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RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
1. What are resources? What are its characteristics? Every thing available in our environment, which can be used to satisfy our needs if it is technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable, is termed as resource. [Or Resources are the means available for the development of a country. These are the natural or human made materials, which help to create goods or provide services]. Its characteristics are the following: a) It has utility: Resources can be used to make a variety of goods and services. It satisfies human wants. b) They are normally available in limited quantity: Most of the resources are scarce. They are exhaustible. We have to use it wisely. c) Can’t be used as it is: Most of the resources are in crude form. We have to put effort on it to get utility or maximum satisfaction. d) It should be technologically accessible. 2. Examine the interdependent relationship among nature ,technology and institutions in the economic development. [ in the resource transformation] a) Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate economic development. b) They transform material available in our environment in to resources by using technology and use them. 3. Name the essential component of resources. What is its role in the resource transformation? Human beings are the essential components of resources. Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate economic development. They transform materials available in our environment into resources by using technology and use them. 4. Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources. a) Biotic resources have or had living characteristics whereas abiotic resources are composed of non living things. b) Biotic resources are normally obtained from the biosphere where as abiotic resources obtained from the lithosphere. c) Examples of biotic resources are human beings, flora, fauna, fisheries and livestock d) Examples of abiotic resources are rocks, metals, minerals etc. 5. Distinguish between renewable and non renewable resources. a) Renewable resources are those resources, which can be regenerated in a given period of time whereas non renewable resources cannot be re generated. b) Renewable resources are abundant and replenishable where as non renewable resources are scarce and non replenishable. c) Renewable resources are non exhaustible whereas non renewable resources are exhaustible. d) Solar and wind energy, water, forest and wild life are examples of renewable resource and minerals and fossil fuels are examples of non renewable resources.
6. How are resources classified on the basis of origin? a) Biotic resources b) Abiotic resources ( Explain points) 7. How are resources classified on the basis of exhaustibility? a) Renewable resources b) Non renewable resources ( Explain points) 8. How are resources classified on the basis of ownership? a) Individual resources: These are privately owned resources. Village people own land and cattle whereas urban people own plots, flats or other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in the wells are individual resources. b) Community owned resources: These are resources accessible to all the members of the community. Grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, public parks, play grounds, picnic spots etc are community owned resources. c) National Resources: All the minerals, water resources, forests, wild life, all the resources with in the political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles from the coast belong to national resources. Roads canals, railways and properties of public character belong to national resources. d) International resources: The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to international resources. No individual or country can claim it. There are international institutions to regulate these resources. 9. How are resources classified based on the status of development? a) Potential resources: Resources, which are found in a region, but have not been utilized, are potential resources. These resources will be widely used shortly. Wind and solar energy potential in Rajasthan and Gujarat have not been developed and exploited properly so far. b) Developed resources: These are the resources surveyed; quality and quantity have been measured and have been determined for utilization. c) Stock Resources: Resources in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but do not have the appropriate technology to have an access come under this category. We haven’t so far developed the technology to make inflammable gases like hydrogen and oxygen on a large scale from water . So it is considered a stock. d) Reserve resources: These are the subdivision of stock resources and can be put into use by applying the existing technology but their use has not yet been started. These can be used to meet our future requirements. 10. What is meant by Exclusive Economic Zone? a) The UN Convention of the Law of the Sea, 1982, allowed coastal nations to claim a territorial sea of up to 12 nautical miles. b) It also allowed jurisdiction over resources, control over fishing right, scientific research, and environmental protection in a zone up to 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) offshore. It is known as Exclusive Economic Zone. Beyond this zone, seabed mineral development will be regulated by an international body.
11. What are the major problems developed out of exploiting resources indiscriminately? ( State any to effects of indiscriminate exploitation of resources.) a) Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals. b) Accumulation of resources in few hands, which in turn divided the society in to rich and poor. c) It has led to ecological crisis such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation. 12. What is sustainable development? The development that takes care the needs of the present generation with out compromising the needs of future generations is termed as sustainable development. It emphasizes on prevention of pollution and avoidance of wastages. The development that takes place with out damaging the environment is termed as sustainable development. 13. What is resource planning? Why is it essential? ( Explain any three reasons responsible for making resource planning in India. ) i) Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper utilization of resources. ii) An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace. iii) If the present trend of resources depletion by a few individuals and countries continues, the future of the planet is in danger. There fore resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life. Or Since the resources are limited and unevenly distributed, effective and efficient planning is necessary. Resource planning includes conservation of resources too. We have to exploit resources in such a way that future generation will not suffer. Resource planning is essential to prevent environmental pollution and to avoid wastages in the exploitation of resources. 14. Examine the diversity in the availability of resources in India. Give examples. Or Why is a balanced resource planning essential in India? ( Why is it necessary for a balanced resource planning at the national ,state regional and local levels?) a) There are regions in India which are rich in certain type of resources but are deficient in some other resources. There are some regions in India which can be considered self sufficient in terms of availability of resources and there are some other regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. b) The states of Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits. c) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural developments. d) Rajasthan has a lot of solar and wind energy potential but lacks in water resources. e) The cold area of Ladakh has very rich cultural heritage but is deficient in water, infrastructure and minerals. 15. What are the processes ( stages) involved in the resource planning? i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country: This involves surveying, mapping, qualitative and quantitative estimation, and measurement of resources.
ii) Evolving a planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutional setup for implementing resource development plans. iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans. 16. ‘Mere availability of resources will not bring economic development’. Give reasons. i) Along with the availability of resources corresponding changes in technology and institutions are required for economic development. ii) There are many regions in India that are rich in resources but are economically backward. Some other areas have poor resources but they are economically developed. iii) It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonizing countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their supremacy over the colonies. 17. What was Gandhiji’s opinion about conservation (or over exploitation) of resources? i) Gandhiji said, ‘There is enough resources in India for every body’s need and not for any body’s greed’. ii) He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. iii) He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses. 18. Why is it important to use the available land with careful planning? i) We live on land , perform all economic activities on land and use it for variety of purposes. ii) Land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wild life, human life, transport and communication systems. iii) 95% of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from land iv) Land available is limited in quantity compared to the size of the population and hence it requires careful planning 19. Assess the land in India under important relief features. i. Plains: About 43 % of the land is plain which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. ii. Mountains: It accounts for 30 % of the land and ensure perennial flow of some rivers, provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects. iii. Plateau: About 27 % of the land is plateau. It possesses rich reserves of minerals fossil fuels and forests. 20. Give two reasons why we are not able to utilize the total geographical area of India. i) The land use reporting for most of the north- eastern states except Assam has not been done fully. ii) Some areas of Jammu & Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have not been surveyed. 21. What is the land utilization pattern in India? Total area of land in India is 3.28 million sq.km., but only 93 % is available for use. i)The Net sown area in India is 43.41% in 2002-03. ii) The Forest share in the land use pattern is 22.57% in 2002-03. iii) Area under non agricultural use is 7.92% in 2002-03.
soil erosion. vi) Fallow Land : The share of the current fallow land is 7. b) Unscientific disposal of industrial wastes. like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generates heavy amount of dust and releases in the atmosphere. preparation of shelterbelts for plants and control over grazing of animals are some methods of controlling land degradation in arid areas.82. 24. c) Unscientific industrial processing. Human : Mining and industry. v) Culturable Waste land is 4. affecting infiltration of water and crop cultivation. ISB 58 .41% in 2002-03. It is the highest percentage in the world. Processed soil or waste materials are dumped unscientifically causing the land used and the land nearby unfit for any use.23% in 1960-61 to 4. overgrazing by animals. r. land slides. Natural : Soil erosion. Fallow other than current fallow is 3. It is otherwise lowering the quality of land. careless management of forests. (Explain any one) 27. Land degradation is the process of losing the fertility and productivity of land and turning it unfit for proper use. surface mining and industrial effluents cause land degradation. 10 % wind eroded area and the rest 6% is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.41% in 2002-03. State two natural and human activities that lead to land degradation. 56 % water eroded area. At present there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India . a. The mineral processing.iv) Permanent pastures and grazing land is 3. How is man responsible for degradation of land? a) Cutting of trees (deforestation). d) Construction of houses and buildings. What is land degradation? Explain any three causes for land degradation. p. (Explain all) 25. It settles down in the surrounding areas. 22. b) Land under the forests has increased from 18. How does surface mining and industry lead to land degradation? o. The industrial effluents released to the air causes acid rain and air and water get polluted. The mining sites are abandoned after excavation is completed.11% in 1960-61 to 22.45 % only. Deforestation. What measures can be adopted for preventing land degradation? a. (Any One) c) Culturable Waste land has reduced from 6.28 % of it belongs to forest degraded area.03% in 2002-03. 23. What are the most satisfying features of the land use pattern in India? a) About 54 % of the total land area is under cultivation in India. q. 26. Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.57% in 2002-03. torrential rain b.
Bhangar is older alluvium and is found away from rivers and Khadar is new alluvium found closer to the rivers. It is the basic resources of agriculture. 1. Describe the characteristics of alluvial soil. What are the characteristics of Black soil?( Regur soil) a) c) d) It is good for cultivation of cotton and also known as cotton soil. Khadar is renewed frequently in the flood plain. e) Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation. 28. 29. It is the most widely spread and important soil in India. i)The Bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.b. c. is called soil. Climate determines the rate of weathering and the type of vegetation. ii.) Loose and fragmented uppermost layer of the earth’s crust. iii. Chos and Terai. Bhangar is less fertile compared to Khadar. Rajasthan and Gujarat. What are soils? How are they formed? Or ( Describe the factors that contribute to the formation and fertility to the soil. wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. paddy. magnesium and lime and poor in phosphoric content. iv. In the upper reaches of the river valley the soil are coarse. It is rich in potash. which is useful for plants. Differentiate between Bhangar and Khadar. a) i. iii. b) It consists of various proportions of sand. climate. Bhangar is clayey and dark while Khadar is sandy and light in colour. Or Which is the most widely spread and important soil in India? ) Alluvial soil is confined to northern plain. plants and animals. It consists of both organic and inorganic substances. It has the ability to retain moisture. phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane. Moisture conservation and weed control in agricultural lands. local topography. Soils are formed by the disintegration and decomposition of rocks under the process of weathering and erosion. Time provide maturity to soils. .. silt and clay. calcium carbonate. ISB 59 ii. Such soils are common in piedmont plains such as Duars. coastal strips. chemical and organic changes which takes place in the soil and long period of time. The factors that contribute the formation and fertility of soil are rocks. 31. c) As we move inlands to wards the valley soil particles appear some what bigger in size. d) Alluvial soil as a whole are very fertile Mostly these soil contain adequate proportion of potash . regularization of grazing and proper management of wasteland and control of mining activities are the methods for semi arid areas. (What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coasts? Give three main features of this type of soil.) 30.Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas. ( Continue. f) Alluvial soil is divided into Bhangar and Khadar according to their age.
What are arid (desert) soils? a. In some areas. e. These are the soils found in the mountainous region of India like Meghalaya. d. b. e. They occur in Karnataka. These soils are characterized by deposition of organic materials derived from vegetative cover. Orissa and part of Assam and Meghalaya. It doesn’t have the ability to retain moisture. c. d. These sands are partly of local origin and partly have been blown from the Indus Valley. The humus content of this soil is low because most of the micro organisms particularly the decomposers like bacteria get destroyed due to high temperature. Andhra Pradesh. coarse and porous and poor in organic matter. 33. What is meant by soil erosion? How is it caused? Removal of soil from one place to another by some natural agent is called soil erosion. d. 35. Karnataka. g) This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. These soils develop in areas of high temperature and heavy rainfall. (Why are laterite soil less fertile? Ans points a and b above) 34. These are heterogeneous in nature and vary from place to place. 36. Punjab and Haryana. c. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes. b. It is deficient in phosphoric acid. It is the process of taking away or washing away of soil cover by wind or water flow. Where is it found? a. c. g. c. In the snow covered areas of Himalayas these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content. Kerala. It is red in colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. d. Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau. Orissa and Jharkhand. Red soils are highly porous and fertile and they are fine grained and deep. Arunachel Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. b. f. Laterite soils are intensely leached soils of the monsoon climate. Describe the characteristics of forest (mountain) soil. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu. e. These soils can be used for cultivation with irrigation facilities. It is sandy.On drying these soil develops large and deep cracks and becomes sticky when wet. Climatic condition along with the parent rock material is the important factors for the formation of black soil. These are the soils found in the arid areas of Rajasthan. They are red in colour with high content of iron oxide. It has low value for crop production. e. b. It is poor in nitrogen and lime and has high contents of acidity. Describe the major features of Red soil. What are Laterite soils? What are its features? a. the soil contains high percentage of soluble salt. e) f) ISB 60 . It is composed of little clay and much gravel of red sand stones. organic matter and nitrogen and rich in potash. a. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form. 32.
a) Shelter belts and planting thorny bushes: : Planting lines of trees reduce wind force and stream flow.. 40. ii) Forest : Its share was 18. iii) Area under non agricultural use: Its share in 1960-61 was 4. What is sheet erosion and contour ploughing? a) When water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. This shows tremendous pressure of livestock population on agricultural land.I递珓ɞ⥔〣Ǖ䚖輘ff퍊뷴ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ䩌 踜ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ굺쪊 ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ棼붎ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ⚜曼 萒麲 纶麲ЉЉЉЉЉЉ虬胒ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ䩌쟚㨮分ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ䚖ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ ЉЉ梲놸ЉЉЉЉЉЉ궦⬠ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ殖酄烈ޤЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ仄쭊ЉЉЉ ЉЉЉЉЉ엢麲Љ⽾얒谈ЉЉЉЉЉᏤ맸챔翖寢꾢ЉЉЉЉЉЉ鱐湞麲ЉЉЉЉЉЉ ЉЉ躬麲ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ 䚖㎆ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ⬀ﭲ Contour ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour Ploughing. Planting of thorny bushes help stabilize sand dunes in the desert areas.57% in 2002-03. If the outer cover of the soil is removed by wind or water.41% in 200203.28 million sq.26% which has decreased to 43. 38. winds and slope of the land. heavy rains and running water. It is known as sheet erosion. Explain the six major land use categories of our country along with the changes that have occurred recently. overgrazing. The reduction in this category is mainly due to its conversion into net sown area.23% in 1960-61 which has reduced to 4.47% and it is reduced to 3.50 to 3. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. i) Net sown area : In 1960-61 its share was 45. which has been increased to 7. It is a method of controlling soil erosion. 41. but only 93 % is available for use.92% in 2002-03. v) Culturable Waste: Its share was 6.Soil erosion is caused by deforestation. (hilly areas) b) Terrace farming: It restricts soil erosion in hilly areas. It has decreased due to using of agricultural land for other purposes. In the Chambal basin such lands are called ravines. turned unsuitable for cultivation by soil erosion. It has increased due to massive afforestation and government policies. Fallow other than current fallow has increased from 3. 39. c) Strip Cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. 递珓ɞ⥔〣Ǖ33.95% and it has increased to 7.41% in 2002-03. bad Lands are formed.73% in 1960-61. Suggest a few measures of controlling soil erosion. Total area of land in India is 3. b) Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour ploughing.45 % in 2002-03. What are ravines? Where is it found? Ravines are bad land. iv) Permanent pastures and grazing land: Its share in 1960-61 was 4. 37. top soil is washed away.82.03% in 2002-03. which reduces the flow of water. vi) Fallow Land : The share of the current fallow land was 3.km. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources? i) It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonizing countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their ISB 61 .11% in 1960-61 and it has increased to 22.
Net sown area in Punjab and Haryana is over 80 % and in Arunachal Pradesh. ii) It was an agenda to combat environmental damage . diseases through global cooperation on common interests mutual needs and shared responsibilities in the 21st C. poverty. iii) Economic development increases the standard of living of the people. What is the importance of resources? Why is it necessary to conserve them? Resources are vital for any developmental activity. Name two river valleys in South India where black soil is found. It helps in the sustainable development. chemical and physical properties. On what grounds are soils classified? i. 11. What is the main purpose of resources? ( to satisfy basic needs of mankind) 04. Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands it is less than 10 % 43. Additional Questions: 01. Prove by giving examples that the pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. What was the aim of Rio de Janeiro Summit?(Achieve global sustainable development) 07. age. What is the ill effect of accumulation of resources in few hands? (The society will be divided in to rich and poor) 06. environmental pollution and land degradation. Draw a neat diagram showing the soil profile. Mizoram. What is meant by Agenda 21? i) It was the declaration signed by the world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. ISB 62 . Economic development of a country is depended on the availability of resources. 42. It helps them to enjoy a number of facilities and use more resources. Most of them are non renewable. Economic development led to invention of modern machineries which accelerated over exploitation of resources. Resources are in limited quantity. To overcome these problems. Despite enormous potential solar power is not developed in Rajasthan and Gujarat.02. thickness. 03. Soils are classified based on colour. ozone layer depletion. What were the two aims of first earth summit? (Environmental protection and economic development) 09. Irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. which took place at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in 1992. Why ? ( Due to lack of technology and demand) 13. Which mineral is mined in the Indian Ocean? (Manganese nodules) 05. When and where was the first international earth submit held? It was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in 1992 14. texture. It also helps in avoiding wastages and preventing pollution. It helps to conserve the resource for the future generation. resource conservation at various levels is important. ( Godavari valley and Krishna valley) 10. Name four ecological crisis: global warming. Why are yellow soils yellow in colour? (Due to the presence of iron in hydrated form) 12.supremacy over the colonies. ii) Technical development led to mechanization and over exploitation of resources. 08. What do you mean by Deccan trap? It is the plateau formed by deposition of Basalt lava.
( any two) Chapter 3 WATER RESOURCES 1. ii. The desert areas of Rajasthan receive less than 20 cm of annual rainfall and hence is drought prone. Qualitative aspects: A number of villages and cities in India are facing the problem of pure drinking water. pesticides. ii. Duars. iii. i. iv. Name any two types of piedmont plains where alluvial soil is found. b) Use of degraded water: In many areas. Two third of the cropped area in India is still rainfed . 5. 2. Water in these areas is polluted due to domestic and industrial wastes. ISB 63 . It is continuously renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. people are forced to drink and use polluted water which causes various water borne diseases. 4. Name any two books that advocate resource conservation. 15. Much of the energy for industrial use is obtained from hydro electricity. Variation in the annual rainfall makes these areas drought prone. What are the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water scarcity in India? Quantitative aspects: A large part of India is facing the problem of shortage of fresh water. Over exploitation of water resources: For more food production. Rapidly growing population: A large population needs more water not only for domestic use but also for production of more food. which is uncertain and irregular which affects agriculture. ‘Small is beautiful’ written by Schumacher and ‘Our Common future’ 16. increasing urbanization and rising standard of living. d) Inadequate supply water for irrigation. How does water become a renewable resource? Explain. Chos and Terai. What are the causes of growing water scarcity in India? Variation in the annual rainfall: The rainfall in India is unequally distributed. Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim the dams as the ‘temples of modern India? 3. All water moves in the hydrological cycle and ensures that water is a renewable resource. How does water threaten human welfare? Or Why is it necessary to conserve water resources? Give reasons. and fertilizers.iii) One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21. Industrialization and urbanization: Industries require a lot of water for processing and as a cleaning agent. chemicals. Urbanization changes the life style of people and demand of water increases. a) Scarcity of water: Due to high population. Fresh water is obtained from surface water and ground water. i. there is a growing scarcity of water felt all over India. It leads to water scarcity. makes the situation worse. water resources are over exploited which leads to its scarcity. c) Lowering the water table: Increased use of tube wells in recent years has lowered the water table and has caused depletion of underground water resources. Rising population.
In the flood plain of Bengal. Why are dams now referred as multipurpose projects? Dams are now used for number of purposes at a time. It leads to loss of livelihood to many tribal and village people and find it difficult to rehabilitate them. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi purpose river valley projects. Dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water. iii. 9. i. 6. They are a) Flood control b ) Irrigation c) Navigation d ) Electricity e) Soil conservation and preservation of wildlife through afforestation f)Tourism or recreation (F. Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modern India. Regulating and damming of river water affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoirs. vi. In arid and semi arid regions of Rajasthan agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil. Dams prevent the migration and spawning of aquatic fauna. (Give example) 8. 10. Inter-state dispute also becoming common over sharing the cost and benefit of multi purpose river valley projects. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rainwater. people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. What is meant by rainwater harvesting? Mention a few traditional techniques of rain water harvesting. Therefore. iii. iv. Discuss how rainwater harvesting is carried out in semi arid regions of Rajasthan.Dams would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialization and growth of the urban economy. (Explain points) Why do the dams in India come under great scrutiny and opposition? ( What are the arguments against large dams?) i. ii.T. v. In Gujarat the Sabarmati-basin farmers agitated against the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas particularly during drought. Construction of dams leads to submergence of land and vegetation leading to its decomposition over a period of time. ii. ISB 64 . ( Explain the above two answers) 7. ) Hence they are called multipurpose projects.E. Roof top rainwater harvesting was commonly practiced to store drinking water particularly in Rajasthan. iv.S.I.N. resulting in rockier streambeds and poorer habitat for the river’s aquatic life.
iv In some areas. nearly 200 houses have installed roof top rain water harvesting system. iii. i. ( Define the term Tanka) ii The tanks could be as large as a big room. Name two structures built to harvest water in hilly areas. particularly during droughts. It creates conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources. 17. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters. i ISB 65 . 18. i. ii. They were connected to the slopping roofs of the houses through a pipe. 15. 19. Multi purpose projects induced earthquakes. ii. 11. Who are the people benefited by multi purpose river valley projects? i. What is the ecological consequence of irrigation and changing of cropping pattern? Salinization of soils. Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water. River valley projects increase the social gap between the richer landlords and land less poor.and Johads. the roof top rainwater harvesting structure is made compulsory to all houses across the state. ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ These resistance movements are started against large scale displacement of local communities. the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas. caused waterborne diseases and pollution resulting from excessive use of water. In Gujarat.Almost all the houses in these regions had traditional underground tank or ‘tankas’ for storing drinking water. 16. Land owners and large farmers. i Today in western Rajasthan the practice of roof top rainwater harvesting is declined due to availability of ample supply of water from the Rajasthan canal. Khadins. 12. a remote village in Mysore. Name two water harvesting system in Rajasthan. Kuls. Release of water from dams during heavy rains aggravated the flood situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat in 2006 ii. ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ ii. Guls. 13. the ground water is recharged through hand pumps or using abandoned wells. Name any two social movements against multi purpose river valley projects. iv The rainwater. ii In Gendathur. How does river valley projects transform social landscape? Give an example. iii The tanks were part of the well-developed roof top rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or courtyard. 14. i. What is the Krishna Godavari dispute raised by the Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh Governments? It is regarding the diversion of more water at Koyna by the Maharashtra Government for a multi purpose project. falling on the roof would travel down through the pipe and is stored in the underground tanks. Prove by giving examples that river valley projects fail to achieve the purpose for which they were built. Industrialists and a few urban centres. The dams were constructed to control floods but it has triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir and due to dam failure. iii In Tamil Nadu. This would reduce down stream flow in their states with adverse consequences for agriculture and industry.
ISB 66 .20. However. Change in the technological know-how iii. it includes animal husbandry. 3) Agriculture provides 10 % of our total exports and a source of fodder for animals. rural roads. II. 21. It accounts for 26 % of the Gross Domestic Product. Agriculture thus means land cultivation. Differentiate between net sown area and gross cropped area. Define the term agriculture. 3. State any two reasons for the change in the methods of cultivation. Define the term ‘matkas’. 2) Agriculture is the mainstay of India's economy. 4) Its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population is 63 per cent in 2001. ‘India is an agricultural country.6 % of the total geographical area. (Explain) 4. horticulture and pisiculture. The net sown area and the land in the net sown area cultivated more than once together make gross cultivated area. forestry. i. the various limitations from which the Indian agriculture suffers presently. It is about 46. These are the earthen pots used by Rajasthan women for collecting and storing water. Mention in brief. Nearly two-third of its population depends directly on agriculture for its livelihood.4 AGRICULTURE 1. III. The growth rate in agriculture is decelerating which is an alarming situation. market and mechanization. 1) The total land cultivated in a year is called net sown area. What is meant by hydraulic cycle? Movement of water in different forms from ocean to atmosphere and from atmosphere to ocean. power. Change in the socio cultural practices. (Drawback of Indian agriculture) I. Agriculture is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the country. reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country. 5. Why did the Sabarmati basin farmers agitate and almost cause a riot in Gujarat? It was over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas CHAPTER. Moreover. 22. Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production. ' Comment. 2. Or Why is agricultural development a precondition for our national prosperity? Or What is the importance of agriculture in India? 1) India is an agricultural country. Today. Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation. Change in the physical environment ii. The term agriculture is derived from two Latin words 'ager' meaning land and 'cultur' meaning cultivation. 2) The net sown area in India at the present is 143 million hectares.
Mizoram and Nagaland. What is primitive subsistence farming? Why do majority of Indian farmers follow it? i. It is a labour intensive farming. iii. ii. The farmers follow this type because their holding of land is very small due to continuous family partition and the ‘right of inheritance’ and the absence of alternative sources of livelihood. natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown. Crops are grown for two or three years. They are poor farmers and they can't use fertilizers and machinery.hectare yield is low. iii. ii. When the fertility is reduced the farmers move to another area to cultivate by clearing forests again. maize. 7.IV. It is. Majority of Indian farmers practise subsistence farming because they have scattered land holdings and they use only primitive tools. digging sticks and family labour. 6. It is practiced in small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe. The per. Meghalaya. d) Simple implements are used. In this system. iv. f) It is practiced in the region of low density of population 9. Name any two local names of primitive subsistence farming. 10. where high dozes of bio-chemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining high production. It is Jhumming in Assam. In Manipur it is Pamlou. forestland is cleared to cultivate. c) The rotation of field is practiced. e) Per capita or the per-hectare production is low. Subsistence farming is the cultivation of crops for domestic use and not for sale. This type of farming depends on monsoon. What is commercial farming? What are its characteristics? It is the type of farming practised mainly for sale. It allows the land to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes. Facilities like electricity and irrigation are not available to them. So they produce more than what they require for domestic consumption. ii. b) Dry paddy. Plantation agriculture is an example of commercial farming. What is intensive subsistence farming? Why do the farmers follow this type of farming? It is a type of farming practiced in the areas of high population pressure on land. Its characteristics are the following: ISB 67 . What is shifting agriculture? What are its features? a) Shifting agriculture is the old type of agriculture. and vegetables are grown in this farming. i. Features: a) It is a subsistence type of agriculture. It is Dipa in Bastar districts of Chattisgarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture. i. other wise known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
chemical fertilizers. ISB 68 . Crops like watermelon. sophisticated machinery. vegetables. cucumber. 2) It is a capital-intensive agriculture and requires good managerial ability. coconut. cocoa. Irrigation facilities are available to this farming technique. Rabi Crop Season: Rabi season starts in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. 14. What are the factors that play an important role in the development of plantations? i. What are the features of plantation agriculture? Plantation agriculture is bush or tree farming. Haryana. 6) All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries and has an interface of agriculture and industry. 12. maize. 4) It is normally developed in hilly areas of northeastern India. and fodder crops are grown during this period. 11. ii. Crops like rice. Modern inputs like High Yielding Varieties of seeds. iv.e. Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan helped a lot in the growth of rabi crops. Crops such as wheat. are grown in Kharif season. fertilizes. from June – July to September -October. barley. State any two reasons for the success of rabi crops in wheat producing areas. i. Aanamalai and Cardamom hills. coffee. Availability of precipitation during winter months due to western temperate cyclones helps the growth of these crops. Zaid season: It is a crop season between Rabi and Kharif seasons practised during the end of summer in March to May. The British introduced it in the 19 th Century. iii. urad etc. groundnut. linseed. 5) Since the production is on large quantity processing factory also is built with in or close to it. Kharif Crop season: The ' Kharif ' season starts with the onset of monsoon and continues till the beginning of winter i. cotton. rapeseed and mustard seeds are grown in rabi season. ii. It is a mechanized farming system in which modern machinery is used. oranges etc. grain. The success of Green Revolution in Punjab. Its features are the following: 1) It is a single crop farming in a large area. grapes. It includes tea. 3) It requires technical know-how. Which are the different crop seasons in India? i. moong. and pesticides are used. ii.i. The yield per hectare or productivity is very high. Processing industries with in the estate and the technical know-how play an important role in its development. apples. Nilgiri. ii. 13. iii. millet. irrigation and transport facilities. A well-developed network of transport and communication system is an important factor since the plantation agriculture is market-oriented. spices. insecticides. muskmelon.
Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of wheat. is ideal for its cultivation. This crop requires cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. The mean monthly temperature of about 25°C. Why is the extension of green revolution necessary in India? ( Growing population and declining trend of food production. Maharashtra.(Explain points) 16. Ragi is rich in iron. Name the major areas of rice production. it is grown with the help of irrigation.for food security. ISB 69 . They have high nutritional value. Rajasthan and Bihar. The most important rice producing areas are Bengal. Name an important staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced. The ideal temperature at the time of sowing wheat is 10 to 15° C and at the time of harvest. the Ganga Satluj plains in the north-west and the black soil region in the Deccan. bajra and ragi are some of the important millets grown in India. c) Rajasthan is the largest producer of Bajra. It requires high temperature and high humidity for its successful growth. Jowar.) 18. Into how many heads can we group the varieties of crops conveniently? (Cereals. What are millets? Why are millets a very important food crop in India? a) Millets are the third most important food crops in India. oilseeds. It is a rabi crop. sowing. Karnataka.15. Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Punjab. Or Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of rice. Haryana. e) Rice and Wheat cannot provide the total food of India. growing and harvesting seasons. The major areas of wheat cultivation is Punjab. It is also produced in Uttar Pradesh. fibre crops. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu ( BUPAT) 17. It requires well-drained fertile lands. Andhra Pradesh.to have a favourable land use pattern and to increase the net sown area) . Uttar Pradesh. The crop grows well in areas where rainfall is 50 to 75 cm. Gujarat and Haryana. It grows well in areas of 100 cm of rainfall. Name the major areas of wheat production. So millets are important to support the food requirements. India is the second largest producer of wheat after China. d) Ragi is produced mainly in the drier parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.For making use of abundant natural gas to manufacture fertilizers. Uttar Pradesh. (Give examples. beverage crops and cash crops. Or What are the features of rice cultivation in India? Rice is the most important staple crop in India. It grows well in two wheat growing zones in India viz. (PHURB) 19. pulses. it is 20 to 25° C. with minor variations during. In the areas of less rainfall. calcium and other micro nutrients. It is a tropical plant. b) Jowar is produced in many states like Maharashtra. after rice and wheat.
Its major producers are Tamil Nadu. It belongs to the millet group. iii. the residue after oil is extracted from the seeds. Arhar and Urad are kharif crops and Moong and Masur. Describe the characteristics of maize and its cultivation. (c) It grows well in areas of 50 to 100cm of rain and in areas of less rain it is grown under irrigation. (1) Tea cultivation in India is a classic example of plantation agriculture. (b) These are grown all over the country except the areas of heavy rainfall. Madhya Pradesh. It is a kharif crop. UttarPradesh. i. ISB 70 . State the importance of ragi crop in India. loamy. (a) Oil seeds are used to make vegetable oil. Rice and Wheat cannot provide the total food for India. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu. It is a tropical as well as a sub-tropical plant. (a) Pulses are the major sources of protein in a vegetarian diet. (d) It grows well under temperature between 21 and 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil. ii. Tea is an important beverage crop in India. Name an important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth. Uttar Pradesh. black. (e) It requires well-drained fertile soil. The major oil seeds are the following: (a) Groundnut: It accounts for about half of the major oil seeds produced in the country. Karnataka. (e) Two important pulses are Gram and Tur. sandy. Ragi is rich in iron. Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh(MUKAM). millets are important to support the food requirements. It is a crop of dry region and grows well on red. Peas and Gram are rabi crops. Karnataka. and shallow black soils. (c) India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world. (d) Plants of pulses help in restoring fertility of the soil and hence they are grown in rotation with other crops. Ragi has a high nutritional value. (c) Pulses like Tur. Bihar and Andhra Pradesh(KUMBA) 22.20. Rapeseed and Mustard seed and Lin seed: 24. Describe the importance of pulses as a food crop and its cultivation.KAM). (b) Oil cake. What is the importance of oil seeds in India? Describe any one and its distribution.(TG. 23. Gujarat. Gram is produced in Madhya Pradesh. is an important cattle feed. which is an important item of Indian food. Therefore. (b) It is grown under varied soil and climatic conditions. (a) Maize is a coarse grain and used as both food and fodder. Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. State any two important pulses and mention the states producing it. The other oil seeds are Sesamum. 21. Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan(MUR) and Tur is produced in Maharashtra. (f) It is cultivated mainly as a kharif crop. calcium and other micronutrients. (g) Major maize producing states are Karnataka. iv.
Mention the major producing areas of any two crops. (3)India is the fifth major rubber producing country in the world. a) Modern machineries are used in agriculture for ploughing. ropes. Technological Reforms. sowing. (4) It is a labour intensive crop and requires cheap and skilled labour. Jute is a crop of hot and humid climate. carpets and other artifacts. 27. c) High Yielding Varieties and early maturing quality seeds have been introduced to increase the agricultural production. yarn. (5)The ideal temperature for its growth is 20 to 30°C and annual rainfall of 150 to 300 cm. 25. The other rubber producing states are Tamil Nadu. Haryana. The fibre is obtained from the retting of the plant. The crop takes 8 to 10 months to mature. Tamil Nadu and Kerala. d) Irrigation facilities have improved with the constructions of canals and the introduction of motor pumps. Institutional Reforms. i) Cotton. Assam. Assam and Tripura. ) ) ISB 71 . d) It is produced in Bihar. Explain point 5) 26. Cotton is grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.(2)Tea grows well in deep and fertile well-drained soil. b) Indian farmers have started to use chemical fertilizers on a large scale. At the time of harvest. ( Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the Government in the interest of farmers. iv) The main cotton producing states are Gujarat. mats. (6) Kerala produces about nine-tenth of the total production of rubber. rich in humus and organic matter. Which are the important fibre crops in India. ( Write the temperature and rainfall conditions required for rubber cultivation. ii) It requires at least 210 frost-free days. It is grown well in black and alluvial soils. Silk and Wool are the important fibre crops of India. (4) About 97% of the country’s demand for natural rubber is met from domestic production. Orissa. Major tea producing states are Assam. How have the technological and institutional reforms been able to improve the conditions of Indian agriculture? Explain with suitable examples. (5) The tree requires moist and humid climate with rainfall more than 200cm. West Bengal. harvesting and thrashing. the weather should be fine to maintain the luster of cotton. (2) It is used for manufacture of a number of industrial products like tyres and tubes. Jute. and temperature above 25°C. Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. (6) High humidity is good for the rapid development of tender leaves. Karnataka. It requires a lot of cheap and efficient labour at the time of plucking of cotton balls. iii) It requires 6 to 8 months to mature and it is a kharif crop. drip irrigation and use of sprinklers. c) It is used in making bags. (3) It requires warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. What is the importance of rubber production as a cash crop? (1) Rubber is produced from the latex of a number of different species of rubber tree. Punjab. and Meghalaya. West Bengal.
ii. ( add relevant points from answer 27 ) 29. i. flood. c) The widespread use of radio and television acquainted farmers in new and improved techniques of cultivation. Explain any four features of the comprehensive land development programmes initiated in our country during 1980s and 1990s. iii. which included the institutional and technological reforms. g) Minimum support price for various crops is introduced to remove uncertainty of prices and sales. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research. i. cyclone and diseases was another set up to protect the farmers in new and improved techniques of cultivation. flood. Comprehensive land development programmes. The Green revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution were some of the strategies adopted. b) The Govt. iv. Horticulture Department. e) Easy availability of capital or investment. encouraged the consolidation of smallholdings of land to make them more profitable. 28. h) Issue of Kissan Credit Cards and introduction of Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are some other measures taken. The Government of India started a number of agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. What are its consequences? It affects the food security in India. abolished the Zamindari system to protect the interest of the farmers. ii. It affects the dependent cattle population in India and even affects the ecological balance. 30.V. Veterinary services. ii. Easy availability of capital or investment through a well-knit network of rural banking like ‘Grammen banks’ were introduced. through a well-knit network of rural banking like ‘Grammen banks’ was introduced. iii. were introduced in 1980s and 1990s. There will be acute shortage of food grains in India since the population is increasing. iv. which included the institutional and technological reforms. d) The crop insurance against drought. fire. The land under cultivation has been reduced day by day. iv. The widespread use of radio and television acquainted farmers with new and improved techniques of cultivation. Agricultural Universities. A major part of our foreign exchange will have to be spent for importing food grains. The crop insurance against drought. i. Comprehensive land development programmes. fire. f) Special bulletins for farmers were introduced in T. were introduced in 1980s and 1990s. research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast were given priority to modernize agriculture and to improve it. ISB 72 .a) The govt. and radios to take precautionary measures. Majority of the population in India will have to find alternate occupation since agricultural activity is declining. iii. cyclone and diseases was another schemes to protect the farmers against crop failures. Suggest the initiative taken by the Government to ensure the increase in the agricultural production.
Name a commercial crop of Punjab and Haryana. 36. vii.Special bulletins for farmers were introduced in T. and radios to make precautionary measures and to get the farmers acquainted with modern techniques of farming. The government also announced minimum support price for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and intermediaries. More over reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country. insecticides. Ans: Aus. 34. Issue of Kissan Credit Cards and introduction of Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are some other measures taken. power. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture. Aman and Boro.V. irrigation. Today Indian Farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and our government is going ahead with reduction in public investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation. iv. iii. Why is the declining share of agriculture in the GDP a matter of serious concern? Because any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of the economy having wider implications for society. fertilizers. vi. 32. which is a subsistence crop in Orissa. modern technology) 35. ii. ISB 73 . market and mechanization. Name the inputs in commercial farming. Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production. West Bengal and Orissa. rural roads. What are the challenges faced by India farmers today? i. Name any two types of paddy grown in Assam. (any four) v. (HYV seeds. Ans: Rice 33.
liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc. decoration. luster and density. In the stages of development. buses. our implements and machinery too are made of minerals. aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth. iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. festivals and religious and ceremonial rites. crevices. (any other points from answer 1) 3. because. a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms. minerals occur in the cracks. They are ii. i.CHAPTER-5. In igneous and metamorphic rocks. trains. ii) These are homogenous. from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship. It provides sound base for economic and industrial development. these are formed from. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR Where do different forms of minerals generally occur? i. naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. What are the properties of minerals? Minerals are in wide range of colours. Importance: a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use. b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads. ISB 74 . 2. d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc. all are made from minerals. iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES.MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES 1. iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid. c) Cars . What are minerals? What is its importance? i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are constituents of rocks and ores. faults or joints. Minerals are naturally found in solid. human beings use minerals for their livelihood. crystal forms. hardness.
and concentration in horizontal strata. Iron ore. Point i above) 5. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (Ans. bauxite. iii. Normally ferrous metals are available in plenty whereas non ferrous metals are available in limited quantity. ISB 75 . Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum. v. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions. magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. tungsten. They have been formed as a result of deposition. Describe the diversity in the distribution of mineral resources in India. These variations exist because of the difference in the geological structure. potash salt and sodium salt. mica and many other non metallic minerals. which have iron content in it where as non-ferrous metals do not have iron content in it. iv. State an important reason for this diversity. accumulation. leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. and cobalt are some examples of ferrous metals. and the removal of soluble constituents. ii. ii. iii. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure for a long period. iii. The ocean beds too are rich in manganese nodules. pyrite. Which are the important iron ore belts in India? i. 7. nickel. Ferrous metals are those metals. iv. and gold are examples of non ferrous metals. Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. tin and platinum are most important among such minerals. Gold. iv. In sedimentary rocks. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals which are not corroded by water. lead. but most of these are too widely diffused to be of economic significance. Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. Ferrous minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. chromate. ii. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock. zinc. 6. 4. engineering and electrical industries. i. The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. Copper . Bauxite is formed this way. silver. common salt. processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. Non ferrous minerals play an important role in a number of metallurgical. metallic minerals. manganese ore. However. The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals. a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They cool and solidify as they rise. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern sides of the peninsula in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
What are the uses of manganese as a mineral? Name any two states producing manganese ores. What are the properties of mica as a mineral? What are its uses? Where is it found? i. ISB 76 . ii. Hence it is used in electrical and electronic industries It is clear. Hematite is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of quantity used. Orissa Jharkhand belt: High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa. i. Copper is used in electrical cables. i. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka: It has the largest reserves of iron ore.Copper is produced in Singbhum district of Jharkhand and Khetri mines in Rajasthan. It accounted for one-third of the country’s production in 2001. iv. Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Orissa is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. electronics and chemical industries. Name the states where it is produced. Mica is made up of a series of thin plates or leaves. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52 % of copper . State any two uses of copper. utensils and other household goods. It has a lower content of iron from 50 to 60 %. Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the important bauxite producing centre in Orissa. iii. yet they are efficiently exploited. green. iii. These are the two important types of iron ores. Orissa is the largest bauxite producing state with 45 % of the country’s total production in 2001. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder. ii. What are the advantages of bauxite as a metal ore? Where is it found? i. Aluminium is a light metal used in manufacture of airplanes. It is found in Durg and Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh. black. ii. ii. Differentiate between magnetite and hematite. ii. iii. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhatisgarh: Very high-grade hematite is found in the Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhatisgarh. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 %. and paints. It is found in Gua and Noamundi mines of Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand too. 12. Maharashtra –Goa belt: The iron ore of the North Goa district of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra are not of high quality. 8. 11. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable in the electrical industry. insecticides. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are known to be one of the largest in the world. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals like iron with extreme lightness and with good conductivity and malleability. red yellow or brown. Mica has insulating properties and has the quality to withstand high voltage and temperature. 10. 9. Bauxite is the ore from which aluminium is obtained.i.
The rate of replenishment is very slow but the rate of consumption is very fast. Madhya Pradesh. Rich mineral deposits are short-lived possessions. Continued extraction of minerals leads to increasing costs as it comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality. Therefore. which have been in use for a long time. we have to conserve it. ISB 77 ii. 14. producing mica. It is used in the blast furnace in the smelting of iron ore. Why is conservation of minerals necessary? Suggest a few measures to conserve minerals. Economic development of a country depends on the energy sources available in a country. How are the sources of energy categorized? The sources of energy are classified into two: (a) Conventional source of energy: These are the sources of energy. It is needed to cook. Solar. So conservation is necessary. c) Recycling of metals. It is used as a raw material in cement industry . geothermal. .iv. using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving it for future. These are non-renewable sources of energy. and thermal and hydro electricity are conventional sources of energy. iii. b) Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low-grade ores at low costs. to run vehicles and to drive machineries in industries. It is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations. 16. Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. So conservation is necessary. (b) Non-conventional source of energy: These are the new sources of energy developed recently. biogas and atomic energy are non-conventional source of energy. Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in Andhra Pradesh are the other areas. Name an important rock mineral. It is produced in Andhra Pradesh. 15. tidal. wind. natural gas. Rajasthan. Mica is found in northern edge of Chotanagpur plateau. It may be manual or animal and mechanical or electrical. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is only one per cent of the earth crust. What is the significance of energy resources? Energy is an indispensable requirement in modern life. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that requires millions of years to be created and concentrated. What are its uses? Where is it found? Limestone is an important rock mineral. 13. i. These are renewable sources of energy. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. Availability of energy is a pre-requisite of modern economic activities. to provide light and heat. Coal Petroleum. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Measures: a) A concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. It is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium or magnesium carbonates.
Gondwana coal. State the importance of petroleum production in India. (d) Peat has low carbon and high moisture content and low heating capacity. Differentiate between peat and bituminous. it gives more heat and less smoke. i. depth. It provides fuel for heating and lighting. only about 55 million years old. It is found in sedimentary rocks beneath the earth’s surface. It is used in Iron and steel industries as a raw material to reduce its temper. It is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression. Or ( Name the main rock series of coal found in India) a. High grade bituminous coal is the metallurgical coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. a little over 200 million years in age . Name the two common sources of energy in rural areas. b. It is hard black and compact. 22. which is soft with high moisture content and is used for generating electricity.17. ii. the use of firewood is discouraged to prevent further decreasing of forests. 19. and time of burial. Name the main rock series of geological ages where coal occurs in India. Peat has low carbon and high moisture content where as bituminous has high carbon and low moisture content. is found in north-eastern states of Meghalaya. Petroleum is the second major energy source after coal. is found in Damodar valley in West Bengal and Jharkhand. lubricants for machineries and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries. Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile. iii. (b) Bituminous is the most popular coal for commercial use. (c) Lignite is a low-grade brown coal. High grade bituminous coal is the metallurgical coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. Tertiary coal. Coal is so useful that it is called ‘black gold’. Peat has low heating capacity. Assam. It is used for power generation. Since forest area is decreasing. Arunachal Pradesh. About 70 % of energy requirements in rural areas is met by these two. It burns like wood and gives more smoke and less heat. Peat is not widely used where as bituminous is the most popular coal for commercial use. The use of cattle dung is discouraged because it consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture. It burns like wood and gives more smoke and less heat where as bituminous has high heating capacity. 20. Why is its use discouraged? Firewood and cattle dung are the common sources of energy in rural areas. 18. How is coal formed? What is its use? a) Coal is formed due to the compression of plant material over millions of years. What are the four different types of coal? (Black gold) Write its characteristics. c) It is also used as a raw material in chemical industries. ii. (a) Anthracite is the best quality coal. Where does it occur in the rock formations? i. 21. and Nagaland. fertilizer and a numerous chemical industries. to supply energy to industries as well as domestic needs. b) Coal is the main source of power in India. ISB 78 . iii.
it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the up fold. The most important oil field in Gujarat is Ankeleshwar. 23. ii. What are the advantages of petroleum as a fuel? a) Petroleum oil emits very little smoke compared to coal. About 63 % of India’s petroleum production is in Mumbai High off shore in Maharashtra. i. Natural gas reserves are found in Krishna Godavari basin. Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or with out petroleum. The steam produced by burning coal is used to operate turbines and generators. which drives hydro turbines. which is connected to a powerful generator. It is found in Mumbai High and Gulf of Cambay. petroleum or natural gas. much energy is released in the form of heat and this heat is used in the generation of electric power. 24. c) The oil-bearing layer is a porous limestone or sand stone through which oil may flow. Water is released at a great force from a high place on water wheel and turbine. ii. How is nuclear energy produced? Where are the nuclear power plants located in India? i. Describe the distribution of petroleum in India. ii. petrol. or natural gas also used to generate electricity. Digboi. When such an alteration is made. Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in Assam. iii. Andaman and Nicobar islands have large deposits of natural gas. dams are constructed across rivers to store water. b) In regions of folding. About 16 % is from Assam. Uranium and thorium are used to generate atomic power. Thus.a) Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age. Nowadays diesel. ISB 79 . anticlines or domes. b) It does not leave any ash or residue. electricity is produced. Diesel engine is connected to generators so steam is not required. 27. About 18 % is from Gujarat . Why is natural gas considered as the fuel for the present century? ( environmentally fuel) Where are the natural gas reserves located in India? i. Nuclear electricity is produced by altering the structure of atoms. For this purpose. ii. c) It can be used up to the last drop. hence it is considered as the fuel for the present century. It is the oldest oil producing state in India. It is an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions. d) It has low ignition point and catches fire easily 25. ii. What are the two main ways by which electricity is generated? i. Hydro electricity: Hydro electricity is produced by running water. It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in petrochemical industry. 26. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers. Thermal electricity: Thermal electricity is generated by burning coal.
Tarapur in Maharashtra. renewable. So solar energy has a bright future. After the tide falls out side the floodgate. b) At present 70% of our energy requirement comes from thermal power and the fuel used like coal and petroleum are non-renewable resources. ( What are the advantages of bio gas?) 31. 3) Natural gas is a commercial energy where as bio-gas is used for domestic purposes. 2) Bio-gas has more thermal efficiency than Kerosene and charcoal. Rawatbhata near Kota in Rajasthan. 33. farm wastes. A 900 mw. It is solar energy. and heating of water. ISB 80 . c) More over it is pollution free. 29. It can be used for cooking. 1) Natural gas is found associated with or without petroleum. Bio-gas is man made by decomposition of organic matters. which is less than 4% of the total production of electricity. it has lower thermal efficiency compared to natural gas. Km. It is a renewable source of energy and it will not be exhausted. It has the potential to generate 20 MW electricity per sq. Suggest a few measures to conserve energy resources. Distinguish between natural gas and biogas. The gross electricity produced by nuclear power is 2720 MW per year. which in turn will contribute adequate supply of manure in agriculture. ii. Shrubs. It turns into steam when it rises to the surface. the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea through a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine. Use of solar energy will minimize the dependence of rural house holds on fire wood or dung cakes. How is tidal energy generated? Oceanic tides are used to generate electricity. eco friendly. iv. Kakrapara in Gujarat and Kaiga in Karnataka. animal and human wastes are used to produce bio-gas. and abundant. Narora in Uttar Pradesh. It is naturally made. What is solar energy? Why do you think solar energy has a bright future in India? Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight into electricity. During high tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. 30. How is geo thermal energy produced? It is produced by using the heat of the interior of the earth. Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. The largest solar plant in India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj in Gujarat and is used to sterilize milk cans. However. It is pollution free and eco friendly. High temperature is found even in shallow depth where geothermal gradient is high. They are. iii. tidal power plant is set up in Gulf of Kuchchh by the National Hydro Power Corporation. Ground water in such areas absorbs the heat from the rocks and becomes hot. Solar energy has a bright future in India because of the following: a) India is a tropical country and ample sunshine is available. The earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth. 32.iii. There are six nuclear power plants in India. Two experiment projects have been set up in India in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other in the Puga Valley at Ladakh. 4) Biogas ( Gobar gas) has a twin advantage of getting energy as well as improved quality of manure. What are the advantages of solar energy? i. refrigeration and street lighting. This steam is used to drive turbines to generate electricity. which are going to exhaust soon. pumping. 28.
Accidents are common in mines like inundation. 15. Where is the largest wind farm cluster located in India? In Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.Talc 14. Name any two minerals obtained from ocean waters. metallic minerals. ( Tin. i. Implement environmental laws effectively. collapse of mine roof etc. Which is the hardest and softest mineral? Hardest. 7. ISB 81 . State any two factors affecting the economic viabilities of mineral reserves. 34. India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources.: Softest. Zinc. mica and many other non metallic minerals. Parvati valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh ii) Puga valley at Ladakh. (4) Check the power equipments regularly. 8. Concentration of mineral in the ore.Diamond. These are called placer deposits. Name the two experimental projects set up to harness geothermal energy. fire. iv. the ease of extraction and closeness to the market play an important role in affecting the economic viabilities of mineral reserves. Follow safety regulations strictly. The vast alluvial plains of north India is devoid of economic minerals. What is rat hole mining? It is a long narrow tunnel dug to extract minerals. Suggest any two measures to prevent mining from becoming a killer industry. Rajasthan with the rock system of the peninsula has the reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. iii. Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal. ii. 11. (5) Emphasis on greater use of non-conventional sources of energy are some measures to conserve energy resources.(1) Use more and more public transport system and less of individual vehicles. (3) Use power saving devices. Copper. Sedimentary rocks on western and eastern flanks of the peninsula in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. 9. Name the most popular coal in commercial use. 1. . ( Magnetite) 6. It is a type of mining owned by communities in North Eastern states. 12. Bromine 5.( Bituminous coal) 13. Magnesium. Name any two minerals formed as a result of evaporation. 4. (2) Switch off electricity when not required. Where is the largest solar plant located in India? At Madhapur near Bhuj in Gujarat. Explain. 10. fertilizer and chemical industries? Petroleum refineries. Common salt. Name any two minerals obtained from veins and lodes. Lead) 3. What are placer deposits? Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. Which is the nodal industry for synthetic textile. Name the iron ore which has magnetic properties. Additional Questions: Why is mining called a killer industry? Mining causes health hazard to people working and environment due to dust and poisonous fumes. 2.
Agriculture provides raw materials to agro based industries. Since 2003. i. It provides jute for jute industries. the industrial growth rate has increased to 9 to 10 % per year. and sugar cane for sugar industries. insecticides. paper from wood etc. cotton for cotton textile industries. fertilizers. How are industries and agriculture complimentary to each other? i. 2. What is manufacturing? What is the importance of manufacturing? Or Why is manufacturing considered the backbone of economic development of the country? (i) Production of goods in large number by using machines is called manufacturing. ISB 82 . ii. power resources. Sodium salt. (iv) It provides tools and implements for agriculture. iii. Availability of raw materials.. It supplies irrigation pumps. The industries in India have given a boost to agriculture by raising its productivity. thus increases its efficiency. (iii) We manufacture cloth from cotton. Examine the growth rate of industries in the past few decades. i. and favourable climatic condition are the physical factors that affect the location of industries. machines and tools. 4.(Gypsum. Thus. sugar from sugarcane. 3. (ii) Industries provide employment opportunities and reduce poverty in India.) CHAPTER –6 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 1. Or Explain any four factors which influence the industrial location. solve unemployment problem. Potash salt. The economic strength of a country is judged by the development of manufacturing industries. The importance of manufacturing is the following: (i) Industries play an important role in the economy of a country. The desired growth rate in the next decade is 12 %. water facilities. ii. (ii) Raw materials are converted into usable goods in this process. It helps reduce dependence of people on agriculture and provide them job in secondary and tertiary activities. The growth rate of industries in the last decade was 7 % per year. (v) It brings down regional differences by establishing industries to tribal and backward areas. Name the physical and human factors that affect location of industries. In the last two decades the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated to 17 % of the Gross Domestic Product whereas in some other East Asian countries it was 25 to 35 %. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange. and pipes to farmers. (iii) Industries bring foreign exchange.
(iii) Large-scale industries produce both capital goods and consumer goods. Maruti Udyog Ltd. (v) Manufacturing of cotton textiles is a large-scale industry and preparation of Gur and Khandsari is a small-scale industry. (c) Joint sector industries: These are owned and controlled by both government and private individuals jointly on a share basis. But small-scale industries generally produce consumer goods only. e. (ii) Source of raw material used. Democratic set up.g. (d) Co-operative sector industries: These are owned collectively by people on voluntary membership.T (Hindusthan Machine Tools) .g. The human factors that control the location of industries are labourers. private. (ii) Large-scale industries employ large number of labourers where as small-scale industry employ a small number of people.public. e. How are industries classified based on capital investment? (i) Industries are classified into small scale and large scale industries based on the capital investment. (i) Heavy industries are those in which raw materials used and the finished products are heavy and spacious where as in light industries raw materials and finished products are light in weight. Least cost of production. (b) Public sector industries: These are owned and controlled by the government. joint. banking facilities and government policies. ISB 83 . market.ii. Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) etc.g. Mahindra & Mahindra etc. and equality of opportunity are its features.operative sector. Bata Shoe Company (BSC). . Government policies and availability of specialized labour also influence location of industries. Oil India Ltd. capital. or co-operative industries (v) According to their main role in the economy – basic industries or consumer industries. How are industries classified based on ownership? Based on owner ship. (iii) Nature or type of raw material used. H.large scale or small scale industries. (iv) Latest machines. iv. Bhilai Steel Plant. Milk marketing federations and sugar industries are normally under co. 7.M. 6. Bombay Dyeing. Or based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.. Tata Iron & Steel Company.g. (ii) Normally women labourers are not employed in heavy industries where as they are employed in light industries. On what bases are industries classified? Industries are classified on the following basis: (i) Number of labourers employed or on the bases of capital investment . Bajaj Auto. e.light or heavy industries.agro based or mineral based industries. tools and equipments and huge capital are used in large-scale industries where as in small-scale industries small capital less than one crore and simple machines are used. (iv) Ownership of industries. transport facilities. 5. Differentiate between heavy and light industries. 8. e. service motive. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited(BHEL) . Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies. iii. industries are classified as the following: (a) Private companies: It is completely owned and controlled by private individuals.
10. ii. ISB 84 . i. (any two) 12.operative sectors.(iii) Iron and Steel Industry. but most of them are concentrated in Maharashtra.5 million people. E. (c) This industry support many other industries like chemical and dyes. Iron and Steel. sugarcane and vegetable oil industries are agro-based industries where as Mineral-based industries are those industries in which minerals are used as raw materials. Telephone Industry. (c) Adequate banking facilities and moist climate. packing material and engineering works. paper. It provides employment to 35 million people directly and it is the second largest after agriculture. Heavy Machines Industry and Cement Industry are heavy industries. It gives employment to over 1. jute. Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. copper smelting and aluminium smelting. of this 80% are in the private sector. sewing machine. cotton. Describe the importance of textile industries in India.operative sectors. (a) Wide demand or market and it is one of the traditional occupation. and Ceiling Fan Industry etc. (c) While spinning continued to be concentrated in Maharashtra.6 % of foreign exchange. iv. Uttar Pradesh. are light industries. It is the only industry in India. Agro based industries are those industries in which agricultural products are used as raw materials. It earns 24. Cement and Chemical industries are mineral-based industries. Describe the importance of cotton textile industries in India? Where is it distributed? Importance: (a) It is the largest industry in India. 9.g. West Bengal. 13. ii. Gujarat. which is self-reliant and complete in value chain from raw material to the highest value added products. which is about 20% of the industrial labour force in India. Consumer industries: These industries produce goods for direct use by consumers. Differentiate between ago based and mineral-based industries. Basic or key Industries: These industries provide basic materials for other industries like iron and steel. Textile Industry.Explain. silk. the rest in the public and co. 11. It contributes 4% of the GDP. of this 79% are in the private sector. and Tamil Nadu weaving is in decentralized sector. ‘The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian industry’ . (b) There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. Gujarat. Distribution: (a) There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. fans etc. toothpaste. the rest in the public and co. sugar. State any two factors contributed towards the localization of cotton textile mills in India. (b) Better transport facilities including accessible port facilities. How are industries classified according to their main role in economy? i. Examine some of the problems faced by the cotton textile industries today. e. (b) Cotton textile industries are spread over 80 towns and cities in India. It contributes 14 % of the total industrial production. iii.g.
and enhancing the yield per hectare. Sugar industries are based on sugarcane as the raw material. The National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity. of this 80% are in the private sector. So industries are close to its producing areas.operative sectors. Egypt and Thailand reduced over all demand for Indian jute products. It should be processed without delay to prevent losing of sugar content. The internal market has been increasing due to the Government policy of compulsory use of jute packaging and to prevent the use of polymers or polythene bags. (d) Low productivity of labour and (e) Stiff competitions with synthetic fibre industry are the problems faced by the cotton textile industries in India. It is available here. More over sugarcane is a perishable and weight losing products. improving quality. Sugar industries are migrating to South India due to the following reasons: ISB 85 . 16. (c) Erratic powers supply. Problems faced by the cotton textile industries: (a) Scarcity of good quality of cotton. electricity. Banking facilities are adequate. Why are the jute textile mills concentrated along the Hughli River? Explain by giving four examples. Therefore. Jute mills required a lot of water for processing jute. (b) Hughli River is used for inexpensive transportation supported by a good network of railways and roadways to help movement of raw materials and finished products. Port facility and banking facilities are also available in West Bengal. labour and capital contributed towards the localization of cotton textile industries in India (d) There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. which is very heavy. What are the challenges facing jute industry in India? (a) Jute producing areas are located at the bank of the river Hughli and the textile mills should be closer to the producing areas. industries are located very close to its producing areas. 15. Synthetic substitutes also posing threat to jute industry. (d) Cheap labor is available in West Bengal and the neighbouring states of Bihar. biodegradable materials has once again opened the opportunity for jute products. What are the steps taken by the Government to protect jute industry in India? or What is the new trend in the demand for jute products? i. ii. (c) Stiff competition in international markets especially from Bangladesh. (b) Obsolete machinery. Why are sugar industries located near to sugarcane producing areas? Why are sugar industries migrating to South India? Name the sugar producing states in India. Challenges of jute industries: Demand for jute carpets and packing materials declined in the international market. Brazil. Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Philippines. Cost of production has increased.(c) (e) (f) (a) (b) (d) (d) Availability of raw cotton. iii. The growing global concern for environment friendly. the rest in the public and co. 14. ensuring good prices to jute farmers.
ii. Why are iron and steel plants located in the north eastern and southern part of Indian Peninsula? Or What are the relative advantage of the Chotanagpur plateau for the development of iron and steel industry? Iron and steel industry requires low cost iron ore. They have re-rollers that use steel ingot as well. These are available in the north eastern and southern part of Indian peninsula. These areas have inland waterways and good network of roads. These industries make use of sea ports of the Indian peninsula like. c) Irregular supply of energy. Punjab. high-grade coal. limestone and manganese ore as raw materials. Vishakapatnam. Except Vishakapatanam steel plants. Paradip. Mini steel plants are smaller and have electric furnaces. (a) There are over 460 sugar mills in the country. Haryana. Karnataka. We import good quality steel from other countries. use steel scrap and sponge iron. (Explain points) 19. iii. Sugar industry is a labour intensive industry it requires a lot of cheap labour. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications. Haldia. Coal is used as a major source of fuel in integrated steel plants. Since raw materials and finished products are heavy good transport system is required for its distribution. which is available in south India. Chennai etc. i. ( Where should the steel plants be ideally located ? Select points from the above answer) 18. c) Irregular supply of energy. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problem does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity? i. Hence. About 60% of them are located in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. iii. sugar industry is migrating to south India. Or Why are we not able to perform to our full potential though India is an important iron and steel producing country? a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal. The co operative societies are more successful in south India. iv. and Madhya Pradesh also produce sugar. ISB 86 . d) Poor infrastructure. Andhra Pradesh Gujarat. State any two reasons for the low productivity of iron and steel in India. v. Sugarcane requires a lot of water for its processing. d) Poor infrastructure. b) Lower productivity of labour.The sugar content in the sugarcane in south India is more than that of north India. The problems faced by the iron and steel industries are the following: a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal. An integral steel plant is large and handles everything related to smelting of iron. (Explain points) Recent developments: i. So it is more profitable there. It is available in south India. Tamil Nadu. 17. b) Lower productivity of labour. iv. The cooler climate in this region ensures a longer crushing season. all steel plants are located to in the mineral rich northeastern and southern part of Indian peninsula. Raw materials are converted in to iron . Rolling and shaping is done here and steel bars are made. Maharashtra. ii. It also demands cheap labour and wide market.
house fabrications etc. which is used for the manufacturing of fertilizers. synthetic rubber. iii) Sulphuric acid is a heavy inorganic chemical. Why is aluminium smelting gaining popularity? It is gaining popularity due to the following reasons: i) It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. KUMB) 22. drugs and pharmaceuticals. Other inorganic chemicals are nitric acid and alkalis.ii. What is its use? Where is it manufactured? i. Sulphuric acid is a heavy inorganic chemical. (any two) (Which is the second important metallurgical industry of India? Why is it getting popularity? (Write the answer above) 21. synthetic fibres. resistant to corrosion. plastics paints and dyestuffs. drugs and pharmaceuticals. ii) Petrochemicals are heavy organic chemicals. plastics. 20. Name any two heavy organic and inorganic chemicals produced in India. which is used for manufacturing of articles like synthetic fibres. The organic chemical industries are located near oil refineries and petro-chemical plants. 23. soap and detergents. ISB 87 . plastics. State two prime factors that determine the location of Aluminium industry. iii. ii. Uttar Pradesh. India has vast reserves of bauxite. zinc and lead in a number of industries. utensils. bronze and iron. For all these reasons aluminium smelting is gaining popularity. Other inorganic chemicals are nitric acid and alkalis. iv) It is a cheap metal compared to copper. synthetic rubber. Maharashtra and West Bengal (C. copper. Bauxite from which aluminium is obtained is widely available in India. ii) Aluminium is used as a substitute to steel. which helped to absorb new technology at work. Rapid growth has been recorded in both organic and inorganic chemical industries. soap and detergents. Liberalization and privatization has given a boost to this industry. Petrochemicals are heavy organic chemicals. dyestuff.T. Foreign Direct Investment increased in India. Name the states where aluminium plants are located.in Chhattisgarh. i) Chemical industry is growing fast. plastics.. Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass. India produces 620. i) Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass. Hence its demand is increasing. ii) Production of pesticides has contributed much to agriculture by controlling harmful insects and weeds. dyestuff. paper. malleable and becomes strong when mixed with other metals. How has chemical industry gained an important position in the Indian economy? Explain any six points in this regard. paints and dyestuffs. a good conductor of heat. iii) It is light. which is used for the manufacturing of fertilizers. paper. iv) It is used in manufacturing of airplanes. Tamil Nadu. (Explain points) The aluminium plants are located. Kerala. synthetic fibres.000 tonnes of aluminium per year. which is used for manufacturing of articles like synthetic fibres. a) Availability of regular supply of cheap electricity b) Availability of bauxite. electrical wires and other equipments.
computers and various other equipments. i. Chennai. cars. Punjab and Kerala produce more than half of the total fertilizer production in India. Mumbai. Large demand of good quality cement produced in India by the countries of East Asia. iv. (1) (2) (1) (2) ISB 88 . Indore. iii. iv. Pune. 25. Uttar Pradesh. which have the combination of nitrogen. This industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years. Name the states where it is produced. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms by the government helped its growth in India. Jamshedpur and Bangalore. motor cycles. space and meteorological equipments. Nitrogenous fertilizers like urea: India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers. The IT industry provided employment to one million persons by March 2005 out of which 30 % are women. cellular phones. Phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate: There are 9 ammonium sulphate plants as a by. Importance: This industry looks after the needs of defence equipments. Kolkatta. Products : India produces a wide range of electronics ranging from a small transistor set to television sets. Write a short note on the automobile industry in India. ii. i. The first cement plant was set up at Chennai in Tamil Nadu in 1904. State any two reasons for the rapid growth of cement industries in India. The industries are located at Delhi. three wheelers. Name the different varieties of fertilizers produced in India. which are used in various fields of life. ii. 28. Gujarat. phosphate. Tamil Nadu. there are 15 passenger car and multi utility vehicle industries. Alumina and gypsum. buses. Hence it is a raw material oriented industry. i. Middle East. railways. airways. scooters. pagers. Complex fertilizers.iii) In the production of pharmaceuticals India leads in the developing countries. 9 commercial vehicle industries and 14 two and three wheelers industries in India. and potash . There are 57 fertilizer industries in India producing nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilizers in which 29 industries produce urea. It contributes 14 % of production of entire manufacturing sector and its share in export is also 14% 24. Why is cement a raw material oriented industry? Where and when was the first cement industry set up in India? Manufacturing of cement requires heavy materials like limestone. At present. Africa and South Asia apart from the domestic demand boosted this industry.product and 68 other small plants produce single super phosphate in India. iii. 26. 27. Lucknow. Gurgaon. There are 128 large and over 332 mini cement industries in India at present. Hyderabad. Describe about information technology and the electronics industries in India. silica. India produces telephone exchanges. and multi utility vehicles are produced in India. Foreign Direct Investment brought new technology to India and aligned the industry with global developments. As a result of Green Revolution the demand for fertilizers increased thus the industry spread to several parts of India. Trucks.
(3) It has revolutionized the life of people and changed country's economy and the quality of human life. They contain both organic and inorganic materials. Or Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industries. There are four types of pollution created by these industries. (b) Water pollution: The industrial effluents are discharged into rivers. Kolkata. materials and the atmosphere. (e) Discharge the industrial effluents after proper treatment. smoke stags. electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers should be used to control particulate matter in the air. chemical. The noise from mechanical saws and pneumatic drills is unbearable and it may cause impairment of hearing (deafness) 31. Dust. (b) Other electronic good producing centres are Hyderabad. settle down the land which causes pollution. 30. Suggest a few measures to control environmental degradation and pollution that is caused by industries. Mumbai. ISB 89 . The principal industries. Air pollution affects human health. Fly ash. 32. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal power plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling (c) Land and soil pollution: Industrial wastes containing toxic metal. glass. (a) There should be proper planning in the selection of industrial sites. Chennai. tannery and electroplating. fume. (a) Bangalore is the electronic capital of India. phospo-gypsum and iron and steel stags are the major solid wastes in India. pesticides. Unscientific processing in many industries like ceramic industry and cement industry create a lot of dust containing chemicals. Industrial effluents even cause acid rain. soaps. (c) Avoid using coal in industries and use of oil as fuel to prevent smoke. which create water pollution are paper pulp. mist. fabric filters. Lucknow and Coimbatore. (a) Air pollution: It is caused by the smoke or gases emitted by industries which contain poisonous gases like carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. dyes. (b) Equipments used in industries should be designed better to prevent smoke. fertilizers. Air-borne particulate materials consist of both solid and liquid particles. (f) Equipments or generators should be fitted with silencers. textiles. (d) Equipments like inertial separators. Kanpur. spray and smoke contain both types of particles. Which is the electronic capital of India? Name the major electronics goods producing centres in India. (4) The electronic goods bring a fair amount of foreign exchange to India. petroleum. It should not be in a congested area. Pune. refining. and harmful chemicals pollute land and soil. animals. plastics and rubber are the common pollutants of water. Coal. Delhi. 29. How does industrial pollution degrade environment? OR How do manufacturing industries contribute to polluting and environmental degradation? Manufacturing industries are responsible for environmental degradation and pollution. which degrade the land. (d) Noise pollution: Unwanted noise arise from industry and transport vehicles create a lot of problems. Suggest a few measures for reducing industrial pollution of fresh water. plants.
The cotton textile is a labour intensive industry where as iron and steel is a capital-intensive industry. It involves use of biological methods. It supplies raw materials for manufacturing machineries and other industries. iv. It includes screening. v. Why? i. ii) It was a powerful tool to protest against the British since he advocated boycotting foreign clothes. Iron and steel is a basic industry. (c) Treating of water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds. Cotton textile is a light industry. However. The profit margin in this industry will be much more than any other industry and it contributes a major share in the GDP. 35. since the raw material used and the finished products are light where as iron and steel is a heavy industry. Development of mill sector helps only a few capitalists where as millions of people are benefited by the development of powerloom and hand loom. our trade in garments is only 4 % of the world total. Cotton textile is in decentralized sector where as iron and steel is in centralized sector. grinding. What are the mismatches of textile industry in India? i) We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn. (b) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements. Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasize on spinning yarn and weaving khadi? i) It supported millions of cotton textile workers and through this Gandhiji wanted to remove their poverty. accounting for ¼ of the total trade. The former one is a consumer industry where as the latter is a basic industry. Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than the power loom and handloom? i) Mill sector loomage should be kept lower to avoid competition to the handloom clothes. 38. Distinguish between cotton textile and iron and steel industry. ii) Development of mill sector will not help to solve the problems of millions of population since they are in powerloom and hand loom sector. iii. (1) Primary treatment: It is a mechanical process. (2) Secondary treatment: It is a biological process. The strength of an economy will be depended on the strength of the basic industries. Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as an index of a country’s development. flocculation and sedimentation. (3) Tertiary treatment: It is combination of biological. It includes recycling of wastewater. 33. chemical and physical processes. i. Hence production and consumption of steel indicates the development of secondary sector and tertiary sector. How is the treatment of industrial liquids done? Name the three phases of treatment of industrial wastes. 37. 36. ii.(a) Minimizing the use of water for processing by re using and recycling it in two or more successive stages. ISB 90 . ii. Cotton textile is an agro-based industry since the raw material used is an agricultural product whereas iron and steel is a mineral-based industry. 34.
With what objective was The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council ( NMCC) formed? To improve industrial productivity and achieve the targeted growth rate with appropriate policy interventions by the government the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council ( NMCC) was formed 4. Why is cotton textile industries located in Maharashtra and Gujarat? 2. 7. Explain.. Kolkatta and Chennai. ii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner because of the Buisiness Processes Outsourcing sector. i) The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India. The jute industry in India has been passing through difficult times. 4. electroplating industry. Name two industries causing water pollution: Tannery. In which sector does the Jamshedpur steel plant fall with reference to ownership? Why is it located in Jamshedpur. iii) There are some large and modern factories but most of the production is in fragmented small units. ISB 91 . Bengal was famous for jute production. ii. What is the key to decision of the factory location? Least cost. 6. Account for the fact that iron and steels industry is mainly in public sector in India. East Bengal became part of Pakistan and later an independent country called Bangladesh. knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn that is produced in the country. Accordingly. How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry? i. textile industry. 2. Which is the only industry in India. the weaving. 8. However. which cause pollution. Sulpher dioxide and carbon monoxide. Now one of the problems faced by jute industry in India is international competition especially from Bangladesh. Additional Questions: 1. phospo-gypsum and iron and steel stags 1. 39. we lost some of the major jute industries like the one in Agarthala. which cater to the local needs. 8. Mention any two solid wastes in India. Name two gases causing air pollution.ii) Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fabrics we produce. It was partitioned into East and West Bengal in 1947 along with the partition of India. Where were the manufacturing units located in the pre-independence period in India? These were located in places from the point of view of overseas trade such as Mumbai. Whys is jute industry declining in India? What measures would you suggest to improve it? 5. 7. What is the importance of sugar industry? Explain the development of sugar industry in India 10. which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain? Textile Industry. Why is there a growing concern for shifting industry from urban areas? 6. 9. 5. Fly ash. Compare and contrast cotton textile industries and jute textile industries in India. Why is iron and steel industries concentrated in Chotanagpur region? 3. 3. Compare and contrast cotton textile and iron and steel industries in India. State any two reasons for the success of the IT industry in India.
(Continue…) 2. What are the advantages of roads over railways? Or (How does road transport score over railways?) What are the problems faced by the road transportation in India? (a) Roads are important for transport of goods and passengers for short and medium distances. Why is ‘transport and communication’ called the lifelines of an economy? Or Why is transport a necessity? (Why is it considered a pre requisite for economic development? ) Transport helps in the movement of people goods and materials. (d) Roads connect areas of production with market. factories with farms and provide door-to-door service. Transport has been able to achieve this with the help of equally developed communication system. . iii. (d) Pipelines cover both land and water. iii. 3. ii. It helps in the production and distribution of goods and services. (b) Road transport is relatively cheap and easy both in construction and maintenance. The pace of development of a country depends on the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. (c) It can be constructed even in mountainous terrain where as railways are not possible in these areas. It provides link between producers and consumers of goods. 4. (a) Roadways and railways are the means of transportation that covers land.11. How are transport. With the development of science and technology the area of influence of trade and transport expanded far and wide. ii. (c) Airways through planes and helicopters cover air. Name the four means of transportation covering the three domains.LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY 1.7. Chapter. Today the world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport. ISB 92 i. Railways require levelled ground. Name any two iron and steel industries established with foreign collaboration in India. It is the basic arteries of an economy. communication and trade complementary to each other? i. (b) Waterways through ships and boats cover water.
km of area is known as density of roads. roads provide better service than the railways. It connects state capital with district head quarters and with other important cities of the states.books . Kolkatta and Delhi is a six lane super highway. What is road density? The length of road per 100 sq. Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.g. (f) For easy transportation of perishable goods. Theses are maintained by the National Highway Authority of India. N. (d ) The road side amenities like telephone . air port and seaports. These roads receive special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana. These are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department. sightseeing. The problems faced by road transportation are the following: (a) The road network in India is inadequate keeping in view of the number of passengers and volume of traffic.000 Km of National Highways in India. There are about 52. Name the different types of roads in India. There are about 1.H. Much roundabouts or junctions are not seen Roads are not cut at right angles and no fear of vehicles crossing. Chennai. (b) National Highways: These connect one state with another and are of national importance. Write the connecting cities and add points c to f above. It is meant for fast movement of traffic. 7.H. 6. a) b) c) d) e) f) ISB 93 .accidents are less. It is the longest express way in India. c) The National Highways are inadequate and highly congested in the cities and their bridges and culverts are narrow.emergency health services and police protection on the national highways are very poor and need improvement. (c) State Highways: These roads are constructed and maintained by state Governments. 17. (d) The District Roads: These roads connect district headquarters with cities and other places of the district. State the characteristics of the North –South Corridor. These roads are constructed and maintained by the District administration. N. Mumbai..(e) Road transport is used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations. (a) Super Highways: ( Express ways) The Golden Quadrilateral connecting Delhi. It connects Srinagar in Jammu Kashmir and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. 5. It is a four to six lane road. e. (b) About half of the roads in India are un-surfaced which becomes muddy during the rainy season. 8. Why are the railways so important in India? i. (e) Other Roads : Village roads connect villages with neighboring towns and cities. North South Corridor connecting Srinagar and Kanyakumari and East West Corridor connecting Silcher in Assam and Porbandhar in Gujarat are also super highways.3 lakh Km of state highways in India. The border roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organization (BRO). Railways also make it possible to conduct a number of activities like business. pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over long distances. (f) Border Roads: The border roads link the frontiers of the country. State the characteristics of Golden Quadrilateral OR East West corridor.47 etc.
Bilaspur (n) South Western Railway –Hubli (o) West Central Railway. 12. Flood plains of Bihar and Assam and rugged topography of the Himalayan region are not good for railway service. ii) Passengers pull chains unnecessarily.Jabalpur (p) East Central Railway-Hajipur 13. (a) Northern Railway. How do physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railway network? Explain with suitable examples. high density of population and rich agricultural resources.Kolkata (d) Western Railway – Mumbai (e) Central Railway -Mumbai (f) North-Eastern Railway – Gorakhpur (g) South Eastern Railway– Kolkata (h) South Central Railway – Secundarabad (i) North Eastern Frontier Railway. (c) Northern plains of India have dense network of railway. 9. It binds the economic life of the country and as well as accelerate the development of industry and agriculture. What are pipelines used for? Describe two important network of pipeline transportation in India. Name the railway zones with their Headquarters. It requires high density of population for its growth. b) Greater industrial activity is required in areas where development of railways is expected. which causes late running of the trains. ISB 94 . 11.New Delhi (b) Southern Railway. What are the problems faced by the Indian Railways? i) Theft and damaging of railway property. (d) a) Economic factors. 10. It is not possible to construct a railway line in the mountains terrains .ii. Thus it has been an integrating force for more than 150 years. (a) In the past pipelines are used for transporting water to cities and industries. sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. iii) Passengers travel without proper tickets. Rich agriculture ensures the development of railways for easy and cheap transportation of agricultural goods. Physiographic factors: (a) Railways require level land for its construction. Why are Himalayan mountainous regions unfavourable for construction of railway network? This region has high relief . iv) Introduction of long route bus services and the resulted competition.Maligoan (Guwahati) (j) East Coast Rail way-Bhubaneshwar (k) North Central Railway.Allahabad (l) North Western Railway Jaipur (m) South East Central Railway. (b) Sparsely populated areas like sandy deserts of Rajasthan are not good for railway network. Movements of goods and passengers support the railways.Chennai (c) Eastern Railway. because their vast level land .
(a) Assam to Kanpur : There is a pipeline transportation from oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh via Guwahati. (4) The Champakara canal with 14 km and the Udyogmandal canal with 22 km in Kerala.500 km in length. Pipeline transportation is fast. Name the deepest landlocked port in India. 15. (Chennai) 18. (a) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries. Name the two seaports developed to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port. State the importance of Kandla seaport. most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. safe. What are the advantages of the pipeline transportation for petroleum and natural gas? i. Jawaharlal Nehru seaport near Mumbai in Maharashtra. Solids also can be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry. It was the first port developed soon after the independence to ease the volume of trade on Mumbai port. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan. Shahjahanpur. And Kandla seaport in Gujarat. Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh . It saves transshipment loses and delays. (b) HBJ pipeline ( HVJ) : It is a gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagadishpur in Uttar Pradesh via Bijaipur(Vijaypur) in Madhya Pradesh . Maintenance cost is very less though initial expenditure will be higher. 14. What are the advantages of airways? Write a short note on the airline services of India.(b) Now pipelines are used also for transportation of crude oil. 17. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia via Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri. clean and free from transshipment loss and delays. (b) It is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transport. Himachal Pradesh. (Total 205 Km in Kerala) 20. Name the oldest artificial ports of India. (c) Though initial cost of laying pipeline is high . 2) (3) The West Coast canal between Kollam and Kottayam in Kerala with 168 km. It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu & Kashmir. ISB 95 . Barauni and Allahabad for the transportation of petroleum. Haryana. (1) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia covering 1620 Km. Rajasthan and Gujarat. (NW. (c) India has inland navigable waterways of 14. It is a tidal port.1) (2) The Brahmaputra river between Sadia and Dhubri covering 891 km. (d) The Government has declared the following waterways as National Waterways. (NW. Why are inland waterways significant? Mention any four National Water ways. ii. the running and maintenance cost is very low. Out of these 3700 km are navigable by mechanized boats. (Vishakapatnam) 19. It is also connected with Mumbai High and South Bassein in Maharashtra. 16. fertilizer factories and to big thermal power plants. Punjab.
(a) Airways are the fastest means of transport. b] The major ports handle over 90% of India’s foreign trade. 22. c] These ports handle about 15. Write a short note on the telecom network in India. (b) It is used in areas where construction of railways and roads are difficult like mountain terrain. Jet Airways and Sahara airlines. (b) Many private companies provide domestic service connecting major cities of India. website etc. 70% of the cargo handled at these ports is for overseas trade. It can travel very high terrains.000 telephone exchanges in India. television. Air transport is the fastest. ii. It has about 32. a] There are 12 major and 181 medium and minor sea ports in India of about 7500 Km long coastline of India. 24. iii. radio. Differentiate between personal and mass communication. Hence we call Mumbai the Gate Way of India. 21.e. State the significance of seaports in India. 23.g. dense forests and international frontiers. vast deserts dense forests. (c) Airways play a vital role in the event of natural and human made calamities like floods. letter. Other modes of transportation is impossible especially at times of emergencies. epidemics and war. b) Telephone. The northeastern part of India is marked with the presence of big rivers. It is used for long distance journeys and international traffic. (c) Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. are example of personal communication where as newspaper. deserts and dense forests. Airline services of India (a) Indian Airlines. and large oceanic stretches with great ease where other modes of transportation are difficult. Why is air travel preferred in northeastern states? i. cinema. b) Besides cities over two third of villages of India have already been covered with ISB 96 . a) India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia.000 cargo vessels per year. e-mail etc. famines. earthquakes. . rugged topography. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Commission in its off-shore operations and areas of difficult terrains (d) Apart from two private scheduled airlines there are 38 companies holding nonscheduled air taxi operators permit. Alliance Air and Air India are the important airlines in India providing domestic and international services. are example of mass communication. frequent floods dissected relief. a) Personal communication is meant for communication between two individuals where as mass communication is meant for several people at a time. d] Mumbai is the biggest port of India deals with the major part of our foreign trade. most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
63%) and petroleum products (86. (b) Facilities like cards and envelopes are called first class mail and book packets. (a) India has trading relations with all the major trading blocks and all Geographical regions of the world. mail covering both land and connected by air. d) Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.56 % . If the value of export is more than the value of imports. It shows economic prosperity.g.e above) 27. chemical and allied products (24.53%) .87 %.17%. (c) The first class mail is air lifted between stations.12%) ( Figures incorrect. six mail channels have been introduced recently. and machinery 12. pearls and precious stones with 29. it is favourable balance of trade. Why is the importance of telecom network increased in India? i) It has revolutionized life of masses their quality of life and country’s economy along with the processes of globalization. which constitute 26. Airtel etc. engineering goods (35. They are Rajdhani channel. Metro channel and Green channel. 28. ores and minerals (9. economic development of a country can be measured by looking at its foreign trade especially its exports.need to ratify) (c) Commodities imported in India included petroleum and petroleum products with 41.d.. space and airways. c) A number of private companies have been entered recently in the area of telecommunications. Describe the Indian postal network. ii) This industry looks after the needs of equipments for defense. coke and briquettes 94. Give examples. (d) The second class mail is carried by surface mail covering land and water transport.12%). gems and jewellery. railways. BPL. (Write points c. (b) Most of the commodities exported from India are Agriculture and allied products (2. Describe the volume of India’s foreign trade. What are the advantages of tourism in India? ISB 97 .45%). Bulk mail channel and Periodical channel Differentiate between first class mail and second-class mail.39 % coal . 29. Business channel. Barometer is an instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure. is the national telecom network in India. registered newspapers and periodicals are called second-class mail.telephone facility. (b) India’s foreign trade is unfavorable because our imports are more than exports. 25. inorganic chemicals 29. Similarly. (a) Indian postal network is the largest in the world.26%. e. (a) The difference between export and import is known as balance of trade.75 % . It is faster than 2nd class mail. If the exports are more than the imports it is known as favorable balance of trade. 26. (e) For quick delivery of mails in cities and large towns. Why do we consider international trade as economic barometer? What is meant by favorable balance of trade? Discuss whether India’s foreign trade is favorable or not.
Explain the importance of radio and television as effective means of mass communication. ii) There are 200 radio stations and 328 transmitters including the relay stations. d) Provide employment opportunities. iv) A wide range of programmes such as educational. As the resources are space bound no country can survive with out international trade. International trade helps India in getting advanced technology from developed countries. iv. c) Support local handicrafts. are covered in this media. It reveals the ill effects of a number of social problems.a) b) Tourism promote national integration. entertainment. India exchanges its surplus goods with those of other countries through international trade. ( Explain any two) 31 . International trade helps India to improve its production of manufactured goods which ensures quality. ISB 98 . 30. e) Earns foreign exchange. How does international trade contribute to the economic development of a country? Explain two points. sports etc. So it reaches all cities and villages. A number of people can be communicated at a time by a single radio. iii. It helps to increase the foreign exchange reserve and per capita income. iii) An illiterate person can’t read a news paper but he can listen to a radio even while at work. Television: i) Television scores over radio since it gives a visual impact and a first hand information through live telecast. iv) It is a source of social education and entertainment in regional languages in various categories. i. Radio: i) Radio is the cheapest means of communication. iii) Television covers 87% of the country and it is the largest network of the world. ii. Helps in international understanding. ii) Besides the national channel a number of private channels in different languages are available through cable network or through dish antenna. It covers more than 95 % of the population.
U N I T III DEMOCRATIC POLITICS ISB 99 .
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