Resilient Modulus Behavior of Rubberized Asphalt Concrete (RAC) Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP

Feipeng Xiao* and Serji N. Amirkhanian*
*Clemson University Department of Civil Engineering 110 Lowry Hall Clemson, SC 29634
The resilient modulus is the modulus to be used with the elastic theory during any analysis of a flexible pavement. It is well known that most paving materials (e.g., asphalt pavements) are not elastic but experience some permanent deformation after each load application. With respect to the complexity of the rubberized asphalt concrete (RAC) containing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), the indirect tensile strength (ITS) and resilient modulus evaluation of modified mixtures are important to understand. The aging of binder containing crumb rubber obviously alters the visco-elastic and plastic characteristics of the modified mixtures. The deformation of the mixture under repeated loading, nearly completely recoverable, should also be considered. The experimental design included the use of two aggregate sources, one rubber type (ambient), four rubber contents (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%), one crumb rubber size (-40 mesh [-0.425 mm]), and four RAP contents (0%, 15%, 25%, and 30%). The findings indicated that an increase in the rubber content in the modified mixture leads to a decrease in ITS and resilient modulus values regardless of rubber content, and this increase also improves the aging resistance and increases the viscous characteristics of the modified binder. However, as RAP content increased, not only the viscosity and G*sinδ values of the modified binder increased, the ITS and resilient modulus values of the modified mixtures also increased.

Crumb rubber, Resilient Modulus, Rubberized asphalt, RAP, Viscosity, G*sinδ.


Road Materials and Pavement Design. Volume X – No. X/2007

1. Introduction Resilient modulus, an important material property and analogous to the modulus of elasticity, can be used to predict the response of a material to repeated impulse or moving loads, such as those imposed by vehicle tires on a road surface. It is one of many stiffness indicators of mixtures which can be determined using laboratory testing methods or non-destructive field tests such as falling weight deflectometer tests through back calculations (Shalaby et al. 2004). Resilient modulus is determined from a repeated load test, peak values of stress and recoverable deformation occurring in the test are used to calculate the resilient elastic constants even though peak stress and recoverable deformation do not occur at the same time in a dynamic test of this type (NCHRP 1997). Previous research indicated that the response of a pavement surface, subbase and the subgrade, and the correlation between the temperature and resilient modulus are able to be performed in accordance with various resilient modulus testing and analysis methods. In general, good relationships have been found to exist between flexible pavement performance and the stresses, strains, and displacements calculated by layered pavement theories using appropriate resilient modulus of that particular pavement layer (Park and Lytton 2002; Wahhab et al. 2001). Moreover, the results of these projects also indicated that the properties of the various materials (e.g., aggregate sources, binder sources, etc.) used in a pavement affect the resilient modulus and stiffness values of the mixtures. Especially, in recent years, some special materials such as crumb rubber are being used to save money, protect the environment, and extend the life of asphalt pavements. In addition, the utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is an acceptable practice in many countries all over the world. However, the use of RAP containing crumb rubber has not been investigated in great detail, so it is essential to explore whether these materials have any effect on the resilient modulus. In general, previous experience has shown that the use of RAP has proven to be cost-effective, environmentally sound, and successful in improving some of the engineering properties of asphalt mixtures (Kandhal 1997; NCHRP 2001). Crumb rubber has also been used successfully in

2. are shown in Table 1.262* 0. and 30% by weight of the modified mixture).63 RTFO G*/sin(δ) @64 oC 2. G*/sinδ values in virgin and rolling thin film oven (RTFO) aging states. indirect tensile strength (ITS).241 0.55 Aging G*/sin(δ) @64 oC 1. two RAP sources (RAPs L and C). resilient modulus. 15%.43 5. four rubber contents (0%.1 Materials In this study.243 Note: *: Stiffness and m-value results of extracted binders (No RTFO and PAV aging) Test Properties Aging States No . The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of viscosity.98 2.271* 0. Shen et al.28 58. 25%. Experimental design and procedure 2.78 95. and 15% by weight of the virgin binder). Xiao et al. and four RAP contents (0%. the experimental design included the utilization of two aggregate sources (aggregates L and C). used for preparing samples in this project. 2003.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 3 improving the mechanical characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures (Bahia and Davies 1994. one rubber type (ambient). Airey et al. 2006.81 109. The properties of virgin PG 64-22 asphalt binder and aged binder extracted from RAP. one crumb rubber size (-40 mesh [-0. The results indicated that aged binder extracted from RAP L has the higher viscosity.307 0. 5%. G*sinδ. and their correlations on the performance of various rubberized asphalt concrete (RAC) containing RAP. Table 1 Engineering Properties of Asphalt Binder Virgin Binder Extracted Binder PG64-22 Source L Source C o Viscosity @135 C 0.425 mm]).30 o G*sin(δ) @25 C 4074 8000 11000 o PAV Stiffness @-12 C 217 267* 294 258* 277 o m-value @-12 C 0. 10%. and has a lower G*sinδ value and a higher stiffness value than that of RAP C in pressure aging vessel (PAV) aging states.54 45. 2006).

2 2. X/2007 The gradations of two aggregate sources are shown in Table 2.6 16. shear strength. these physical properties should be beneficial in improving the workability of the asphalt mixtures.7 #30 1.5 to 19. Man. when using aggregate source C.5 47.8 99.2 C Reg.4 12 2.4 Road Materials and Pavement Design. Hardness 76 60 5 6 There were a total of 22 Superpave mix designs conducted. Absorption Specific Gravity Source Loss (%) (%) Dry SSD (bulk) (bulk) L 51 0. compressive strength.0 Sand Equi. Sand: Manufactured Sand Table 3 Engineering Properties of Aggregate Sources L and C Agg. exhibits lower LA abrasion loss.075 mm Source L 1/2" 100 100 100 100 100 100 3/8" 90 100 100 87. LA Abr.2 0. where the aggregate C (crushed granite). Sand #789 stone Reg.0 to 9.4 3. Obviously.2 8.5 45.75 mm 2.7 #8 6. aggregate C has greater unit weight.650 2.150 mm 0. On the other hand.4 1. Scr. Sand Aggregate 12. and modulus of rupture.9 24.3 0. composed predominantly of quartz and potassium feldspar.5 mm 9. Table 2 Gradations of Various Mixtures Type of Aggregate #789 stone Reg.5 100 100 #4 35 99. absorption.4 22.9 100 99. aggregate C shows a lower sand equivalent (clay content) and higher hardness than aggregate L.6 0.5 9. Volume X – No.660 C 23 0. In addition. Man.75 (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.70 2.3 0. Scr.3 96 82.2 1.5 mm 4.50 2. and specific gravity values than that of aggregate L (crushed limestone) composed mainly of calcite.3 81.620 Soundness % Loss at 5 Cycles 37. Scr.5 31. Both of two aggregate sources meet current South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) specifications for HMA. The RAPs (RAPs L and C) were taken from the same geographical areas as the new .7 22.0 19.60 mm 0.3 7.5 4.610 2. The test results of base engineering properties of two aggregates are shown in Table 3.7 #100 0.: Regular Screenings and Man.36 mm 0.3 #200 0.4 60.5 to 4.3 0.4 75.

while the RAP passed the 4.e. The RAP materials passed the 12.60 mm 0.5 mm Superpave volumetric and compaction specifications described in AASHTO PP 19 and AASHTO T 312 procedures were followed for the preparation of HMA specimens. 4) sieve was referred to as +4 RAP. the aggregate gradation analysis were performed after removing the binder from each RAP source). Table 4 shows two aggregate gradations of RAPs and their aged binder contents (i. Gradations of the 9.5 mm (1/2 inch) sieve and retained at the 4. The analysis of the binder content and aggregate gradation of RAPs was separated according to these two types (+4 RAP and -4 RAP).Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 5 aggregates (aggregates L and C) to ensure that the aggregates in the RAP have similar properties to the virgin aggregates.5 mm 4. The 9..5 mm Superpave mixture was used for all mix designs.5 mm mixtures are illustrated in Figure 1. Table 4 Aggregate Gradations and Binder Contents of RAPs Aggregate Type of Source RAP +4 RAP L -4 RAP +4 RAP C -4 RAP 9.075 mm 3/8" #4 #8 #30 #100 #200 97 59 45 30 14 8 100 100 88 57 24 14 84 43 33 21 9 5.4 100 100 90 56 16 8 Asphalt Binder 4.75 mm (No.75 mm 2.46% 5.150 mm 0.66% A nominal maximum size 9.66% 6.96% 4. These particular mix designs are used as a primary route surface course mixes in many states including South Carolina. These +4 RAP and -4 RAP materials were heated and blended with the virgin aggregate at the proper mixing temperatures. 4) sieve was referred to as -4 RAP.75 mm (No. .36 mm 0.

A rotational viscometer apparatus is used for viscosity testing at a temperature of 135oC.75 Sieve Size (mm) 9. Putman 2005). according to AASHTO T 315 that covers the determination of the dynamic shear modulus and phase angle of asphalt binder when tested in dynamic (oscillatory) shear using parallel plate test .5 0% RAP 15% RAP 25% RAP 30% RAP Lower Range Upper Range Figure 1 Gradations of 9. The viscosity values of the modified binders were obtained in accordance with AASHTO T 316.3 6 4.07 0.6 Road Materials and Pavement Design.5 12. the aged and the virgin binder. The modified binders after RTFO and PAV aging were tested. and a mixing speed of 700 rpm (Xiao et al. G*sinδ values. A mechanical mixer was used to blend the rubber. X/2007 100 90 80 Percent Passing (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 mm mixture 2. 2006.15 0.2 Experimental Procedure The aged binders were extracted from the RAP according to AASHTO TP 2-01 (Standard Test Method for the Quantitative Extraction and Recovery of Asphalt Binder from Asphalt Mixtures) and ASTM D 5402 (Standard Practice for Recovery of Asphalt from Solution Using the Rotary Evaporator). a reaction temperature of 177 C (350 F). The crumb rubber and aged binder were added to the virgin binder using a reaction time of 30 minutes. Volume X – No.6 0 2.

the indirect tensile testing mode produces a highly nonlinear stress field with the least variability at the center of the sample. A frequency of 1Hz was used in this study. were used to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of various mixtures according to testing procedures described in AASHTO T283 (Resistance of a Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture Induced Damage). Four specimens. the optimum binder content (OBC) was defined as the amount required to achieve 4. and linear variable differential transducers (LVDT) were used to measure the response. . Six ITS specimens.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 7 geometry at a testing temperature of 25oC and a frequency of approximately 1. height of 75±1 mm and a diameter of 150±1 mm. were also compacted to 7±1 percentage air voids and then were employed to perform resilient modulus testing at three different temperatures (5º 25º and 40º All specimens had a C. as shown in Figure 2. For this study. compacted to 7±1 percentage air voids. one for destructive indirect tensile test and others for repeated loading.0% air voids at a given number of design gyrations (Ndesign= 75). The values of the resilient modulus determined from these test methods is a measure of the elastic modulus of the HMA materials recognizing certain nonlinear characteristics.59 Hz. C C). During testing process. Resilient modulus value can be used with structural response analysis models to calculate the pavement structural response to wheel loads. and with pavement design procedures to design the pavement structure. The resilient modulus values for all mixtures were determined based on AASHTO TP31-96 (Standard Test Method for Determining the Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures by Indirect Tension) and ASTM D 4123 testing procedures (Standard Test Method for Indirect Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures). were obtained.

8 Road Materials and Pavement Design. (b) relationship of stress and strain during pulse loading . Volume X – No. X/2007 Pulse Load Mixture Specimen LVDTs Pulse Load (a) Stess Strain (b) Figure 2 Resilient testing of the mixture (a) indirect tension testing.

This figure shows that. it should be noted that all specimens were produced at OBC. and resilient modulus values were statistically analyzed with a 5% level of significance. the increase of crumb rubber percentage decreases the G*sinδ values of modified binders. the crumb rubber is beneficial in improving the fatigue resistance and extending the performance life of the asphalt binder (Xiao 2006). Airey et al. in most cases. composed of two aged binders (L and C) and crumb rubber. containing the same percentage of crumb rubber. as the aged binder content increases. low values of G* and  are considered desirable attributes from the standpoint of resistance to fatigue cracking. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to statistically analyze the data. Previous studies also indicated that additional crumb rubber could significantly slower the aging behavior of asphalt binder due to the absorption of some of the lighter fractions (aromatic oils) of the binder by the crumb rubber particles (Bahia and Davis 1994. G*sinδ. the G*sinδ value also increases regardless of the RAP type (L or C). Superpave mix design has a specification requirement for the G*sinδ (less than 5000 kPa: bold dash horizontal line on the figure). the statistical analysis indicated that. The same trends are observed for all mixtures regardless of the source of aged binders (L or C). the modified binder used with RAP C has a significantly lower viscosity value than one used with RAP L at the 95% level of confidence. increased as the percentage of crumb rubber increased regardless of the RAP type (L and C). In general. Xiao et al.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 9 3. For these comparisons. as expected increasing the percentage of aged binder also resulted in an increase in viscosity of the binder. In general. 2004. Experimental results and discussions Results of the viscosity. ITS. The statistical analysis shows that the addition of crumb rubber significantly decreases these values. For the modified binders. 2006). Figure 3 indicates that viscosity values of the modified binders. In other words. However. for the same percentage of crumb rubber. Figure 4 shows the G*sinδ (fatigue cracking factor) values of the binders made with crumb rubber containing aged binder. Thus. the Superpave .

3500 3000 0%RAP 15%RAP(L) 25%RAP(L) 30%RAP(L) 15%RAP(C) 25%RAP(C) 30%RAP(C) L: Aggregate L C: Aggregate C Viscosity (cP) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0% 5% 10% 15% Percentage of Rubber Figure 3 Viscosity values of the modified binder 8 7 6 0%RAPl 15%RAP(C) 15%RAP(L) 25%RAP(C) 25%RAP(L) 30%RAP(C) 30%RAP(L) L: Aggregate L C: Aggregate C G*Sin() MPa 5 4 3 2 1 0 0% 5% 10% 15% Percentage of Rubber Figure 4 G*sinδ Values of the modified binder . the fatigue cracking of the asphalt pavement occurs easily at the room temperature (i. X/2007 specifications promote the use of compliant. If the loss modulus value is greater than 5000 kPa. Volume X – No. 25oC).10 Road Materials and Pavement Design..e. elastic binders (PAV aged) to address fatigue cracking.

5 17.5%.1 Aggregate L 5% 10% 16.4 15.1 16.5 15. the increase of RAP content results in a decrease in VMA. VMA values of mixtures also increase as the rubber content increases.75 5.12 15% 6.7 17.90 5.08 4.0 14. as the percentage of RAP increased.9 16.60 5.3 17.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 11 The optimum binder contents (OBCs) and %VMA for mix designs with various percentages of RAP.75 5.5 Note: . The OBCs of the modified mixtures containing aggregate L are found to be slightly higher than mixtures used aggregate C at the same percentage of RAP. as expected.02 5. The addition of RAP is helpful in decreasing the virgin asphalt binder and aggregate contents.1 Aggregate C 0% 10% 15. a minimum requirement of SCDOT.7 15% 18.9 15.2 16. additional crumb rubber can increase VMA values of the modified mixtures while RAP has the opposite effects.65 5.85 5. It can be seen that the OBCs of the mixtures decreased slightly (Table 5(a)).10 5. Table 5 (a) Optimum binder content and (b) VMA of the modified Mixtures (a) Rub RAP 0% 15% 25% 30% 0% 5. these VMA values are greater than 15.00 5.25 Aggregate C 0% 10% 5. only the mixtures made with 30% RAP containing 0% or 5% rubber have the VMA values of less than 15. however.2 16.5%.85 5.40 5.25 4.6 16.53 4. Generally.35 5.10 (b) Rub RAP 0% 15% 25% 30% 0% 16. Obviously.82 Aggregate L 5% 10% 5.59 5.45 5.2 15.7 15.70 4.= not available . rubber. and RAP types are shown in Table 5.7 15.7 16. As shown in Table 5(b).6 15.0 15.

With respect to the effect of RAP percentage. The loss of strength can be sudden and catastrophic where the asphalt peels off the aggregate. the increase of RAP content. . With respect to the effect of rubber content. and distresses develop rapidly. leads to an increase of ITS values at the same percentages of rubber. The use of the anti-stripping additive is helpful in reducing the moisture damage during a long term performance of the asphalt pavement if the mixtures are susceptible to moisture damage. of various mixtures were higher than 85% (which is SCDOT‟s specifications). from 0 to 30%. the cohesion of the mixture is lost. in most cases. At the same time. these figures show that. it can be seen that the increase of rubber content results in the decrease of ITS values at the same percentage of RAP regardless of moisture conditioning type (dry or wet). in general. the ITS values of dry specimen is higher than the wet. There is a gradual loss of strength over a period of years which contribute to the development of many distresses including rutting and shoving in the wheel paths. Volume X – No.12 Road Materials and Pavement Design. Figures 5 and 6 show that. shown in Table 6. One of the issues involved with moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures is known as stripping which produces a loss of strength through weakening the bond between the asphalt binder and the aggregate. X/2007 The ITS test is often used to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of an asphalt mixture in Superpave mix design procedures. moreover. the tensile strength ratio (TSR). and also sometimes used to help evaluate cracking potential of an asphalt mixture. The mixtures that are able to tolerate high strain prior to failure are more likely to resist cracking than those unable to tolerate high strains.

Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 13 1800 Control 15%RAP 25%RAP 30%RAP ITS Values (kPa) 1200 600 0 Dry 0% Wet Dry 5% Wet Dry 10% Wet Dry 15% Wet Percentage of Rubber Figure 5 ITS values of the modified mixture used RAP L 1800 0%RAP 15%RAP 30%RAP ITS Values (kPa) 1200 600 0 Dry 0% Percentage of Rubber Wet Dry 10% Wet Figure 6 ITS values of the modified mixture used RAP C .

The most important parameters are materials‟ volumetric properties. subbase. the resilient modulus is determined using the recoverable horizontal and vertical deformations that occur during the unloading portion of the load-unload cycle. load duration. Previous research indicated that several factors influence the response of asphalt mixtures under repeated loading. P (  0.g. and subgrade) during the service life of the asphalt pavement. load magnitude. Kim et al. 2004). frequency of loading. Volume X – No. and Shalaby et al. The resilient modulus of the mixture is computed by Equations 1 and 2 in according with ASTM D 4123.2734 ) MR  (1) tH H   0. test temperature.27 (2) V Where. instantaneous and total deformation. P = the repeated load in Newton. X/2007 Table 6 Tensile strength ratios of the modified mixtures Rub RAP 0% 15% 25% 30% 0% 86 86 88 94 Aggregate L 5% 10% 97 85 102 96 92 93 100 100 Aggregate C 0% 10% 102 96 104 103 93 93 15% 78 76 90 90 Note: . H = recoverable horizontal deformation in mm. and specimen dimensions (Almudaiheem and Al-Sugair 1991. cycle rest period.= not available In the indirect repeated load testing. 1992. . and V= recoverable vertical deformation in mm.14 Road Materials and Pavement Design. The test is normally performed over a range of temperatures and stresses to simulate moving vehicles over a pavement structure (e. t = the thickness of specimen in mm. surface. υ = Poisson ratio.359  0..

then the Poisson ratio was assumed to equal “0. It can be seen that. as shown in Figures 7 and 8. in most cases. These figures also show that the increase of rubber content results in a significant decrease of resilient modulus values at the similar environmental conditions.50”. Previous researchers indicated that the developed equation might be used to estimate the resilient modulus of asphalt mixes for design purposes or to estimate a seed value or boundary limit for the backcalculated resilient modulus in common pavement evaluation techniques (Hicks and Monismith 1971.10”. If they were greater than “0. increasing the RAP content results in an increase of resilient modulus value generally. the resilient modulus values significantly decrease regardless of the rubber and RAP contents. . Hielmstad and Taciroglu 1998). To develop the simple regression models for these specific mixtures. then Poisson ratio values were assumed to be equal “0.10”. all independent variables are strongly related to dependent variable (resilient modulus). the statistical analysis shows that the modified mixtures made with aggregate C had significantly higher resilient modulus value than those made with aggregate L at the same testing conditions.50”. regardless of rubber contents and testing conditions. Comparing the two type of aggregates (L and C). However. It can be seen that as the temperature increases. and RAP source types. This increase may be related to the repeated traffic loads. if the calculated Poisson ratio values were found to be less than “0. The resilient modulus values of the modified mixtures are shown in Figures 7 and 8.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 15 In this study. in most cases. the Pearson correlation of dependent and independent variables of the modified mixtures are presented in Table 7.

X/2007 60000 Resilient Modulus (MPa) 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0%RAP 15%RAP 25%RAP 30%RAP 5º 25º 40º 5º 25º 40º 5º 25º 40º 5º 25º 40º C C C C C C C C C C C C 0% 5% 10% 15% Percentage of Rubber Figure 7 Resilient modulus values of the modified mixture used RAP L 60000 Resilient Modulus (MPa) 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 5º C 25º C 0% 40º C 0%RAP 15%RAP 30%RAP 5º C 25º C 10% 40º C Percentage of Rubber Figure 8 Resilient modulus values of the modified mixture used RAP C .16 Road Materials and Pavement Design. Volume X – No.

7 9 0 .00 0.4 23028.23 -0. A.3 -1.1 C -39241.00 0.01 0 .5 R2 0. C.00 0. 8 7 0 . E. 8 0 - Rb Viscosity G*sinδ I T S 1. and x1 .02 0 .93 -0. x5 = percentage of RAP and rubber.6 22131.7 9747.77 -0. respectively. 9 0 1. M R = resilient modulus. respectively With respect to the relationships among the resilient modulus.0 -0.5 -1229. were derived from using regression techniques where statistical analysis system was used to analyze the data.16 0.23 0 . 7 6 0 .00 0 . F = regression coefficients. 4 7 1 . B. viscosity. 2 1 0 .6 8845.2 22703. Table 8 Coefficients and R2 values of resilient modulus models Temp.93 0 .9 3. x 4 . 6 7 0 . x 2 .94 0. G*sinδ and ITS.30 0 . 6 1 0 . 5º C 25º C 40º C A 25192.00 0.95 .97 0. 9 0 1.1 D 0.7 -0. viscosity. 0 0 Note: Rp and Rb = percentages of RAP and crumb rubber. The analysis results.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 17 Table 7 Pearson correlation matrix for the variables of modified mixture MR (5º MR (25º MR (40º C) C) C) MR RP Rb Viscosity G*sinδ I T S RP 1.00 0.2 -926.4 B 27056.6 F 7.54 -0. 0 0 0 . D. shown in Table 8. the prediction models are developed according to the following regression method: M R  A  Bx1  Cx 2  Dx 3  Ex4  Fx5 (3) Where. 7 8 1.9 E -1260. 8 4 1 . x3 . G*sinδ and ITS values. 4 7 - 1.00 0.9 7855.89 -0.

50000 5C 25C 40C Predicted Resilient Modulus (MPa) 40000 30000 20000 40º C 5º C 10000 25º C 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Measured Resilient Modulus (MPa) Figure 9 Predicted and measured values of resilient modulus 4. Volume X – No. the following conclusions are reached:  The viscosity value increases. X/2007 The predicted and measured values of resilient modulus are shown in Figure 8.18 Road Materials and Pavement Design. Conclusions Based on the experimental data shown in this limited study. The increasing range of the viscosity value is based on the aged binder properties and crumb rubber contents. The resilient modulus values of the modified mixtures are located in different zones due to the influence of the temperature. as expected. as the rubber or/and RAP contents increase regardless of RAP sources. The lower temperature results in a higher resilient modulus value because of the temperature susceptibility of the asphalt mixture. It can be seen that predicted results are close to a perfect match line regardless of the testing temperature conditions. .

” The International Journal of Pavement Engineering. G*sinδ. V70. Vol.” Transportation Research Record 1317.. the additional crumb rubber in a mixture results in an increase in the virgin asphalt binder content and a decrease in ITS and resilient modulus values. “Absorption of bitumen into crumb rubber using the basket drainage method.H..C. and Collop A.Resilient Modulus Behavior of RAC Containing RAP 19    The G*sinδ value increases as the RAP percentages increases..D. Bibliography Airey G. the viscosity. p 139-144. D. “Effect of loading magnitude on measured resilient modulus of asphaltic concrete mixes. Washington. The use of RAP in modified mixtures benefit in decreasing the virgin asphalt binder content and increasing the ITS and resilient modulus values at various environmental conditions. 4(2) p 105-119. the developed predicted models could be effectively utilized. A. M. 2003 Almudaiheem J. M. and Bentsen R. Acknowledgement The authors wish to thank the financial support of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) to conduct this research work. C. Also. 1991 Anderson R.. p 1-37.A. therefore. Rahman M. and Al-Sugair F. 2001 . 5. The predicted and measured resilient modulus values are very close.” Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. 6. “Influence of voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA) on the mechanical properties of coarse and fine asphalt mixtures. and the addition of crumb rubber is helpful in reducing G*sinδ value during a long term aging regardless of the RAP source. and ITS value are found in this study. A strong correlation between resilient modulus and percentages of crumb rubber and RAP.

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