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1, FEBRUARY 1997

Reduction Process in Optical Sensing Systems

D. F. Clark and T. J. Moir

modulated optical signal using an amplitude-locked loop (ALL) in the

presence of noise is presented. The ALL is the mathematical dual of the

phase-locked loop (PLL), but works on amplitude rather than phase. This

technique will benefit areas where noise due to scattering or multiple

reflections is present.

Index Terms— Amplitude-locked loop (ALL), heterodyne detection,

optical sensing, phase-locked loop (PLL).

Fig. 1. Optical vibration sensor.

I. INTRODUCTION

frequency, the above FM signal presents no difficulties and can be

Optical remote free-space sensing has many applications [1]. demodulated in the usual way.

However, it is generally recognized that a major drawback with these

coherent detection systems is that interference generated by scattering

from extraneous sources along the free space path decreases the III. THE PROBLEM OF ATMOSPHERIC SCATTERING

detection sensitivity. The problem has remained unsolved because In practice, an extra additive term arises from atmospheric scatter-

of the nature of the interference, which when decoded, appears as ing along the propagation path. If the magnitude of this scattering is

spikes of multiplicative noise which cannot be filtered in the usual m; at a frequency !r ; then the signal at the PD will be

way.

The problems of interference between the desired signal and s(t) = AR cos[(!c + !AO )t + sin(!D t)] + m cos(!r t): (4)

scattered light can be solved by using the technology offered by the

amplitude-locked loop (ALL) [2]–[4]. Using the ALL, the interfer- Using trigonometric identities, the above signal can be represented

ence can be significantly reduced, and the purpose of this letter is as

to show how this may be applied to any coherent detection scheme

used for optical sensing. (5)

( +

If the reflected frequency !r is at the same frequency as !c !AO )

II. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

() ()

then r t and t in (5) becomes

A typical optical free-space sensing system consisting of a laser,

three beam splitters (BS 1–3), a photodetector (PD) and an acoustoop- r(t) = A2R + 2AR m cos( sin(!D t)) + m2

tic modulator (AO) is shown in Fig. 1. The laser provides an output

which is split by BS1 and BS2 to give a reference signal at the PD (t) = arctan

0m sin( sin(!D t)) :

cos( ) AR + m cos( sin(!D t))

(6)

of AL !c t : The other signal from BS1 is frequency-shifted by

the AO to give an output of

The PD output now becomes

ai (t) = AL cos(!c + !AO )t: (1)

s(t) = fr(t) 1 cos[(!r t) + sin(!D t) + (t)]

+ AL cos(!ct)g2 :

The output from the AO hits the target and is Doppler-shifted by

virtue of the target vibrating. Ignoring atmospheric scattering, the (7)

r(t), then

return signal incident on the PD is

Expanding the above expression and assuming AL

a0 (t) = AR cos[(!c + !AO )t + sin(!D t)]: (2) the output will be

In the above, is the (FM) modulation index given by = s(t)

= r(t)AL cos[!AO t + sin(!D t) + (t)]

1!D =!D where !D is the Doppler shift frequency and !D is 1 (8)

the peak frequency deviation. The return signal then interferes with

which is a frequency modulated signal at a carrier offset frequency

the reference to produce an electrical output from the PD:

!AO : Assuming the FM detector to be immune to amplitude changes

A2L and normalizing AL = 1; a typical PLL FM detector will give

aD (t)

= 2 + AL AR cos[!AO t + sin(!D t)] (3)

(ideally) a waveform of the form !inst (t) where

i.e., a dc term plus a frequency-modulated carrier with baseband

frequency !D : After down conversion to a suitable intermediate !inst (t) = !D cos(!D t) (9)

The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineer- and d t ( ) = 1 + 2 cos( sin

m !D t m2 : )+

ing, University of Paisley, Paisley, PA1 2BE U.K. This kind of waveform has spikes, which cause severe distortion,

Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(97)00081-6. and has been well documented [5].

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 44, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1997 137

(a)

(b)

Fig. 2. (a) Amplitude-locked loop. (b) Noise cancellation.

Fig. 2(a) shows the block diagram of an ALL [2]–[4] and [6] which

relies on the principle of FM transmission at a fixed amplitude.

The ALL is a closed-loop high-bandwidth servo system working on

amplitude, rather than frequency, consisting of a modulus detector, an

integrator, a linear multiplier, and summing junctions. For simplicity,

the setpoint of the loop is normalized to unity and the dc restoration

ensures that the integrator swings around zero.

Provided the ALL is “in-lock” with an input via (8),

s(t) = AL r(t) cos[!AO t + sin(!D t) + (t)]: (10)

Then, the waveforms y (t); f (t) and c(t) in Fig. 2(a) (ideally) take

the form

1

y(t) = (11)

AL r(t)

c(t) = [1 + e(t)] cos[!AO t + sin(!D t) + (t)] (12)

f (t) =

1

AL r(t)

0 1 = 1 0ALArL(rt)(t) : (13)

The signal y (t) is the inverse envelope of s(t) while c(t) is the

carrier waveform with amplitude modulation 1 + e(t) where e(t) is a

small error dependent on loop gain. The ALL frequency effectively

“servos out” any amplitude variations and leaves the carrier waveform

c(t) and the inverse envelope y(t): The shape of y(t) and f (t) is

similar to the spikes on the FM demodulator output. However, if

y(t) or f (t) is scaled and subtracted from the noisy signal, the noise

would add in one half cycle and cancel on the other. A solution is

found by multiplying f (t) by a PLL demodulated output. The block

diagram of the overall system is shown in Fig. 2(b).

For m = 0:6 and AL = 1; Fig. 3 shows the performance of the

Fig. 3. PLL output and noise cancelled output.

noise cancellation system. It can be seen that the noise spikes have

been significantly attenuated.

Detection of light scattered gives rise to a multiplicative noise term

V. CONCLUSIONS at the demodulator output. The ALL noise cancellation is the ideal

This letter addressed the problem of reducing the effect of inter- demodulator for this type of problem and should prove invaluable for

ference caused by scattering in free-space optical sensing systems. future applications involving other coherent detection systems.

138 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 44, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1997

ACKNOWLEDGMENT loop filter along with the motor introduced low-pass network are

responsible for this behavior. A phase detector already proposed [2],

The authors are indebted to A. M. Pettigrew, AMPSYS Ltd., for which gives a dc output voltage proportional to phase difference

his help and assistance in writing this paper. input, makes the use of the loop filter unnecessary and, therefore,

results in reducing the system’s response time. Phase difference 18

REFERENCES is detected by this circuit every half-period of the two input signals

[1] G. Swan, Principles of Modern Optical Systems, Andonovic and Uttam, and a pulse train proportional in duration and sign to 18 is produced

Eds. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1987, ch. 13. (VP in Fig. 1). An integrator converts pulse duration to voltage (VI in

[2] A. M. Pettigrew and T. J. Moir, Electron. Lett., vol. 27, p. 1082, 1991. Fig. 1) and a holding circuit keeps this voltage steady until the next

[3] T. J. Moir and A. M. Pettigrew, Electron. Lett., vol. 28, p. 814, 1992. detection leads to a new value of the output voltage VD : Information

[4] A. M. Pettigrew and T. J. Moir, J. AES, vol. 41, p. 998, 1993.

about phase difference is considered sampled, since it is detected

[5] M. S. Corrington, RCA Rev., vol. 7, p. 522, 1946.

[6] T. J. Moir, Electron. Lett., vol. 31, p. 694, 1995. every half-period of the input signals.

The sample and hold phase detector’s (SHPD) output VD is

amplified and added to an offset voltage Vo before entering motor

driving circuit. Voltage Vo is used to bias the SHPD’s output to

positive values only and determines system free running frequency

= +

fo : The resulting voltage Vm Vo AVD is the driving input signal

of the motor. The motor is represented by a transfer function

Analysis of Unlocked and Acquisition Operation

f (s)

Gm (s) = m = 1 +kTo m s

of a Phase-Locked Speed Control System

Vm (s)

(1)

C. A. Karybakas and Theodore L. Laopoulos

where Tm is it’s mechanical time constant (s) and ko is motor constant

(Hz/V). Feedback frequency fF is fF = = +

nfm fo f; where n is

Abstract—A study of a phase-locked speed control system is presented, encoder’s density, fo is the free-running frequency, and f is output

focusing on the out-of-lock operation. System behavior is discussed for

each case, while acquisition operation is described by phase plane analysis variable frequency component.

and capture mechanism is explained. Experimental results for a system The experimental system was built using a small, permanent

developed are also given. magnet, 150-W dc motor driven by a transistor power circuit,

Index Terms—Phase detectors, phase-locked loop, phase-locked motor while the encoder was an optical one based on an infrared LED-

speed control. phototransistor pair. Test results indicated considerable improvement

in system speed regulation, speed variation, and response time. Actual

system parameters are: Tm = 0 029

; s, ko = 15 5: Hz/V, and

I. INTRODUCTION n = 3:

It should be noted here that, although present analysis describes

Motor speed control systems based on the phase-locked loop the actual PLSC system developed, the operation of any other PLSC

(PLL) principle have already been presented in the literature. The system based on any fast-response phase detector [5, and others] is

operation of various systems of this kind has been described, and similar and, therefore, may be studied in a similar way.

precise speed regulation has been reported. PLL has excellent tracking

performance, but it tends to be slow and unreliable in acquisition

[1], [3]. Acquisition of phase locked speed control (PLSC) systems

III. UNLOCKED OPERATION

has not been extensively discussed, especially for systems with fast-

response phase detectors [2], [5]. Considered next is a typical case of system operation under un-

This letter presents a description of the out-of-lock behavior of ( )

locked conditions fR < fF : The SHPD’s output waveform results

a PLSC system developed. The system is based on a sample-and- from the combination of the two input signals as shown in Fig. 1.

hold phase detector already proposed [2]. A detailed presentation of Since the SHPD cannot detect phase difference outside 0; ( +)

the locked operation of this system, along with an analysis of the interval, it’s output will take the form of this normalized waveform

synchronization (hold-in) range, has been previously published [4]. (VD in Fig. 1). Characteristic quantities of this waveform which are

The unlocked operation of this system is considered here, and it is period TD and peak-to-peak amplitude E; may now be determined.

studied on the basis of a detailed analysis of the operation of all Period TD will be equal to the time interval that the two signals

sections. Phase plane analysis is presented, and acquisition operation ( =

return to the same relative position tn aTR = ( +1) )

a TF ; hence,

is examined theoretically and verified experimentally.

TD = tn = aTR = TRTR0TFTF = fF 01 fR ) f = fF 0 fR (2)

II. THE SYSTEM DEVELOPED

A serious limitation of phase locked speed control (PLSC) systems

and the SHPD’s output frequency is equal to the difference of

is related to the usually large system response time. Low-pass

the two input frequencies. Amplitude E may be calculated by

1

multiplying the voltage-step value V by the total number of steps

Manuscript received January 30, 1996; revised May 21, 1996.

The authors are with the Electronics Laboratory, Physics Department, per period and results finally to be E =

KI TF ; where KI is

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece. the time constant of the SHPD’s integration. The (p-p) amplitude

Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(97)00082-8. of the SHPD’s output signal is proportional to the high frequency

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