Deutschsprache

Bei William

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine

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Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehrshtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

Do you speak English? (informal)

I (don't) speak...

Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand.

Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know.

Kannst du mir helfen? kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal)

Natürlich nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me?

Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ?

Es gibt... ess geept There is / are...

Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-gehsen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German Vowels [i] viel [y] kühl English Pronunciation meet, eat ee rounded / long

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not ah / longer vowel kam than [a] gut boot. however. Notice that the pronunciation of the German r changes according to the location in the countries that speak German. German Diphthongs [aɪ] ein. so determining the pronunciation based on the spelling is not possible. how toy. Austria and Switzerland. The other umlauted letter. Pfanne How to pronounce: Make yuh sound voiceless (no vibration of vocal cords) Make kuh sound a fricative (continuous airflow) Pronounce together as one sound 4 . Notice that words spelled with ö and ü can be pronounced with a long or short vowel. A general rule for pronunciation. buy. foil German Consonants There are a few German consonants that do not exist in English. and some consonant combinations that are not common in English. boy. is generally pronounced as [e]. goat Stock caught.[ɪ] [ʏ] [e] [ø] [ɛ] [œ] [a] [ɑ] [u] [ʊ] [o] [ɔ] [ə] [ ɐ] vowel Tisch mitt. lachen. states that the short vowels / ɪ ʏ ʊ ɛ ɔ / must be followed by a consonant. though it can be pronounced as [ɛ] in some dialects. wait ay rounded / long schön vowel Bett met.e. [R] in northern Germany and [r] in southern Germany. [ɔɪ] Gebäude English Pronunciation eye. o. why cow. Pferd. i. ä. kaufen neu. whereas the long vowels / i y u e ø o / can occur at the end of the syllable or word. soot Sohn coat. what uhr / also short Wetter vowel like [ə] Vowels highlighted in blue do not exist in English. nicht Buch. it ih rounded / short hübsch vowel Tee mate. bought bitte cut. mein [aʊ] auf. suit muss put. wet eh rounded / short zwölf vowel Mann mop. Spelling IPA ch (with vowels e and [ç] i) ch (with vowels a. now. [x] u) pf [pf] Sample words Chemie. kochen Apfel. mich.

-in. -schaft. However. respectively. so they are pronounced as their voiceless counterparts [p]. -heit. the sounds [b]. warm Straße. Stress Stress generally falls on the first syllable of the word. verboten Wasser. where the stress falls on the last syllable (especially with French words. the seasons. the spelling does not reflect the pronunciation.) 3. Male persons or animals. Female persons or animals. Quiz. and it is not used at all in Switzerland. Zug. either masculine. Sitz Pronounce together as one sound yuh kv sht / shp sh t f v s z In addition. ß (es-zet ). -ei. -tion. -sis. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee j k l m n o p q r yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr s t u v w x y z ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset There is another letter in written German. and days are all masculine. -ie. so you must memorize the gender of each noun. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender. -ik. Januar. and [g] lose their voicing at the end of a syllable. -anz. pronounced like [s]. [d]. -keit. -sion. Thron Vater. 4. [t]. -enz. this letter is only used after long vowels or diphthongs. -ling. and [k]. Nouns and Cases All nouns have a gender in German. feminine or neuter. Quitte Stadt. as are nouns ending in -a. However. Tanz ja. groß Salz. -ismus. seit. Junge Quote. -ung 5 . -or and -us. -ig. -ast. schlafen Theater. months.z j qu st / sp (at beginning of syllable) sch th v w ß s (before vowel) [ts] [j] [kv] [ʃt] / [ʃp] [ʃ] [t] [f] [v] [s] [z] Zeit. -ich. except in words borrowed from other languages. as are nouns ending in -ant. sprechen schenken. -tät. and numerals are all feminine.

-ment. and welcherwhich. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. 6 . dieser diese dieses diese der die das diesen diese dieses diese den die das diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des Nom. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words.and -ur. Acc. restaurants. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. Pl. -ma. continents. letters of the alphabet. -it. Gen. -an. -iv. Other der-words are: jeder-every. 5. -lein. -icht. chemical elements. Articles and Demonstratives Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A.and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. -ar. die die den der Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those. they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. We give it to the guide. we would say direct object instead of accusative. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Neu. Nouns referring to things that end in -al. Masc. metals. however. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. -ett. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Pl. These. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. or indirect object instead of dative. These may seem strange. as well as most words with the prefix ge. cinemas. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. We see the guide. -o and -on. That. -tum. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. -ent. The book of the girl. but they are used almost always in the plural. but remember that English uses cases also. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. as are nouns that end in -chen. Dat. -ier. -ät. Note: The nouns I give you. Young persons or animals. Neu. and -um. countries and provinces are all neuter. -il. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult. -tel. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This. Fem. and the ones you look up in a dictionary. will be in the nominative case. Fem. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. hotels.

However. zee. however. Ich habe Hunger. = I am homesick.). it. ess. the definite articles der. they or the people in general. Sie veer we eer zee you (all) they. she. die and das can be substituted for er. mahn he.6. Ich habe Angst. sie. we.to become (vair-den) habe hah-buh haben hah-ben werde vair-duh werden vair-den hast hahst habt hahbt wirst veerst werdet vair-det hat haht haben hah-ben wird veert werden vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden vahhahhahvoorvoorwar var waren hatte hatten wurde wurden ren tuh ten duh den hahhahvoorvoorwarst varst wart vart hattest hattet wurdest wurdet test tet dest det vahhahhahvoorvoorwar var waren hatte hatten wurde wurden ren tuh ten duh den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Useful Words and but very or und aber sehr oder oont ah-ber zair oh-der really together all now wirklich veerk-lish right! tsoo-zahzusammen anyway men alle jetzt ahl-luh yetst enough exact(ly) stimmt shtimt oo-berüberhaupt howpt guhgenug nook genau guh-now 7 . sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. you use er for masculine nouns. to Have. Ich habe Langeweile. du. and to Become Present tense of sein .to be (zine) I am ich bin ikh bin we are wir sind veer zint You are (fam. = I am hungry. = I am thirsty.. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns Subject Pronouns ich du ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie. er. man air. 8.to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden . Present tense of haben .) du bist doo bihst you are ihr seid eer zide He/she/it is er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich. I will leave them out of future conjugations. To Be. When referring to nouns as it. Ich habe Durst.. = I am afraid. es. one Note: Man can be translated as one. sie and es to show more emphasis. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am bored. you (formal) er. 7.

velsh Where Wo 10. many viel(e) nohkh ine schon shone nikht vah nicht wahr r schade shah-duh gern gehrn zoh-fort zikh-erlikh zohndehrn shleesslikh of course klar perhaps a little a little not at all not a bit vielleicht fee-likht ein ine bissbisschen khen ein wenig ine vaynikh immediately sofort sure(ly) rather sicher(lich) sondern schließlich gar nicht gar nikht kine kein bissbisschen khen feel(uh finally ) Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are. Numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 null eins zwei drei vier fünf sechs sieben acht neun zehn elf zwölf dreizehn vierzehn fünfzehn sechzehn nool ines tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn 8 .here also both hier auch beide here owkh so another already isn't it? too bad gladly also noch ein al-zoh sometimes manchmal always never often immer nie oft mahnchmal im-er nee ohft klahr by-duh ehtsome etwas vahss only nur noor veeagain wieder der hohhopefully hoffentlich fentlikh zvishbetween zwischen en destherefore deshalb halp a lot.) Wem Wieso Where from Where to Which vain vaim vee-zo Warum vah-room How come Woher vo-hair Wohin vo-hin Welch. 9. Question Words Who What Why When How Wer Was Wann Wie vehr vahs vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Wen Whom (dat.

last (as in the last of a series). months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . And the use of commas and periods is switched in German.previous. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany. while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany.000 would be 1 000.17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä. i. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths. Tuesdays.000 siebzehn achtzehn neunzehn zwanzig einundzwanzig zweiundzwanzig dreißig vierzig fünfzig sechzig siebzig achtzig neunzig (ein)hundert (ein)tausend zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of zwei to avoid confusion with drei.every. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays. vorigen . letzten . nächsten ." All days. Austria and Switzerland.next. etc. 1. 9 . 11. e) heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend.e. use am.

use im.12. 14. Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. Directions North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. use im. 13. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season). Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck 10 .

Notice that halb + number means half to. 17. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly.black brown gray white green schwarz braun grau weiß grün cube sphere cone cylinder der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. Um 8 Uhr. always uses the 24 hour clock. Es ist kalt schön heiß klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoytuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert 11 . early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist zwei Uhr nachts Es ist zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens / frühs abends Es ist genau. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns / frews aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time. not half past... It's cold beautiful hot clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus... so you have to use the hour that comes next. such as for bus and train schedules. At 8.

er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö. e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä. 19. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular.The weather is clearing Das Wetter klärt sich auf. here are some rules that can help: 12 . is bad ist schlecht dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable.to know facts kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun weiß vise wissen vih-sun kennst kenst kennt kent weißt vighst wisst vihst kennt kent kennen ken-nun weiß vise wissen vih-sun 20. To Know People and Facts kennen . However.to know people wissen .

Vorfahre. but neuter plural nouns ending in -e don't. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. Nachbar. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Tourist.1. ihr-her. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. seinhis/its. Riese. Ihr-your (Sie form). Neuter Plural Definite den die das die Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. and the following nouns: Elefant. Possessive Adjectives Nom. mein meinen meinem meines Fem. Kunde. Komponist. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. Student. Journalist). unser-our. Herr. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein (my) are: ein . Dat. Soldat.a/an. mein mein meinem meines Pl. o . Polizist. and kein-no/not any. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. Masc. 13 . Fem. 22. u or au. euer-your (ihr form). u or au add an umlaut. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Gen. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. o. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Neffe. Löwe. dein-your (du form). Junge. Acc. Mensch. Patient. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. Zeuge). ihr-their. Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. eine Lampe zwei Lampen eine Tür zwei Türen eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. meine meine meiner meiner Neu.

for example. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. if you were to change word order. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. unless they already end in an -n or -s. Usually in English. Fem. German only adds an -s to the noun. more often in writing than in speech. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. 24. Neuter Plural Definite dem der dem den Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). you would have to say the apple eats me. 14 . most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. For proper nouns. I give (to) my brother a tie. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. whereas English relies mainly on word order. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun. 23. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. or an -es if the word is one syllable. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. When speaking. I give it to my brother.Personal Pronouns . Take. but in English. In German. Usually. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case.Nominative & Accusative ich I mich me wir we uns us du you dich you ihr you euch you er he ihn him sie they sie them sie she sie her Sie you Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative.

Work and School worker architect lawyer doctor bank mechanic Automechaniker Automechanikerin employee librarian Bibliothekar Bibliothekarin conductor TV Fernsehreporter Fernsehreporterin hairdresser reporter engineer Ingenieur Ingenieurin custodian cook Koch (ö. e) Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. German does not use articles before professions. e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpfleger Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä.the size of the house die Tasche meiner Mutter .the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses .my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . Definite Indefinite des der des Plural der eines einer eines keiner 25. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. Neu. e) Köchin cashier pilot Pilot (en) Pilotin waiter police Polizist (en) Polizistin nurse officer postal president Präsident (en) Präsidentin worker priest Priester Priesterin judge secretary Sekretär Sekretärin writer flight Flugbegleiter Flugbegleiter (in) salesperson attendant taxi driver Taxifahrer Taxifahrerin dentist male Arbeiter Architekt (en) female Arbeiterin Architektin male Anwalt (ä. School University Foreign languages Literature die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur High School Subject Linguistics History die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä. er) Linguistik Geschichte 15 .There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. die Farbe des Vogels . To Do or Make Machen . while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. Also. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural.the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Fem.to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26.

from (country. Prepositions durch gegen um für ohne aus mit Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. this final exam is called die Matura. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. In Austria.) die Aufgabe (n) In Germany. that take the Dative case out (of). students must pass das Abitur in order to graduate from high school. by means of (transportation) 16 .Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. town or place) with. e) Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) hard easy Vacation Assignment Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. 27.

before zwischen between For the two-way prepositions: The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? The dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. The bottles are in front of the door. Es ist unter dem Tisch.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. to (cities and countries) to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) across from except for. Put it under the table. or Dat.at home (dat. Put it on the table. among. The car is behind the house. The picture hangs over the sofa. Drive the car behind the house. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. on (vertical surfaces. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. Put the bottles in front of the door. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. or direction). It is under the table. about unter under. Stell es auf den Tisch. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. The lamp is between the sofa and the table.von seit bei nach zu gegenüber außer from (person. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. Er ist in der Küche. open space. across. an at. Schreib es an die Tafel. that may take Acc.) and nach Hause . But one exception is zu Hause . on (horizontal surfaces). He is in the kitchen. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. above. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa. beneath vor in front of. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of (an)statt instead of wegen because of außerhalb outside of innerhalb inside of Preps. Put it beside the house. to (some public buildings) hinter behind in in. into (building. at. below. enclosed space. Write it on the board. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. Stell es unter den Tisch. at home of or place of business after. feminine or plural countries) neben beside.(to) home (acc. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. besides Preps. It's lying on the table. It is beside the house. for near. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. 17 . denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. Er geht in die Küche. Es ist neben dem Haus. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. by since. He hangs the picture over the sofa. next to über over. It is on the board. to. He goes into the kitchen. Es steht an der Tafel.

while stehen. Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Deutschland England England France Frankreich USA die USA Russia Russland Switzerland die Schweiz Italy Italien Spain Spanien Japan Japan China China Austria Österreich Australia Australien Belgium Belgien Canada Kanada Denmark Dänemark Finland Finnland Greece Griechenland Holland Holland Netherlands die Niederlande Ireland Irland Korea Korea Mexico Mexiko Norway Norwegen Portugal Portugal Sweden Schweden Poland Polen Masc. of the to the through the around the 29. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. legen and setzen use the accusative case. 28.Note: Stellen. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Adjective / Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch 18 . Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Fem.

the definite article must also be used.to have to dürfen .to come gehen .I am from Switzerland.Egypt Ägypten Ägypter Ägypterin Ägyptisch. that's not a cat. No. It is declined as an ein-word. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. not a. 31. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences.I'm flying to Switzerland. Ich bin aus Deutschland . but nicht means not and kein means no. They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb. Das ist nicht meine Frau. das ist keine Katze. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. Heute ist es kalt. Ich fliege nach Deutschland . noun. Arabisch 30. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. Modal Verbs German has 6 of them. adjective) or all of a sentence. nicht comes last. To and From Countries and Cities To nach From aus In in Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries. It is not cold today.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. können . Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. or not any. Nicht always follows the verb. It you want to negate an entire sentence.to be able to müssen . 32. Ist das eine Katze? Is that a cat? Nein. To Come and to Go kommen . Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. That's not my wife.to go komme koh-muh kommen koh-men gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in kommst kohmst kommt kohmt gehst gehst geht gate kommt kohmt kommen koh-men geht gate gehen geh-in 33. That's my wife. Ich bin aus der Schweiz . And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. Nicht also follows expressions of time.I'm flying to Germany. It is cold today. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated.to be allowed to kann können muß müssen darf dürfen kannst könnt mußt müsst darfst dürft 19 .I am from Germany. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. or it could negate any part (verb. Das ist meine Frau. Heute ist es nicht kalt.

Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. they run vs. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe.) However. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. he/she/it runs). think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. The following table is in the same format. such as I run. we. Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it.to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be 20 . Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it. no ending and -s ending (I. Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. Nicht dürfen translates to must not. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense. Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. I am running. desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t -t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. To form regular verbs in German. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. 34.to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . sollen . I do run. you.to ought to wollen .kann können muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to.

Reflexive Pronouns Accusative mich dich sich uns euch sich dir Dative mir uns euch sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern sich freuen sich hinlegen sich beeilen sich erholen to get angry to be happy to lie down to hurry to relax sich aufregen sich erkälten sich anziehen sich ausziehen sich setzen sich vorstellen to get excited to catch a cold to get dressed to get undressed to sit down to imagine sich ausruhen to rest sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) sich verletzen to get hurt Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über sich erinnern an sich freuen über sich gewöhnen an sich kümmern um sich interessieren für sich verlieben in to be angry at/about to remember to happy about to get used to to take care of to be interested in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 21 .I'm taking off my coat. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. Examples in English would be: I wash myself. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. not a possessive. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. In other words. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. he hurts himself. then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article. we hate ourselves. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus . 35.translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework.I don't feel well.

schlafen-to sleep. add an e before three endings. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Reden-to speak rede reden redest redet redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound.36. sprechen-to speak. empfehlen-to recommend. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. essen-to eat. have -t for du form ending instead of -st. tragen-to carry. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t.to read. geschehen-to happen. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. sterben-to die. helfen-to help. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 22 . waschen-to wash. treffen-to meet. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break. befehlen-to command. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular.

aus. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5.los.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb.6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms.bei.vorbei." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3.zu. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence." Verbs with Separable Prefixes abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen anzünden ausgeben anziehen to listen to to take with to board to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes vorbeikommen to come by 23 .auf. but ankommen is to arrive. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form.zurückan. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now. When conjugated. Kommen is to come.nach. but the prefix remains attached." With modals. Separable Prefixes ab.vorweg.mit. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38.

überholen .to visit. The Austrian National Anthem: Österreichische Bundeshymne by Paula von Preradovic Land der Berge. unternehmen . Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen . they are separable. Land am Strome. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe vorschlagen to suggest zurückkommen to come back auswandern to emigrate 39. 24 .to entertain.to undertake.to overtake.to win. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. The German National Anthem: Deutschland-Lied by Heinrich Hoffman von Fallersleben Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit für das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben brüderlich mit Herz und Hand! Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit sind des Glückes Unterpfand Blüh im Glanze dieses Glückes blühe deutsches Vaterland! Unity and right and freedom for the German fatherland. zukunftsreich! Heimat bist du großer Söhne. and übersetzen . Flourish in this blessing's glory.to tell. flourish.ge.ent. Land der Äcker.to promise. When prefixes are stressed.veremp. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes.aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to look like. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to take off clothes to look at.miss.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. gewinnen . Let us all pursue this purpose brotherly.er. erzählen . when they are not stressed. they are inseparable. German fatherland. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. Inseparable Prefixes be. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . Land der Dome. and versprechen .to translate. Unity and right and freedom are the pawns of happiness. with heart and hands. Land der Hämmer. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix.

Gott. into new eras. With courage. You are the home of great sons. You are in the centre of the Continent Like a strong heart. Vielgeliebtes Österreich. 25 . dir Treue schwören. im hehren Vaterland. Herrlicher! Wenn der Alpenfirn sich rötet. A nation blessed by its sense of beauty. du Menschenfreundlicher. Kommst im Abendglühn daher. land of streams. In fraternal chorus let us take in unity The oath of allegiance to you. with a rich future. Land of hammers. Working cheerfully and full of hope. Gott. du Hocherhabener. Dich. Land of mountains. Betet. den Herrn. Heiß umfehdet. The burden of a high mission. fiercely contested. Strongly fought for. wild umstritten leigst dem Erdteil du inmitten einem starken Herzen gleich. Hast seit frühen Ahnentagen Hoher Sendung Last getragen Vielgeprüftes Österreich. Dich. Vielgerühmtes Österreich. Seh' ich dich im Strahlenmeer. Arbeitsfroh und hoffnungsreich. Our much beloved Austria. Liebender! In des Himmels lichten Räumen Kann ich froh und selig träumen! Denn die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. Einig laß in Brüderchören. im hehren Vaterland. Find' ich dich im Sternenheer. den Herrn. betet! Eure fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. our country. The Swiss National Anthem: Schweizerpsalm by Leonhard Widmer Trittst im Morgenrot daher. land of spires. freie Schweizer. Much tried Austria. Frei und gläubig sich uns schreiten. You have borne since the earliest days. Watch us striding free and believing. Mutig in die neuen Zeiten. Highly praised Austria. begnadet für das Schöne. Vaterland.Volk. Land of fields.

Fährst im wilden Sturm daher. im hehren Vaterland ! 40. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. die fromme Seele ahnt. cannot take a direct object. stehen takes haben. From the participle of the base verb. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland. and -arbeit. Du.I asked my brother. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. so studiert is the past participle. and -sag. Machen is to do/make. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen.in a past participle. Gott. Ja. With separable prefixes. as well as reflexive verbs. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. den Herrn. Dich.is the stem. allmächtig Waltender.is the stem. but a few use sein. therefore gesagt is the past participle. Logically.e. use haben in the present perfect tense. The verb is intransitive (i.is the stem. Ewiger! Aus dem grauen Luftgebilde Tritt die Sonne klar und milde. both of these conditions are met: 1. I broke my arm. therefore gemacht is the past participle. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . Studieren is to study and studier.Ziehst im Nebelflor daher. Past participles are made by adding ge. However. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb.is the stem. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. especially in conversation. du Unergründlicher. Arbeiten is to work. the past participle is not used. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. For example. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. and -mach. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. im hehren Vaterland.) Double Infinitive: When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. All modals. Gott. the prefix comes before the ge. if and only if. The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end. Rettender! In Gewitternacht und Grauen Lasst uns kindlich ihm vertrauen! Ja. 26 . Sagen is to ask. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. but aufstehen takes sein. and then add the prefix to the beginning. Bist Du selbst uns Hort und Wehr. den Herrn. Such' ich dich im Wolkenmeer. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. 2. Und die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland.to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et. then the past participles of the modals are used.

German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. water reach hold hang. like all irregular verbs. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. Irregular Past Participles with Haben These irregular past participles end with -en. command begin bite get.With inseparable prefixes.prefix when forming the past participle. whether the verb is regular or irregular. receive apply tie ask break invite recommend eat find eat (of animals) freeze give win pour. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. anfangen aufstehen befehlen beginnen beissen bekommen bewerben binden bitten brechen einladen empfehlen essen finden fressen frieren geben gewinnen gießen greifen halten hängen heben heißen helfen klingen lassen leiden leihen lesen liegen lügen nehmen pfeifen begin get up order. such as besucht and verloren. They form their past participles like regular verbs. 41. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. allow suffer lend read recline lie. All of the following irregular past participles use haben as the auxiliary verb. fib take whistle angefangen aufgestanden befohlen begonnen gebissen bekommen beworben gebunden gebeten gebrochen eingeladen empfohlen gegessen gefunden gefressen gefroren gegeben gewonnen gegossen gegriffen gehalten gehangen gehoben geheißen geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten geliehen gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gepfiffen raten reissen riechen rufen scheinen schieben schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen singen sitzen sprechen stehen stehlen streiten tragen treffen trinken tun verbieten vergessen verlassen verlieren versprechen verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen advise tear smell call shine push sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see sing sit speak stand steal quarrel wear meet drink do forbid forget leave lose promise understand forgive wash throw pull geraten gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschoben geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden gestohlen gestritten getragen getroffen getrunken getan verboten vergessen verlassen verloren versprochen verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. suspend lift be called help sound let. and some have vowel changes in the stem. (Ge-stem-t) 27 . there is no ge.

e) das Wasser der Wein silverware das Besteck 28 . Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb.Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. aufwachen wake up bleiben ertrinken fahren fallen fliegen folgen gebären gehen gelingen joggen klettern kommen kriechen remain drown fall fly follow be born go succeed jog climb come creep erscheinen appear aufgewacht laufen geblieben ertrunken gefallen geflogen gefolgt geboren gegangen gelungen gejoggt geklettert gekrochen passieren reiten rennen sein sinken springen steigen sterben wachsen wandern erschienen reisen run happen travel run be sink jump climb die step grow hike become gelaufen passiert gereist gerannt geschwommen gewesen gesunken gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen gewandert geworden ride (horseback) geritten drive. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwuß- Past Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt 42. Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate tea steak cake das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. go. travel gefahren schwimmen swim geschehen happen geschehen treten gekommen werden 43. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) der Tee das Steak der Kuchen bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä. and many have irregular past participles.

e) der Fisch (e) In Austria.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . 45. e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake . e) das Huhn (ü. The genitive case implies of. and der Kurkuruz is corn. Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. so to say a glass of water. die Frisolen is green beans. der Karfiol is cauliflower.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive. Fruits. a glass of water .chicken coffee fish ham jam rice salad soup das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken die Marmelade der Reis der Salat die Suppe beer milk egg honey snack cheese mustard pie das Bier die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse der Senf die Torte (n) soft drink die Limonade ice cream das Eis 44. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin olive raddish lettuce tomato onion green beans corn meat roast veal lamb beef pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish der Kürbis (e) die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) die grüne Bohnen der Mais das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü.ein Stück Pizza 29 . you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case. er) der Truthahn (ä.

but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. Während Sie in Berlin sind. damit-so that. (nachdem is the sub. bis-until.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. minus -(s)t Geh! conjugated form Geht! conjugated form with wir following Gehen wir! conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands.) Ich weiß nicht. 1. and bin must go to the end. I'm staying home. währendwhile. weil-because. Und. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. ob-whether. nachdem-after. Sie kommt nach zu dir. The wir forms translate as Let's + verb in English. All commands require an exclamation point. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. während Sie in Berlin sind. Ich bleibe zu Hause. 2. wenn-if/when. sondern .for/because. obwohl-although. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. She's coming to your place. She has eaten. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. I am sick. Sie hat gegessen. Ich bin krank. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. Ich bleibe zu Hause. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. Hans will call you. nachdem sie gegessen hat. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. I don't know if he wanted to come along.) However. Imperative of Sein du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. While you are in Berlin. 30 .46. aber. bevor-before. and wie-how. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. Commands du form ihr form wir form Sie form Gehen-to go conjugated form. dass-that. I'm staying home because I am sick. denn . Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. da-since. Some examples are als-when. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. weil ich krank bin. and hat must go to the end. when a double infinitive construction is involved. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position.but (on the contrary) and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. conjunction. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. and they do affect word order. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives.

and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. lassen means to let or allow. the prefix remains attached to the verb. 50. Helfen. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something./We're building a house. but German uses a dependent infinitive. After verbs of this type. He is always tired when he gets up early. following the infinitive. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. Er ist müde. We're having a house built. Usually. I helped him. telefoniert. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. I heard him coming. 4. the modal goes last. wenn er früh aufsteht. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) der Laden (ä) das Museum strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um pharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop dry cleaner's bookstore airport die Apotheke (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) die Reinigung (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen ah-poh-tekuh fah-breek mets-geh-rie rien-ee-gunk booch-lahden flook-hahf- die Drogerie (n) droh-ger-ee 31 . Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. 48. Like the modals. I'm having my son pick up the mail. Ich sehe ihn kommen. and the entire verb goes to the end of the clause. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. English often uses a present participle. He is tired when he must get up early. lassen and the senses Helfen. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence.(während is a subordinating conjunction. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. Ich habe ihm geholfen. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. Er ist immer müde. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive).) 3. I see him coming.

In addition. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. etc.(Museen) church square monument building house grocery store library hospital stadium die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. use mit dem and the noun. er) das Stadion (Stadien) keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-ohtek krahnk-enhouse shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-warengeh-sheft shribe-varengeh-scheft garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store (ä) die Garage (n) en gah-rahzhuh das Rathaus (ä) raht-house das Schloss (ö. Simple Past / Imperfect Tense In English. er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. sein. freed-hoff e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) beck-er-ie shoo-gehsheft movie theater das Kino (s) hardware store stationery store das Eisenwarengeschäft (e) das Schreibwarengeschäft (e) 51. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. er) das Lebensmittelgeschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) das Krankenhaus (ä. e) das Denkmal (ä.. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. The one exception is streetcar. etc. he cried. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. werden. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. 32 . you saw. the simple past tense is commonly used clauses that begin with als (when). It is used more often in writing to tell a sequence of past events. er) dorf der Friedhof (ö. even in conversational German. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). shlohss er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. haben. 52. e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome das Dorf (ö. train. Nevertheless. this tense corresponds to I did.

sie. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. Irregular Stems in Simple Past / Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. Remember the simple past forms given below are just the stems. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. es wir ihr sie war warst war waren wart waren haben hatte hattest hatte hatten hattet hatten werden wurde wurdest wurde wurden wurdet wurden For the modal verbs. es konnte The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. sie. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. es wir ihr sie wissen wußte wußtest wußte wußten wußtet wußten nennen nannte nanntest nannte nannten nanntet nannten rennen rannte ranntest rannte rannten ranntet rannten wenden wandte wandtest wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. You will have to memorize these stems. Simple Past of Modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich du wir ihr sie konnte mußte mußte mußtet durfte durfte durftet sollte sollte solltet wollte wollte wolltet mögen mochte mochte mochtet konntest mußtest durftest solltest wolltest mochtest konnten mußten konntet konnten mußten durften sollten wollten mochten durften sollten wollten mochten er. add an -e before all endings for ease of pronunciation. haben & werden sein ich du er. Simple Past of Mixed Verbs bringen denken kennen brennen brachte dachte kannte brannte brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest brachte dachte kannte brannte brachten dachten kannten brannten brachtet dachtet kanntet branntet brachten dachten kannten brannten ich du er. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. Simple Past of sein. 33 . as they can be unpredictable (and unlike the past participles). you must add different endings depending on the subject. sie.All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t.

allow run suffer 34 . an stand . ein entscheiden entschied empfehlen empfahl erscheinen erschien ertrinken ertrank essen aß fahren fuhr fallen fiel fangen fing finden fand fliegen flog fressen fraß frieren fror geben gab gebären gebar gehen ging gelingen gelang geschehen geschah gewinnen gewann gießen goss greifen griff halten hielt hängen hing heben hob heißen hieß helfen half klingen klang kommen kam kriechen kroch lassen liess laufen lief leiden litt Infinitive Past Participle angefangen aufgestanden befohlen begonnen gebissen begriffen bekommen beworben gebunden gebogen geboten gebeten geblasen ist geblieben gebrochen eingeladen entschieden empfohlen ist erschienen ist ertrunken gegessen ist gefahren ist gefallen gefangen gefunden ist geflogen gefressen gefroren gegeben ist geboren ist gegangen ist gelungen ist geschehen gewonnen gegossen gegriffen gehalten gehangen gehoben geheißen geholfen geklungen ist gekommen ist gekrochen gelassen ist gelaufen gelitten Translation begin get up order.... bend offer ask blow remain break invite decide recommend appear drown eat drive. travel fall catch find fly eat (of animals) freeze give be born go succeed happen win pour. go. water reach hold hang. aufstehen auf befehlen befahl beginnen begann beissen biss begreifen begriff bekommen bekam bewerben bewarb binden band biegen bog bieten bot bitten bat blasen blies bleiben blieb brechen brach einladen lud .... receive apply tie turn.Simple Past anfangen fing . suspend lift be called help sound come creep let. command begin bite comprehend get.

leihen lesen liegen lügen nehmen pfeifen raten reissen reiten riechen rufen scheinen schieben schiessen schlafen schlagen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen geliehen gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gepfiffen geraten gerissen ist geritten gerochen gerufen geschienen geschoben geschossen geschlafen geschlagen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen ist schwimmen schwamm geschwommen schwingen schwang geschwungen sehen sah gesehen sein war ist gewesen singen sang gesungen sinken sank ist gesunken sitzen saß gesessen spinnen span gesponnen sprechen sprach gesprochen springen sprang ist gesprungen stehen stand gestanden stehlen stahl gestohlen steigen stieg ist gestiegen sterben starb ist gestorben streiten stritt gestritten tragen trug getragen treffen traf getroffen treiben trieb getrieben treten trat ist getreten trinken trank getrunken tun tat getan verbieten verbot verboten vergessen vergaß vergessen vergleichen verglich verglichen verlassen verliess verlassen verlieren verlor verloren versprechen versprach versprochen verstehen verstand verstanden lieh las lag log nahm pfiff riet riss ritt roch rief schien schob schoss schlief schlug schloss schnitt schrieb schrie schwieg lend read recline lie. fib take whistle advise tear ride (horseback) smell call shine push shoot sleep hit shut cut write cry be silent swim swing see be sing sink sit spin speak jump stand steal climb die quarrel wear meet play sports step drink do forbid forget compare leave lose promise understand 35 .

e) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä. finden is conjugated without the -e. e) 36 . If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). laden (ludst. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. and schneiden (schnittst. to invite).are braten (brietst. vorschlagen vorgeschlagen vor wachsen wuchs ist gewachsen waschen wusch gewaschen werfen warf geworfen ziehen zog gezogen Irregular Endings -en -st -t -en forgive suggest grow wash throw pull Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä.(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e. to suffer). e) der Topf (ö. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü. to cut). pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä.verzeihen verzieh verziehen schlug . For example.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e. leiden (littst.) Similarly. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. stehen is conjugated without the -e. to invent). 54. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form.(du verstandest.(du befandest dich. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d.. er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö. erfinden (erfandst. to roast).) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. but some do not.. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü.

Ich fliege nach Paris. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. because they are not neuter. I'm flying to Austria. He's going to the market. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. I'm flying to the USA. We are at school. ceiling die Decke (n) door die Tür (en) garden. e) der Rasen blanket. It's on the table. bei comes from enclosed or defined aus space. or at public buildings before name of place or business where someone lives or works Ich bin in der Kirche. 56. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used.). She comes from the bedroom. in auf zu nach * Only a few countries include the articles. She's going to the beach.).). They are at the bank. Sie geht zum Strand. Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. He is at the lake. in an auf enclosed spaces denotes border or limiting area on surfaces. Ich komme aus den USA. Sie gehen zu McDonald's. the prepositions in. Sie sind auf der Bank. Er ist am See. particular direction or person When talking about directions or going to a place. Es ist auf dem Tisch. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. Das Auto kommt von rechts. town or building von comes from open space. Wir sind in der Schule. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. The picture is on the wall. I'm going to church. and die USA (pl. Ich gehe zur Bank.). Location vs. Das Bild ist an der Wand. Ich gehe in die Kirche. I know it from him.furniture wall lawn die Möbel die Wand (ä. yard der Garten (ä) 55. die Schweiz (f. They're going to McDonald's I'm going to the bank. Direction When talking about locations. Ich fliege nach Österreich. such as der Iran (m. and people countries and cities that have no articles Er geht auf den Markt. I'm at church. an. I'm flying to Paris. Ich weiß es von ihm. such as country. I live at my Aunt's (house). Clothing 37 . Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. countries Ich fliege in die USA. die Niederlande (pl. and cities that have definite articles* open spaces or public buildings specifically named buildings or places. The car comes from the right. I come from the USA. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. building or enclosed space.). I work at McDonald's. die Türkei (f.

Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. e) woman's suit das Kostüm (e) sports jacket das Sakko (s) bag. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). Simply add a question mark 2. e) swimsuit der Badeanzug (ü. tomorrow. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. (Expresses probability) 58. to do so. Werden werde wirst wird werden werdet werden I will fly to Germany. e) 57. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement 38 . e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. Use a question word + verb + subject 4. and uses time expressions. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. To express present or future probability.jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf die Jacke (n) das Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. in both German and English. etc. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. and implies a future action. Asking Questions 1. My friend should be home now. yet it uses the present tense. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. such as tonight. Wir werden Latein lernen. Invert the verb and subject 3. use wohl (probably) with the future tense.

Neu. wenige (few). Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. Plural Nom. The bread is fresh. Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich high. Neu. kein guter Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Acc. and neuter accusative. einige (some).) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Freunde Note: Viele (many). The rest of the endings are the same. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Dat. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Freunde Acc. tall wide fat. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Freunden Gen.59.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. der gute Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Acc. Neu. guten Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Freunde Dat. andere (other). keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. Fem. they turn into manch ein and so ein). and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Fem. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Dat. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. Plural Nom. Fem. Plural Nom. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. thick thin narrow weak strong deep hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig 39 . adjectives used with ein words. 60. and independent adjectives. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. In the singular. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen.

although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. kurz. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. jung. dumm. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. schlank. drop the -e in the comparative form. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. groß. kalt. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. A radio is cheaper than a TV. such as alt. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. or an s sound. oft. stolz. klar. -en or -er. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. The kitchen is as big as the living room. froh. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. schwach. klug. The adjectives that end in -el. -en. 2. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach.dear famous different easy difficult pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful lieb berühmt leicht schwierig hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar lazy cheap early near nice expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic faul billig dumm früh nah nett teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung shy nervous worried right wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy schüchtern nervös besorgt richtig falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig unterschiedlich dumb comfortable bequem inexpensive preiswert interessant sick fantastisch ready 61. add -er to the adjective or adverb. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. 40 . Jens runs faster than Ernst. Superlative 1. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. warm. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. followed by als (than). stark. add -(e)st to the adjective. scharf. o. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. arm. Comparative 1. grob. hart. krank. German always uses the -er ending. lang. -t. rasch. toll. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. To form the superlative. Adjectives that end in -el. roh. voll and zart.

Sie ist am intelligentesten. desto besser. desto glücklicher ist er. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. Irregular Forms Adj. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 41 .) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. / Adv. the happier he is. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. These suits are the least expensive. She is the most intelligent. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. Julia wird immer hübscher. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. The more money he has. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. The more. Comparative lieber besser höher näher mehr Superlative am liebsten am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten 62. the better. Die preise werden immer höher. The prices are getting higher and higher. Hans is am jüngsten. gern gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative Je mehr. Je mehr Geld er hat. t or s sound. Hans is the youngest. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten.2.

Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case). In sentences with one noun and one pronoun (regardless of which is accusative or dative). er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) meadow die Wiese (n) der Bauernhof (ö. even if they take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: 42 . e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge stream sky island air desert pond grass flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle der Bach (ä. then the accusative pronoun will be first. then the dative noun will be first.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl. the pronoun will be first.63. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. e) leaf 64.) Direct Objects (Acc.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat. e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm field forest plant city sea bay mountain range die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. e) die Straße (n) das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. one accusative and one dative.) sie they Sie you (pol. one accusative and one dative. e) das Land (ä. er) das Tal (ä. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. if there are two pronouns.) ich I du you (fam.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note about word order: If there are two nouns in a sentence. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. However. er) die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä.

) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. Nominative den dem Fem. but must be included in German. der Acc. is called the Danube. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. 43 . that through Vienna flows. e) das Fussgelenk (e) das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. der durch Wien fliesst. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . Neu. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü. whom. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö. that and which in English.helfen to help gratulieren to congratulate begegnen to meet fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65. therefore. Das is der Mantel. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. Gen.words that correspond to who. Nom. it is accusative. die die der das das dem Plural die die denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". heißt Donau. Dat. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. e) die Hand (ä. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. These may be omitted in English. den ich gestern gekauft habe. (In the following example. The river. e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü.

Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. that I last week seen have.The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) Da(r) Compounds daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them dagegen against it/them darin daran darauf in it/them in it/them on top of it/them behind it/them darüber darunter daneben over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them dazwischen between it/them dabei on me/you that's why through it/them dahinter for it/them davor in front of it/them darum Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. Accusative The dog. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. to whom I nothing about it told have. When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. a compound using da. was Julia's. mit der ich dich gesehen habe? Who was the woman. However. Da and Wo Compounds Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. and seit can never form a da(r) compound.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used.(or dar. Wer war die Frau. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe. when you need to refer to a thing. and here are others that cannot: 44 . Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. Ohne. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. war Julias. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. ausser. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. That's why you have no luck. Der Hund. the preposition determines the case. Dative My father is the only person.

Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. = Die Stadt. The watch. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. use a preposition and wen/wem. I'm talking about it. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. Die Uhr. womit er reist. cost a lot. has a large concert hall. When asking about people. I'm thinking about it. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. mit der er reist. Likes and Dislikes 45 . with which he travels. The city. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. 68. = Die Uhr. Ich denke daran.as the prefix. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. Die Stadt. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü.ohnedies bis dahin seit dem without it stattdessen until then trotzdem since deswegen instead nevertheless for that reason ausserdem besides währenddessen in the meanwhile There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). Animals animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. in der wir wohnen. hat viel gekostet. hat viel gekostet. e) der Wurm (ü. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. in which we live. worin wir wohnen. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun.

. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes.. (followed by simple past tense) Whenever he comes. Ich spiele gern Fussball. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. nicht gern... I like to play tennis most of all. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I).. Als ich ihn fand. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. 46 . It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense.. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. I had lived in Wiesbaden. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir.Use the words gern. Ich habe Fussball gern. And of course. When I found him. It is always in the dative case in German. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore. Das Zimmer is the object in English. The room pleases me. I like to play soccer. Als. If he comes. as well as in future time. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. but it becomes the subject in German. 70. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. lieber. I don't like the restaurant. To use it correctly.. Wenn er kommt.. When he comes. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. wann er kommt. It literally means to please. Ich weiß nicht.) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event. I like soccer. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71.. I prefer to play hockey. I don't like to play Basketball. I like the room.. you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. wenn is used to mean whenever or if. I like Julia most of all.. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt.

And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. it acts as an element. In most sentences. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. the verb in the dependent clause is last. following the infinitive. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. bleibe ich im Bett. oder-or. dass-that. He is always tired when he gets up early. When I am sick. 9. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. nachdem-after. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive).manner . 8. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. 4. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. 6. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. wenn er früh aufsteht.verb . 3. the prefix remains attached to the verb. I stay in bed. obwohl-although. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. da-since. I want to go home. damit-so that. If the direct object is a pronoun. 47 . Ich habe dir geglaubt. it goes before the indirect object. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. währendwhile. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). Wenn ich krank bin. I believed you. these conjunctions use normal word order: undand. such as als-when. but the subject follows it. ob-whether. Review of Word Order 1. the modal goes last. wenn ich krank bin. He is tired when he must get up early.time . I give it to my brother. Er ist immer müde. 2. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. bis-until.72. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. Ich will nach Hause gehen. aber-but. 7. I give my brother a tie. Ich bleibe im Bett. When asking questions. denn-for/because. weil-because. Then the verb is still in the second position. However. the order is subject .place. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. I stay in bed when I am sick. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. and wie-how. bevor-before. Er ist müde. wenn-if/when. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end.

She makes her judgments rather quickly. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. No one is at home. Ich kann es nicht glauben.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. counteracts negative statement. Es begins the sentence. He hates not knowing anything about it. Er haßt es. someday 74. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall. Other idioms: Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. but it is not incorrect to say it. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. it's raining). He does as he pleases. or softens commands doch ja aber denn gerade nur. and the true subject follows the verb. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. Three children are coming today. of course really is it ever well then right now only.) 48 . "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. Everything is fine. nichts davon zu wissen. Es ist niemand zu Hause. (Literally: Everything is in butter.) Alles ist in Butter. These words are mostly for emphasis. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. used for persuasion. just sometime. (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. bloss mal yes.73. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens.

dritte.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. and using the gender of the last word.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. and -ste for 20 and up.Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart.the old man die Alte . Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. first second third fourth fifth sixth erste zweite dritte vierte fünfte eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth elfte zwölfte dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte sechste sixteenth 49 . adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English. der Alte . which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place. The exceptions are erste. the prefix un. and achte. Frankfurt (a city) .the old people 77.Architektin (female architect) 76. Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between).everything that is old die Alten . and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns. das Ende (the end) . Architekt (male architect) . klar (clear) . siebte. just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19.75. wandern (to hike) . The definite article precedes the adjective. das Kind (the child) .gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less.the old woman das Alte .

seventh siebte eighth ninth tenth achte neunte zehnte

seventeenth siebzehnte eighteenth nineteenth twentieth achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste

In writing dates, German uses the number followed by a period. On February 2nd would be am 2. Februar. However, when saying this out loud, you would say am zweiten Februar. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. On May 18th. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Today is October ninth.

78. Passive Voice
To change a sentence from the active to the passive, change three things: 1. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence, if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. = This novel is read by many students. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. = This novel was read by many students. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. Many students will read this novel. = This novel will be read by many students. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students have read this novel. = This novel has been read by many students. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students had read this novel. = This novel had been read by many students. *Notice that in the passive voice, the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire, wind, etc.); but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft, the actual construction is Das Haus hat

50

verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence, but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses.

79. Problems with the Passive
False Passive Grammatically, the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive, while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition), while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject, or no apparent subject at all. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. But sometimes there is no accusative object. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question, es is used as the subject. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence, but if it were turned into the passive, there would be no accusative object. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject, es.) But if another element, such as a dative object or time expression, can be put in the first position, then es is omitted. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. There is no apparent subject, only an implied es, so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es.

80. Avoiding the Passive
1. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. Man translates to one, you, we, they, people and constitutes the subject. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. They caught the thief. 2. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. The stain cannot be removed. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. We can't remove the stain. 3. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. That can be done quickly. Das ist schnell zu machen. That is quickly done. 4. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. Das kann gemacht werden. That can be done. Das läßt sich machen. That can be done.

51

Die Lorelei
Heinrich Heine Ich weiß nicht, was soll es bedeuten Daß ich so traurig bin; Ein Märchen aus alten Zeiten Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn. Die Luft ist kühl und es dunkelt, Und ruhig fließt der Rhein; Der Gipfel des Berges funkelt Im Abendsonnenschein. Die schönste Jungfrau sitzet Dort oben wunderbar, Ihr gold'nes Geschmeide blitzet Sie kämmt ihr gold'nes Haar. Sie kämmt es mit gold'nem Kamme Und singt ein Lied dabei; Das hat eine wundersame Gewaltige Melodei. Den Schiffer im kleinen Schiffe ergreift es mit wildem Weh, Er schaut nicht die Felsenriffe, Er schaut nur hinauf in die Höh'. Ich glaube, die Wellen verschlingen Am Ende Schiffer und Kahn; Und das hat mit ihrem Singen Die Lorelei getan. I know not, what it is portending that I am so depressed; a legend from olden days past will not leave my mind alone. The breeze is cool and it darkens, and peaceful flows the Rhine; the peak of the mountain sparkles with evening's setting sun. The fairest maiden sits perched right up there wondrously, her golden jewelry flashes she combs her golden hair. She combs with a comb all golden and thus she sings a song; that has a mysteriously tyrannical melody. The sailor in tiny vessel is seized with a savage woe, he sees not the rocky reef edge, he looks only up toward the height. I think that the waves have devoured at last the sailor and boat; and that's the deed, by her singing the Lorelei has done.

81. Showing Purpose
Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action; however, damit and um… zu (so that, in order to) show the goal of an action. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause, whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. Sie macht das Fenster zu, damit sie nicht friert. = Sie macht das Fenster zu, um nicht zu frieren. She closes the window, so that she won't freeze . = She closes the window, in order to not freeze. Commonly, you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause, and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause.

82. Shopping
box VCR die Schachtel der Videorecorder

52

. sollten wir ihn suchen. Sie sagte es. He came in order to pick up the book. without looking at me. She said it. zu is used to indicate purpose. and translated as present participles in English.zu are used with infinitives. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem.. It is too early to get up. Instead of sitting here. Statt hier zu sitzen.zu and anstatt. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen... Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark rubber band ink pad string der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera security guard drive-thru window safe der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage die Wache der Autoschalter der Tresor 84. ohne mich anzusehen. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive. They introduce infinitival clauses.. Um.) Er kam. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. while ohne.camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. (Um. durch die Stadt zu fahren. Um.. It takes a long time to drive through the city. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. we should look for him. but the construction is far more common in German.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly.. 53 . Hast du Lust. um das Buch abzuholen.

She's going to Germany next week. 87. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. That can be found in any store. We must return on Sunday. Time expressions with the prepositions an. e) die Abfahrt (en) 54 . Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Expressions of Time The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Last Sunday I stayed home. in and vor are in the dative case. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. It gets cold at night. In der Nacht wird es kalt. and may refer to the future or past. One morning he'll be late. Office / School Supplies compact disc die Compact Disc disc die Diskette document das Dokument der Komputer (or computer Computer) monitor der Monitor keyboard die Tastatur mouse die Maus printer der Drucker memo die Mitteilung paper das Papier photocopier das Fotokopier die typewriter Schreibmaschine software die Software file die Akten cabinet der Schrank briefcase die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. He visited us last year. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. 85. Eines Tages war er krank. Three years ago it was just as cold here. That can't be done. One day he was sick. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause.Das ist nicht zu machen.

instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray der Haarfestiger hair dryer der Fön nail polish der Nagellack mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser shaving cream die Rasiercreme 90. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse.arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words.. They are not the same!) 55 .and noch ein. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89.. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä.means a different one. Another Ein(e) ander.both mean another. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. noun +) entlang über (+ acc.. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) die Ankunft (ü.. Noch ein means one more. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. and ander. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. Ein(e) ander. please don't confuse it with the German subjunctive. but they cannot be used interchangeably. dann) statements and conditional sentences.then (wenn. (If you study other languages with a subjunctive mood.

II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. If I had time. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. and rennen. werfen. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. the present tense of the subjunctive II uses the stem of the simple past. If he's not coming today. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. and in this case. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. For weak (regular) verbs. Kommt er heute nicht. stehen. except with these eight verbs: helfen. then (wenn. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. (so) kommt er morgen. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. dann) pattern in both English and German. Past Subj. the subjunctive II is the same as the simple past tense. and then adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include the mixed verbs. kennen..The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the simple past / imperfect tense of the indicative.. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. sterben. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. If I had had time. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb.. brennen. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen. wenn er zu heiß ist. Present Subj. nennen. (then) I would go to the movies.. adds an umlaut where possible. then he'll come tomorrow. modals and wissen which use the same endings as the simple past: Imperfect Subjunctive II brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte wußte brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. These eight verbs 56 . It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle. (then) I would have gone to the movies. For strong (irregular) verbs. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause.

impartial way. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. Wenn ich Geld hätte. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. haben and werden.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. Moreover. I would fly to Germany. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: 57 . dann ginge ich ins Kino. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb.use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. If I had money. please. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich du wir ihr sie könnte müsste müsste müsstet dürfte dürfte dürftet sollte sollte solltet wollte wollte wolltet mögen möchte möchte möchtet könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest möchtest könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten könntet könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten er. this construction cannot be used with the modal auxiliaries. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. However. 91. = We would like two colas. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. I would go to the movies. bitte. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. sein. es könnte Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. If I had time. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? 92. In everyday conversation. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. haben or sein. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. although they are important. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. sie. For this reason. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts.

In certain cases. Present Participle To form the present participle. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. In this case. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. e) der Reifen (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. simply add -d to the infinitive. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. e) der Kofferraum (ä.sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. In the Ocean 58 . er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) (one-way) street die (Einbahn)straße (n) windshield wiper der Scheibenwischer (-) 94. The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä. 93. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I.

In addition.scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher shipwreck der Wasseranzug helm die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker der Helm der Schiffbruch 96. they both mean "as if" or "as though. both require the subjunctive II. In Space astronaut space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit der Astronaut die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug beaker test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings das Becherglas das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe 59 ." Both introduce a dependent clause. 97. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. so the conjugated verb must go to the end. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte.

so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. and the past participle. Er wird gegangen sein. It is formed with the future of haben or sein. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy elf giant tower knight squire der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild das Schwert die Lanze die Axt der Elf / die Elfe sword der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe lance ax drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown die Krone 60 . It will have become dark. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). Es wird dunkel geworden sein. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him. When using modals. That will have been Rudi.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. He will have gone. 99. I will have taken it. / That was probably Rudi.lunar rover das Mondfahrzeug crater der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät stars space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen comet rocket der Meteorschwarm robot das Sternbild das Sonnensystem nebula laboratory das Labor 98. Ich werde es genommen haben. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein.

Singular: Nom. Spelling Reform Recently. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. Leid tun… 3. 4. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. 101. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch. 61 . Write ss after a short vowel. so it must be written as SS. Recht haben. Acc. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Dat. Sing. Gen. Dat. Singular: Nom. Morgen. 2. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Mittag. Acc. there has been a spelling reform of the German language. Also.court jester der Hofnarr king minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger queen die Rüstung princess der Kerker prince der Burggraben throne das Schloß der Thron der Prinz die Prinzessin die Königin der König 100. Gen. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Abend.

-r. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. and Accusative. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. die Wälder Acc.and end with -e Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative.Lion(s) Singular Plural Nom. Genitive. der Wald Nom. Plural Nom. Man Woman Child Nom.) Sing. Forest Nom. -en to Dative 62 . -er. der Mann die Frau das Kind Dat. Pl. den Wäldern Gen. die Wälder Dat. dem Vater den Vätern Gen. end in -el. den Vater die Väter Dat. then add nothing. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. Sing. der Löwe die Löwen Acc. Genitive. and Accusative Plural are the same. -er. Pl. des Vaters der Väter Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. Pl. -en. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. the Nominative. den Männern den Frauen den Kindern 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. der Vater die Väter Acc. Sing. Pl. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. -e. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. Pl. Sing. -en. Some may add -n. der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. unless it already ends in -s or -n. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc.

-ern to Dative Man/men (masc. Accusative. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. der Student die Studenten Acc. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. das Auto die Autos Dat. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. Genitive. Group 6 . Plural Nom. das Restaurant. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. and Genitive. and das Hotel. Plural Nom. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing.) Sing. der Frucht den Früchten Gen.) Sing. der Mann die Männer Acc.) Sing. most masculine that denote living things.Fruit (fem. dem Mann den Männern Gen.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular 63 . dem Auto den Autos Gen. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. den Mann die Männer Dat. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable. and Accusative. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. Plural Nom. das Auto die Autos Acc. Plural Nom. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. such as das Radio. die Frucht die Früchte Dat.

des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing. Plural Nom.-Add -en to Dative Singular.) Sing.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. dem Bett den Betten Gen. Bremen and Hamburg are cities as well as states. des Bettes der Betten German States / Bundesländer German States Baden-Württemberg Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Bayern Sachsen Thüringen Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein English Translation Baden-Württemberg Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Bavaria Saxony Thuringia Hesse Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland Saxony-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Berlin. may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing. Plural der Name die Namen den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 . Plural Nom. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. das Bett die Betten Acc. das Bett die Betten Dat. das Herz die Herzen Acc. das Herz die Herzen Dat. Austrian States / Bundesländer Austrian States Burgenland Kämten English Translation Burgenland Carinthia 64 .

Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien Lower Austria Upper Austria Salzburg Styria Tyrol Vorarlberg Vienna 65 .

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