101. 61 . Gen. Spelling Reform Recently. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. Singular: Nom. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Abend. Dat. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Recht haben. Acc. there has been a spelling reform of the German language. Mittag. Also. Morgen. so it must be written as SS. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. 2. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch. Sing. Acc. Singular: Nom. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong.court jester der Hofnarr king minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger queen die Rüstung princess der Kerker prince der Burggraben throne das Schloß der Thron der Prinz die Prinzessin die Königin der König 100. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. 4. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und.

den Löwen die Löwen Dat. unless it already ends in -s or -n. Sing. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en.) Sing. -er. Forest Nom. the Nominative. den Männern den Frauen den Kindern 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. Pl. Plural Nom. then add nothing. and Accusative. end in -el. Genitive. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. Sing. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. -en. der Vater die Väter Acc. Pl. dem Vater den Vätern Gen. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. der Mann die Frau das Kind Dat. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. der Löwe die Löwen Acc. -er. Man Woman Child Nom. den Vater die Väter Dat. Some may add -n.and end with -e Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. -r. der Wald Nom. Genitive. Pl.Lion(s) Singular Plural Nom. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge. -e. den Wäldern Gen. Pl. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. -en. -en to Dative 62 . Sing. der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. die Wälder Dat. des Vaters der Väter Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. die Wälder Acc. Pl. and Accusative Plural are the same.

Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular 63 . die Frucht die Früchte Dat. most masculine that denote living things. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. such as das Radio. das Auto die Autos Acc.) Sing. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. Genitive. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. dem Mann den Männern Gen. der Student die Studenten Acc. and Accusative.Fruit (fem. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. Plural Nom. Plural Nom. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. Plural Nom. and Genitive. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. der Frucht den Früchten Gen. Plural Nom.) Sing. das Auto die Autos Dat.) Sing. der Mann die Männer Acc. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. Accusative. and das Hotel. den Mann die Männer Dat. das Restaurant. dem Auto den Autos Gen. Group 6 .

may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing.-Add -en to Dative Singular. Plural Nom.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing. Plural der Name die Namen den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 . das Bett die Betten Acc. Plural Nom. des Bettes der Betten German States / Bundesländer German States Baden-Württemberg Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Bayern Sachsen Thüringen Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein English Translation Baden-Württemberg Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Bavaria Saxony Thuringia Hesse Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland Saxony-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Berlin. das Bett die Betten Dat. Austrian States / Bundesländer Austrian States Burgenland Kämten English Translation Burgenland Carinthia 64 . dem Bett den Betten Gen. das Herz die Herzen Dat. das Herz die Herzen Acc. Bremen and Hamburg are cities as well as states. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen.) Sing.

Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien Lower Austria Upper Austria Salzburg Styria Tyrol Vorarlberg Vienna 65 .

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