09/08/2006 07:21 AM

A Composed Theory of Free Improvisation
by Mike Heffley © 2000

Introduction Imagine a government one day dissolving itself and, as its last official act, declaring its state henceforth to be, literally, one of anarchy. Imagine that state then going on to solve the perennial social problems that had eluded even its best governments, and to become a model for the rest of the world to follow. How would we study such a workable anarchy? How would we discern the secrets of its success as we assessed it to learn how (or whether) we should follow its example? These questions convey something of the challenge the practice of so-called "free" improvisation poses to the music theorist. When critics judge it a musical failure, that judgment usually, solipsistically, indicts its premise (spontaneous musicking); conversely, when judged a success, the judgment itself validates the premise. I will back into my own response to the challenge of judging the premise on its own merit by defining terms, both negatively and positively. In establishing what a few things are not, we will move most quickly to what they are (or at least might be). In the process, we will also survey the concrete terrains of context--historical, cultural, musical, philosophical, discursive (within and between disciplines)--from which to draw a theory. I will conclude with a reflection on the theory's practical value to the musician and music educator in personal, professional, and pedagogical terms.

The Terms The first term to tackle is "theory." It is commonly enough confused with analysis, philosophy, and even the various "-logies" (of music, of music in culture, of "socio-," of "anthropo-") that I should state my usages for this project. Some etymological reminders and tinkering will suffice. My discipline/discourse is Ethnomusicology, a relatively recent branching from (Comparative) Musicology. The suffix comes from the Greek logoV (logos), originally widely defined to cover linguistic and rational phenomena. I include here the semiotic charge dating from its New Testament usage ("the word made flesh") and still current in our modern "logo" (understood as
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metonymic). An inquiry into the "logics" of a music, then, will most properly include (and increasingly does, even in conventional musicology, as it long has in ethnomusicology) not only analyses of its systems and mechanics but also of its biological, psychological, social, historical, and cultural/mythological contexts. Do theory and philosophy belong with these logics? Yes, but they also extend beyond them, because logical studies are (here) local studies, studies of concretes, some of which are airier than others. The mythos breathing in the sonata form--the Romantic artist with his Western torch--may look abstract, even transcendent, compared to a particular sonata, but it is clearly not a universal; the nineteenth-century formalist philosophies enunciated by Hanslick (1885/1974) and Schopenhauer (1883/1966) are likewise peculiar to Romanticism and its extramusical contexts in a real time and place. Again, musicology (and its ethno- cousin) can and does, in its most liberal and recent interdisciplined applications (we should include folklore studies in their company), cover this terrain. Theory, however, I would emphasize not as musicological so much as "musicosophical" (from soFia [sophia], wisdom), understanding the former to be a subset of the latter. "Theory's" etymological poetry is rich. Stemming from the Greek qea (thea), or spectacle, the original association was with the theater, conceived as a framework in which to view the doings of the gods in both history and the heavens. I take the realm of logos--the "logical" terrain described above--as that theater. I ascribe theory, accordingly, to a surrounding "sophical" terrain, that from which the logical theater emerges, draws on for constructive material, is grounded in, reverts to in time. The symmetry in the terms "musicology" and "musicosophy" signals the fusion (as opposed to a Platonic split) between a locally sited, sounded music in all its logical as well as its sophical glory.1 Thus at a semantic stroke do we leave all issues of separation between concept, creativity, and expression; between body (music), mind (music's rationale), soul (music's mythos/meaning)--all three of which manifest variously in the many, and thus are "-logized," comparatively and contextually--and their one comprising spirit (the universal theory overarching them [as in arkhe [arche], first principles], about which we "-sophize"-archaeosophy?).2 We situate the local (music, its rationale, its mythos) and isolate the universal (its theory) without violating or compromising any aspect with itself or each other (in theory, anyway; we'll see if we can put it into practice so as we proceed).3 Before continuing with this etymological-historical grounding, through the words "free" and "improvisation" (and, symbiotically, "composition"), let's first survey abovementioned concrete terrains.


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Recap We have just examined a musical discourse that is (as clearly as so many others) local--specific to certain historical streams and moments, to sociocultural dynamics, to a body of recorded work and performance practices, to an emerging critical and journalistic press, to people in places. But this local music--free jazz, then new and improvised music--shares fundamental premises with a tradition only slightly less obviously global (widely shared, transhistorical and transcultural; Bailey [1980] provides a good sense of this). The use of the word "free" as a contemporary musical descriptor dates from the musical revolutions of the late 1950s and early 1960s in jazz. Improvisation in the jazz tradition has, from the beginning, cast off and/or made free with its composed premises, increasing chance, spontaneity, and (musical, mythical, paradigmatic) options for the improviser. Eventually, by the 1960s, solo and group improvisations took place on nothing deliberately predetermined or assumed, and "free jazz" as a movement was born. While it has thrived in its original American far less than in Eurasian and Canadian scenes, all three parts of the world (among, increasingly, others) have developed a thick body of material that gives this musical philosophy and practice that is also an idiom its historical and cultural sites. If you look up the coupled words "free jazz" in a standard music reference, or on a good computer data base, you gain instant access to a province shaped and mapped enough for ethno/musicological work. You see it divided into sites of instrument, period, place, key artists, record labels and publications with aesthetic ideologies and slants, inter/national/regional/local venue networks and styles, analytical/critical and ethnographic literature and journalism, all within a manageable window of time and place, all current and thriving, offering you a thousand new uncharted special areas of interest to explore and map. As with "improvisation" as an issue standing alone, "composition's" "logical" symbioses with improvisation are also staked out in the literature with the comprehensiveness of a fair-to-good map; Dean, Smith and Dean, Kumpf (1981), and Noll (1977) provide good surveys and assessments of various recent-to-current compositional approaches that incorporate, even centralize, improvisation. Most usefully here, the topography of that terrain includes more areas of theory and philosophy than its counterpart in improvisation.4 The text of a score--what we might see as literacy's theater of music--is more compatible with our literate tradition of theory and philosophy than the theater of performed sound (especially improvised, especially freely improvised, in which the text leaves the stage most completely). That overview of the "logical" terrain should suffice to lead to a discussion of its "sophics," and thence, more specifically, to a theory of improvisation and composition both free of prescription.
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Some Questions Stravinsky stated that composition was frozen improvisation; Pierre Boulez stated that, given different versions of the same performance, one will always take the best one.5 What implications do such statements hold for the centralization of free improvisation? What is gained, if anything, from not seeing improvisation as a means to the end of composition? from not reifying a given recorded improvisation as definitive? from not canonizing either? The question comes, of course, with (local) historical as well as musical assumptions and limitations, the unpacking of which (through other local examples) will guide and frame our moves toward a global answer. Taken alone, these composers' positions don't necessarily constitute an attack on improvisation; indeed, both justify it on composition's own terms (Stravinsky suggests improvisation as generatively and Boulez as developmentally essential to composition). Read as an attack, however, the implication is that: composition's freezing of improvisation is a freeing of it into a comprehension and fulfillment of whatever is good about it (Stravinsky); and that the nature of that improvement lies in the opportunity composition affords the improviser-the (performative) interpreter of a (definitive) text, most narrowly, and the (creative and spontaneous) composer of a sonic text (a peformance deemed definitive), most widely--to assess all realizations and to present the best possible realization of the text, to rescue improvisation's potential as product from its own actuality as process in the ephemera of the real-time flow; to assert itself (composition) as a fixed standard by which to judge the improvisation, a consummation and thus canceler of the improvisation--the moment of death to its moment of life; to stand there as a generative matrix for new improvisations, new lives, the primary purpose of which is to generate new deaths/compositions (Boulez). The question's thrust: Why is improvisation ever a proper spectacle for public performance, why is it not rather always and only a stage along the way toward its own composed perfection of expression? What is gained by seeing it as an end in its own right, with its own different but equally valuable ends and means? What is gained even when it does, in Eric Dolphy's words, vanish unrecorded in the air as it sounds?

Some Answers
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however. selected for the points they make. we will further consider the African-American developments of both improvisation and composition in both concert music and blues/jazz lineages as taking place within that larger Western cultural history (leaving to the side. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. whether traditionally derivative or radically definitive. That context established will suggest another such abstract--of the composer. at the other. borders on creatio ex nihilo (creating such systems and elaborations oneself). we will also understand the historical window onto that spectrum to be the Western music tradition dating roughly from plainchant to the present. We now put this deconstruction of the question "Why is improvisation ever preferable to composition as an end in itself?" into a diagram intended to begin the defense of improvisation's good. That visual abstract will also serve to frame historical and historiographical details offered as context for this question.htm Page 5 of 46 . and that in ways we can mine fruitfully en route to stating a theory. and their relationship--which we will bring to life with a few concrete examples of people playing those roles in that relationship. notice that we've not defined "good" according to its position on that spectrum (that is. at its best. arbitrarily and temporarily. I will end by inferring my theory of free improvisation from these two framings of historical/historiographical and aesthetic/practical information. good). Drawing on above-sketched "logical" terrain. whether a composition or improvisation is better or worse according to its relationship to tradition or innovation). the improviser. their genealogy down African lines). we will take that spectrum into account.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Composition and improvisation in the West have each defined a single spectrum of a process that is. In constructing and then assessing the relationship between composition and improvisation. composition the greater. begun and mediated by improvisation (per Stravinsky and Boulez). This specifically Eurocentric perspective will serve this particular question's concern with a relationship between literate and oral (music) cultures. improvisation is always the lesser. little more than arranging (making scores/improvisations according to traditionally established and well-elaborated systems) and. We have seen the good of composition defined (by Boulez) at the expense of that of improvisation (to the effect that. and the good of improvisation unmediated by any composition (a good we must establish before theorizing about). We've alluded to a spectrum between the derivitave and the definitive occupied by both. in so doing. at one pole. At this point we have suggested two goods without carefully defining either one: the good of composition.

1: The narrative of literacy Fig. 2: The narrative of orality Before we put our flesh on these bones. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. 1 signals the primacy of composition over improvisation asserted by the question. as we did the question. an evolutionary development from primitive orality to sophisticated literacy--something akin to the layering of the limbic by the neocortical brain. it is captioned as the narrative of literacy (rather than "the literate tradition") to signal both history (fact: literacy did emerge from orality) and historiography (narrative: that emergence demonstrated a teleological imperative.htm Page 6 of 46 . let's pick through them a bit. Fig.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Fig.

and do what you will" file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. again.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM both a transcendence and a subsumption of the primitive). it is captioned "the narrative of orality" to signal its historical/historiographical message: literacy emerged from orality not as its consummate and supreme blossom but as a local and transient bloom from the larger. beloved. incomplete. kin. Why here? Because Fig. 1's closed system is a picture of just that edge of the creative spectrum.htm Page 7 of 46 . 2's image of a derivative expression drawing from more than it could ever take in. in contrast to Fig. This suggests something about the nature of freedom that resonates more with Augustine's command to "Love. and so on (I distinguish between "goal" and "composition" to allow for discussion of improvisation as. something that could conceivably achieve composition's ends [what Braxton has often called "the Golden Performance"] without recourse to its means [notation]). How then shall we understand these key words of this narrative? We see in interviews with "free" players much reference to the music as something akin to a private language developed between close friends. dear. let's return to some of the broadest context--the etymological--couching the scheme of Fig. the above references to free jazz. or family. a composed generative matrix and always leads through development of that matrix to a goal--actualization of potential. We said above that Stravinsky's beneficial "freezing" of improvisation was a "freeing" of it to its highest potential. posits the primacy of improvisation to be argued here. more enduring plant. traditional prescription) for its own development into a new generational matrix for a new improvisation. 2 reverses the relationship. life and sentience out of elements. in composition. "Free" comes from same root (Indo-European prijos) as friend. "higher" out of "lower" life) into the teleological goal of (the) freedom (of its fulfilled potential). The infinite recursion of improvisation is placed inside that steady-state circle to depict it (as footnote 6's examples variously do) as primal but problematic. because it is a picture of a creative source giving forth more than it takes. as posited: (the) improvisation (of nature) thrashes around upon and within itself blindly until it is agented through the emergence of (the) superior composition (of suns out of gases. Staying within the narrative of literacy for a moment. especially in Europe. Fig. 1. Fig. 1's outer/outward-pointing arrows depict the self-sufficiency of a closed system.6 the rationale thereof lies in the ascription of a steady-state recycling of improvisation and composition in which improvisation is never centralized as a process but always issues from. refers to. justify a usage of that word "free" in conjunction with "improvisation" that will serve us well here as a reminder of the creatio ex nihilo part of our spectrum (also noted above). perfection of its expression--which in turn needs the codification of a fixed notation (more broadly.7 This is part of the narrative of literacy.

through the outer signs of same. these other two words not so much. in all its sub-. philosophy.htm Page 8 of 46 . their spontaneous utterances working from the existing materials of "composition:" anything pre-existing. whatever she may discover it to be in the pursuit of her freedom. The free improviser may be free from principles and powers she deems less than "love"--and for our purposes. including one's body. and with the sheer stuff of one's world--the details of physical spacetime. however grounded in the familiar. too. something to improve upon: a scale. but we are free in our detachment from them. our common improvisatory moment (frozen in this text)…the moment of creative freedom. and super-humanity. Think. Think of "free improvisation. or unfolding (the sense of composition's root word). a pattern. trans-. the ultimate goal of meditation-. strives to experience and offer as music--but she is constrained by that music."enlightenment"--may even arise. of Einstein realizing the equality of energy and mass. but we are free too from any attachment to that (it must be continually sought and regained. of free in the sense we mean when we say "Aha!" or "Eureka!": the revelations of Poincarré stepping on the bus. is compelled to. a feeling or need…which themselves might be seen as the improvisations of evolution on what it has composed so far.10 This improvised/composed discussion of mine establishes the narrative of literacy not by disproving that of orality so much as by having the narrative of literacy do as much as could file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro." when the universe responds meaningfully. when we are free of what previously burdened us as unrealized and unactualized potential. thoughts and feelings arise. of sciences soft and hard) and universal (amenable to the sophical enquiries of wisdom: theology. We might thus define that freedom as unbreakable. Improvisers are future-makers. a fact of nature. When the mind is clear and expecting something new. The etymology of "free" is rich mythopoetically. we cannot expect it to provide once-and-for-all "composure").part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM than with the idea of the absence of constraints abhorred by the composer. of Stravinsky experiencing the composition of Le Sacré as divine inspiration rather than methodical ratiocination. with one's "others" and with their inner worlds. compelling friendship with oneself and all one's inner worlds. not as undisciplined so much as essentially personal (amenable to the logical inquiries of reason. of Jung suddenly noticing the beetle on the windowsill at the very moment he reads the word "beetle"--of you (interpreter) and I (composer) in this. we'll define "love" as that which the improviser decides to.9 Think of "free" in the sense we mean when we say we free our mind of thoughts and all content in order to meditate." then. poetry and the other arts) at once-the personal and universal as friends--however distinguishable as one rather than the other…8 "Improvisation's" word origin is the same as that of "provide" (foreseen)--it means unforeseen. a melody…which themselves might have started as improvisations on an idea. all are in their freedom. when the soul and heart are in their "love.

that chronicle served the historical narrative of literacy. This shift of improvisation between the two narratives suggests a reframing of the original challenging question: "Explain why we should not accept Fig. 2 as the truer picture. composition). Fig. gives composition the primary role [despite footnote 9's point] in his vision of our future). it is simply put in a place.11 was elaborated into a medium for musical elaborations (which its own elaborations not only reflected but fed and stimulated). music secondary. AND explain why we should accept Fig. this paradigmatic shift in music culture resonated with that in the larger culture. improvisation is not left out of Fig. in which the seed of fighting. 1's narrative. This narrative of orality is an open system in that it draws from the same world that the narrative of literacy's system rather supplies with the effulgent products of its its steady-state generation. between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries." The narrative of orality historicizes and historiographs the same historical and musical data so as to posit improvisation as composition's Urgrund and ultimate purpose (composition as servant to improvisation). accept both as the truest picture. teleoV). And Attali defends improvisation against Boulez [146] but still. That narrative in those terms: written notation began in the West as a mnemonic device serving the performance of an oral tradition in which (like in the Arab world. and asked to please stay there. It further depicts that unforeseen as "coming in from" rather than "going out to" the cosmos. and even "generative matrix" (process of creation) as (local) subset to the (global) set of "improvisation"--the sound of the unforeseen--and it pictures that formation as a transience within rather than a stabilization or fulfillment of the unforeseen (much like "chaos" scientists view order). Remember.htm Page 9 of 46 . 2 moves that place. OR explain how we can. reifying "the work" (score) as a kind of scripture. the Roman destruction of the Jewish temple in 70 file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. It depicts the formation of "goal" (purpose. practical and theoretical changes in the music. a common cultural influence on both West and much of the West African populace brought to America as slaves) text and its meaning were central. served to chronicle stylistic. from a closed to an open system and from the position of subset within the set (of composition) to that of set containing subset (again. a relationship. 1 as the truer picture.13 that score's newfound autonomy as an aesthetic object (per Hanslick) constituted its value as an object of commercial exchange (Attali 46-86). and why we should. in his final chapter. rather than the reverse. and dying for The Word that sprouted from Moses on Sinai through the life and death of Christ.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM possibly be done by that of orality (even Bailey's perfect expression of the narrative of orality [footnote 9] reconciled improvisation to by equating it with composition. killing. "text" (product of creation).12 then into texts that.

3 pictures that move. That combination--"all in theory. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. and at least half in practical terms) been repudiated. went back to seed.15 orality is thus restored as the ground from which literacy has arisen and to which it has fallen. 1). and why we should. the upstart. the West shot off its own history's foot. flowered in the European invasions of the Americas. half in practice"--is a key distinction. Fig. every victim of literacy's narrative [modernism/modernity] from the world of orality. reclaiming it as servant rather than [usurping] master). This takes us back to the third reframing of the question: "Explain how we can. through the twentieth-century wars and the rise of the oppressed/suppressed cultures and people "of the body" (indeed." In challenging then defending improvisation from an historical narrative that can be read as local rather than global (Fig. from the Indians to the Africans to the native Americans to the Indonesians and Asians--even to the generative source of the West's own womanhood-turned the mastery of the narrative of literacy that was forced on them against its own hegemonic self-application. What I've presented are two different narratives equal in force and authority. positing for it an alternative narrative that can be read as global as well as local (Fig.htm Page 10 of 46 . the slave trade and colonialism. the Crusades.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM A. 2). 2 as the truest picture. if not yet all of its still-disastrous effects and momentum. of their bodies) against that Western "culture of the word" (with the Holocaust. accept both Fig. meanwhile.14 that flower then wilted. has (in theory. I yet haven't moved beyond conflict to symbiosis..D. 1 and Fig. the problems just described arose not from one rather than the other of those narratives so much as from their conflicts.

further.16 Simply put. Finally." these circles have areas both of overlap and independence. no longer directly accessible to consciousness (because they represent the pre-literate incarnations of their traditions). 2) on cultural systems (3). calling them hermeneutical insofar as they impinge on historical consciousness. thus closing the system of being we polarize variously between conscious and not. These two levels we might see as cultural elaborations (1.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Fig. directly accessible to the (level 1) consciousness of the composers/improvisers. Level 3's circles are broader. on which they do in fact consciously draw (examples below). but (since literacy) still in historical memory and vestigial traces. Fig. 3 proffers a situation in which improvisation and composition enjoy equal and symbiotic status atop an historical moment underpinned by what Tomlinson conceives as hermeneutical and archaeological layers. The literature corresponding to the top level (1) is that about free jazz as developed by AfricanAmerican artists in the 1950s--60s and picked up by Europeans in the late '60s/early '70s (see Gray. that fit is with the central focus of this essay as much as with each of the chart's five levels. it overlaps with consciousness but is also separate from it. It extends into the molecular and ultimately quantum fabric of biology and physics. this and that. whatever sources from other disciplines I deem pertinent--and however that--is in the light of the logicalsophical information within these sources. not as exhaustive or definitive. and are based on my own experience as a "free" composer/improviser as much as anything else. 3 includes an area marked "corresponding literature. the historical/hermeneutic level 2 comprises the most immediate musical discourse. so we'll leave the composer's circle behind as we scan those sources. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. spirit and matter. and from the articles and books about specific artists and groups.htm Page 11 of 46 .17 To remain conscientiously grounded in the concretes of discourse and literacy itself as we move to a statement of theory." My sources are cited merely as samples I think fit. that isn't to say it isn't a part of life. drawn from Bielawski's scheme. As do "composition" and "improvisation. whatever I say along the way in formulating it. I draw from these sources and my own fieldwork and journalism on free players. my reflections on the sources are italicized. and Chapters Three and Four). Whatever I propose for a theory. 3: The narrative of the marriage of orality and literacy Fig. I've added my own timeless (ahistorical) bedrock. light and dark. both of cultures and individuals. The fourth level gets us into the archaeology of the subconscious.

South Indian). and that shows in the skills they bring to their liberatory reactions against certain elements of that tradition. as it does when. paradoxically. backgrounds. families/clans.htm Page 12 of 46 .. etc. If the free players had no such connections. personal variations of the participating artists. Braxton--when he's playing free. the aesthetics and theory for this music would be very different. The point is that no free player is lost in space by virtue of his freedom. stylistic conventions.e. In the case of free jazz. Western classical. as the lines connecting it to the other circles suggest. All that issued forth in freedom then would be valued as music simply by virtue of being. we can trace clearly both the "jazz" and the "free" lines--i. One of those second-line circles might be labeled." to name some subsets). creates. the free player might draw from these traditions as well as any other (e. Those represent the other logi/sophi--complete with all their traditions. or mastery on the terms of the source. contexts from which he is free primarily in proportion to the degree to which he can personally synthesize. re-originate. electronic experimental. historical/cultural associations--on which the free player draws. then. Ali Akbar Khan. defines. or piece by. to each other or to the various provided kosmos.g. roots.)." or "Bill Evans piano style. Ives. The literature pertinent to level 2 is that on those various sites. They would spring from a sort of Locke-ian notion of the mind/soul as a blank slate with. re-situate--re-originalize. Bach." or "energy music. or from what he calls the "open space"--from jazz. any of those). each has inherited and acquired (or assumed) musical parents. but rather a personalization of the material or approach suggested by it. her freedom is as much a freedom to as from similarly self-sufficient kosmos (the next row of circles down). all that issued forth at the command of something provided from without would be understood as conditioning rather than that freedom. thus regenerate--those things. More--ontogeny would not be experienced nor perceived as a recapitulation of phylogeny. her circle is thus separated from the rest of the world by the top horizon. influences. one proprioceives from one's neocortex "down" to one's limbic and reptilian brain…or "out" to file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. virtually all of the artists seminal to the local genre did come out of the "pre-free" jazz tradition. in the understanding that the goal is not some sort of historical purism or appropriation. a single performance of. Cage. one who conceives. the others might be labeled traditions from the rest of the world (gamelan. Beethoven. However. the act of introspection would not simulate a journey back through evolutionary history. from Schönberg. with or without the help of sound. "the jazz tradition" (or even "bebop.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM The free player is pictured here as a closed circle. refines. a creative generative capacity. and evaluates--contains--her own self-sufficient musical kosmos. they might also be labeled with names of artists (Braxton.

18 This notion of freeplay as generative tabula rasa simply fits neither facts nor experience as reported by the vast majority of free improvisers. "acquisition"). Other sources: Apel. as it resonates with or speaks to our own current experiences. The enquiring mind of the questing free player wants to know what there is to know about them because his organism has thoroughly plumbed the knowns of its more accessible "past" and seeks roots with depths to match the heights of his corresponding reaches through his fruits into his "future" (in quotes. nor by other disciplines. ever-deeper primal past becomes ever more immediate present and pressing future. Godwin. and timeless. of fewer and larger circles. Examples are Western Medieval chant and later modal polyphony. pre-Melakarta Indian music. Rouget (on ancient Israel. The important distinction between this and simple historical interest is that the free player/singer's interest is timely. and James (on the specifically musicosophical perennial traditions of Western "speculative music. decontextualizing of the present. McKinnon. or one's respiratory microcosm of the atmosphere (per Sansonese). ancient Greek (from Pythagoras to Boethius). ancient Egyptian and Asian traditions as gleaned from texts and pictures.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM one's neurophysiological microcosm of the electrochemical. Hiley. and arbitrary assertion of the future. The moment would be free rather by virtue of its constant casting-off of the past. Universal and ultimate issues and questions--what/who is humanity? what is the meaning of life?--arise viscerally in pursuit and development of the most individual. the farther back the past. Pertinence to free theory: interest in these circles is viscerally sparked by the process of free improvisation itself. local.htm Page 13 of 46 . would be its relevance to the (musical) moment. Jeffrey (on Western chant). or. denotes ancient systems and practices with which we have no longer a direct connection but which still influence us explicitly through the documentation that survives about them. per Hall. through vestiges and branches still alive in current music. see Bielawski for a musicological-analytical rationale of this]). evolutionary psychologists. the less. or implicitly. The brain/mind system. as though they corroborated and expounded on insights gained in the act of musication--not via a scholarly historical interest. and Arabia). file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. and sociobiologists is seen to be as much like an array of specialized systems genetically "hardwired" for specific adaptations (to nature) as like a general-purpose computer waiting to be programmed (by nurture. because time is relative in the cosmic/planetary/human organism's ontogeny's recapitulation of its phylogeny [again. the more it is studied by (for example) linguists." see Godwin [1989]). rather than more. precolonial gamelan. Greece. and conditional logics. The third level. or one's skeletal microcosm of earth's bedrock. or one's cardiovascular microcosm of the oceanic.

If we grant that any present freedom must be a freedom to as much as from its nested layers and infinite webs of context. first principles. but the primal ground of language. Free players/theorists will personalize this sort of material as readily as any other. selected for their suggestions of such Urgrunds as they occur in history. magical incantation. sculpture and painting that. dance. poetry.20 and therein a mundane/sacred continuum. for a vision of the pre-/proto-historic feminine as an archaic force appropriated by ancient patriarchies--pertinent to the role of gender in discussions of musical Urgrund. and less extreme and more mundane instances. mythmaking. of music as a speculative ("mirroring") science ("knowing") of all that. from the stars and planets and their cycles to the feeding and mating cycles of insects. Blacking (1993). for suggestions of genetic language/music continuities/connections. are Davidson (1987) and McKenna (1994). of writing. with the ancient architecture. in light of Rouget's extensive data and theory on the phenomena of trance and possession in relation to language and music. theater. and Deutsch (1992: 88-90). Powers (1992). and that not only of music as a distinct art form and practice. freezing or melting of our time sense--are our organism's unmediated (yet musically manipulable) experiences of the quite concrete continuum between the timely and the timeless? The one big circle--the archaic--represents Urgrund. both for a vision of early Africa as an archaic source of the ancient West--pertinent to a free theory applied to "free jazz". for their visions of ancient physics and measurements of sound as contiguous with ancient myth (human images of sub-/super-human forces) and religion (understandings of the relationships of those forces). and. making intuitive and spontaneous connections between such first principles and their own "bottom line" of subjectively idiosyncratic voices and aesthetics. of mathematics19--AND all the phenomena those systems measure/codify/reflect. and Suhor (1986). Sansonese and McClain. Cage is engaging in free improvisation file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. of subjective time warps-the speeding or slowing. everywhere and everywhen. Johnston.htm Page 14 of 46 . arkhein. storytelling. in all of those. and that the human organism itself empirically supports that hypothesis…can we also say. still loom so large in our world today. Sources. and also as an aspect of it too integrated (as expressive and physical sounds with unique identities) to merely mirror. both composers and improvisers. along with the myth/religion. that the ever-timely recapitulation of cosmic history taking place in our organism is not only evident but experienced? That the wellknown altered states. Walker (1983).part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Perhaps Rouget deserves special consideration in seeking empirical support for this hypothesis. Note that we are taking the process of free improvisation and theory thereabout out of the province of a local site of post-jazz experimenters and into that of all musickers.

It is conceived as contiguous with the nonhuman world of animal and cosmic life. something deriving a musical syntax from a linguistic one-though his performers aren't necessarily doing so. Jungian meanings. for his bridge from that inner to the cultural world as music site. even when they are spontaneously "taking chances. free jazz certainly served that function for those wasting away in the body-numbing cerebro-junk of the bop tradition." or Stockhausen. for physical (both natural and urban) world as soundscape. It includes the infinity within the self-aware psyche and that in the world at large. or under the shadow of dominant cultures and their appropriations and assimilations of earlier challenges. for theories about primeval language/musical/visual expression. knows from experience that such stability and order do arise from such instability and chaos.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM when he conceives his pieces--say." Bach (who of course improvised as well as composed) freely improvised on the premise of the Lutheran God every time he composed a piece of liturgical music…his players merely interpreted that improvisation. distinguishing itself therefrom only via the line connecting to the larger circle. Sources here are Young (1991) and Mâche for concepts/data of "zoomusicology. his performers rather improvising on his "work. Which is just what the free player deals with every moment. When all else fails. Attali. for his recollection of music as an act of violence and sacrifice. Rouget. Perhaps the most useful concept from this level of consciousness (individual/mass/historical) to a theory of free is that of "Rough Music.htm Page 15 of 46 ." McKenna. something that emerges as a purging agent in cultures sick with overrefinement. ugly and licentious affect. Henry Miller is a good example of a "rough" writer." a heading found in some dictionaries of occult lore (see also Attali) that denotes music with an aesthetic of harsh. as a way to new order potentially grand and vast. even when they improvised on his figured bass. when he decrees that players be intuitive…he is improvising freely as a composer. The bottom circle stands for the human agency which embodies the potential from which all the others arise. and Japan. the free improviser knows she can simply start thrashing in a sheer panic and riot to survive. for inner world as proprioceived sound/myth/visionscape--comprising mental visualizations. Germany. and Sansonese. as in African America. the internal sounds of the organism--which are the very provisos of any freedom the human organism can know and express. out of touch with the life force and joy therein. distinguishing herself therefrom only by her (finite) improvisations on them (the infinities of both inner and outer worlds). Schafer.21 Stating the Theory file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro.

b. The infinite is suggested by the finite (per Bohm's physics). dramatic content.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM From above mix of musings and data. there is always something rather than nothing. Free improvisers have the following materials from which to make something that to them and X number of others will be enjoyed as music. dancing/moving. outer.22 Consciousness is a spectrum that mines itself--or doesn't. as well as conscious. the finite's suggestion of the infinite as the set to which it is a subset--as the greater field. super-). interactions with other improvisers (including all creative file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Like all theories. Rationalizing and mythologizing intrinsically underly all of those natured/nurtured abilities. Free improvisers demonstrate this. 1. and the intervals. as a foreign language is understood to be a language even by its non-speakers). as it will--from out of its infinite depths (past. and we have stretched and grown beyond previous finite limits). either by association through cause-effect or otherwise. and its Urgrund--as well as the subset to which it is a set is more plausible than not by every rational criterion. patterns. and that is then worked and developed further by human agency. resonances.e. Urgrund and locale. 3. drama. all spacetime-local rationales). in the realm of infinite potential (thus we surmise the continuation in both directions of our consciousness beyond the finite. sub-. 1. the "sight/sound/meaning" of the outer world: actual immediate phenomena (environmental soundscape). a. visualizations (including thoughts. because we have grown something from nothing. We can per/conceive only within the limits of the finite. these include actual sounds. storytelling/mythmaking. the "sight/sound/meaning" of their own inner "silences"--proprioceived subconscious and superconscious. though we can stretch those limits into what previously lay beyond them. Visualizing/picturemaking. dancing. of one's body/nervous system. cultural/historical cosmos (Schafer's keynote sounds. and that only from outside it (i. it can be tested in the light of this and any other data. body/mind/world) towards its infinite heights (future. though to Y others it may only be understood so. "mythless" (meaningless) noise. frequencies. Per Cage and St. dreams) that spontaneously link with the sounds.. so does irrational. speech and music are all similar and intertwined in their origin and nature in our consciousness in their similar dialectic between nature and nurture--genetic hardwiring and cultural/historical conditioning. sounding). 2. we can draw a theory of free improvisation. the inner experiences of expressed actions (speaking. images--that spontaneously emerges from inner life (per Jung's archetypes).htm Page 16 of 46 . understood but not experienced as music. Anselm. attempt to strike a balance between the rational/meaningful and the sensory/noisy that will maximally meet the needs of the organism. inner) through its finite logic/matter (present. meaning--myth. There is something in all of them that is born fully and complexly developed. combinations of patterns they make as a whole system.

because that organism's agenda includes death as well as life (thus we get variations on the theme of sacrifice for the greater good). marginalized. the phenomenon is conceived. and (perhaps most pertinent to this comparison) musical/cultural parochialism/chauvinism. However. and how it is semiotically and organically related to same). c." The musical/cultural project of Albert Murray. racism. What is gained? If anything. that music is not only meaningful (on the terms of the form/dynamics of the human/planetary/cosmic organism. and suggest some aesthetically likeminded performers (Sven-Åke Johansson? Axel Dörner?) for the improviser's circle. we might put Alvin Lucier's work in the composer's circle of Fig. 3's marriage (and its harmonies and clashes) takes form in various "couples. and how it is semiotically related to same) but moral (according to the terms of that organism's health and needs. Returning to our original question--what is gained through improvisation as an end rather than means?--consider what is gained when a violinist plays the beats created by the sound waves between two notes according to the composer's dictum: the concretes of a concept get publicly explored. mined. Consider a few examples from current musical discourse (close to my work). the latter is complex. and left behind. by contrast.htm Page 17 of 46 . also in a happy balance. it is the preservation of the file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. To make another point. Wynton Marsalis and Stanley Crouch23 marries improvisation with composition as both are defined by the prebop/postbop/neobop lineage of the jazz tradition (in other words. the couple is now civil and gracious. mutually respectful and equal in power struggles.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM people. complete with their associated hierarchies of "high" and "low" classes and art forms. just to show how Fig. Now picture the same performance arising in the improviser's circle. (One might posit this same dynamic by replacing--counterintuitively but correctly--Marsalis/Murray/Crouch with Schönberg/Adorno [1973] and Braxton with Stravinsky/Bernstein [1973]). a concept that might have been overlooked. Anthony Braxton's work. along with an oft-articulated social vision free of sexism. and in correspondingly diatonic pre-1950s jazz-improvisational practices). 3. It is a marriage of equals--no uneasiness or conflict such as used to exist between Africa and Europe in America. Whatever conflict takes place between the once-warring elements within these two different marriages is minor compared to the larger potential conflict now between them. really--that point in consciousness spectrum where creation happens). a musical definition fixed in the diatonically hierarchical framework of pre-twentieth-century Western popular and concert music. includes both twentieth-century dodecaphonically "democratic" (non-hierarchically pitched) compositional and corresponding post-1950s extended (into "noise" as well as other non-diatonic premises) improvisational practices in its conception. or forgotten without the composer's act of casting and centralizing it into a piece.

Halley's comet). struck. This practice is cross-culturally global. As it is. is non-invasive of both the nature being discovered and of whatever other systems or ways of engaging nature others might be using. how I make them do that." and can be ascribed to an improviser only during the engagement itself. as. My own description of my private musical universe as a free improviser would be instructive here (as opposed to one in terms of some rationale I take in from the world). if they are led to do so. indeed. first as a novice." I might describe my work and role in terms of. every bit as much as to irresistible compulsion and selfdetermination. the jazz tradition. the same could be said of Braxton or any composer. My own music's sophics would include detailed musings over the role and nature of 1) the voice. the phenomenon is left for future improvisers and audiences to discover and enjoy. and 3) strummed. how I file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. I would have developed this persona in the thick of the discourse. An analogy less problematic (friendlier to Fig. This is not to single out Lucier. my unique contributions to a public historical discourse. having had a clear goal and path sited for me from the first. from desire and ambition. and plucked polyphonic instruments--what they each and all do for my organism psychic and physical.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM universe.. I've been articulating something that has been going on as a result of deliberate choices made long ago that were leaps of faith into the dark at first and for long. If I were invested in an "imported rationale. 3) is the scientific practice of naming natural discoveries after the discoverer (e. and pedagogical. source ("the world" of Fig. the protection of its impersonal potential from personal appropriation. only gradually emerging as something that could even be articulated. say. 2). then master. and is not forced upon them as a thing of its own or of someone else's value. These sophics would include a look at the three worlds within each of those three worlds.g. The engagement with the sound is not ascribed to a "composer. or that could articulate.htm Page 18 of 46 . 1). in fact. as though "the land" were something smaller than them (like the inner circle of Fig. something that was at first a potential and then became a new physical reality (eg. professional. whatever his/her relationship to improvisation (or. if they chance to do so. What is gained by not fixing the improvisation with written notation is thus akin to what might have been gained by Europeans if they had eschewed personal competition for personal ownership and control of land. in favor of the Native American systems of collective and individual stewardship of a collective resource experienced as larger. 2) single-line wind instruments. as a "work" demanding their respectful attention and service. freedom has meant freedom from goals and paths as much as anything else--from selfimage. then journeyman. I will end by linking all of the above to the personal. of anyone who puts his/her name to any process by virtue of his/her designs on it). discussing my personal influences and mentors.

caught) in the "theater" of that music. It is our reminder that order and chaos should and do construct each other. I can improvise on the MIDI grand. one needs to make a way out. Free improvisation in music is that state. or like a player in a large or small ensemble (using multitrack recorders). according to some pre-existing musical agenda and tradition (though there is. rational. I suspect that free improvisation--both the process and its history--has been so overlooked in jazz studies and pedagogy. and with both the promise and the dangers of their relationship. and they in turn to it. it has given birth to other states. transcendent aspect [high register]). compared to the rest of the jazz tradition.htm Page 19 of 46 . on my trombone and with my voice. I can simultaneously produce both written documents of such soundings and manipulable and faithful recordings (computer sequences). in. first to myself. I can sample. and through. My own narrative of composition and improvisation has had a very happy life in the nest of Wesleyan's high-tech labs. appropriate to my own need and way to access and minister to the subconscious/body level of my being [via the trombone's pedal tone and low register]. of course. I have also needed to explain that development. overlap). I can play with them like an improviser. I can combine thus the narratives and media of literacy and orality so fruitfully as to produce children that carry the genetic material of both their parents and stand in the world as my arguments and proofs of the happiness and rightness of this marriage. and that we would thus do well to acquaint ourselves with both. I can work these written and sonic texts like a composer. The personal and professionally musical leads. We can cap these musings by recalling our opening image of a (paradoxically) official "state" of anarchy. both as verbalizer and vocalizer). for me. I would talk about similar physical-mental-spiritual self-re/wiring I did via the voice. those whom my music touched and moved. and do "microscopic" operations on the sound terrain of the samples. As one who has needed to develop in tandem as person and artist. or the K-2000 synthesizer (or even. and the access to my superconscious.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM theo/auto-didactically constructed my own three different embouchure musculatures. the discipline and mastery of my conscious. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. just as has been done (still so recently) in pre-free jazz scholarship and practice. because its concept and context are so much more difficult (indeed. both for oneself and one's fellows. frightening) to grasp and articulate. then to others. I've been compelled to theorize because I've found myself caught up (indeed again. direct expressions [via the midrange]. In that circumstance. into the pedagogical. All this is entirely distinct in my mind from my other experiences of being trained from without. I would talk about my experiences of agenting similar states of consciousness in my auditors. and the hands on keyboard and strings. with a little more hardware.

to whom both the very word for philosophy and the logical foundations of Western music are (mythico-historically) ascribed. the relationship between the theorizing about and the making of music. and spiritual standards it implies. If Helmholtz could thus serve as our Pythagoras. one similar to the ancient Greek one.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Almatexts Notes 1. from Plato through Boethius. and theorists. This. with technology's help. For us. are best understood as an interactive. the scientific work of Helmholtz (see Johnston [1989]) provides a direct lineage both to the way we ethnos have chosen to analyze and theorize about the musics of the world (or. it would behoove me here to relate this study to a more recent historical root. The relevance of all that here lies in the rigidly hierarchical distinction between composers. in both musical and physical reality) that has overlapped most interactively with free improvisation when the latter cut loose from its "jazz" moorings. is nature's means of self-improvement. holding out a situable goal and the hope and means to approach it--the possibility of rising or falling from one's "natural" station. musical and otherwise) is always thus an achievable yet conditional goal in spacetime. Ethnomusicological discourse is very much rooted in nineteenth-century German philosophy's syntax and issues. Plato. mutually nurturing symbiosis constantly seeking balance. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Stumpf and the other Berliners has flourished in modern technology. and should not be cast aside here before salvaging one of their logical aspects: the concept of improvement. is the area (of indeterminacy. in flux. Improvement (and improvidence. vertical]). rather than a "high" noumenos and a "low" phenomenos. their interpreters. Improvisation. especially in Europe.htm Page 20 of 46 . between the sophos and the logos. This terminological move. and is still present in Stockhausen's "cosmic music" (his description of his work). on the one hand. 2. and the power and resilience of the rest of the world. 74] for a detailed picture of the latter). In neither Helmholzism nor Wagnerism are we yet free of hive-like scientism nor destructively grandiose individualism. unleashes the energy within the "atoms" of sound that his precursors managed only to free from their "molecular" (intervallic) chains. on the other. Hitler and Adorno. goes right back to Pythagoras. The problem that began with Plato and crystallized in Boethius is the rigid fixing of that hierarchy. of course. in the microcosm of my professional discipline. a tangled hierarchy is one in which the criteria and positions of "high" and "low" are continually negotiated. And Wagnerism has been through the twentieth-century fire with Nietzsche. though neither have overcome us. the ways we later took care not to) and to the way the (mostly) German physicists have chosen to analyze and theorize about the universe. thanks to the pliability and submission abovementioned fire has wrought on them. a music that. in reaction. horizontal] and mass [moment. and improvisers. contingent on the given state of the cosmic/planetary/human organism (see James [1993: 11. moral. and in the area of music and theory thereof. chance. in improvisation. Having touched base with Pythagoras. his contemporary Wagner might be called on as a sort of anti-Plato: an example of the dangerous mania music can induce when the universal and individual cease to coinhere and become rather incoherent in the aspects that distinguish them from each other (as the atomic bomb did with energy [flow. and Boethius. Schönberg. of course. Such separations come after Pythagoras. 3. The legacy of Helmholtz. One of the advantages of a hierarchical Great Chain of Being is the fixity of physical. it has proven truer to phenomena to think of it as "tangled" (per current physics. in mutation and natural selection. exchanged).

and to correlative social dynamics. even progenitors. through the "people of the book" (ancient Israel). other cultures still retain the capacity to incorporate what comes to them from without. And. Whereas we waver between the other as prey and the other as shadow. the "explication" of an "implicate order"--in other words. and between the timeless universal and its timely expressions. since it needs light. Baudrillard's (142) words about non-Western cultures bespeaks the narrative of orality: "All other cultures are extaordinarily hospitable: their ability to absorb is phenomenal. product into process. Indeed. her discussion of "theodidactic" (God-taught) music training pertains file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. in a move to ground free improvisation in a veritable biosocial imperative. 7. Boulez articulates fully his problem with improvisation in Attali (145-46). 6. Stravinsky's composerly use of improvisation is described in Asaf'yev (1982: 226). Considering the later careers of Glenn Gould and the Beatles. into their own rules of the game…Being oneself means nothing to them: everything comes from the Other.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM 4. including what comes from our Western universe. See Berendt (1987) and Noglik (1979: 165-195) for the contemporary German accounts of this." 8. with shekinah--the presence of transcendent spirit in matter and culture--and then with "the Word made Flesh. say.htm Page 21 of 46 . utopian society. which was also a (orality's) freely congregated collective whose music was a centerpiece embedded in a mission-from-God context. incidentally. See Chapter Four's explication of Miller (1966) for his use of these physics of general entropy and "local" formations of order therefrom as reflective of free-music making. of a new. Her depiction of the Medieval monastery as an expression (literacy's) of just this kind of freedom confronts and informs us exactly as does. process' purpose is product (at least) as much as expression or communication. (Both assemblages. can also be a recording. as opposed to the abstract one of an inherited paradigm. the Sun Ra Arkestra. and that composition is the only way to turn process (improvisation) into product (or even. That critique ripples throughout the literature on and by other composers and critics as various as Stravinsky. summed up pithily by Le Mée 1994. have exhibited similar vulnerabilities--to a descent into cult--issuing from a blurring and imbalance between the immanent and transcendent. it was the West's Judeo-Christian/GrecoRoman roots that came up. In physics. The common gist of their various complaints comes from the assumption that. Miller posits free-music makers as the heralds. between predation pure and simple and an idealizing recognition. a closed system is one that needs no energy from outside it to operate it (a plant is an open system. either always or sometimes. one with roots (proclaimed by the music) in tribal shamanic cultures. This myth is the very picture of the closing of the system between physis and spiritus. Karlheinz Stockhausen (in Morgan [1991: 417]) and Anthony Davis (in Dean [143]) and Anthony Braxton (in Dean [133]). Boulez." or limited in definition.) Le Mée's emphasis on vocal expression as sacrifice and vulnerability complements Attali's and Foucault's (1977) view of it as violence and power (more on which ahead). and Adorno (1963). 5. as examples. and fruits appropriate to same in the Millennial visions of Teilhard de Chardin." in the Incarnation. that product need not be a score. since everything ultimately feeds on everything else (the house's furnace needs fuel). very much like a thermostat). we might add. By contrast. unto a balanced equality of immanence and transcendence (indeed. a propo of the narrative of literacy and its etymologies. but the question of whether the universe itself is closed (eternally oscillating between expansion and collapse) or open (per Bohm 1980. essentially expressing the critique of it I will pose here. the regulation of heat in a thermostatically controlled house is a closed one because the house's own internal fluctuations of temperature turn the heat on and off). in the case of composition for improvisers). a logos made flesh) is still an open one in science. All closed systems are "local. John Cage (in Revill [1992: 158-59]). The invocation of Augustine augments the previous footnote's introduction of our subject's historically framed religious mythos.

an essential force in sustaining life. But their relationship does deserve some attention. Tomlinson (1993) shows clearly that both musical texts and practices were still deeply embedded in the context of "the unforeseen" (magic). and their service to "divine influences" (Revill 90) and post-AACM." "negritude. See Apel (1961: 88). extending through the doctrine of "the work" into projects such as Schenker's and Boulez's. free improvisers (see Carr 1973)." But then he asserts that "in any but the most blinkered view of the world's music. 11. and (2) the rise of the African-American musical traditions through their own national to the international (especially Western European) arenas. They are as free to converse (and to extemporize) in a language they love as they are to create a new one in that same love (creativity). writes (corroborating Fig. or.. emphasis mine)." its two great manifestations in music/music scholarship include (1) the American redirection of the narrative of literacy through its geographical remove from the rest of the West and its closer mix of diverse peoples (e. This citation by Rouget (1985: 268) of the twelfth-century Arabic writer on Sufism.htm Page 22 of 46 . Tomlinson (1995: 343-79). something that grounds and tunes that organism. from the time of John Coltrane on. successfully reinstating it not file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. especially the British. but the case he makes for it would hold as much air if the word "composition" were replaced by "improvisation." "whiteness. Mellers [1964]). 12. Apel's account of this is taken up in historical and contemporary texts. if there is. Treitler (1989).part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM directly to free improvisation. As sources of creativity they are hardly comparable.g. something that effects the healing and health of the cosmic/planetary/human organism. then like two serialist composers for another. composition looks to be a very rare strain. Many free improvisers. describe the music as prayer to a transcendent intelligence (see Such [1993: 117-24]). 10. Foucault. Thus Braxton and Evan Parker can sound like two lyrical cool-jazz players duetting spontaneously in a fresh boppish style for one free improvisation. Without it nothing survives. and White (1978) all convey a sense of how the narrative of literacy functioned during the nineteenth and lingers in the twentieth century as the vehicle of hegemonic power. recounting a panel discussion of prominent free improvisers. ." (trance. 13. a rise that documents reappropriation of literacy's devices for the purposes of orality." These examples all show this paradoxical drawing and blurring of distinctions between the two." "postcolonialist. 2) that "the predominant view to emerge was that there is no such thing as improvisation. heretical in both practice and theory. Attali (133--48) sees composition as the most promising site of music practice. then play with their own unique saxophone vocabularies for a third. My emphasis underscores the freedom to as much as from sounds. Improvisation is a basic instinct. 14. See Dahlhaus (1983: 4) for the rise of this reification of "the work. pedagogical texts such as those by Johann Quantz (1789/1985) and Leopold Mozart (1756-87/1951) evince the analytical bent away from that context that would culminate in Romanticism's formalism." Mâche (1992: 25) points out the ease with which sequencer/synthesizer/computer technology allows the free improviser to capture and then rework his improvisations as compositions." "feminist." and Moore (1992) and Rink (1993) for the concurrent decline of improvisation in the West. Bailey (140). Ghazzali. The silence from which plainchant continually rises and falls is close in concept to the use of silence surrounding both post-Cageian chance operations.' that music gives rise to wajd. resonates with footnote 8: "'It is in him who loves God and has a passion for Him and longs to meet Him…and no sound strikes upon his ear but he hears it from Him and in Him. The literature alluding to all this includes discourses loosely and broadly tagged "postmodernist. and (incidentally) a reintroduction of improvisation to the West on its own terms. it is indistinguishable from composition.

Good subjective empirical description of the "ways of the hand. Johnston: Well-informed journalistic/scholarly surveys of the history of music. 22. 15. and McClain (1978). such as Cage. Alvin Lucier. Sudnow: A study of "improvised conduct" by a jazz pianist/sociologist. and metaphysics. that of Mâche and Schafer (1980). 20." corroborating the suggestion that all improvisation is always both free and determined. DeVeaux [1989: 6-31]. examining both their early and ongoing historical synchronicities and polarizations. Harry Partch. See also Ridley. See also Rouget's chapter on opera. and ancient bardic declamation all evince these links. Godwin. Robinson [1991: 11-25. and Noglik [1979 and 1987] for a sense of the power of this African-American coup in Western strongholds as diverse as America and Germany throughout the first half of the century. and his "archaeology" from that of Foucault. In other words. 21. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. including a "composition and performance" time zone. Tomlinson's (1993) foreword establishes his "hermeneutics" as drawn from the work of Ricouer and Gadamer. See Woodward (1994). and zones peculiar to the speeds of sound and light. Whitehead (1995). and Crouch [1995] and Kumpf [1981] for the extent of that power since).htm Page 23 of 46 ." that of a butterfly's wings in China on the weather system over North America (per Gleick 1987).part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM only as a component of "low" culture but confounding the hierarchy between low and high introduced by the narrative of literacy in the first place (see Badger [1989: 48-66]. the realm of Sansonese. As the study of "chaos" by physicists demonstrates so powerfully in the "butterfly effect. Bielawski (1985: 8-15) posits a full seven different conceptions/representations of time and history to go with our conventional linear chronology. musica humana. Kater [1989: 1143]. Radano (1993: 269--76) for a sense of this controversy. Anselm's "proof" of the existence of God was that there was something rather than nothing. Cook [1989: 30-47]. philosophy. one that brings new theoretical life to the already lively postulations of our recent and current improvisers and composers. African-American. and Anthony Braxton. and James (123). and musica mundana. 17. for the suggestion that different musical phenomena such as Schönberg's Sprechstimme. Connerton (1989) persuasively posits the collectively interactive and synergetic consciousness of many such bodies as constituting and constituted by memory and intent even at those moments when they deliberately try to make a complete break with a past and to construct willfully and launch upon a new present and future. 19. for a sense of how the science of genetics can read the human genome we all embody as a "23-chapter" (the genome comprises twenty-three chromosome pairs) autobiography of our species. Cage discovered this in the sound of his own organism's "silence" when in a diachronic chamber free of sounds external to it (Pritchett [1993: 75]). St. Rouget. 18. We find in Sansonese (1994) a brilliant affirmation of this model. 16. Oliver Messiaen. science. Synopses of key references James.

Powers: A careful look at the usefulness of linguistics to musical analysis. Davidson. Paul. Schafer: A close look at the various soundscapes both nature and human societies have created. Oakland CA: Tree Frog Press. Mâche: A study of animal sound behavior. by guitarist Derek Bailey. is at the service of rather than the cause of the consciousness variously aspected as trance. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Jacques. etc. Noise: The Political Economy of Music. Minneaoplis: University of Minnesota Press.htm Page 24 of 46 .part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Bailey: Interviews with cross-cultural improvisers. and that all are grounded in some ultimate ineffable intelligence and force for which the improvisers serve as media. Sansonese: A theoretical linkage between bodies of myth and the proprioceptive experience of deep meditation. universal musicality that generates both logics and sophics. 1984. inspiration. Brings forth the common feeling among those who do it that free improvisation is essentially no different from other kinds of creativity. as their mythical meanings are determined by the roles and relationship of their sources. 1980. remembering. and myth that foregrounds "musica humana's" contiguity and continuity with the "sound behavior" of other mammals. David. Sample sources from which to build a theory of free improvisation (from Gray). 1993. Braxton. 1985. Rouget: Informed speculation on the nature of trance and possession from ancient to current music traditions. How Musical is Man? Seattle: University of Washington Press. and for the natural impulse and need in each new generation to regenerate them. The point here is the progression from general to specific over a broad spectrum. XXIX 2. References Attali. again. 2. Bernstein. especially composition. and birds. Blacking. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Jeremy. devotion. McClain: A theoretical linkage between bodies of myth and ancient mathematical systems (and their musical counterparts). interesting here especially for its notion of phonic choices for language and sonic choices for music being determined largely by the internal sounds of the human organism. Bohm. Blacking: An argument for an intrinsic. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Tri-Axium Writings 1. 1994. Interesting here for its suggestion that free improvisers may be doing a musical equivalent of glossalalia. "The Ancient World and Africa: Whose Roots?" Race and Class. John. Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation. Interesting here for its conclusion that music. Anthony. and related natural phenomena. and the necessity of such a plethora of timely concretes for the formulation of one timeless abstraction (theory). & 3. 1987. Basil. University of Chicago Press. Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Labs in the Information Age. including fellow free improvisers. Berliner. furor. possession. as well as language-construction. 1977.

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1975. "In Mixed Company. Steve. Steve. Barry." New Statesman & Society (November 25): 13-15. "New Wave Jazzers. Vol. Vol. Werkstattgesprache.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Annual. 1983. Noglik." Jazz Journal International (July): 22-23 McRae. 1972.. Jack. Rusenberg. 1987. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Barry. Riley. Riley. 1968. Jazz im Gesprach. Michael. No. Bert. 1974. Jost. 167 (June): 3-8. Parsons. 1966. Europas Jazz 1960-1980. Bert. 1987. 11: 165195.. 1. No. "Arena: Three or More's Company. Bert. Barry." Music and Musicians (March): 23-24." Jazz Journal (August): 10. Lake." Jazz Journal (June): 24. Berlin: Verlag Neue Musik. Steve." Melody Maker (January 29 ): 38. Noglik. "Off Limits: Jazz-Avantgarde in England. 1972." Melody Maker (February 15): 45. 1975. "Breaking down the barriers. "Incus Records." Musical Times (May): 430. Bailey and Company--the art of ad hoc ad lib. 1988. 1977. Analysen." Jazz Forum. 1973. Lake. 1974. 9 (April 1-15): 10. Adrian. London: Vanessa The Many Press. Compilation of press materials from the annual Moers New Jazz Festival. McRae. Michael. Peter." East Village Other. No. "Aktuelle Aspekte der Identitat von Jazz und 'Improvisierter Musik' in Europa: Differenziertes Selbstverstandnis und Internationalisierung. No. vol. "AMM: only beginners. The Musicians. 1976. and Chris Welch. 19: 177-186. Miles. 6: 194file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. The Instruments. 2nd ed. Cynthia. Postserielle Musik und Free Jazz: Wechelswirkungen und Parallelen: Berichte. "Jazz in Britain: Eleven Improvisors Wigmore Hall London. 1981. "The Group Scene. "The British Free Jazz Movement. Rose. 1978." Jazzforschung. Vol. Peter. "Welcome to Europe!" Melody Maker (January 19): 16. Lake.htm Page 28 of 46 . "Free for All!--Are We Ignoring a Musical Revolution or Is It Undisciplined Anarchy?" Melody Maker (December 15): 40-42. "Europaeische Jazz-Avantgarde: Emanzipation wohin?" Jazzforschung. Riley. Copies of Numbers 6-15 are held by the Music Research Division of the Performing Arts Library at Lincoln Center." Jazz Podium. Ekkehard. Rohrdorf: Rohrdorfer Musikverlag. Steve. "London Report. McRae. and Heinz-Jurgen Lindner. 1979. 1977." Melody Maker (December 14): 40. "Sounds of Discovery. Lake. 81: 40-44. "Braxton. Kumpf." Coda. 1978. Hans. 1979. Peter. Steve. Noglik. 21. Lake.

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htm Page 30 of 46 . Freddy. Miller. Pierre. P. 1970. "Free Jazz. E. 1967. "Free Jazz: Negation aesthetischer Kategorien--Rueckkehr zur funktionalen musik. 1976.." Jazz Podium (May ): 128-130. a sample label) Brauer." Jazz Podium (June): 14-15. "Quten Pensent-ils?" Jazz Magazine. 23. Wolfgang. "Fortschritt ins Abseits? Zur situation des Free Jazz. 1981. "Free Jazz Meeting in Baden-Baden. Vol. Schmidt-Joos. 13/14: 68-69. 1: 9. "Rap and Blow in Baden-Baden. No. 1973." Jazz Hot." Musik und Bildung (April): 170-173. Manfred. "Le Nouveau Jazz et la Realite / Americain. 371 (May): 18-20. 1988. W. 1967. No. Jazzwerkstatt International." Musikerziehung (Vienna). "Feu le Free?" Jazz Magazine. C. R. Wilmer. Schaal. "Kooperative New Jazz in Wiesbaden: Szenen aus der -ovinz." 1981. Siegfried." Musica (Chaix). 1984. No. 270. "Ist der Free Jazz noch zu Retten. No. No. Bert. "Free Jazz: Evolution ou Revolution." Neue Musikzeitung. D. Lere. Panke. 144 / (March): 53-55." Jazz Podium (October): 266-268. 1970.." Jazz Forum. 1966. 1988. Wilmer. 1966. 1987. Werner. "Avantgarde: Perspektive einer revolution." Melody Maker (December 26): 14. Liefland. Valerie. J. Improvised Music: Free Music Production: eine Jahresubersicht-unser Live-Proqramm 1988. 1971. No. Vol." y Revue d'Esthetique. Free Music Production (FMP. Vol. Guy.. Moussaron.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Koechlin. 3/4: 313-325. Berlin: Verlag Neue Musik. Larry. (June): 156159. 1971. Jean-Pierre. Suppan. "Free Jazz: Eine New Thing Analyse. H. Jazz Podium (January): 22-23. "Baden-Baden Free Jazz Meeting. Wilmer. "Free Jazz--nur eine Geschichtsdelle2 Jazz Podium (June): 10-12.. Noglik. 1966. Santamaria." Swing Journal (March): 54-63. 148 (November): 30-35. 5: 206-208. Valerie." Jazz Podium (August): 15-17. "Frei improvisierte musik und die sehnsucht nach ideologischer Harmonisierung. No. Rutter. 1971. 26. Valerie. Weyer. Berlin: Free Music Production. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/ a little more]. (July): 182-184. FMP. "Baden-Baden Free Jazz Meeting. Kopelowicz. No. "Still More FMP. 231 (May): 18-23." Cadence (March): 24--25. und ein biBchen mehr [An overview of our 1988 Live Concerts. 1978. 1973. 20.

"Berlin: Free Music Production. 1979." Cadence. 1977. 1988. London: Macmillan Press. Kumpf." Neue Musikzeitung. Grove." 1974. Margull. "Das Platten-Programm der FMP: Free Music in Beispielen." 1984. 27 (February): 67-69. No. 1977. "Eurojazz personalities. 1977. "On the Scene--West Berlin: FMP: Troubled Times. Rusch.htm Page 31 of 46 . Nr. Jaenichen." Jazz Podium (June): 22-24. Lothar." Jazz Podium (October): 15-17. H. 1981. D. Keefer. FMP Artists Corbett. 88: 24-25. Gerard. Informationen. 1979." Jazz Podium (July-August): 13-16. 3 (March): 12-17. 238 (November): 12-15... Dan." Jazz Magazine." Wire. Hans. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro." Jazz Podium (January): 14-16. No. Workshop Freie Musik in Berlin. 1978. "Ernst-Ludwig Petrowsky: interview." Down Beat (December 10): 13. No. 42. Kalwa. R. 20. 1978. Jazz Forum. 6/7 (July): 12+. Wood. Vol. No. Lothar. J. J. Jaenichen. "Die Berliner Free Music Production. "Free Music Production. Gebers. 27. "FMP Story. D. No. 1990. "Workshop Freie Musik in Berlin. Quinke. 2. 1983. 1982. Bob.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Forst. "Ernst Ludwig Petrowsky. "12. "It Don't Mean A Thing. No. "5 Tage des 9.. Bd. ed. and Werner Panke. "Free Music Production." In The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 1983. "FMP Music Production summer releases. H. 1973. Pluemper. Liefland. Steve. 1973. 4 (Summer): 30-32. Jost. 1980. Berlin: Free Music Production. Coda. Froese. 1970." Jazz Magazine." 1985. "Konsequenz. Achim. John. 5: 12. Morgenstern. 9 (October): 556-559." Jazzthetik. Vol.. 1975. 9 (September): 16-18. Lake. 1973. Vol." Neue Zeitschrift fuer Musik. Rouy. 201 (April/May): 22-23." Jazz Podium (May): 14-15. 3 (May-June): 250-251. "New Artists Guild. Jazz Forum. No. Cadence. "Einundzwanzig Jahre FMP. No. "FMP. W. "10 Jahre Free Music Production in Berlin. G. 265 (June): 22-23. Workshop Freie Musik in Berlin." Musik und Bildung. and Gerard Rouy. Vol. No. "Die Jazz-Musiker sind keine Aussenseiter." Jazz Podium (JulyAugust): 17. No." Jazz Podium (May): 15-16. 4. Anthony. 15.

Parbiges. Michael. and Detlef Schoenenberg." Jazz Forum. 77: 44-47. Storb." Melodv Maker (March 14): 12. 1973. Richard. "Fragen an Manfred Schoof. Werner. Schlippenbach. "Christmann-Schoenenberg duo. 48: 4345. Ilse." Jazz Podium (January): 33." Jazz Podium (January): 21. Schoenes im althergebrachten Sinn. Richard." Jazz Podium (April): 28-29. Kumpf. No." Neue Musikzeitung. Jazz Forum. "Wie heißt das Stück? Christmann-Schoenenberg Duo. 1979. No. Steve." Jazz Podium (May): 12-14. 1970. Kumpf. No. 86: 16-17. Hans. No. 1974. Vol." Jazz Podium (May): 22-23. 1977. Richard. Bert. Ilse. "Manfred Schoof: beyond free jazz. E. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Gudrun. Williams." Wire. 48: 12. 1973. "Gunter Christman and Detlef Schonenberg: plunged into musical risks. Alex von. Panke. Gunter. 30 (August): 10-11. D. "Free Jazz. 1973. 154 (March-April): 10-11. 234 (July): 15-17. H. Manfred Schoof Orchester." Melody Maker (June 13): 16.D. No. Reichelt." Jazz Podium (October): 4-7. 48. "Fragen an Alexander von Schlippenbach. 1986. "Ernst Ludwig Petrowsky.--Schoof on tour (Orchestra). "Free Jazz. 61: 40-43. "Alex Schlippenbach. 1977. No." Jazz Podium (July): 13. 1978." Jazz Forum. Storb." Jazz Forum. 1984. Thiem. Christmann.R. 1979. "Alex von Schlippenbach: The Indispensable Focus." 1977. No. aber auch Klangliches." Coda. Rolf.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Noglik. Jazz Forum. Hans. Williams. "Das Free Jazz Duo Schoenenberg-Christmann: We Play." 1984. Lake. "Re-thinking big band music. 1982." Melody Maker (February 2): 53. 1970. Cook." Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik (May/June): 244-249.htm Page 32 of 46 . "Nur alte Ahnungen von einer freien Musik. Panke. Schipper." 1975 Jazz Magazine. Werner. "Alexander von Schlippenbach. 1978. "Der Komponist Manfred Schoof--Plattendokumente aus den Jahren 1965-1969." Jazz Podium (January): 6-9. Schlippenbach's new effort. "Swinging News: West Berlin. No. "Schoof: apostle of the new music. 1977. "Centre of the Globe. 1978. Froese. 2: 12. "On the Scene: G. Endress. 1984. No. "Der Komponist Manfred Schoof--Plattendokumente aus den Jahren 1970-1972. 27.

and how do they relate to the improvised music scene? In the tight weave of theory fabric with which Veit Erlmann (1993. Annette. and as a labor of love. Geiger. "Le Bal d'Irene. 1988. 1980. The Bearable Whiteness of World Music: Power's Strategic Essentialism as Service as Freedom Introduction The preceding meditation has been on Western music as an art form and Western music history as a social-political history. 23. "Irene Schweizer in New York rund ums Sound-Unity-Festival. "Irene Schweizer. most notably. 1975." Jazz Magazine. in contradistinction to a music industry that has burgeoned down American capitalist lines since the end of the Cold War. Ogilvie. 4. Charlton. "Jobs zum Ueberleben: Irene Schweizer. 27. Nr. Bert. No. some seams are stitched between his positions and those of others." Jazz Magazine. community. Bob. No. 1991.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Caflisch. not for profit. Marc. "Collective Impressions. 222 (October/November): 13. we've seen the international freejazz/improvised music scene as anticapitalistic. "Irene Schweizer. 11 (January): 12-13." Jazz Podium (October): 13-15. Gerard. Graham. multicultural.htm Page 33 of 46 . more familiar readings of the phenomenon that leave considerable space for the interpretation of different kinds of world music as an assertion of a politics of difference--of nation. What exactly is the contour of those lines." Melody Maker (September 13): 30. 65: 34-36. E. 235 (August): 16-17. Hannah. No. 1988. Throughout these pages. 1996) covers the global pop music industry and wraps its "world music" process/product. and some threads are deliberately left loose. 371 (May): 27-28. and. 1976. 1985." Coda. Bertrand. Rouy. First the seams: Here my argument differs substantially from other. No." Jazz Forum. race--and of the local." Cadence (January): 5-12. as resilient articulations of opposition against file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Lock. "Irene Schweizer: An Ear for Freedom. Rusch." Wire. Chenard." Jazz (Basel). 1980. "Irene Schweizer Interview. 1984. No. "Irene Schweizer: uncompromising continuity. Noglik.

with everything else. stronger cover. I will do all of the above here." "totalization. and with the still broader and more recent discourse on whiteness. Goodwin and Gore 1990. perhaps to reweave his work. that industry we call "music") and a contradistinct voice he doesn't cite: George Lipsitz's (1994). stands naturally on the shelf next to them. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. sees what is generally tagged the postmodern not so much as a radical shift toward the manifold via a rift from the modern-where. Guilbault 1993. will show how right both are. They are there for us to tighten. stabler hegemony." or "third stage" capitalism he also posits. let alone its concretes. Concealed within that extension. perhaps with some new threads. where the repercussions of Marxism. Such grounding in Marxist-inflected terminology/thought (per Frederic Jameson [1991] and Jean Baudrillard [1990])--of "historicism. one. Hitlerian. all bespeak an undue unconcern. and apartheid political histories.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Western hegemony: it maintains that synthesis is the central category of this global aesthetics in the making. to consolidate his weave's pattern. This brings us to those threads Erlmann left loose. indeed. Although representing no particular global cultural or political entity as such. Working Erlmann's loose ends with their counterparts in Lipsitz's comparable cloth will join the two into a bigger. the "earlier notion" of such totality resides (468)--as an extension of modern into its "postness" as a triumphant. His "total world system" has a local name--"the West"-however bent it has been on passing for universal." "totality. even umbrage at the very idea of such a totality. as well . of course. like a reversible coat. with the broader European colonialism. Erlmann. Erlmann feels. while not one of the "other readings" Erlmann mentions. by contrast. he sees that earlier notion (of an "organic" totality) become reality (albeit through "a kind of transversality born from the random play of unrelated differences" [468]). irreversible "late" phase. synonymous with the "late. and Waterman 1990) are so by virtue of their various concerns that. underestimation." and "simulacrum"1--resonates with Erlmann's own professional associations with the political histories and public and professional-academic cultures of Berlin and South Africa. of a totality long deemed lost by contemporary critical thought. as an "ecumene"--yet also thereby as an even more pervasive. as closer to Erlmann's work than theirs do. or to pull on and unravel. and in what ways. I submit. This paper will mediate between Erlmann's insistence on the entrenched efficacy of this newand-improved totality (that encompasses. anarchism. and liberal democracies imposed after wars (from the Second World through the Cold to Mandela's) jostle with those of Wilhelmian.htm Page 34 of 46 . one that. world music offers the panoramic specter of a global ecumene." and "total system. (1996: 468) The "other readings" he mentions as contradistinct to his (Slobin 1992.

" Erlmann's own music.. Rather than casting these moves in binary terms such as choices between the West and the Rest. highly changeable "border zone relations" that allow performers to constantly evaluate their position within the system (1996: 474. Louis music community/history in the light of his looks at "popular music. Yet. Thus. Slobin's. 221).and culture-specific use of "pastiche" and "nostalgia" (1993: 10-14) invokes the Frankfurt theorists. challenge us to conceive of new ways of "mapping" this space (1996: 484. to Guilbault's [1993] book --though in fact her concluding remarks [210] do leave a loose end of her own that could tie in neatly with Erlmann's tight weave) without letting it distract his own view of a real totality. its two loose ends do suggest it. or at least those raised by some of its more self-consciously avant-gardist examples. and the poetics of place. And this: The issues raised by the world music of the 1990s. and constitutes his aesthetic framing of the current global music industry. He most consistently seems not to buy the suggestions of the "other readings" (e. an aside we'll return to). postmodernism. again. comprise one of those "border zone relations" for which Erlmann sees new ethnographic opportunity. he does nod to such a possibility (e. the politics of global musical production creates numerous. The first passage leads us to Lipsitz's own loose ends--which. While Dangerous Crossroads itself doesn't draw directly on that background.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Erlmann's loose ends are these: It is this tension between a total system and the various local cultural practices that opens up a space for ethnography. to conclusions informed by the mediation between Erlmann's vision of a total world system and Lipsitz's meditation on the St. The first: file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro.. and 1993: 6-7. cued by the background of his own long involvement with whiteness studies (see Chapter Two. The second passage will spur us on to accept its challenge. again. p.g. of a "superculture" among "inter-" and "subcultures") that what he calls the "world system" (see footnote 1) is but one aspect among others at play. both essentially the same statement). Lipsitz peculiarly affords a look at such a possibility within Erlmann's weave. my emphasis. especially Adorno. between participation and refusal. musical ethnographies will increasingly have to examine the choices performers worldwide make in moving about the spaces between the system and its multiple environments. He sites "world music" as a (Western-located) construct of that (local-cum-global Western) industry.htm Page 35 of 46 .g. and not necessarily always the most relevant or even powerful one.

htm Page 36 of 46 . into the "new mapping" I see in them.2 The tenor of this subjective account of St. as they have chosen to be "strategically anti-essentialist"--in preferring a deliberate and self-interested eclecticism of musical influences and gestures over a liberatory/resistant expression of ethnicity that finds itself imprisoned as its reflexive reactivity against whiteness reveals the constraining influence of same--Lipsitz is claiming that that whiteness too can be so strategically abandoned. as well as offering insights into how we can pay back the debts we incur as examples from others show us the way out of the little tyrannies of our own parochial and prejudiced backgrounds (64). Lipsitz's Chapter Nine is loose because it is the one part in which the author looks at a place and its music community not as a function and expression of flux--of identity. the Western (read white) identity of which is effectively concealed by the "equalizing logic of commodity exchange" (479). Having made and hinted at the direction of the connections." where he sees the ethnographies that will "map this space" taking place. I tie this move up with Erlmann's challenge to begin to "conceive of new ways of 'mapping' this space" (1996: 484). Methodology and theory was until as recently as the early 1980s shaped by the premises of dominant West studying threatened Rest. Towit. Yet. I know that my own Euro-American identity offers unearned privileges and imposes unpayable debts to aggrieved racial groups whose subjugation has underwritten my own privileges throughout my life. of musical styles and gestures--so much as one of a life (again. strategic anti-essentialism may enable us to understand how our identities have been constructed and at whose expense. at the same time. his own) spent largely "trying to stay put" (173). with the end of file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Louis speaks to Erlmann's use of the word "nostalgia." because it is the one place other than the whole of Chapter Nine where Lipsitz's subjective voice breaks out of his recitation about other subjects and declares its identity and relationship to them. Also. Erlmann Erlmann (1993) says he's concerned with "world beat" or "world music" for its impact on the way ethnomusicologists do their work. while it is impossible to speak from a position of purity. of people. it is one (unique) along with eight other (mutually similar) ethnographies that are (all nine) clearly offerings that would fit Erlmann's concept of "border zone relations. with the input of a few other voices. This is "loose. its self-revelation expounds on Erlmann's vision of a totality/hegemony.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM As author of this text. the following summaries of Erlmann's papers and Lipzitz's chapter will move us." as we'll see.

With the globalization of technology and economy. mines the total system for local ends. he scans the view of "world music" shared by several scholars who refuse to see it as some liberatory/resistant gesture against cultural imperialism and Western consumerism. Adorno's (1973) position on pastiche (re: file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. fruitfully. and now the Rest are responding to it.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM rescuing and preserving them from drowning in the Waters of Hegemon. Having so covered those dynamics. diversity rather than conformity. of "creolization" as the possible engine of synthesis between flowers and garden(er). difference. Pastiche (per Adorno) he applies to "world music" to yield two returns: "reconfiguration of time and space. he turns to "Politics/Aesthetics." and the "role of nostalgia. of the prevalence of an alienating simulated reality." The dilemma he sees lies in the fact that even if a thousand flowers may now bloom in the new garden. asserting "the banal" as Utopia. (Here he resonates most with Baudrillard's visions of global culture. The garden itself keeps the flowers from their fullest. Jeudy 1991. Erlmann optimistically suggests that "synthesis" may extend into the relationship between flowers and garden (speaking aeshetically/politically) even as it does.htm Page 37 of 46 . that model no longer applies. After discussing the longstanding and ongoing dynamics of "modernity and tradition. After throwing out some examples to make his point--that capitalism." thrives on. The West's "damage" has been done. he proposes "Pastiche and Nostalgia" as a sort of aesthetic fertilizer with which to improve the garden. indeed requires. for better or worse.'" Under the first heading." and "Pastiche and Nostalgia: The Aesthetics of 'World Music. Giddens 1991. (This is my description of his reconfiguration of time and space. visions of real global unity.) After Adorno. and with Foucault's similar readings of the historical process and moment). milks. however dated. wildest bloom." in which the geographical or temporal center is in one place/time and its peripheries radiating out to every other." "The Politics and Aesthetics of Difference. to function effectively as a totalizing system--Erlmann advocates a musical ethnography that takes into account the way each local subject proactively relates to. and Virilio 1980) to see therein the old medieval picture of the circle whose center is everywhere/when and circumference nowhere/when. though it may have imperialistically imposed itself on "others. from its earlier configuration of the "organic totality. into that between global and local.3 In order to get beyond that dilemma of alienation. the garden itself is still shaped and overseen by the West. a locale among others functioning as the little man behind the curtain to whom the great and terrible Oz would have no attention paid." He cites other work (Jameson. West and Rest (speaking economically/politically). even symbiotically works. Erlmann's offering of this theory reads like a peace offering (something like Jerry Falwell opening his heart to the gay community). Baudrillard." of the West's long-held. even turning it to their own ends. He focuses on "The Dialectics of Homogenization and Diversity. he ends by stating the problem: a lowest common denominator still seems to prevail as bottom line.

Here he expounds on the space. like Baudrillard's clones (113). we are not speaking in the abstract here: the real-world engine of this post/modern global culture and the aesthetic thereof stems from the exchange of commodities. leaves out the time. as his confirmation of totality (re: Schönberg) was totally hearty. and the power's in the flowers to shape the garden. thus from the commodification of everything. even if local tradition and authenticity are what the products of the global entertainment industry are ostensibly about" (475). adding some deepening and broadening detail." "cultural production…cut loose from any particular time and place.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Stravinsky) was decidedly critical." Presumably. my emphasis).." and difference can be mined out of both time ("nostalgically") and place (the local reconfigured for. Erlmann's is by comparison both noncommittal and friendly to the idea of pastiche. Erlmann's 1996 statement restates much from 1993. As it stands. to every possible past and future (e. "The wrong side's victory. Images of "zapping" (482). more effectively than did the modernist ideological projects that once opposed it. the global). They also turn the tables on its victory. difference is the name of the game of the "same. even as it champions Adorno's regard of it. For example: World music is a new aesthetic form of the global imagination. an emergent way of capturing the present and historical moment and the total reconfiguration of space and cultural identity characterizing societies around the globe (468. Postmodern pastiche serves modernist totalization. the garden and flowers both have the "room" they need. we now see.g. "has proven the right side's rightness. My emphasis calls attention to one of several variations on the "total reconfiguration" idea. Frankenstein's monster (pastiche as nightmare). His words about ceasing to lament the West's damage to the world and to move on corroborate his acceptance of the pastiche Adorno rebuked and scorned. "relatedness" replacing disjuncture (483). to garden themselves. the West a margin-that-is-nowhere). become not so much ill-begotten blights as primitive versions/images of a good and right." he implies. the next logical step would be for the right side--a "good" rather than "evil" (per Baudrillard) totality--to take and run the system that has prevailed.htm Page 38 of 46 . even as they acknowledge its undesirability. when the Rest were/will be center. and "historicism" replacing (the dialectic of) history all help to paint this picture of ultimate-unity-in-ultimate-diversity. reoriented to. as the initiation of everything from all locals to the one global. elsewhere (479) he mentions the "complete reconfiguration of local identity and the ideologies and aesthetic forms attached to it. If we extend this logic as far as possible. every timely "dance" is the same timeless kinetic thrill-of-the-moment. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. and inevitable. "hyperspace" (484). Remember. human process. Every new take on the old is the new.

" Erlmann articulates the aesthetic aspect: A new relational aesthetic. his own concern has been more with staying in one file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. sadly. St. Goodwin and Gore's. who were both active in the cofounding of the St.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM from all histories to the one global (post-historical. and two of my best. and Waterman's natural ally. after writing for eight chapters about global crosscurrents of people and music. and Chapter Nine is where Lipsitz speaks most directly from his personal grounding in the poetics of a place that also has personal significance for me. as vast minorities. some kind of truth that would become apparent through mimetic representation…the age of representation. a seminal embodiment of the free-jazz movement in the 1960s. from all subjective to the one objective--financial/aesthetic--value. a theory of sympathetic mediation and the interface has taken the place of an aesthetic founded on the idea that a work of art contained a set of meanings.) Lipsitz Which brings us to (Slobin's. as if in stasis. Louis Black Artists Group (BAG). or to find their own way to the source of the bait.htm Page 39 of 46 . Louis. Two of the artists Lipsitz mentions from that milieu. refusing to be born unless the world as it is becomes the world as they see it. the fish would have to learn to extract the bait from the hook. And. Oliver Lake and Julius Hemphill. historicistic) moment. Lipsitz admits something I can readily identify with: that. to Erlmann's loose ends we should add his example of a musical gesture [483. In sum: what passes for food (the totality's encouragement of local individuation) is in fact bait on a hook. as Paul Virilio would say. retaining the integrity of its alternative vision outside the loop. were players I collaborated with in the context of my big band. For that to change. such value is a shift from the "being worth something" to the "making something worth something. as systematically and effectively as it was pinned to the hook. most longstanding friendships in my Eugene. South African Thomas Mapfumo's chimurenga music] that truly. successfully does sound outside the total system--somewhat like an alternate globality in embryo. by Erlmann's lights) Lipsitz. the Northwest Creative Orchestra. Dangerous Crossroads overlaps with my own work in the jazz and new-and-improvised-music scenes and their overlaps with global popular and traditional music cultures. in the late '80s-early '90s. Guilbault's. has given way to the age of presentation (1996: 481). Oregon home of twenty years were with Malinké Robert Elliot and Arzinia Richardson. Masters of the erotic who choose celibacy over mutual masturbation…but. Per Baudrillard (47). My grandmother came from there. (In this regard.

at first. The blues and jazz have proven themselves just such a universal expression as they've spread around the world despite their problematic associations with American cultural imperialism. The "superculture" was turned into a "servant culture. Louis as an example of a musical confluence of dispossessed and dominant cultures coming together and creating something that was intrinsically universal directly due to the disparity from which it started (a true example of Baudrillard's reading of the proper relationship between powerful self and less powerful other as a mutually beneficial though onesided enthrallment [165]). and of hip-hopper Hank Shocklee's expansion beyond Western conventions of music into the larger sound terrain (179)…all bespeak a vision of world music that grows from the grassroots to the highest cultural heights. Vann Woodward. His observation that the blues and jazz for which St. Louis is famous were spawned out of an ethnic mix rather than purity (174. seeing it past (176)--of the blues and jazz in St. of pianist John Hicks' classical training that took a back seat to his blues background. shore up rather than undermine Duke Ellington's side of the debate with Eurocentric purist C. the position that the strongest Afrocentric expressions have resulted from the strongest engagements with their Eurocentric counterparts.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM place and digging into it. of drummer Max Roach's vision not of inversion of Eurocentric dominance over Afrocentrism but rather of democratization of the two. if less completely. resistant selfhood at its own core. and made Michael Jackson what he became: the process of the underdog turning the hypocritical word of the "evil" totality into a hypercritical truth. as America's original and commanding art forms. The globalization of blues and jazz. against the threat a weak link can pose to a strong chain. his fortunes. is a tale of the whale swallowing a willing Jonah in order to transport him to where he needed and wanted to go. gave Nelson Mandela political victory. lived experience--one he is admittedly nostalgic for. to come up with new expressions that match their own cultural context. because they've inspired local scenes--such as the ones I'm dissertating on. rather than from the corporate boardrooms of the music industry. His mention of Fred Ho's journey through that jazz of European and African American parentage to his own Asian American statements (178). His recollection (177-8) of the guitar's origin in Spain. It was an engagement that resulted in a complete empowerment of the underdog's identity and social status. often file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. He thus ends his looks at the global popular music industry by touching base with a concrete.htm Page 40 of 46 . of then holding it to its professions of morality. rather than from a distance from them. the Greek. and equal opportunity. and the blues' grounding in Western European harmonies. by the same process that lionized Martin Luther King as an American hero." theoretically if not always practically. democracy.and African-American kids) corroborates my own friends' tales of their African-American milieu being heavily influenced by the German-traditional music pedagogy and discourse of the last hundred years. in West and East Germany--to dismiss the hegemony and focus on the spark of liberatory. up to the moment.

and would lead us into another story worth tracing. the more real details. bearing real love and fruit. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. As all Baudrillard's cultural dilemmas have their solutions in nature (sex over cloning. Whiteness as Strategic Essentialism All of this begs other questions. since the 1980s. mentioned seldom in English-language music scholarship. isn't the finally interesting point. the "other readings" tend to pooh-pooh that as misspent." via Lipsitz. above all else. I feel.5 is playing that underdog role--which observation brushes us up against Erlmann's passing mention of the "avant-garde" (second loose end). that the totality is the elephant in the room whether you mention it or not. between king's son and chargirl. arguably. to the American dream of fame and fortune. whatever else you do with the locals.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM challenging those commercial and elitist preservationist postures blues and jazz did go on to strike in the aspirations of a black middle class. Let's lay aside for the moment the argument we can make for the willing perpetual assimilation of the local by the totality. We have a symbiosis. Louis-born BAG was a seminal forerunner of it). not the alienator. Erlmann. less so all the time. manipulator. a marriage. jazz's history is one of radical local gestures seizing the totality's frame to reshape it. as Erlmann noted re: Slobin. in Lipsitz. The international improvisedmusic scene."4 because in the moments unfolding there have repeatedly been shocks of the new (though. The same totality Erlmann sees as absolute power serves. of individuation. misspending intellectual energy. tangled over rigid hierarchy.). or quasher. blues/jazz per Lipsitz is the supreme timely example of an engagement of the total (Western music/industry) by the local (African-American culture/music) in which the power of the latter reshaped that of the former as much as the reverse. then being framed by it…only to leap off to another such radical gesture. Its sameness-in-difference exists only if we do indeed "spatialize time. but not here (except to mention that abovementioned St. insists on the importance of recognizing the totality for what it is in order to monitor/influence it. in mutual transformation. the more the perception settles down one or another line. Such tricks of perception are easiest in the abstract. as the empowerer of the lowliest local--lowliest not in its place on the food chain so much as in its complete (some would say abject) acceptance of the totality--but that as the means. or at least social status and prosperity. in the corporate/academiccommodified music that still goes proudly by the name "jazz"). so you might as well come to terms with it directly. like Jameson and Baudrillard. etc. or of academic privilege.htm Page 41 of 46 . or of an ego-driven star system. But even a demonstration of Erlmann's "hell" as a "heaven.

The invaders were barbarians imposing power-over-fromwithout. including the Germanic ones that established this "West" of ours only a millennium ago. We describe thereby a moment that began some 4500 years ago. eventually becoming a global ecumene too. as "black. Power-over-from-within thus waxed great in times of violent expansion. and waned into an instability of the collective that was often just as violent when internalized." "ethnicity. not necessarily but largely in fact. Also. in a sense. through tolerance of/conversion to their victims' gods and social mythi. because when they conquered they were masters at letting themselves be assimilated from above. the West's hegemony is experienced by the Rest as a power-over-from-without for file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. when the Aryan invasions began. All this. to seize power over civilizations from North Africa to India to the Mediterranean. when we put it that way we realize it is that way. not merely aspiring to be (as every "white" reach for the totality from the ancient Aryan and Hebrew conquerors to the Greek and Roman states to the Catholic Church to the Soviet Union has had to do. The mask covering this supremacy is constituted by anyone anywhere who accepts its terms and turf (its version of history.a whiteness.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM If we look it in the face. was always schizophrenic in this way. but with an unbroken sense in us all as originally African. founding both imperialistic tyranny and grassroots individualism within the same thrusts of its history as "The Man. having nodded at their nods to each other." "nationality. with the same mutations of "race" and culture varying with the globe's environments. "whiteness" could have been "blackness" had history seen civilization begin in Africa and spread gradually abroad. the English language). and a general willingness to be civilized." not "religion." Finally.6 what do we see? having nodded to those who would valorize the local. poorer climes/terrains and histories. democracy--even. what do we see that we haven't seen before? Most obviously. and to their counterparts worrying over the total. had a social pattern of blind obedience to (elected) absolute rulers in times of war. cultivated--always within the context of their own patriarchal. powered by the wheel and the horse. entrepreneurial capitalism. This power-over-from-without brought its own internal power dynamics. per poet Charles Olson. hierarchical dominance." or "ideology. The Aryan tribes.k. as well as approach). is an accident of history. through intermarriage. the West. of course. a. seeking bounty and infrastructure generated by others denied them by virtue of their situations in harsher. of course. it has one: a cohort called the West. we see an "ecumene" that truly is global." That's the other thing." And.7 That's one thing. this ecumene's name is "commodities exchange. though that name doesn't reveal the identity of the ecumene's convener and governor. Whiteness. as humanity did. but fierce independence in times of peace. due to built-in limits of geography and/or technology.htm Page 42 of 46 . Ethnicity and religion were not primary.

for that matter. the Maya priest-king. we have less to worry about than if we were. until we do. one way or another. from within or without. Olson became excited about the history of Kulkulkan. killed and corralled by homo sapiens. its power has not yet proven the equal of the larger truth and consensus of our common humanity. through all trial and error. Neandertals. The interests of business won out over bigotry. and some of us went out and seized/generated the seat of power over the bodies and body of us. and in recent memory. not only because that someone insisted on wielding power-over but because the whole human family insists on colluding with its own self-ordering as a collective that. gentler vision of hegemony). in the long run. of course. Best. This isn't to say that the interests of business have not also been served by exploitation. inter. or as the banal? Belgrad: Searching in the ruins of Copan for keys to the Maya civilization. Indeed. Is this a useful "new way of mapping this space"? Can we posit the total system as a dirty job that someone had to do. A deciding moment in the birth of modern capitalism. to hang it up in plain sight. were a class whose daily file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. The mythical Kulkulkan symbolized to Olson the possibillity of social power through cultural authority. and helped establish the principle of the separation of church and state in America. He wrote to Creeley: Are not the Maya the most important characters in the whole panorama…simply because the TOP CLASS in their society. interregional. it is. both serves the interests of its individuals and requires service from them? Must that insistence always meet resistance as tyranny. intergender) relations around the world.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM obvious reasons. and one we expect not to have seen the last of. and in so doing also checked and balanced that power with a commensurate empowerment of each of us.htm Page 43 of 46 . treated so. where we can keep an eye on it. and the rise of modern whiteness and the West to its global status. then New Amsterdam. but more deeply it can be read as a power-over-from-within. and thereby driven to extinction (or. an all-too-real picture of intra-human (not only interracial--intertribal. when Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant was overruled by his superiors in Holland when he wanted to exclude Jews from the city. Still. the more the commonality of our humanity beckons (a kinder. if we were weak whites who were so extinguished by that mighty hypothetical African empire). and if read so. That analogy's evocation of genocidal racism is deliberate. however horrible its dreams and attempts to do so.and intrafamilial. the greater our differences. as Erlmann points out (477). once everyone is included--but the inclusion itself has served to undermine the imbalance of power. came in seventeenth-century New York. say. If we are all Africans. the bosses.

")) This statement of Olson's turned the myth of progress on its head.htm Page 44 of 46 . and democratizer better than have military. he asserted. Indeed. fell most readily before the weapons of Goebbels and his kind. culture?… and that any such society goes down easily before a gun?…((The absolute quote here. political. ideological. from the story of the golden calf to that of the beast of Revelations to the Marxist critique of dialectical materialism and the American narrative of universal life. pecking green? SOURCES Mike Heffley|||||||||Almatour |||||||||Almatexts 1. equalizer." "spectacle or image society. (73) And: Olson implied that this loss [of treasures trampled underfoot as worthless by invading Europeans] had occurred because European civilization identified its progress solely with wealth as defined by the accelerated exchange of commodities. is.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM business was KNOWLEDGE. inferior to the cultures they displace. (75) Well. I would reverse it for Lipsitz. doesn't that still leave infinite room to consider how much it can and can not improve this coop now that we know there's nobody here but us chickens. as a result. Compared to Erlmann. who sd: "When I hear the word 'kultur' I reach for my gun. and religious engines. Having milked the tight/loose analogy dry. for it implies that colonizing powers are." and "the world system" (1991: xviii). If we must admit that Mammon has functioned as motivator. 2. This voice argues that hope lies not in a radical break with the past but in a selective recovery of it--even underfoot. his work is predominantly a loose weave--a scatter of looks at different scenes. Goebbels. one such selective recovery may be Europe's own contempt for the totality as commodities exchange. abstract generalizing--and the two anomalies I'm extracting from it here are more in keeping with the "tightness" (via file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Jameson himself equates "postmodernism" with "late capitalism. in the Americas. also deep-mythically rooted. as a rule. The most desirable cultures. there are clues to social alternatives that suffered untimely destruction. all other standards of value faded before an accumulative desire. The idea suggests an inversion of social Darwinism. not a systematic." "multinational capitalism. & ITS OFFSHOOT. and pursuit of happiness. liberty. one prime devil." "media capitalism.

Yes. Fishkin. Daniel. act. Veit.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM the whiteness) I'm seeing in Erlmann. 1991. 7. References Baudrillard." multicultural scene. which could itself be fodder for a debate over whether it was "post-" more by virtue of jazz's supposed Amerigemonic influence or jazz's liberatory core. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. if you can. 5. 1995. VT: Destiny Books. 6. and Smith and Dean for some of the best of what assessments there are of this "post-jazz. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. 1990/1993. Olson defined his cultural work as an 'archeological' project aimed at making the past 'spatial' rather than 'temporal. London/New York: Verso. 1983/1987. Belgrad. and. 1993. Jean. Andrew. "The Politics and Aesthetics of Transnational Musics. Olson: "The West still has possibilities. 1996. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomenon. Veit. despite the apparent darkness (the whiteness / which covers all).' By this he meant that it should be possible to reclaim past ways of life for their potential contributions to the present" (71). Goodwin. Shelley Fisher. despite the long dominance of European culture ('the whiteness / which covers all'): 'The light is in the east. if you look." including Wesleyan's own Anthony Braxton's "tri-axium" concept. And we must rise. Erlmann. See Berendt 1983/7. Foreword by Fritjof Capra. Nada Brahma: Music and the Landscape of Consciousness." Public Culture 8: 467-87. Rochester. into that face. This is a theme that virtually marks our time's aesthetics.' Complicating 'Blackness': Remapping American Culture. The Culture of Spontaneity: Improvisation and the Arts in Postwar America. with what candor. See Walker (1983). Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press. look…' (Belgrad. Joachim-Ernst. The World is Sound. Berendt. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. if you can bear. 1990. Giddens." Socialist Review 20/3: 63-80. As Baudrillard states. and Joe Gore. Anthony. "The Aesthetics of the Global Imagination: Reflections on World Music in the 1990s. 4. Belgrad's (1998) reading of poet Charles Olson pertains in this regard: "On leaving politics. "World Beat and the Cultural Imperialism Debate. "Interrogating 'Whiteness. in that whiteness. 3. Belgrad. and not only those of the pop music pastiche but also of what Erlmann tagged the "more self-consciously avant-garde. Yet / in the west. long enough… / so you must. 76).htm Page 45 of 46 . Erlmann. 1998." American Quarterly 47/3: 428-66." The World of Music 35/2: 3-15. Foucault's The History of Sexuality spells this out in the most visceral terms of the erotic in culture.

and the Arts since 1945. Middletown CT: Wesleyan University Press. 1993. Barbara. Jameson. The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets." Critical Inquiry 20 (Summer): 737-57. The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. 1993. Paul. Subcultural Sounds: Micromusics of the West. Guilbault. Guilbault. Fredric.part2outro 09/08/2006 07:21 AM Gordon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Smith. 1995. Paris: Editions Balland. Lipsitz. Jùjú: A Social History and Ethnography of an African Popular Music. Hypermedia. Sanchez. 1991. "On Redefining the 'Local' through World Music. Lipsitz. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Slobin. "Die Transparenz des Objekts. 1990. Avery and Christopher Newfield. Durham: Duke University Press. George. Jocelyne. ed." In Digitaler Schein. file:///Users/mikeheffley/Sites/almatexts/almamusicology/part2outro. Christopher Alan. 1995. Henri Pierre." American Quarterly 47/3: 369-87. Waterman. Jeudy. "Reading Reginald Denny. 1994. 1993." The World of Music 35/2: 3347. Ästhetik der elektronischen Medien. "The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the 'White' Problem in American Studies." American Quarterly 47/3: 416-427. Franfurt-am-Main: Suhrkamp: 171-82. Jocelyne. Postmodernism. Hazel and Roger Dean. George. Zouk: World Music in the West Indies. 1983. 1980." American Quarterly 47/3: 388-94. Mark. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Virilio. Esthétique de la disparation. Florian Rötzer. Harwood Academic Publishers. 1997. 1995. Walker. "White Philosophy. George J. Or. 1991. Improvisation.htm Page 46 of 46 . "Toxic Racism.

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