RP XP
AlrPtractWe propose the method which is able to suppress the gen
eration of the high harmonic currents on the AC side of the diode
rectifier circuits i n the AC electric railways by connccting the Ut
Rd
series circuit i n parallel with the load on the BC side. From the
experimental and theoretical results, it is confirmed that t h i s
method produces the desirable effect for the reduction of high
e a
.......
I id2
Xd
harmonics and the improvement of the power characteristics.
.
I I mRomIa d
F i g . 1 . Equivalent c i r c u i t of e l e c t r i c railway
In the AC electric railways, the single phase r e c t i f i e r applied this method.
c i r c u i t s placed i n the car generate high harmonic currents
on the AC side.The lower order components of the generated resultant reactance(inductance M) and resistance of the DC
harmonics may cause breakdown and overheating of the power series motor and smoothing reactor etc..
source transformer and the Power Factor improvement capac Generally, the equivalent circuit on the UC motor side is
itor etc.. Also,the higher order components cause inductive expressed i n an alternating equivalent resistance Rt,react
interference t o neighboring communication l i n e s and the ance Xd and a constant counter e.m.f E. In t h i s analysis,we
train control infornation etc.. substitute a DC equivalent resistance Re for a counter
A s a countermeasure, the AC f i l t e r t o reduce harmonic e.n.f E. Then, i n Fig.1, Rd shows Rt+Re. The influence of
currents on the AC side has been adoptedCllC21, but it does t h i s treatment is discussed i n the l a t e r chapter.
not have much effect[3][4]. Also, problemC51 such a s Fir.P(a) shows the voltage and current waveforms on the
increase i n the size of capacitor kVA acconpanied by funda AC side of this circuit configuration. In this figure, AC
mental harmonic current inflow arise. side current i p contains the high harmonics based on the
Then, we propose the new reduction method[61[7]C8] of the inductive load.
high harmonic currents i n the car using the diode r e c t i f i e r Then,we propose the new method that the CR series circuit
circuits. I t is able to suppress the generation of the high (shown a dotted l i n e i n Fig.l)is connected i n parallel w i t h
harmonic currents on the AC side by connecting the CR the load on the DC side. Iherefore,DC side circuit consists
series c i r c u i t i n parallel with the load on the DC side of of the parallel circuit of the load and the CR series
the r e c t i f i e r circuits. circuit. Then, i f the relation of the c i r c u i t constants on
In t h i s paper, the theoretical analysisC91 of the single the DC side c a n be maintained as follows
phase r e c t i f i e r c i r c u i t adopted t h i s method is pre8ented.In XdXc=Rd2=R2(constant resistance condition 1, (1)
t h i s analysis, we separate into two operating nodes and impedance of the DC side can be considered t o be a pure
carry out the circuit analysis for each d e . Furthermore, resistance.
we make calculations and experiments on the condition of Fig.2(b) shows the voltage and current waveform on the
electric railways, and then indicate the power characteris AC side under the condition of the equation (l).The AC side
tics and the reduction effects of high harmonic currents.
And, it is clarified that adopting this method t o the car
using the diode r e c t i f i e r circuits produces the desirable
effects f o r reduction of the high harmonics and the power
characteristics.
The equivalent circuit configuration of a tap control car ( a ) General waveforms. ( b ) Waveforms applied this method.
is shown with a solid line i n Fig.1. In t h i s circuit, Xp P i g . 2 . Voltage and current waveforms on the AC s i d e .
and Rp show the resultant reactandinductance Lpland the
resistance on the AC power source side. Xd and Rd show the
0780306341/92$03.OO0IEEE
1343
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
current i p becorn a sine wave which does not contain the Commutation start angle is rectification end phase in
high harnonic components. Also, the AC side impedance has which terminal voltage of r e c t i f i e r circuit becomes zero.
effect only on Power Factor and the current magnitude on Hereafter,v.b and vd i n Fir.1 keep zero,because a l l recti
the AC side. f i e r elements are i n short state. Hence, circuit equations
Thus, when the load constant values a r e given, the moat are given i n the following differential equations;
desirable values of the CR circuit for high harmonics
reduction can be determined by the equation (1). But, i n
practice, the condition is not always aatisfied for reason
of the load fluctuation.In t h i s case, the AC side inpedance
h a s an effect on the AC current waveform. Therefore, i n the
area that the equation (1) is not satisfied,the character
istics of high harmonics reduction and efficiency have t o where each i n i t i a l current a t commutation s t a r t angle a is
be investigated. ip=icd, idi=icdi, i d 2 = i c d 2 and iCd=ie*i*icd2. Therefore,
In order t o carry out tba abovementioned investigation, the s t a r t angle a of commutation state is
analysis method of the r e c t i f i e r circuit w i t h the CR series
circuit on the DC side is described i n the next chapter. a=sinI C (X,(Xc i cdi/R+Ra i caz/Xa)
 R P ( i o d i + i cd2)) /EJ (8).
1.ANALYSIS OF WB PBCTIMER CIRCUIT YITU
m CR SRRIB CIRCUIT (b) Couutation state ( a 4 8 5 a +U
In the r e c t i f i e r c i r c u i t with the CR s e r i e s circuit on In the commutation state, the AC side circuit and the DC
the DC side, commutation condition can be divided into two side c i r c u i t respectively behave a s independent circuit,
modes i n coapliance with circuit constant conditions. because the terminal voltages of r e c t i f i e r circuit are i n
(1) There is commutation s t a t e . ( d e 1) short state.By the solutions of the equations (2)(5) each
(2) There is no commutation state.(mode 2) i is shown in the following equations;
And constant resistance condition is located i n boundary of
modes 1 and 2.
A . Aoalysis of .bde 1
(c) Rectification s t a t e ( a +U S 6 5 + a1 1~
I
1 1

4 I
Pig.3 shows the voltage and current waveform i n t h i s By the solutions of these equations each i is a s follows;
condition.Each symbol corresponh to Fig. 1.For the analysis
of the c i r c u i t i n Fig.1, commutation s t a r t angle a , the
currents of each part i n commutation and rectification
s t a t e s have t o be calculated.
(a) Commutation s t a r t angle a
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
where the i n i t i a l values a t rectification s t a r t angle a + U
are i d l = i R l d l , i d 2 = i ~ l d 2and q=qR.In these equations,ZlZT,
$2,Tn and K, are constants and are shown i n appendix. VI
V I
B . Analysis of rode 2
~ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
81=sin' ((R i R 2 d i + o X, qRZ)/Em) . (20)
~s.(7),(8),(10)and(ll)
(b) Rectification s t a t e ( B id 0 B2)
harmonic analysis
calculation of K.F,P.F aid J P
1345
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
The constants i n the eqs.(21)(23) are equal to the
values( appendix ) which are obtained by substituting,
respectively, i n i t i a l values 8 1 , i R 2 d 1 ,  i R 2 d 2 and q R 2 f o r
a + u , i R l d l , i R l d 2 and q R 1 .
c ~~
start )
(c) Interruption s t a t e ( B 2 5 0 S ?c + B 1 )
I assumption of initial values 1
calculation of rectification
’
In the interruption state, the charged energy i n star1 angle 81 eq.(20)
I
capacitor is supplied to the load and the circuit is calculation of rectification
composed of the closed c i r c u i t on the DC side.
Hence, the circuit equations are given i n the following
differential equations;
calculation of interruption
=end values state eqs. (27), (28)and(29)
,. ”.,
1346
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
,, I .'r
 I
0.5i\/d i v
k=l k =1
n=2k1, m=2k+l
ZOV/div
9 i =phase difference between the fundamental harmonic
.
1 Oi\/tl i v voltage and current.
I I=effective value of the fundamental harmonic current.
0. Srnsldiv
( a ) CR series circuit noninsertion
I t
4"

Capacitance c( P F) +
( b ) CR series circuit insertion. o . S m s / t ' " Fig.8. Capacitance vs. third harmonic current,
Porer Factor and Klirr Factor.
Fig.7. Experimental waveforms of voltage and current. Fig.8 shows the characteristics of third harmonic current,
Klirr Factor and Total Power Factor for variation of the CR
pai. Therefore, i p contains a large quantity of high circuit constants on the condition that the value of
harmonics. Also, the r e c t i f i e r circuit gets into the s t a t e impedance on the AC side and the load constant are fixed.
that instantaneouse value of vd is zero(commutation s t a t e ) . Because investigation of t h i s method is aimed a t reduction
And, the ripple of id2 is low due t o the load reactance. of equivalent disturbing current Jp, the value of the
In the waveforms of Fig.7(b), accompanied by insertion of resistance R for C except for the constant resistance
the CR circuit, i p approaches a sine waveform. Id2 shows condition is selected i n the condition which the value of
change very l i t t l e by inserting the CR circuit. Idi Jp is the lowest.
reiterates charge and discharge in the two times frequency The third harmonjc current is regularized by the value of
of the power source i n accordance w i t h magnitude relation third harmonic current 1 3 0 i n C=O. A s their results show,
between vd and capacitor voltage. third harmonic current and Klirr Factor are zeros i n the
From the abovementioned, i n the constant resistance constant resistance condition and even i f C is small, the
condition, it was made sure that i p approaches a sine effect is enough.
waveform and that it contains high harmonics very l i t t l e . In Total Power Factor, even i f value of C is very small,
the effect is great.The calculation results agree w i t h the
B . Characteristics for constants change of the CR series experimental results i n Fig.8.
circuit
(b) Effect for the equivalent disturbing current Jp and
In this paragraph, reduction effect of the high harmonics loss *
for constants change of the CR series c i r c u i t is investi
gated. Also, it shows considerations for selection of the Considering the induction obstacle of the communication
circuit constant values. These investigations are given i n lines, it is customary that the disturbance degree is
the condition of the load power 21.4W constant. evaluated by the equivalent disturbing current. According
to CCITTC141, the definition is revealed i n the equation,as
(a) Efficacy for third harmonic current, Klirr Factor and follows;
Total Power Factor.
J P "~ (sn
CI n > 2 (321
The definitionsC131 of Klirr Factor and Total Power where
Factor are shown i n the following equations; I ,, : effective value of the n t h harmonic
S :noise evaluation coefficient.
1347
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
t increase rate CR circuit
(DC side insertion)
T !
/ measured
:calculated
A’
S I \
*
A
\ constant resistance condition
Capacitance C(crF)+
Pig.9 shows the characteristics of Jp, coapared t h i s maxinun value(about 13%). Likewise,in the AC side insertion,
method w i t h the case of inserting the CR circuit into the it becones about IO$.Also,in the r e c t i f i e r circuit inserted
AC side. The values of the CR circuit constant i n Fig.9 and the CR circuit into the CC side, no natter how much the C
Pig.8 are the same. Vertical axis is regularized by the increases, I, does not increase. But, i n the r e c t i f i e r
value(Jp0) of Jp i n C=O. circuit inserted the CR c i r c u i t into the AC side, the more
Experimental results considered the constant e.n.f E are C increases, the more i, increases, because the fundamental
shown i n Pig.9. A s the result shows, value of C on the DC harmonic current flows into the CR c i r c u i t on the AC side.
side is efficacious i n the value given by the constant I n the AC side insertion, naximun value of the CR c i r c u i t
resistance condition or aore than it. The calculation loss is about 24%,and i n the DC side insertion, its maximum
results agree with the experimental results i n Fig.9. Jp of value is about 13%.
AC side insertion is about ten tines a s large as Jp of the I t is evident from the abovementioned that connecting
DC side insertion i n the constant resistance condition. the CR c i r c u i t with the DC side is a profitable method.
Therefore, the reduction effect of the CR circuit on the
DC side is good. (c) Effect for Jp of the inductive reactance on the AC side.
S i g n a is nuch the sane result as s i g n 0 substituted the
resistance for the constant counter e.m.f E. Hence, it was In order t o know the effect for Jp of the inductive
nade sure that substituting the resistance is pertinent. reactance on the AC side, calculation results of the Jp/Jp,
According t o the reports of UIC the f i f t h steering for the CR circuit time constant with the parameter of the
cornittee, electrification sectional meeting and WG5A22, inductive reactance on the AC side are shown i n Fig.11.
the reduction effect of Jp i n former method inserted the AC I t can be seen from the results t h a t in t h e constant
tuned f i l t e r is about V3.7 i n the examination results by resistance condition ( C=88.89pF, R=9.5R, Time constant
the car of Sweden National Railways. Also, according t o the is 3 7 8 9 ~ s), s t r i k i n g reduction effect can be got and the
measurenent examples used the 951 t y p e examination car of
JR, it is reported that Jp becomes w i t h i n the range of
V1.04111.78.
The reduction effect of this method is very good as
contrasted w i t h these results.
st,
Y
where Y
6 0.5
The conditions of Fig.10 and Fig.9 are the same. A s shown Tine constant of CR series circuit(ps)+
i n Pig.10, i n the constant resistance condition of the DC
Fig.11. Tine constant of CR series circuit vs. Jp/Jpn.
side insertion, increase rate of the AC current becomes
1348
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
value is 516 a s contrasted with Jp of the CR circuit non the value of Jp becomes relatively low l i k e i n the case of
insertion. Further, Jp shows minimum point without reference the CR c i r c u i t noninsertion.
to magnitude of the inductive reactance on the AC side. From the abovementioned, it is confirmed that i f best
Also,in the case of (C=200/1F,time constant 1300ps)and(C= value of the CR circuit constants is selected i n the
BOOpP, time constant 6 0 0 0 SI,
~ their characteristics are maximum load condition, the circuit can always maintain low
similar t o the abovementioned one. When the more different value of Jp.
the time constant is from optimum point, the greater the
effect for Jp of the inductive reactance on the AC side is. v. CaNCLuSIOw
And, the smaller L, is, the higher the relative value of Jp
is. The proposed method i n t h i s paper can make the high
In the diagram, i n the absence of the impedance on the AC harwnic currents on the AC side reduce by getting the
side, sign I is the time constant i n the minimum value of Jp. correct harmonic distribution on the DC side by connecting
In the presence of the impedance on the AC side, t h i s time the CR c i r c u i t with the DC side.
constant is approximately same value i n comparison with it. The investigation results of a tap control car applied
Therefore, when the load constants are given, the best CR t h i s method can be summed up as follows.
circuit constants can be determined without reference t o
the impedance on the AC side. 1) The best value of the CR circuit constants is given i n
the constant resistance condition and even i f the value of
C. Mfect f o r Jp of the load variatim(coddering the C is a l i t t l e different from the condition, the effect is
inductive reactance variation w the AC side) great. Further, the best value of resistance R for the
various C may be selected without reference t o the
In this paragraph, assuming a tap control car, the char impedance on the AC side i n the e l e c t r i c railway c i r c u i t
acteristics of Jp for the load variation are investigated condition.
on the assumption that load current is constant control and 2) In the constant resistance condition, the value of the
that t u r n r a t i o of the main transformer is ~ 1 6 . 0 i n the equivalent disturbing current Jp is 5$ a s contrasted with
maximum load condition. In the investigation of t h i s para the CR circuit noninsertion.
graph , the load variation means variation of the constant 3) The effects for Klirr Factor and third harmonic current
counter e.m.f E accompanied by a speed control. are great too. And it can be said that much hope is found
In t h i s investigation, because the constant counter e.m.f i n the reducing third harmonic current a t the inside of the
E is estinated as Re=7.0R i n the maximum load condition, car.
Fig. 12 shows the characteristics of Jp calculated by 4) Increase i n size of capacitor kVA accompanied by the
changing the value of Re from OR to 7.OR. However, the fundamental harmonic current inflow is small and the
load current id:! is 1.5A constant. Jp is obtained from reduction effect of high harmonic currents is great too.
values converted into primary side by computing the turn Further, Total Power Factor also can be improved.
r a t i o for each secondary voltage. In addition, constant 5) Jp is low w i t h i n the wide range of the load variation
values of the CR circuit are selected under the condition and even maximum value is about 2%. Therefore, by using
that Jp becomes minimum v a l u e i n the maximum load condition. t h i s method, it becomes possible t o narrow a generation
A s the results show, it can be seen t h a t Jp is greatly area of the induction obstacle.
suppressed for increase of the load average power i n each
capacitor. Also, i n the case of the CR c i r c u i t insertion, From these results, it is confirmed t h a t t h i s method has
when t h e inductivity reactance on the AC side increases, much effect on the reduction of high harmonic currents and
improvement of Power Factor.
M
cs Load average wwer P,(W)+ naximun load wwer REWENCIS
1349
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
c11 T.Hongo: On the Higher Harmonic Currents i n AC Side of the K3= CqRi( Z 3 2 + Z 4 2 ) ZnE,  ( Zssin( a + u
Single Phase FullWave Rectifier Circuit w i t h the AC Filter(1n + d 2)  Zrcos( a + U + $2)) / 01 /( z 3 z+ 242)
NoGrid Control) .Jour.IEE of Japan 79,722 (19599) + ( ( T 2  T i ) €  ( P i  P z )A ) /A
C21 T.Ilongo: On the Higher Harmonic Currents i n AC Side of the
A = ( T 3  T 2 ) ( Pi  P 3 1 ( T 3Ti 1( P 2  P 3 1
Single Phase FullWave Rectifier Circuit w i t h the AC Filter(1n
Grid Control).Jour.IEE of Japan 80,35 (19601) Pi. P 2 and P 3 are root of the characteristic equation
C31 Special steering committee for induction reserch : The Newest and their values are shown i n the following;
Trend and Theme for the Kagnetic Induclion. PI=x  y  z
Jour.IEE of Japan (1979) P2=0xw2yz
[41 Railway Electrification Society:Reserch of Various Problems i n P3=0 2 x  w y  z
the Thyristor Application car. (1968) where
C51 Railway Electrification Society: Reserch Steering Commitlee of
a = (Rd R p + X c( X p + X d ) + R ( R p + R d ) )/ X P &
noncontact control car. (1970)
b = X , ( R p + R a ) / X pxd
C61 T.Katsuhashi and Y.Anemiya: The Noise Reduction Method of the
Devices Containing Rectifiers.Patent number 696027(1973),Japan *
a=(1 j & / 2
C71 T. natsuhashi ,K. Uatahiki ,S. Shirai and T. Tani no: Experiments for
Reduction of High llarmonic Currents on the AC Side by the
F i l t e r on the DC Side.
The national conference of IEE of Japan (1973)
C81 T.Ueda,T.Matsuhashi and T.llongo : The Reduction of the AC Side
High Harmonic Currents on the AC Side by the F i l t e r on the DC
Side i n the Rectifier Circuit.
The northeast branch conference of IEE of Japan(1983)
C9l K.Itako and T.Katsuhashi: The Reduction of the High Harmonic
Currents i n the Rectifier CircuitIn the Case of Counter e.m.f
Nonconsideration .
The national conference of IEE of Japan (1990)
cl01 N.Irie,T.Kawazoe and T.Kawamura: Caracteristic Calculat,ion of
Single Phase Rectifier Circuit Used i n the Electric Railway.
Jour.IEE of Japan 87,539(19673)
C111 N.Irie and Y .Yamazaki: Normalized Characteristic of Phase Rec
t i f i e r c i r c u i t used i n the Electric Railway.
ibid. 87,2232(196711)
cl21 Railway Electrification Society: Basic Study of Noncontact
Control Car. (19703)
C131 T.Pukao: Effective Power and Reactive Power. (student column)
Jour.IEE of Japan (1981)
Cl41 CCITT: Directives (1963)
1350
Authorized licensed use limited to: Rockwell Collins. Downloaded on July 31, 2009 at 12:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.