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This report will present a daily overview of all classes taught by the teacher Manuela Cristina, in the subject Estágio Supervisionado I. In this subject was studied many English language teaching methods and approaches, the PCN and the techniques about how to prepare a lesson plan. This work is organized day by day. Along with the classes observation will be critical summaries of the texts studied during the semester and discussed in class, and seminars presented by me and my classmates. It will be possible to notice my evolution in relation to the understanding of the methods and approaches studied as well as my critical opinions about them. At the end of this report are annexed all the lecture guides used for understanding the theoretical texts and used to lead the discussions, the proposed activities of the read texts, the slides from my presentation, and the lessons plan prepared during the classes.
It was our first class. We had only three students present and the teacher explained about the topics that we are supposed to study in this subject. The teacher gave us the bibliography we should study and explained about how we will be evaluated. She told that we will be systematically evaluated all long the classes based on the discussions we will have together, a seminar that we’ll present individually and this final report. After explaining that, Manuela let us choose the day to present the seminar. She asked about our experiences in the university and of teaching English. We find out that we had different experiences: one teaches in an English course, I teach in a regular school and the other student never taught before. So she told about her experiences in university as a student and as a professor too. In the next class we’ll discuss the chapter 2 – The Grammar-Translation Method that is in the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, by Diane Larsen-Freeman.
In this class we discussed The Grammar-Translation Method based on the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, by Diane Larsen-Freeman (See annex 1). I could see that in the beginning of the teaching of English it was taught as the classical languages (Latin and Greek) were, and The Grammar-Translation Method was the first one to do this. The principles of the Grammar-Translation Methods are: Literary language is superior to spoken language, and the purpose of
learning a foreign language is learning how to read literature.
Learning English was a way to make mental exercises. Students need to be able to translate from one language to another. The communication in the target language was not important, so they
don’t give attention to speaking, listening and pronunciation; the skills developed are reading and writing. We can find an equivalent in the target language for all words and
expressions of the native language. (I don’t think this can be possible). Deductive way to explain grammar rules. Students should memorize the subjects.
During the discussion in class some of the student called attention to the fact that we were taught based in a Grammar-Translation Method in regular schools and in different languages, as in Latin classes. After the study of this text I found out that sometimes I use some principles of this method when giving my classes and I raised a doubt: Am I correct or am I antiquated? But after the teacher explains that there isn’t the right or the wrong method it was easy to understand that the only thing that is right is that we must choose the better way to teach each subject to each class. Despite I think that some of the principles do not work, as when the method point that literary language is superior to spoken language, there are some ones that can be well used and we should take advantages of it as the use of the deductive way to explain grammar rules.
‘on the beach’. . so. The Direct Method. The students need to think in the target language. it is not the main skill anymore because the purpose of language learning is communication. I think that is almost impossible to explain everything. We discussed about the difference between a deductively and an inductively way to teach grammar. Someone in the class gave the example of the word ‘saudade’ in Portuguese that there is not an equivalent in English. The teacher should never say the grammar rules. 25/08 In this class was finished the discussion about the Direct Method and we saw how to apply it in class through the students’ activities (See annex 2). The native language should not be used in the classroom. be involved with the class to stimulate students1 participation in the activities. ‘in a restaurant’ and so on. every word of one language without translate anything to another. and be very secure about his or her performance on all skills to give a good class. So after that I can understand that the teacher should choose the better one depending on the group and their needs of learning and depending on the subject he or she is teaching. Grammar is taught inductively. The culture is taken in consideration. The teacher should demonstrate. how to explain the meaning of ‘saudade’ without translate it? I came up that the teacher should be a real artist to give a class based in the Direct Method because he or she should be creative to prepare the class and the materials. - The syllabus is based on situations as ‘in the bank’. never explain or translate. The principles of the Direct Method are: - Reading will be developed through practice with speaking. as the Grammar-Translation Method has weak points as was discussed in class.7 4.
because of that. We discussed this text based on a reading guide the teacher sends us by e-mail (See annex 3). and oral practice was very limited. The text presents the changes in language teaching methods through history and shows that these changes reflected the changes in the kind of proficiency that learners need. the Coleman Report concluded that no single method could guarantee successful results. as it has been said in the previous chapter. from the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . . The Grammar-Translation dominated European and foreign language teaching from the 1840 to 1940s. There is no theory for the method and no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it. by Jack C. Linguists became interested in the controversies about what is the best way to teach foreign languages. The discipline of linguistics was revitalized. They also reflected changes in theories of the nature of language and of language learning.8 Later we discussed about dictation. and in modified forms. such as seen in first language acquisition. In the mid-nineteenth century the increased of opportunities for communication among Europeans created a demand for oral proficiency in foreign languages. In 1923. Richards and Theodore S. Latin was the most studied foreign language. She made a dictation with the class and explained another way to make it: the running dictation which is an activity that can work on listening and also be very enjoyable for the students.A description and analysis. Five hundreds ago. I thought that did not make sense to have dictation in an English class but Manuela demonstrated how interesting it can be. English became to be studied as Latin was. but I understood the main ideas of it. and developed the Direct Method. Speaking was not the goal. After discussing all text. Teachers and linguistics began to write about the necessity for new approaches to language teaching and this effort became known as the Reform Movement. it continues to be used today. we began to discuss another text. ‘A brief history of language teaching’. Parallel to the ideas of the Reform Movement was an interest in developing principles for language teaching out of naturalistic principles of language learning. phonetics was established. including the activities that the students had prepared. This approach to foreign language teaching became known as the Grammar-Translation Method. I think this text is too complex. Rodgers.
The text assert that lot of attempts were made to conceptualize the nature of methods and to explore the relationship between theory and practice within a method. Rodgers.9 5. Edward Anthony identified three levels of conceptualization and organization called approach. practices and behaviors that operate in teaching a language according to a method. that is the form how you draw a course. roles of learners and roles of the material. which views a language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations. In this level we’ll describe how a method realizes its approach and design and focuses on the way a method handles the presentation. and the interactional view. I could understand better how a method is organized to be implemented and how important is to know about the methods. the syllabus. an approach or method responds about the cognitive process involved in language learning and the conditions that it needs to be met for these learning processes to be activated. method and technique. practice and feedback of teaching. His model fails to account for how an approach may be realized in a method or for how method and technique are related. Procedure involves techniques. Design is the level of method analysis in which we consider the objectives of a method. the functional view. types of learning tasks and teaching activities. In 1963. it says about the nature of the language and language teaching. In a learning theory. Based on the authors of the book. the teacher should know only the subject which he or she will teach about. a method is composed of approach. 30/08 In this class was discussed the text ‘The nature of approaches and methods in language teaching’. Before that I believed that to teach. which views a language as a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. . from the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . Now I understand how important is this preparation before teaching. design and procedure. by Jack C. Approach is the idealization of a method.A description and analysis. Richards and Theodore S. which views the language as a system of related elements. After the discussion. There are at least three views of language: the structural view.
. The syllabus is situational. The classroom procedures generally consist of: Listening practice: repetition of the patterns or a word in isolation. Simple forms of grammar are taught before complex ones. The theory of learning was the behaviorism. Thiare presented ‘The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching’. Choral imitation: students all together or in large groups repeat what the teacher has said. Harold Palmer and Hornby tried to develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English.10 6. drillbased practice. Where…is…the…pen?). The mains characteristics were: inductively. We learned that in the 1920s and 1930s. separating the words. Language teaching begins with the spoken language. The practical techniques generally consist of new sentence patterns presented in situations. several times. and guided repetition and substitution activities. and The objective of the Oral Approach is to help students to get a practical command of the four basic skills of language and obtain accuracy in pronunciation and grammar. Reading and writing are introduced later. by Diane Larsen-Freeman. Individual imitation: the teacher asks several individual students to repeat the model to check pronunciation. 01/09 Today was the presentation of the first seminar. probably saying it slowly at least once (e.g. The text that she based on her presentation was in the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. In classroom students speak the target language. The Oral Approach employs different classroom procedures according to the level of the class. and the Oral Approach was accepted by the 1950s.
etc. Question-answer drill: the teacher gets one student to ask a question and another to answer until most students in the class have practiced. correct it. new model. and I can notice that the English classes that were given in a hotel I have worked had a situational syllabus because the students learned based on situations that could happen in a routine of a reception. or give new examples of the pattern. principally when you have specific goals and do not have much time to learn English as were in the hotel. but now I can see that sometimes it is important to learn based on situations. repeating the error. Correction: the teacher indicates by shaking her head. Now. pictures. that there is a mistake and invites the students or a different student to .11 context.) gets individual students to substitute words into the new patterns. make statements. numbers. On that occasion.. - Isolation: teacher isolates sounds. etc. I believed that was impossible to learn English this way. using mime or gestures gets students to ask questions. using cues (words. of a restaurant and so on. Substitution drill: the teacher. words or groups of words which cause trouble and goes through techniques 1-3 with them before replacing them in Building up to new model: students ask and answer questions using patterns they already know to bring about the information necessary to introduce the Elicitation: the teacher. names. I know what a situational syllabus is.
Language learning is a process of habit formation by repetition. The teacher should compare the native and the target languages and anticipate where students will have difficulty. based on behaviorism. and writing. No native language is permitted in class. The teacher corrects the activities of some students giving suggestions about how the make a better activity. . reading. - The rules will be figured out or introduced from examples. The ‘natural order’ of the skill acquisition. 08/09 This class began with the discussion of the activities from ‘The Audio-Lingual Method’ from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. The techniques that the Audio-Lingual Method uses are: dialog memorization. speaking. The teacher is a model of the target language. Errors lead to the formation of bad habits and should be avoided and corrected is: listening. we saw that in the Audio-Lingual Method teachers want their students to be able to communicate. it is a inductively way to teach grammar. complete the dialog. they believe students need to ‘overlearn’ or learn automatically without stopping to think. and grammar games. Positive encouragement helps the student to develop correct habits. Discussing the text. and students are the imitators. The principles of the Audio-Lingual Method are: - Language forms occur within a context. a lot of different drills. as the way a child learn a language. and the use of minimal pairs.12 7. by Diane LarsenFreeman (See annex 4). immediately.
TPR should be used in association with other methods and techniques. And we should have in mind that some students learn more easily by repetition as the method emphasizes. Grammar is taught inductively. - Brain lateralization: based on Piaget. and gestures may be sufficient for classroom activities. The TPR was developed by Asher. using the right-hemisphere. According to Asher. The objective of TPR is to teach oral proficiency since the beginning level. Rodgers based on the reading guide made by the teacher (see annex 5). it uses a sentence-based syllabus with grammatical and lexical criteria being primary in selecting teaching items. Imperative drills are the major classroom activity and the role plays are centered on everyday situations. He does not directly discuss the nature of language or how languages are organized but the labeling and the order of TPR classroom drills seem to be based on structuralism or grammar-based views of language. Learners have the primary roles of listener and performer and little influence over the content of learning. Richards and Theodore S. The theory of learning consists of three hypotheses: The bio-program: second language teaching and learning should reflect the naturalistic processes of first language learning. For beginners. Reduction of stress: the language acquisition must take place in a stress- free environment. lesson may not require the use of material. but the teacher need to choose the better drill to each subject and when to use it in a funny way.13 I learned that we can use the drills in class without make them a boring exercise. we began to discuss the ‘Total Physical Response’ (TPR) ideas from by Jack C. I really agree with him because I don’t believe that all the subjects can be teach in . The teacher plays an active and direct role. because of that he or she is encouraged to be well prepared so the lesson flows smoothly and predictable. a professor of Psychology. and grammatical features and vocabulary items are selected according to the situations in which they can be used in the classroom and the ease with which they can be learned. actions. Asher thought that the child acquires the language through motor movement. After that. since the teacher’s voice.
Spoken language should be emphasized over written language. teach using imperatives can be very funny and relaxing: I myself made an experience with my students and they had a lot of fun and after some time I could notice that they really learned the commands. But. by Diane Larsen-Freeman about TPR (see annex 6). Students will begin to speak when they are ready. and that the base to foreign language learning is to learn as the way children learn their native language. on the other hand. - Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning. anyway. I believe that I could never learn or teach a foreign language using only the principles of TPR because for me is too difficulty to imagine teaching every point using imperatives. observing and imitating. Language learning is more effective when it is funny. - Teachers who use TPR believe in the importance of making their students enjoy their experience in learning a foreign language. we discussed the ideas from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. the use of imperatives can be effective in classes depending on the subject you want to teach. .14 an English course or even in a regular school only using imperatives. TPR is usually introduced in the students’ native language. The principles of the method are: The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking. So. The imperative is a powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can direct student behavior. Students can learn by moving their bodies. and rarely will be used again.
CLL advocates a holist approach to language learning. D stands for discrimination. A stands for attention (attention promotes learning) and aggression (a way of showing what have learned). and intimacy appears to avoid isolation and makes them a community. that are unpredictable in content but involve exchanges of affect. resentful and indignant (stage 3).15 8. tolerant (stage 4). A textbook is not considered a necessary component because would impose a particular body of language content on the learners impeding their growth and interaction. which can be explained as follows. R stands for retention (what is retained is internalized and becomes part of the learners’ new persona) and reflection (a consciously identified period of silence when the learners reflects about the process of learning). CLL interactions are of two kinds: interactions between learners. but in later stages the interactions are characterized as self-assertive (stage 2). interactions between learners and knowers. that is initially dependent. this is called whole-person learning and it takes place in a communicative situation where teachers and learners are involved in interaction. The syllabus emerges from the interaction between learner’s expressed communicative intentions and the teacher’s reformulations of these into suitable target languages utterances. Description of typical CLL procedures is problematic because each CLL course is a unique experience. A group of ideas concerning the psychological requirements for successful learning are collected under the acronym SARD. Material can be developed by the teacher as the course happens. . 15/09 We began the class discussing the three first questions on the reading guide about Community Language Learning (see annex 7). since ‘true’ human learning is cognitive and affective. and independent (stage 5). S stands for security: a learner should feel secure to learn. which enables students to use the language for purposes of communication outside the classroom.
16 Teachers who use the Community Language Learning want their students to learn how to use the target language communicatively. not competition is encouraged. to learn about their own learning. Language is for communication. with reinforcement through reading and writing. Responding to the students’ feelings is considered very important. In a second moment. . The principles of this method are: - It is important that the students have a relationship. but does not let students stay in uncomfortable silences. even if their attention is not directed to it. In the beginning stages. Students learn best when they have a choice in what they practice. The principles are: Peripheral learning: students can learn from what is in the environment. Cooperation. it will come naturally. by Diane Larsen-Freeman. The teacher should be sensitive to students’ level of confidence and give them just what they need to be successful. The teacher should ‘desuggest’ certain psychological barriers. they will not need to try hard to learn the language. - The teacher encourages student initiative and independence. and to learn how to learn from one another. The most important skill are understanding and speaking the language at the beginning. to take responsibility for it. we discussed the text ‘Desuggestopedia’. If the teacher does not remain in front of the classroom. Students need to trust and respect the teacher’s authority to accept and retain information better. The text affirms that teachers hope to accelerate the process of learning by desuggesting the psychological barriers learners bring with them and using techniques to activate the ‘paraconscious’ part of the mind. the syllabus is generated primarily by students. A great deal of attention is given to students’ feelings in this method: if students are relaxed and confident. the stress is reduced and the students’ learning is facilitated. from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. one regular activity is inviting students to comment on how they feel.
if they are really useful. The teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary. The use of a funny music. Meaning is made clear through translation into native language. for example. Dramatization is a valuable way of playful activating the material. - Fantasy reduces barriers to learning. - Novelty helps acquisition. It is desirable that students achieve a state of ‘infantilization’ so that they will be more open to learning. There are some interesting points that we can use in our class and some of the principles can really work. but not dwell on them. the teacher should be aware about the choice of a song: it is indispensable to choose a song that the students will like and take care about the old songs that do not have any meaning for them. The class was very productive. is always a big moment in any class. there were in my classroom some posters with subjects and I did not forget this until today although I cannot remember what the subjects were in the poster. Errors are corrected in a gentle manner. . mimes and explanations. We learned a lot about this new method and discussed about its techniques.17 - Fine art provides positive suggestions for students and enables suggestions to reach the subconscious. I could remember that when I have studied in an English course. Despite that.
22/09 In this class we discussed the text ‘Suggestopedia’ from the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. The Suggestopedia wants the student to be proficient in communication quickly and to use the language in a creative way. Double-planedness: the learner learns from the effect of direct instruction and from the environment in which the instruction takes place. using a reading guide made by the teacher (see annex 8). rhythm. The theory of learning is suggestion and there are six principal theoretical components through which desuggestion and suggestion operate. Infantilization: suggests a teacher-student relation as a parent to a child. and a highly positive attitude. The musical backgrounds help to induce a relaxed attitude.18 9. self-confidence. and it suggests a view of language in which lexis is central. they are: Authority: authority from the language school that should have its learning success well-publicized and authority from the teacher that should have commitment to the method. personal distance. Intonation. acting ability. a psychiatrist-educator that developed the method. Lozanov. . ands concert pseudo-passiveness: varying the tone and rhythm helps to avoid monotony and repetition. emphasizes memorization of vocabulary pairs suggests. The type of activities more original is the listening activities which concern the text and text vocabulary of each unit.
It is very funny to imagine a teacher ‘singing’ the text in the same rhythm of the music to the students as the text suggests. Learners must not try to figure out. The teacher is expected to be skilled in acting. The primary role of the teacher is to create situations in which the learner is most suggestible and then to present linguistic material in an encouraging way. which can awake the interest of the students without being a traumatic experience. So.19 The mental state of the learners is critical to success. or that a student can learn without making exercises at home. which is why learners must forget mind-altering substances as food and drinking and other distractions and immerses in the procedures of the method. On the other hand. I think that the method has some interesting points. I agree that if you want to have a relaxed and opened student talks about some matters as homosexuality or abortion is sometimes stressed. for example. a student can learn about a subject that is in a poster in the classroom even without the teacher calls attention or explain it. and psycho-therapeutic techniques. you can talk about others matters as ecology. or even if the students never notice the poster. For me. is very important to practice what you learn in class. We talked about the fact that the Suggestopedia does not have polemic or traumatic texts in its materials. manipulate. but is hard to believe that. as I said before. singing. . as a student and as a teacher too. it is necessary to take care about the choice of the texts themes not to leave the impression that the teacher wants to draw a pink world where nothing bad happens. or study the material presented but must maintain a pseudo-passive state.
Rodgers. A focus on real and natural events rather than on specially written stories that do not relate to the students’ experience.A description and analysis. The principles are: The use of authentic literature rather than artificial. for the sake of comprehension and for a real purpose. vocabulary.20 10. The Whole Language movement argues that language should be taught as a ‘whole’. The learning is formed by the humanistic and constructivist schools. by Jack C. . and word recognition. specially prepared text and exercises designed to practice individual reading skills. The method was created in the 1980s. and in particular the teaching of phonics. Richards and Theodore S. particularly literature. and reading and writing for pleasure. texts. its approach emphasizes learning to read and write naturally with a focus on real communication. and emphasizes on ‘authenticity’. from the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . The reading of real texts of high interest. The method has focus on teaching the separate components of language such as grammar. 27/09 In this class we discussed the text ‘Whole language’. Language is seen as something that is used for meaningful purposes and to carry out authentic functions. and also on conversation. The Whole Language views language organization from an interactional perspective in which there is a relationship between readers and writers. on engagement with the authors of written.
we began to discuss the text ‘Learning Strategy Training. - The teacher’s job is to teach language and to teach learning. The best way to learn strategies is with ‘hands-on’ experience. writing and other skills. giving them power and understanding of their world. from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. monitor. and Multiple Intelligences’. Student-centered learning: students have choice over what they read and write. Learning Strategy Training In 1975.21 - Writing for a real audience and not simply to practice writing skills. but as a part of a language curriculum. Rubin identified some learning strategies that some learners use to facilitate their learning. and it is important because it can help learners to continue to learn. and evaluate a is to be learned. they aren’t methods. There are three types of strategies: learning task. The text talks about three methodological innovations. . we talked about the Desuggestopedia activities (see annex 9). Cognitive strategies: involve learners interacting and manipulating what Metacognitive strategies: are used to plan. by Diane Larsen-Freeman (see annex 10). language learners need to be training in learning strategies. The students talked about their ideas discussing how to prepare the activities and the teacher explained the best way to do that and made corrections of our exercises. - Strategies should not be taught in isolation. Encouragement of risk taking and exploration and the acceptance of errors as signs of learning rather than of failure. It is important to use the strategies in different situations. Cooperative Learning. After that. Some researchers think that to maximize the potential of students and to contribute to their autonomy. In a third moment. The principles are: - The students’ previous knowledge and learning experiences should be valued and built upon. Integration of reading.
22 - Social/affective strategies: where learners interact with other persons. but rather cooperatively and in terms of the group. Students often stay together in the same groups for a period of time so they can learn how to wok better together. Now I can use that with my students to prepare them to study by themselves and to learn more and effectively. I loved this approach because I have always done that to study without realize that I was using strategies to learn. language. I think that for me would be very difficult to learn following this approach because I do not like to work in groups. This allows students to learn from each other and gives them practice in how to get along with people different from themselves. asking others to contribute. and keeping the conversation calm need to be explicitly taught. The principles are: Students are encouraged not thinking competitively and individualistically. Cooperative learning teaches language for both academic and social Each student is individually accountable. Cooperative Learning It involves students learning from each other in groups. Social skills as acknowledging another’s contribution. purposes. It was important for me to see the benefits to work on a way like that because as I don’t like to work in groups I avoided having my students doing that. The third approach will be discussed in the next class. I prefer to work alone. Language acquisition is facilitated by students interacting in the target . Teachers teach students collaborative or social skills so that they can work together more effectively.
to see abstract patterns. Based on this approach students bring with them specific and unique strengths. pitch. Intrapersonal: the ability to understand oneself and to practice self- . There are seven distinct intelligences that can be developed: Logical/mathematical: the ability to use numbers effectively.23 11. - Musical/rhythmic: the ability to recognize tonal patterns and the sensitivity to rhythm. motivations. to orient oneself. and the sensitivity to shape. which are often not taken into account in classroom situations. - Visual/spatial: the ability to create mental images. It was the Multiples Intelligences. 29/09 This class we began discussing the third approach that we didn’t have time to discuss on the last class. Interpersonal: the ability to understand another person’s moods. and intentions. melody. feelings. size and color. Body/kinesthetic: the ability to use one’s body to express oneself and to solve problems. and to reason well. discipline.
one more than was defined in the first text: successfully. He defines eight native intelligences. Naturalist: the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature. and that it is important for the teacher to know how he could do that because he will have the best of each student. I think that the naturalist intelligence is very near the logical/mathematical one. We talked about the ways of work with projects. In 1993. Linguistic: the ability to use language in special and creative ways. not only to facilitate language acquisition among diverse students.24 - Verbal/linguistic: the ability to use language effectively and creatively. but they are not equally developed. Richards and Theodore S. . Everyone might have all the intelligences. Spatial: the ability to form mental models of the world. I could observed that each activity we do in class can work on one or many intelligences. Gardner proposed a view of natural human talents labeled as ‘Multiple Intelligences Model’. The others students told their impressions about it and the teacher explained that to us. Some teachers feel that they need to create activities that draw on all seven intelligences. designed to stimulate particular intelligences. Interpersonal: the ability to work well in groups. by Jack C. Rodgers.A description and analysis. Intrapersonal: the ability to understand oneself and apply one’s talent We discussed about the eighth intelligence. Bodily/kinesthetic: the ability to have a well-coordinated body. There are five types of project to use MI: Multiple Intelligence projects: based on one or more intelligences. Logical/mathematical: the ability to think rationally. In a second moment we discussed the text ‘Multiple Intelligences’ from the book from the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . Musical: the ability to be a good listener to music. After this discussion. but also to help them realize their full potential with all seven.
psychological. Help the teacher build positive relationships among students.25 intelligences. research. Thematic-based projects: based on a theme but divided into different Resource-based projects: designed to provide the opportunity to Student-choice projects: students designed the project. CLL is based on 5 premises: - Replace the competitive organizational structure with a cooperative Everyone is born to talk. One person learns these rules in everyday conversation interaction. We saw that the traditional teacher stimulated competition instead of cooperation and believed that minority students might fall behind higher-students. - Curriculum-based projects: based on curriculum content areas. Multiple Intelligences is an approach to characterize the ways in which learners are unique and to develop instruction to respond to this uniqueness. One person learns these rules in a second language participating in - cooperative structured interactional activities. The key elements of successful group-based learning in CLL are: . To solve these problems CLL tried to: Raise the achievement of all students. Most talk is organized as conversation. Give students the experiences they need for healthy social. The success of CLL depends on the nature and organization of the group work. Conversation operates according to certain cooperative rules. and cognitive development. from the same book. we discussed the text ‘Cooperative Language Learning’. In the end of the class. one. Teachers and students need to see themselves engaged in a process of personality development above and beyond that of being successful language learners.
fron the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . functions. Group formation: it talks about the size of the groups. Learning social skills a student can be a better person. or some other unit of planning and teaching but lexis. he or she acts as a facilitator of learning. that the CLL prepares the student to be a citizen.A description and analysis. there are some assumptions about learning theory in the lexical approach: . The Lexical Approach derives from the belief that the building blocks of language learning and communication are not grammar. Richards and Theodore S. by Jack C. 12. Social skills: determine the way students interact with each other. the lexical views hold that a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel creations. based on the explanation of the teacher. notions. who knows how to live in society. One important feature is that in one of the roles of the teacher. Rodgers. the selection of the group and the role of the students in the group. In contrast to Chomsky’s theories. We could observe. - Individual accountability: involves both group and individual performance. I thin k this is the real role of a teacher. The role of collocations is very important in lexically based theories of language. words and words combinations. 06/10 Today was the Diandra’s seminar based on the text ‘The Lexical Approach’.26 - Positive interdependence: it is what helps one member helps all. According to Lewis. Structuring and structures: refer to ways of organizing student interaction and different ways students are to interact.
and sometimes will be easier to learn it. not formal rules. The teacher’s role is to create an environment in which learners can operate effectively and to help learners manage their own learning. The teacher showed us a Collocation dictionary and explained how it works.27 - Acquisition is based on an accumulation of examples from which learners make provisional generalizations. I believe that learn any language through learning collocations is very useful to make things clearer. The COBUILD computer analyses of texts found that the 700 most frequent words of English account for around 70% of all English text. Language production is the product of previously met examples. (b) making students aware of collocation. help. they view the learner as a ‘discoverer’. So. and examples contributes No linear syllabus can adequately reflect the nonlinear nature of to turning input into intake. The Collins COBUILD English Course is the most ambitious attempt to realize a syllabus based on lexical principles. make the sentences and dialogs seem to be to be as written or spoken by natives of the language. (c) extending what students already know by adding knowledge of collocation restrictions to known vocabulary. differences. they decided that word frequency would determine the contents of the course. acquisition. although formal description of rules probably does not . and (d) storing collocations through encouraging students to keep a lexical notebook. Learning similarities. restrictions. It was very interesting because I have always thought about what are the rules and how to ‘combine’ some verbs with prepositions or others words and why you can say ‘do the homework’ and you cannot say ‘make the homework’. According to Hill. the classroom procedures involve (a) teaching individual collocations.
by Diane Larsen-Freeman. The principles are: The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication and object of study too. In the 1970’s. Based on observations. it requires communicative competence. from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. that is to know when and how to say what to whom. the educators began to question if they were on track to achieve its goals.28 13. These observations contributed to the emergence of the CLT. . they found out that being able to communicate require more than linguistic competence. 13/10 Today we discussed the ‘Communicative Language Teaching’.
above the sentence level. Students are seen as more responsible managers of their own learning. - Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills. the teacher should not correct the students. students. The teacher acts as a facilitator that establishes situations to promote communication. and the roles of the interlocutors. The grammar and vocabulary follow from the function. he acts as an adviser. During the activities. If the activity is working on fluency. An activity to be truly communicative must have theses three features in common: does not. say. Feedback: a speaker can evaluate whether or not his purpose has been Choice: the speaker has a choice of what he will say and how she will Information gap: one person knows something that the other person achieved based upon the information he receives from his listener. The teacher evaluates the students’ accuracy and fluency. Learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among communicative competence. but he or she should correct later. students receive immediate feedback and can negotiate meaning. situational context. answering students’ questions and monitoring their performance. The students often work in small groups to favor the interaction and to maximize the time for communication. Students work on all four skills from the beginning and the native language is used in class only and if necessary. . They must learn about cohesion and coherence.29 - Students should work with language at the discourse. - Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events. he or she can evaluates informally or make a formal evaluation using an integrative test which has a real communication function.
Competency-Based Education is an educational movement that focuses on the outcomes or outputs of learning in the development of language programs.A description and analysis. if you want to make it communicative. After that I presented my seminar about Competency-Based Language Teaching. you should make it real and the activity should have the three features we discussed before (information gap. 18/10 In the beginning of the class we discussed the activities of the CLT (see annex 11). and feedback). Richards and Theodore S. 14. So. When you give to your students a fictional situation for him or her to talk about. Galbênia asked how we should make a good oral evaluation and what is the best way to do it. and grammar correction. it won’t be a communicative activity. based on the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . choice. The teacher said that when we make an oral evaluation we should consider fluency. It emerged in the USA in the 1970s and advocates defining educational goals in terms of precise measurable . by Jack C.30 We discussed about an oral evaluation. I could see that some activities that I though as communicative is only oral. pronunciation. Rodgers and others sources.
CBLT competences designers know exactly the vocabulary and the structures that can be found in different situations and they strategically place them in the different teaching/learning units. but is used best for the learners who want to work and live in English-used atmosphere. 2. thus. selection of competencies based on those needs. Continuous and ongoing assessment. Outcomes that are made explicit a priory. evaluation of learners’ performance in those competencies. Modularized instructions. instruction targeted to those competencies. 3. Through the initial needs assessment and ongoing evaluation of learner goals and progress. 6.31 descriptions of the knowledge. 7. According to the theory of language learning. CBLT is based on function and interaction of language. The syllabus and the course content are developed around the subject. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives. 4. CBLT can be used in all levels of students. 8. Auerbach provides a useful review of factors involved in the implementation of CBE programs in ESL. Individualized. and behaviors students should possess at the end of a course of study. for example working in English speaking Company. 5. competency-based programs are continually adapted and refined.centered orientation. . since it shares the principle that learners can infer language form from language function. On the other hand. student-centered instruction. Task -or performance. it is also based on the behaviorist view. what means that language is taught taking into account the social context and the communicative needs of students. A focus on successful functioning in society. Basically. skills. and indentifies eight key features: 1. A focus on life skills. Competency-Based Language Teaching is an application of the principles of CBE. A CBE approach consists of four elements: • • • • assessment of learner needs.
CBLT teaches language as a function of communication about concrete tasks.32 The goal of the method is to enable students to become autonomous individuals capable of coping with the demands of the world. the program attempt to inculcate attitudes and values that can make these persons passive citizens who accept the supremacy of the American people rather than challenge it. 15. I could see that the CBLT is much more used to teach English refugees and immigrants. by Jack C. Rather than teaching language in isolation. merely . and one of the reviews to this approach is that when teaching English. The Natural Approach was an attempt to develop a language teaching proposal that incorporated the "naturalistic" principles which researchers had identified in studies of second language acquisition. For more information. but the quality of teaching and student learning will be enhanced by the clear specification. Rodgers. The emphasis is on overt behaviors rather than on knowledge or the ability to talk about language and skills. used in reference to the Direct Method. see annex 12. The term natural. What counts is what students can do as a result of instruction. Richards and Theodore S. Students are taught just those language forms/skills required by the situation in which they will function.A description and analysis. Not only the quality of assessment will improve. 25/10 We discussed The Natural Approach based on the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching .
the teacher does not expect the students at the end of a particular course to have acquired a certain group of structures or forms.33 emphasized that the principles underlying the method were believed to conform to the principles of naturalistic language learning in young children. he or she expects them to deal with a particular set of topics in a given situation. Particular emphasis is laid on language as a set of messages that can be understood. The goal . The teacher determines the situations in which they will use the target language and the sorts of topics they will have to communicate information about. The teacher Manuela presented about Inglês Instrumental.S. The input hypothesis: people acquire language best from messages that are just slightly beyond their current competence.P. The communicative view of language is the view behind the Natural Approach. The goals of a Natural Approach class are based on an assessment of student needs. The natural order hypothesis: grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order and it does little good to try to learn them in another order. The Natural Approach is based on the following hypothesis: The acquisition/learning hypothesis: language acquisition (an unconscious process developed through using language meaningfully) is different from language learning (consciously learning or discovering rules about a language) and language acquisition is the only way competence in a second language occurs. Instead of this. The activities of the class are not organized about a grammatical syllabus. The affective filter hypothesis: the learner's emotional state can act as a filter that impedes or blocks input necessary to acquisition. The monitor hypothesis: conscious learning operates only as a monitor or editor that checks or repairs the output of what has been acquired. It emerged in the late 70’s from the demand made to the Department of Modern Languages for English courses for various specialized departments of pure and applied sciences. In setting communication goals. We can saw that the name given to what popularly called ‘Inglês Instrumental’ is English for Specific Purposes (E. The Natural Approach belongs to a tradition of language teaching methods based on observation and interpretation of how learners acquire both first and second languages in nonformal settings.).
It has been used not only in universities but also in technical schools. and in preparatory courses for selection to the Masters and PhD. often academic subject matter. in some secondary schools. The principles are: The subject matter content is used for language teaching purposes. by Diane Larsen-Freeman. 16. The Content-based Instruction integrates the learning of language with the learning of some other content. . The course is drawn from academic and professional needs within an authentic context. 27/10 In this class we discussed the text ‘Content-based and Participatory Approaches’ from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. interpret and understand text and not the conversation or full translation of the texts studied.P..S.34 was to read. I think that some of my teachers in public schools worked guided by the principles of the E.
I believe that the teacher fulfills his or her mission when he or she can do something to make things better in the world by promoting changes in the students. She begins . Students learn to see themselves as social and political beings. When learners perceive the relevance of their language use. Communicative competence involves more than using language conversationally. they are motivated to learn. by Diane Larsen-Freeman. The principles are: - What happens in the classroom should be connected with what happens outside and have relevance to the students. and in some ways is similar to content-based approach in that it begins with content that is meaningful to the students. - Education in most effective when it is experience-centered. and write about content from other fields. other students. which can become texts for The students will be evaluating their own learning. 03/11 Today was discussed three texts. 17. It also includes the ability to read. The curriculum is not a predetermined product. What is different is the nature of the content: it is based on issues of concern to students. from the book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. he or she is a change agent in students’ life. The content is prepared to transform students into citizens and to empower them to deal with the situation in their real life. Vocabulary is easier to acquire when there are contextual clues. The first one was the ‘Conclusion’. We could see that in the Participatory Approach the teacher has a special role. The Participatory Approach was originated in the early sixties with the work of Paulo Freire. but the result of an ongoing context-specific problem-posing process. discuss.35 - Teaching should build on students’ previous experience. Students can create their own materials.
The second point of view is the Pluralism. So. need to interact with others.A description and analysis. In a method. and changing. it is the commitment to unlocking the learning potential in each student that motivates a teacher to make informed methodological choices. and the conditions and contexts of their teaching. how. it says that different methods or parts of methods should be practiced in the same context. teachers need to reflect on what they do and why they do it. Many books about how people learn languages are not based on second language acquisition research or have been empirically tested. we discussed the text ‘The post-methods era’ from the book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . cannot work with another one. the researches are reluctant to use the results because they know that current knowledge is tentative. and where. but methods have a recipe for teachers in relation to what and how to teach. who their students are. the teacher believes that one method is the right one for every student and in all situations. teaching does not cause learning. learning. by Jack C. Rodgers. As a matter of fact.36 affirming that all the methods we have studied are still being practiced today but they are descontextualized because deal with what. Richards and Theodore S. In the Absolutism. Language. mutable process. The authors talks about the criticism made to methods and approaches. According to the author there are three different points of view about methods. . and why but they say almost nothing about who/whom. the students. a method cannot be a success recipe for everyone. And the third point of view is the Relativism. They say that the approaches allow different interpretations. the conditions of instructions and by the social-cultural contexts. when. partial. Each method must be shaped by the teacher. she or he only needs to understand and apply the principles. it says that there is a method to each group of students or context. In a second moment. the teacher creates her or his own method by blending aspects of methods in a principled manner and is able to give a reason for why he or she is doing. and need to try new practices to choose the best method for who they are. the teacher’s role is marginalized. As we could saw during the study of methods. what works on a determined context cannot work in another or what works with a group of students. and even when they are tested. Learners are seen as passive recipients and teachers ignore the context in which teaching and learning occurs sometimes. teaching are dynamic.
we can say that teachers need to be able to use approaches or methods in a flexible and creative way based on their own judgment and experience. and are concerned with leaning process. strategic teachers. They are: government policy directives. trends in the profession. and strategic explorers. and explanation of linguistic systems. The post method era empowers the teacher to construct personal theories of practice. and research influences. Learning-Centered Methods: they believe that language development is a nonlinear process. analysis. He claims that even the authors of the books that we have studied during this semester recommend some adequacy to use the methods because any idealized method can predict all the variables in the process of teaching-learning. Learner-Centered Methods: they are concerned about language use and learner needs. and this does not refer to what teachers do in classroom. He classifies the methods into three groups: - Language-Centered Methods: they are preoccupied with form. and preoccupied with form and function. treat language as an additive process and work with explicit introduction. The last text we have discussed today was ‘Understanding Post method Pedagogy’ from the book Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching.37 There are some factors that have influenced language teaching trends and that can continue to do so. and permits them to develop a subjective understanding that may arise from their own experience as learners and teachers. that seeks to transform classroom teachers into strategic thinkers. teaching a particular group of students. with a particular set of goals in a particular context). One possible way of conceptualizing and constructing a post-method pedagogy is to be sensitive to the parameters of particularity (any language pedagogy must be sensitive to a particular group of teachers. The author says that the term method as used in literature refers to established methods constructed by specialists. practicality (no theory of practice can be fully useful and usable unless it is generated through practice). influences from academic disciplines. Kumaravadivelu. by B. and possibility (concerned with individual identity). Summarizing. which can be incorporated in the macrostrategic framework. and through professional educational and peer consultation. the . responses to technology. gives autonomy for teachers to develop a critical approach. Based on the text.
38 framework seeks to provide a possible mechanism for classroom teachers to begin to theorize from their practice and practice what they theorize. .
and for how much time. the objectives of the lesson. what has been covered during the previous class. we gave two lessons plan to her (see annexes 13 and 14). the activities. she showed a final report from Estágio Supervisionado II for us to have an idea about how we should prepare ours. A good lesson has a sense of coherence: it should connect the various lessons and the students need to understand the rationale for each activity. And it is an resource very useful that serve as combining guide or as a historical document about your practices. A lesson plan is useful when preparing an evaluation. Manuela explained how to work with the strategic exercise and how important is to help our students to choose the better way to learning using strategies. She says that all good teachers have some type of plan. when teaching the same course. When creating a lesson plan. by Linda Jensen. the background of the students. A good lesson exhibits variety: variety in terms of . The basic principles of lesson planning are: coherence. it can be a detailed one or only some notes about what you will do in class. Secondly. the date. parts that can be difficult for the students. the materials. a list of materials that will be used. the teacher must consider the background of the students. I could take notice that I should make an ‘index’ and not a ‘summary’ as I have found in internet. Then. Teachers need to anticipate things that may go wrong. and the connections to previous and future lessons.39 18. A lesson plan can have a brief description of the class and students. we discussed a text called ‘Planning Lessons’. the day’s goals and objectives. 08/11 The teacher began the class showing a book called ‘Gateway’. The teacher must pay attention on how to make a lesson flows well and the activities to have a sense of connection. or when you need to miss a class for the substitute. After that. the time management can also be challenging for the teachers. and think about the solutions to feel more comfortable and confident. and the lesson’s content. She called our attention for the book because it has some exercises based on the Strategy Learning. in what order. variety. and flexibility. the competencies the lesson addresses. The basic components of a lesson plan are deciding what to teach. It has a lot of exercises after each four units that work on build the knowledge of how to use strategies to learn English. the skills to be taught. the time. the grammatical structures and key vocabulary terms that will be introduced.
I could see how difficult and complex is to prepare a lesson plan when taking in consideration all the points that are listed in the text. the teacher explained what a warm-up is. I think I am a little more prepared to make a lesson plan. and variety in terms of the pace of the class. and I could realize that I did not know anything about that. I know what a warm-up is and how it can useful for the teacher to prepare the class for the lesson. During the discussion of the text. in a micro level. but I am not feeling secure about that yet. She explained that a warm-up is a form to prepare the students to the class and can be made in various ways and gave an example of a word game: the teacher asks for each student a word in English. of the classroom organization and the mood. Now. A good lesson is flexible: good teachers know when it is time to change an activity and can recognize a ‘teaching moment’. After discussing this text. and skills on a macro level. language. .40 context. he or she is out of the game. if the student says a repeated word or doesn’t say anything.
The teacher will analyze these ones in the next class. After.41 19. The teacher called us attention for some details that are very important to take into account when preparing a lesson plan. asking questions in Portuguese for the students about the theme. The first one was a language lesson for public school. In her lesson plan. start with a text that brings some theme for discuss and after introduce some grammar point. the students must see the practical application in the real world of what they are studying. In Manuela’s lesson plan. in an inductively way. you must contextualize the subject. To begin the lesson plan. She worked on the vocabulary of the text and only in the third class she began to talk about the affixes. vocabulary or what you want to work on. and because of the prize. You should make your students aware to the importance to learn about the subject that you are explaining. 10/11 Today the teacher analyzed the lessons plan that we had prepared. the teacher showed a lesson plan that she had prepared based on the same conditions that we had. using skimming and scanning. is better to shows how the subject is in Portuguese and after shows it in English. a ninth grade class about affixes. We are supposed to take into account the guidelines of PCN and remember that the public school does not have didactic material. you should focus on the goal you want to reach at the end of the class. she talked about the different types of text and worked on strategies for reading the text without knows every word. Because this is very important and easier for the students to make a bridge to Portuguese. Before discussing our lessons plan. . I believe that it is a very interesting way to begin a class because you can have all the students get involved because of the theme. The teacher explained that the objective of this class is work on the skills and does not work grammar. she began the class talking about drugs. and gave a task for them: they should research about the theme at home and ask some questions. she divided the class in groups. using Cooperative Learning (if everybody answer the questions correctly. which is a real theme for discussing. It was a class in a language course for teens in an intermediate level. They would have studied during four or five semesters. everybody will watch a movie). vocabulary or function. The second lesson plan was a skill lesson. A teacher must prepare a lot of different activities to make an interesting class and prepare practical activities. First of all.
sooner or later. after asking for some if nobody wants to come. when doing an activity that needs volunteers. She told that the teacher must always try to teach inductively. the teacher must stimulate the students. The author gives four rules for the teachers: You should define realistic goals for you about your career. insist on asking the same students in a smooth way until you have someone to do the activity. The teacher is responsible for the environment in the class. he or she will forget about it. never stops studying and learning. You should set priorities about your professional and personal life to organize yourself. and it was supposed to be a language lesson based on a chapter the teacher gave us. the teacher gave us her text to read it. Another point that the teacher underlined was that the teacher must stimulate the students. You should seek for new challenges and try the new to learn from mistakes. I agree with because when the student build his or her own rules is easier to learn and hard to forget. . but when the student only memorize the rules without realizing how the language functions. This was the third lesson plan. 22/11 The teacher began the class discussing Galbenia’s lesson plan based on the copy ‘Names and Occupations’. So. Based on Galbenia’s lesson plan. we can confirm that a teacher. The only things that they know are the basic commands. Today was supposed to be Fernanda’s seminar. So. Sometimes you can have a student that knows all the rules about the subject but that could not comprehend how it functions and how to use it. Manuela explained that a subject must be divided into parts when given in class. Manuela called our attention to some important points when planning a lesson. The class happens on Saturdays. the numbers. it is a four hours class with a break of fifteen minutes in a language course for adults. It was the third class for a beginners group. Based on the text ‘Continuing your teaching education’. the alphabet and useful expressions used in class. but she did not come to class.42 20. a real good teacher that always wants to grow. because is too difficult for the students to capture all the features of a long subject.
then you must agree that the teacher will never stop studying and learning because all the time people will promote changes in language. not only having someone to observe the class but even the self-observation. but people do not expect that from teachers. How about language? Is it immutable? Is it alive? If you believe that language is mutable. by team teaching. Professional citizenship. Critical thinking about what you do and you role as a teacher. a good ESL teacher much has these nine following characteristics: - A competent preparation. People say that a doctor or a scientist studies during all their lives because things change all the time. It can be done by the classroom observation as previously mentioned. new techniques are discovered and so on. as a kind of teacher collaboration. that the language is composed by what people produce. The bright side is that teachers can study and learn . when the teacher make research about your or another class. a well-prepared teacher shows security when giving classes. Willingness to go beyond what you are used to do. The teacher should know how to learn from another teacher. A constant need to be always improving. by sharing researches and results with another teachers. I believe that this text was very useful for me and my classmates because is very important for a teacher to be updated. - Cultural adaptability. Harold B. by action research. Allen. because it is not easy to learn and teach. what your students and the others expect from you. Self-subordination. that is a kind of monitoring process. - A love of the English language. A feeling of excitement about one’s work. and how it can be useful for the teacher. The author calls attention about the classroom observation. when you have more than one teacher teaching together the same class. In my opinion.43 - You should learn to deal with high-stress conditions. According to the author.
but even with other teachers and with their students. a convention. . enroll on a course.44 not only when they go to a congress.
their proposals should be adapted to the reality of each school community. By learning a foreign language. learning.) because reading has a prominent role because of the students’ needs as to be prepared to the vestibular. more human. According to the PCN. the PCN is not a compulsory directive. The focus is no longer in grammar. When you focus on the interaction in the classroom. The PCN is influenced by the ideas of the English for Specific Purposes (E. modifies. the teacher needs to develop the reading skill. the teacher must create spaces in his or her class to go beyond the reading. The teacher is responsible for creating learning situations to promote interaction and this. conscious and participants of an enriching experience when in contact with another cultures.. because it is through the interaction that the students builds. to masters or Ph. The PCN are references to the work of teachers with the objective to ensure that all students may have the basic knowledge needed for citizen. interprets and enriches meaning. fewer hours in class and teachers unprepared. the same difficulties scored by the Direct Method. as large classes. The teacher needs to contextualize what he or she wants to teach. Manuela told me . Even pointing out a set of content and objectives. the students learn more about themselves and about a global world. The view that the teacher passes the knowledge to the students and they absorb it without any reflection is overcome by a vision of learning that is suggested by the parameters. the teacher will be encouraging the autonomy of their students. The primary focus on reading does not exclude the possibility to work on oral skills. he or she must goes to text first and then choose some grammar point to show to the students. the student’s previous knowledge and experiences.D. The intercultural aspect of English teaching is an approach where the relation between language and culture includes the formation of citizens with critical views. The text talks about the real difficulties to work on oral skills. The teacher talked about an Intercultural Approach that focuses on the students’ culture. 24/11 Today we discussed the PCN of Ensino Fundamental and the teacher clarified our doubts.S. the construction of knowledge is given through the interaction: student-teacher and teacher-interaction.P. Enem.45 21.
. We could saw that the PCN talks about an ideal context to teach English in public schools but unfortunately we work on a real context that in most cases is far from the ideal. the English is not an optional subject that the student does not care about it. but you should try to do what you believe that will work with your students. But you can be creative and try to make the difference. the teacher must stimulate them to search in the real world. The teacher’s role is to prepare the student to be a citizen and to help in his/her studies. The difficulty exists. So now. and a second foreign language can be included as optional.46 that if I need I can modify a real text according to what I need. In the current Brazilian legislation it is obligatory to include a foreign language in the curriculum from the fifth grade. of course. The PCN suggest that the students should acts as ethnographers. changing words or sentences into the subject I intend to show to my students.
The PCN of Ensino Médio aim to help the teacher to think about the practice in the classroom and to be a support for planning class and developing the school curriculum. the PCN focuses on reading. and to form citizens. to develop social skills. but to develop skills that can help students to be prepared for the life. and of be opened to learn with students. The teacher can not forget the possibility of a personal and professional development when studying English because knowing another language is a differential in the job market It is obvious that the grammar rules must be taught. History and others. but now.47 22. The main objective of the education is not only teaching subjects. 29/11 Today was the Fernada’s seminar and she talked about the PCN of Ensino Médio. Codes and their technologies. but the teacher must realize that the school role is to educate. . of give time for activities that can join different subjects as English with Geography. gain a condition of being part of a center line that permits students to be near other culture. integrated into the area of Languages. The English language. teachers and students can be stimulated about teaching and learning it. When the foreign language was not obligatory the teachers were discouraging in relation to their jobs. In relation to the skills that must be developed. writing and oral communication contextualized. This was our last class. The teacher faces the challenge of change his or her position in class. The PCN do not propose a specific methodology to teaching English but suggest a social-interactional approach that focuses on the reading development because the reading skill answers the necessities of a formal education and is the skill that the students can use immediately.
He talked about the importance of want to be a teacher. a crisis period is not a bad period for me. CONCLUSIONS Before the beginning of our classes I got myself thinking about what we will study in this subject. to reflect and to make decisions. yes.48 23. it was my deepest desire. The classes. how I can be one? As I said in one of our classes. A very long time… So I still underestimated the benefits of studying about methods and approaches when the teacher explained what will be the content of the subject. The Manuela’s advices were very important for my personal and professional development and will be exactly followed. Very early during the classes. Then some questions come to my mind: if I am not a teacher. is to feel realized when you can contribute in the formation of a boy or a girl. You can know English perfectly but this does not make you a teacher. a crisis period is time to rethink. During the semester I have the opportunity to watch a lecture given by a teacher called Vini Nobre and it was crucial for me to make my personal decisions. it really changes my beliefs and my professional life . I got in crisis because I realized that I had never been a real teacher. what I am? If I am not a teacher. To be a teacher is something like a passion. the teacher Manuela. And I realized that I really wanted to be a teacher. I did not do anything of what the texts we were studying say. is to make your part to have a better world. and my classmates were part of this crisis and part of the solution of this crisis. Now I can notice how important was having this classes. I thought that I had nothing to learn about teaching because I have been teaching English since 1998 and I am a teacher.
) Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Kathleen Santopietro. The Competency-Based Approach to Training.wordpress. 2010. In: Reading Room.jhu. Rick. In: Teaching English for Foreign Language.php/Competency-Based_Approach. p. 2010.htm>. RICHARDS. Mariane (Org. 2000.com/tag/competency-based/>. Access on 20th oct. New York: Cambridge University Press. Available in < http://teffl. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . 2010.html>. In: TELF Word Wiki.reproline. Access on 1st oct. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Access on 1st oct. The Four Stages of Learnin. Available in <http://www. Available in <http://teflworldwiki. 11th. Competency Based Education and Content Standards. 4003 – 409. Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching. Linda. 2003. . 2006. Competency-Based Language Teaching. 2010. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. In: Process Coaching Center. KUMARAVADIVELU.49 REFERENCES Competency-Based 2010. WEDDEL. In: CELCE-MURCIA. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Access on 29th sep. SULLIVAN.edu/english/6read/6training/cbt/cbt.com/2010/06/13/drilling/>. 3rd edition. 2006. Access on 1st oct. Edition. RODGERS. 2nd. In: Teaching English for Foreign Language. JENSEN.com/fourstages. Available in < http://teffl. Planning Lessons. Available in <http://processcoaching. Northern Colorado: Literacy Resource Center. B. Diane.com/index. LARSEN-FREEMAN. Approach.A description and analysis.>. 2001. Theodore.. Jack C. Drilling. edition. New Haven and London: Yale University.wordpress.
Make sure it is at a level your students can understand. 2. Try translating it yourself as a test of its difficulty. yet not at a level that would be too simple for them. Explain the difference in your own words. but they don’t know how to use the language to communicate. What are the clues that this method had its origin in the teaching of the classical languages. Plan vocabulary exercises you would use to help your students associate the new words with their native language equivalents. B. it was used to help students to read foreign language literature. 1. 1. Choose a reading passage from a literary work or a textbook or write one yourself. students would became more familiar to the grammar of their native language and speak and write better. grammar rules. how to make phrase and dialogs to establish a communication. Think of a particular group of students you have recently taught or are currently teaching. Apply what you have understood about the Grammar-Translation Method. how to read. Latin and Greek? It was called Classical Method because it was first used in teaching of the classical languages. . Check your understanding of the Grammar-Translation Method. The students know the target language: they know the words. how to translate.50 ANNEXES ANNEX 1 ACTIVITIES A. and that through the study of the grammar of the target language. It has been said that the Grammar-Translation Method teaches students about the target language. but not how to use it. Latin and Greek. Identify the vocabulary you would choose to work on.
37. who. Vocabulary: annual income: renda annual arranged marriage: casamento arranjado both a mother and father: tanto uma mãe. Ohio Journal. Omar. in Customs. “I began to discover my husband’s bad qualities like lying”. and Fatima’s annual income of about 5. says Fatima. Her parents cover the family’s daily expenses. Fatima filed for divorce and got it three years later. where she teaches English.80). Today Fatima lives with her nine-year-old son. in her parents’ tiny apartment in Cairo.729) pays for Omar’s extras and his future needs. While she believes that a Muslim woman’s place is in the home. For Fatima. she has to work to provide for her son. Cairo. quanto um pai expenses: despesas marriage: casamento monthly support: pensão mensal Muslim: muçulmana needs: necessidades .72. Egypt Egyptians have a proverb: Marriage is like a melon. “a father’s duties are financial. ‘Women throughout the world’.51 STARTING OVER Fatima. she says. like many women in Egypt. plus a monthly child support payment of 30 Egyptian pounds (about $8. I have duties of both a mother and a father”. because people speak about her”. p. says Fatima. You never know what’s inside before you open it. covers her hair and neck in public. July 200.880 pounds ($1. Fatima works at an Experimental Language School. “A divorced woman can’t live alone. the inside of her traditional arranged marriage was not what she expected. He works and makes money. In most families.
52 pounds: libras tiny: minuscule to expect: esperar to file for divorce: pedir divórcio to make money: ganhar dinheiro to provide for somebody: sustentar alguém until: até Exercício 1. a quem algo pertence. Pick a grammatical point or two contained in the same passage. a. His __annual income__ is not high enough to buy a house of his own. . 2. I can’t go shopping. e. Complete as frases com palavras ou expressões do vocabulário essencial. por meio do uso de um apóstrofo (‘) seguido de s. I’ll rent a __tiny__ apartment since I can’t afford to pay for a bigger one. It is better to _live alone_ than to live with some friends. b. Caso Genitivo ou Possessivo com ‘s Os substantivos em inglês podem ter uma forma indicativa de posse. f. d. Design exercises that require your students to apply the rule to some different examples. c. He goes to Australia to try to __make money__ there. Provide the explicit grammar rule that relates to each one and give some examples. _Jobs_ are difficult to find nowadays. Because of all the extra __expenses__ I had.
um animal ou um nome que represente um grupo de pessoas. A sailor’s uniform. O ‘s também é usado para indicar lojas. These are Susan and Robert’s CDs. government. cada possuidor é seguido de ‘s. team. Esta forma com ‘s somente é usada quando o possuidor é uma pessoa. O ‘s é colocado após um nome possuidor no singular ou no plural.53 Exemplos: This is Peter’s brother. somente o último é seguido de ‘s. The roof of the house. No caso de substantives compostos. This is his brother. o ‘s é acrescentado ao final da palavra. Usa-se apenas o apóstrofo (‘) quando o substantive for plural terminando em –s. Exemplos: Peter and Sally’s apartment. consultórios e outros lugares públicos. These are their CDs. se cada possuidor possui sua própria coisa. Se há mais de um possuidor. My cousins’ school. Exemplos: My father’s office. como company. Peter’s and Sally’s apartments. Exemplo: Tonight’s program A week’s holiday . normalmente usa-se a seguinte estrutura: Substantivo + of + substantivo Exemplos: The walls of my house. Exemplos: My friends’ families. Exemplo: The butcher’s (shop) O ‘s pode também ser empregado depois de expresses de tempo. Caso contrário. desde que não termine em s. Exemplo: My brother-in-law’s family.
Elisa’s arms and shoulders were sore. d. This year’s prices are lower. The prices this year are lower. The Andrades’ sons are very smart. MODELO: The duties of Mr. e. The arms and shoulders of Elisa were sore. We had to buy it. Assinale a opção correta. Nardy’s duties are very important. ( ) the children’ ( ) of children (X) the children’s ( ) of the children’ d) 2. London’s Museums are extremely interesting. 2. 1. Mr. Regina’s expenses were higher this year. a. ( ) the offer’s special month . b. The sons of the Andrades are very smart. Faça como no modelo. c. a) b) c) Those dirty shoes and clothes are _______________. Nardy are very important. The expenses of Regina were higher this year.54 Exercícios 1. The Museums of London are extremely interesting. a) The washing machine was ____________.
b. a. Eles tiveram que recorrer à poupança dos filhos. They had to use their children’s savings. ( ) Carina and Joyce ( ) Carina’s and Joyce ( ) Carina and Joyce’ (X) Carina’s and Joyce’s 3.55 b) (X) the month’s special offer ( ) the month’ special offer ( ) the special offer month’s c) d) 3. Passe para o inglês as frases a seguir. They are New Yorkers. A atmosfera da Terra está ficando cada vez mais poluída. ANNEX 2 . A mãe de Ana e de Tiago mora no apartamento amarelo. The earth’s atmosphere is getting more and more polluted. Ana and Tiago’s mother lives in the yellow apartment. c. a) b) c) d) _________ boyfriends are foreigners.
or the weather) and write a short passage or a dialog on the theme you have chosen. B. the teacher leads the students to deduce the rules. 2. we learned that grammar was treated deductively. the purpose of language learning is communication. Choose a particular situation (such as at the bank. or at the doctor’s office) or a particular topic (such as articles of clothing. Now think about how you will convey its meaning to students to students without using their native language. Check your understanding of the Direct Method. the teacher should demonstrate. 1. Apply what you have understood about the Direct Method. What are some of the characteristics of the Direct Method that make it so distinctive from the Grammar-Translation Method? The reading skill will be developed through practice with speaking. Because when the teacher knows the native language of his students he can find out where the students will have problems or difficulties in learning the target language. not explain or translate. 1. grammar is treated inductively. explicitly. at the railroad station. It has been said that it may be advantageous to a teacher using the Direct Method not to know his students’ native language. 3. In the inductive way. Do you agree? Why? I don’t agree with it.56 ACTIVITIES A. the native language should not be used in the classroom. In the Direct Method. In the previous chapter on the Grammar-Translation Method. . grammar should be taught inductively. Can you explain the difference between deductive and inductive treatments of grammar? In the deductive way the teacher explain the grammar through its rules. holidays.
the teacher points to the animal the sentence talks about. they are asked if they have questions. the teacher explains . After the students finish reading the dialog. As the students are called to read the dialog. If so.57 At the farm The teacher shows to the class a big poster with the same picture that is in the students’ text. sentence by sentence.
What examples can you provide them with so that they can induce the rule themselves? The grammar point is the quantifiers. miming or giving an example. few and many. And after. after he will show the flashcards down to induce the students to understand the rules. Plan how you will get students to practice the grammar point. this is an opportunity to correct pronunciation.58 it by drawing. The teacher will ask some questions to the students based on the dialog using the quantifiers. he asks the students to make questions to the class. 2. Select a grammar point from the passage. One pig few pigs many pigs One dog few dogs many dogs . The teacher asks some questions about the text for a few minutes helping the students to understand it.
Practice writing and giving a dictation as it is described in this chapter. the teacher will read in the normal speed and the students will check their work. . ‘Mr. There’s a lot of snow and little work on the far’. but they are not working much this month. Manbauer and his family live on a farm in Pennsylvania. In the last time. and January is wintertime in Pennsylvania. It’s January. In the second time. The teacher will read the passage down three times. he will read again phrase by phrase. pausing to the students write down what they lave heard. They usually work a lot on their farm. The first time he will read in the normal speed and the students will listen.59 One horse few horses many horses 3.
. A que se deve a sucessão de métodos e abordagens de ensino ao longo da história? Deve-se ao reconhecimento da mudança de necessidade doa alunos.60 ANNEX 3 1. à mudança de foco do estudo da língua da compreensão escrita para a proficiência oral.
Qual é o embassamento teórico do Grammar-Translation Method? Não existe teoria por trás do método. b. it makes few demands on teachers’. É um método fácil para os professores porque não requer muito conhecimento de lingüística ou de ensino de língua. 3. especialistas em ensino de idiomas se voltaram para o jeito como as línguas modernas estavam sendo ensinadas nas escolas porque elas estavam falhando nas suas responsabilidades.61 2. Você conhece as regras. Os resultados em escolas regulares não foram tão positivos porque o método falhou em considerar a realidade prática . memoriza. ‘Although the Grammar-Translation Method often creates frustration for students. Comente as seguintes críticas: a. mas não sabe como usar. Em que contexto o Direct Method se mostrou mais eficiente? Por quê? Por que esse método não obteve resultados tão positivos no contexto de escolas regulares? Quais os argumentos apresentados por seus críticos para tal? O Direct Method se mostrou mais eficiente nas escolas de idiomas porque os alunos que pagavam pelas aulas tinham motivação e porque a utilização de professores nativos da língua alvo era norma. Que fatores levaram ao declínio do Grammar-Translation Method e ao surgimento do Direct Method? O aumento das oportunidades de comunicação entre europeus criou demando por proficiência oral. 4. O método conhecido como Grammar-Translation dominou o cenário de ensino da língua estrangeira por cerca de um século (1840-1940). O Grammar-Translation Method é uma forma de ‘know everything about something rather than the thing itself’. c.
62 da sala de aula: o método requer professores nativos ou fluentes na língua alvo e nem todos os professores eram assim. a partir dos anos 90 muitos lingüistas aplicados e professores de línguas começaram a mudar essa perspectiva. mas como fonte de práticas de ensino que os professores podem utilizar a depender das suas necessidades. acreditando que essa era a forma de se resolver os problemas do aprendizado. se buscava sempre métodos mais modernos para o ensino de línguas. O novo objetivo para um curso de língua estrangeira é a habilidade de leitura. Conhecer e utilizar diferentes métodos dá ao professores experiência e os ajuda . Por isso. Quais os resultados do estudo ‘Coleman Report’ e suas consequências para o ensino da língua estrangeira nos EUA? Concluiu que nenhum método sozinho pode garantir resultados bem sucedidos. 6. 7. O Direct Method inaugurou a chamada ‘era dos métodos’? Qual a duração desse período e as crenças que o embassaram? Que era a sucede? Qual a mudança de paradigma ocorrida? A chamada “Era dos Métodos” durou (mais ou menos) dos anos 50 aos anos 80 do século XX. Porém. Esse período ficou conhecido como a “era pós-método”. procurando entender a natureza do ensino de línguas. a crença comum era que mudanças na forma de ensinar inglês era a forma de melhorar o aprendizado. Quais as principais razões pelas quais métodos ainda são estudados? O estudo dos métodos e abordagens dá ao professor uma visão de como a área se desenvolveu e estes podem ser muito úteis quando não são vistos como receitas prontas. além do que o professor poderia perder muito tempo da aula tentando fazer uma explicação simples por não poder usar a língua nativa. à limitação dos professorese da irrelevância para os estudantes. o ensino da habilidade de conversação foi considerado impraticável devido ao tempo restrito para o ensino da língua em escolas. 5. Nessa época.
In this method the teacher does not work on reading passages nor on text comprehension. This technique doesn’t follow the principles of the audio-Lingual Method because when the students are asked to write something they are supposed to write about what they are learning. The teacher asks beginning-level students to write a compositions about the system of transportation in their home countries. The passage contains words and structures introduced during the first three weeks of the course. a. they are told to look in a bilingual dictionary for a translation. . The teacher tells the students that they must add an ‘s’ to third person singular verbs in the present tense in English. and which ones don’t? Explain the reasons for your answer. If they need a vocabulary word that they don’t know.63 a desenvolver habilidades básicas que serão muito importantes na medida em que eles desenvolvem experiência de ensino. ANNEX 4 ACTIVITIES A. Check your understanding of the Audio-Lingual Method. The teacher asks the students to read the passage and to answer certain questions based upon it. c. they must follow the first dialog the teacher showed in the first class. Which of the following techniques follows from the principles of the Audio-Lingual Method. This technique doesn’t follow the principles of the audio-Lingual Method because the grammar rules necessary to use the target language will be figured out or induced from examples. Toward the end of the third week of the course. 1. This technique does not follow the principles of the Audio-Lingual Method. the teacher gives students a reading passage. She then gives the students a list of verbs and asks them to change the verbs into the third person singular present tense form. b.
chain. Apply what you have understood about the Audio-Lingual Method. He’s going to be a doctor. BETTY: Where is he going? SAM: He’s going to Stanford. Teacher: England. Read the following dialog. What would an Audio-Lingual teacher say about this? Why? The knowledge of a first and a second language can be helpful to learn a third language because the method claims that the language learning is a process of habit formation. Prepare a series of drills (backward build-up. . you might want to try giving them to some other teachers. Student 2: He’s going to England.64 2.Paris Student 1: He’s going to Paris. Some people believe that knowledge of a first and second language can be helpful to learners who are trying to learn a third language. B. repetition. multiple-slot substitution. single-slot substitution. Teacher: Brazil. What subsentence pattern is it trying to teach? SAM: Lou’s going to go to college next fall. Teacher: China. Student 3: He’s going to China. BETTY: What is he going to study? SAM: Biology. so to check yours. and question-and-answer) designed to give beginning level EFL students some practice with this structure. It is not easy to prepare drills. - Single-slot substitution drill: The teacher says to student 1: He’s going to Stanford. . 1. transformation. The teacher is trying to teach the immediate future with ‘going to’.
Is he going to be a doctor? And I say. let’s begin.’ And give the cue ‘singer’. The class answer: Is she going to be a painter? 2. The class answer: Is he going to be a dancer? Teacher: He is going to be a teacher. STEVE: What’s she doing? JEFF: She’s studying. Multiple-slot substitution drill: The teacher repeats the phrase: ‘He’s going to be a doctor. The teacher gives the cue ‘she’. but the dog isn’t in the house… Single-slot Substitution drill: . Student 3: She’s going to be a singer. Student 1: She’s going to be a doctor. Transformation drill: The teacher offers an example: ‘I say. Student 2: He’s going to be a singer. Prepare your own dialog to introduce your students to a sentence or subsentence pattern in the target language you teach. Is she going to be a singer? Does everyone understand? OK. STEVE: Where’s Karen? JEFF: She’s in the living room.65 Student 4: He’s going to Brazil. The teacher repeats again the phrase: ‘He’s going to be a doctor. The class answer: Is he going to be a teacher? Teacher: she is going to be a painter. ‘She’s going to be a singer’. STEVE: Where are her parents? JEFF: They’re watching TV. ‘He’s going to be a doctor’.’ And give the cue ‘she’. He is going to be a dancer.
.’ Transformation drill: The teacher shows a picture of a living room and asks ‘Is she in the bathroom?’ And she answers ‘Yes. she isn’t in the kitchen’. she’s in the living room’. She poses a question to the class holding a picture of a library: ‘Is she in the garden?’ The class answers: ‘No.’ She shows a picture of a kitchen and says ‘A kitchen’. she isn’t going to school.’ The students understand that they are required to look at the picture and listen to the question and answer positively or negatively according to the action in the picture and the question.’ The teacher shows a picture and says ‘A bathroom’. Then she shows a picture of a girl playing guitar and asks ‘Is she playing guitar?’ The class answer: ‘Yes. she’s playing guitar.’ The teacher shows a picture of a girl sleeping and asks ‘Is she going to school?’ The class answer: ‘No. she isn’t in the bedroom’. The students say: ‘She’s in the bathroom. she isn’t watching TV. Question-and-answer drill: The teacher shows the class a picture of a girls studying and asks: ‘Is she studying?’ And she answers ‘Yes. The students say: ‘She’s in the bedroom. The teacher shows a picture of a kitchen and asks ‘Is she in the kitchen?’ The class answer: ‘No.66 The teacher begins repeating from the dialog: ‘She’s in the living room. She shows a picture of a bedroom and asks ‘Is she in the in the bedroom?’ And she answers again: “No. she isn’t in the garden.’ The teacher shows a picture of a girl listen to music and asks ‘Is she watching TV? The class answer: ‘No. The students say: ‘She’s in the kitchen. she’s studying.’ The teacher shows a picture and says ‘A bedroom’.
“This analysis reveals the use of a sentence-based syllabus. Redução de stress: a aquisição da lingual deve acontecer em um ambiente sem stress. “TPR reflects a grammar-based view of language.” A gramática é ensinada de forma indutiva e o syllabus é baseado na sentença. usando o lado direito do cérebro. 2. c. Comente as seguintes passagens retiradas do texto: a. Lateralização cerebral: baseado em Piaget. Grammar is thus taught inductively.” . O TPR está baseado em três hipóteses sobre aprendizagem. with grammatical and lexical criteria being primary in selecting teaching items. Explique cada uma delas.” Pontos gramaticais e vocabulário são selecionados de acordo com as situações em que podem ser usados na sala de aula.67 ANNEX 5 1. b. Total Physical Response requires initial attention to meaning rather than to the form of items. As hipóteses são: Bio-program: o ensino e o aprendizado de uma nova língua devem ser como o processo de aquisição da primeira língua. “Unlike methods that operate from a grammar-based or structural view of the core elements of language. Asher pensava que a criança adquire a lingual através de movimentos.
mas na medida em que a criança cresce. No começo os pais corrigem muito pouco. Por que é recomendado que o professor escreva um plano detalhado e o leve para sala de aula? O professor deve estar bem preparado e organizado para que a aula possa fluir bem e de maneira previsível. 4. Assim. os pais toleram menos os erros na fala. O role play é usado porque se baseia em situações reais do dia a dia. O TPR raramente é adotado como um método exclusivo. 5.68 A gramática é ensinada de forma indutiva a partir do contexto. Justifique o uso de “role plays” pelos adeptos do TPR. os professores devem evitar muitas correções nos primeiros estágios e não devem interromper para corrigir erros para não inibir os alunos. . 3. A medida em que o tempo passa. 8. não são dadas as regras explicitamente. Praticantes do TPR seguem essa recomendação e utilizam o TPR como um conjunto de técnicas que é compatível com outras abordagens. De que modo a correção feita pelo professor deve se assemelhar à feita por pais a seus filhos? O professor deve seguir o exemplo dos pais corrigindo os erros dos filhos. A ação é muito rápida e não há tempo para criar. Qual a recomendação do próprio Asher quanto a isso e de que modo seus adeptos o utilizam? Asher diz que o método deve ser usado em associação com outros métodos e técnicas. os professores podem corrigir com mais freqüência.
How does this method lower student anxiety? The students begin to speak only when they feel they are ready. they just listen because understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking. What are some characteristics of his method that are similar to the way children acquire their native language? The students say nothing. 2. When students make an error. One of the principles of TPR is that when student anxiety is low. and is easier to learn when it is fun. as a parent. the teacher must create some funny situations in the class. The teacher uses the imperative to teach students. 1. Check your understanding of Total Physical Response. Students can learn through imitation. the teacher makes the correction in a sweet way.69 ANNEX 6 ACTIVITIES A. Asher believes that foreign language instruction can and should be modeled on native language acquisition. they are not forced to do it. . language learning is enhanced.
the teacher shows another picture. Plan part of a TPR lesson in which the present continuous tense. the teacher had the students pretend to write and mail a letter. While miming the teacher will say: ‘She is talking on the telephone’ and the students will repeat the phrase. and asks the others to repeat the phrase. Apply what you have understood about Total Physical Response. She choose one of students. the students are supposed to imitate what the teacher is doing. Think of three common activities which could be used as action sequences in the classroom. or another structure in the target language. . stretch and yawn. While the student mimes the teacher says ‘She is jumping. shows him a picture asks him to mime the action on the picture. A lot of target language structures and vocabulary can be taught through the imperative. and the verb to be. They know the basic commands. Make a list of commands for each one. For example: the teacher shows a picture. 1. the teacher says ‘He is brushing the teeth. While the student mimes. Going to Bed: - Turn off the TV. hug you mom. It a beginning class in the end of the semester.70 B. she will mime the action on the picture and the students are supposed to repeat the action and repeat the phrase that the teacher will be saying while miming. the teacher mimes the action.’. a lot of vocabulary. The teacher shows a picture to each student asking them to mime the action and repeat the phrase after her while the student is miming. 2. The teacher asks for a volunteer to help her. In the second activity the teacher will use another pictures. She will show picture by picture for the students. In the action sequence (operation) that we looked at. and the student mime. there is a person talking on the telephone.’. Another volunteer. is introduced. and asks the others to repeat the phrase.
Write the message.Mmmmmm! - - . tomatoes and cheese on the same slice of bread.71 - brush the teeth. place the second slice of bread on top. put a piece of meat on one slice of bread. get into bed. Open your mail box. put lettuce. close the sandwich. Send the e-mail. Write the receiver’s address. spread butter on both slices. cut the sandwich in half. Open the internet. put the pajamas. Making a sandwich: - - Slice some bread. Sending an e-mail: Turn on the computer. turn off the lights. spread the butter to all corners of the bread. take a bite .
1. Descreva os dois tipos fundamentais de interação presentes no CLL.
Interação entre aprendizes: são imprevisíveis no conteúdo, mas envolvem troca de
afeto; se torna mais intima a medida em que a sala se torna uma comunidade de aprendizes e a motivação para aprender é mais quando se aprende em grupo. Interação entre aprendizes e conhecedores: é uma interação dependente no começo. O aluno diz ao professor o que ele quer dizer na língua lavo e o professor diz a ele como falar. A interação vai evoluindo até o estágio da independência.
2. O que significa a sigla SARD? Como cada um dos elementos que a compõem afeta o
processo de aprendizagem? Security: os alunos sentirão dificuldade para entrar em uma experiência bem sucedida de aprendizado se eles não se sentirem seguros.
Atention and Agression: a atenção promove o aprendizado; a agressão se aplica na forma como o aluno tenta mostrar o que aprendeu.
Retention and Reflection: se o aluno está envolvido no processo de aprendizagem,
o que é retido é internalizado; reflexão é um período consciente de silêncio no qual ele foca no que aprendeu na última hora, avalia seu estágio presente de desenvolvimento e reavalia objetivos futuros. Discrimination: quando os alunos retem um conteúdo, eles estão prontos para resolver o assunto e relacionar uma coisa com outra.
3. Comente as seguintes passagens retiradas do texto: a. “By the end of the process, the child has become adult. The learner knows everything the teacher does and can become knower for a new learner.”
Eu não concordo quando ele diz que o aluno sabe tudo o que o professor sabe.
Quando o professor ensina, não significa que o aluno aprendeu. Ou, talvez, dependendo das práticas do aluno, ele possa saber mais que o seu professor.
b. “The progression is topic-based, with learners nominating things they wish to talk about and messages they wish to communicate to other learners. The teacher’s responsibility is to provide a conveyance for these meanings in a way appropriate to the learner’s proficiency level.” A responsabilidade do professor dentro do método é bem limitada. Ele só se manifesta se solicitado pelos alunos. Não acredito que essa seja a melhor forma de ensinar, o aluno precisa se tornar independente do professor sim, mas precisa de alguém que oriente como o aprendizado vai se encaminhar.
4. Por que livros não são adotados? De que forma o “syllabus” é construído? O método não usa um syllabus convencional porque é baseado em tópicos, são os alunos que escolhem os temas sobre os quais eles querem falar e as mensagens que eles querem comunicar uns aos outros. O syllabus surge da interação entre os alunos e a reformulação dessas intenções pelo professor.
5. Por que é difícil descrever os procedimentos adotados em sala de aula? Porque cada curso baseado no CLL é uma experiência única.
6. O CLL exige um profissional bastante preparado. Quais as demandas impostas aos professores?
Os professores precisam ser altamente competentes e sensíveis às nuances das
línguas; devem estar acostumados e gostar de serem conselheiros; resistir à pressão de ensinar nos moldes tradicionais; estar preparados para aceitar e até encorajar a agressão do aluno que quer ser independente; trabalhar sem materiais tradicionais; devem estar preparados para lidar com a reação hostil ao método.
7. Quais as críticas feitas ao CLL? Como elas são rebatidas pelos seus defensores? Críticas são feitas ao papel do professor como conselheiros psicológicos, se eles devem ou não ser treinados para isso; à falta de um syllabus, o que torna o objetivo do curso obscuro e avaliação difícil de ser feita; o foco na fluência ao invés da correção pode levar a uso inadequado da gramática da língua alvo. Os defensores enfatizam os benefícios positivos do método que está centrado no aluno e enfatiza o lado humano do aprendizado da língua e não apenas a sua dimensão lingüística.
1. Como a Yoga e a Psicologia Soviética contribuíram para a Desuggestopedia? Da Yoga, Lozanov modificou algumas técnicas de estados alterados de consciência e concentração e o uso da respiração ritmada. Da Psicologia soviética, Lozanov tirou a noção de que todos os alunos podem ser ensinados no mesmo nível, ou seja, após o ensino, os alunos estarão no mesmo nível de aprendizagem.
2. Como o vocabulário é trabalhado nessa perspectiva? E quanto à gramática?
Como a postura de Lozanov difere da de Asher quanto à adoção da Desuggestopedia? Asher diz que o método deve ser usado em associação com outros métodos e técnicas. sem alteração ou associação de outros métodos. habilidade de atuar e uma atitude positiva dá um ar de autoridade ao professor. A questão da autoridade é central para o processo. Eu não concordo com esse princípio. Lozanov acredita que o método dele deve ser utilizado integralmente. 3. da instituição que o utiliza. “Memorization in learning by the suggestopedic method seems to be accelerated 25 times over that in learning by conventional methods. mas sim o entendimento e a solução criativa de problemas. Como a autoridade do próprio método. “Lozanov claims that his method works equally well whether or not students spend time on outside study. ou seja. Apesar de que. O comprometimento com o método.” Os criadores do método acreditavam que ele poderia acelerar o aprendizado até 25 vezes mais do que os métodos convencionais. Comente as seguintes frases retiradas do texto: a. Acredito que o aluno precisa exercitar o . autoconfiança. e do professor que o adota é construída? Escolas bem divulgadas através de histórias de sucesso dão ao método e a instituição certa autoridade. Acredito que o método tem alguns pontos que realmente podem facilitar e até acelerar o aprendizado de determinados alunos que se identifiquem com o método. apesar de não terem estudos que pudessem comprovar esse fato. 4.75 O método enfatiza a memorização de vocabulário em pares: uma palavra na língua alvo e uma palavra na língua materna porque é centrado no léxico e na tradução lexical. mas não em até 25 vezes mais que outros métodos. distanciamento. Lozanov enfatiza que a memorização não é o alvo do método.” Lozanov afirmava que o aluno iria aprender mesmo que ele não estudasse fora da sala de aula. 5. b. a capacidade de uso da língua de maneira criativa.
que aprendeu em sala de aula, e para isso é fundamental que ele faça exercícios em casa, pesquisa e pratique a língua.
c. “Traumatic themes and distasteful lexical material should be avoided.” Acredito que tratar de certos assuntos polêmicos ou desagradáveis pode ser evitado sim. O professor deve estar atento a determinados assuntos que possam causar constrangimento ou desconforto em sala de aula para não tornar o ambiente tenso, transformando assim em uma experiência desagradável para o aluno.
ACTIVITIES A. Check your understanding of Desuggestopedia. 1. What are some of the ways that direct positive suggestions were present in the lesson? Indirect positive suggestions?
Direct positive suggestions: the teacher speaks confidently and gives the impression
that learning will be easy and enjoyable.
Indirect positive suggestions: the teacher makes students choose a new identity; the
teacher outs some music when reading; the class is bright and colorful
2. How are the arts integrated into the lesson we observed?
The fine arts enable suggestions to reach the subconscious. The students dramatize
dialogs to reduce barriers to learn. Music reinforces the linguistic material and gives a state of infantilization that makes the students more opened. There are reproductions of classical paintings throughout the text and the classroom..
B. Apply what you have understood about Desuggestopedia. 1. Most teachers do not have control of the classroom in which they teach. This does not mean that they cannot provide an environment designed to reduce the barriers their students bring with them, however. Can you think of ways that you might do this? I can make the class more colorful; speak more confidently to make the students really trust in me and make them believe that learn is easy; use the fine arts more effectively.
2. Make a list of ten grammatical points about the target language that you would want to display on posters to encourage beginning students’ peripheral learning.
I will use a group of 3 posters each week or two: -
The first group will consist of: Verb To be (Present Form), Plural of nouns, and Genitive Case.
The second group will consist of: Imperative, Quantitatives (much, many) and one poster contrasting Personal Pronouns, Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns.
The third group will consist of: Simple Present, Verb To Have and Indefinites (some, any, no).
3.79 ANNEX 10 ACTIVITIES A. 2. In language learning you teach the language. and in the learner training you teach your student how to learn the language or another subject. It has been said about cooperative learning that it attempts to teach students to ‘think us. What do you think that this means? You must think about the learning of all the class and not only your learning. 1. State in your own words the difference between language training and learner training. and Multiple Intelligences. Cooperative Learning. not me’. body/kinesthetic - Cooperative tasks: bodily/Kinesthetic Goal setting: intrapersonal Map reading: visual/spatial TPR: body/kinesthetic Surveying students’ likes and dislikes: interpersonal . There is one intelligence for each: - Listening to lectures: verbal/linguistic Tapping out the stress patterns of sentences: musical/rhythmic. Check you understanding of Learning Strategy Training. the subject. The success of you classmate will be part of you success. Categorize each of the following seven activity types into the type of intelligence it likely taps.
Goodman (1998) has written that ‘one essential tenet of cooperative learning is the notion that any exercise. miming. 2. Visual/Spatial: coloring. After a little explanation about who he was. they choose the book the Taming of Shrew to read. How could you have reformulated it in such a way as to be consistent with cooperative learning principles? My students were learning about Shakespeare. Alternatively. - In class they will have to tell the entire story without knowing nothing else than her or his own part of the text. using flashcards. Verbal/Linguistic: storytelling. and Multiple Intelligences. choral speaking. the main books. Cooperative Learning. or objective… may be reformulated into a cooperative experience’ (p.80 - Graphing the results: logical/mathematical A. predicting. course material. 1. Try to determine which intelligences they work on. following recipes. Bodily/Kinesthetic: acting out as in a role-play. If there are intelligences that are no included in your list. 6). Apply what you have understood about learning Strategy Training. the main movies made inspired on his books. with this in mind. Make a list of your commonly used language teaching activities. think back to a recent exercise you asked your language students to do. consider adding activities which work on the missing intelligence(s) to your repertoire. the process of writing. - If they could tell the story they will watch the movie “10 thing I hate about you’. Logical/Mathematical: playing logic games as detective. work with maps. Following the principles of the Cooperative Learning I could change the activity like that: - I would divide the book into parts and give one part to each student who will be supposed to read it at home. . changing room arrangement. I asked to read the book and to make a critical summary about it individually. see if you can change the way you do the activities to include it/them.
ANNEX 11 ACTIVITIES A. Why do we say that communication is a process? What does it mean to negotiate meaning? . 2. Rhythmic patterns playing background music. Choose one of the activities in the lesson we observed and say whether or not these features are present. Intrapersonal: self-reflection. autobiographies. interviewing. - Information gap exist when one person knows what another person doesn’t know. choice. and feedback. Explain in your own words Morrow’s three features of communication: information gap. Feedback is the evaluation if your purpose has been achieved based on the information you receive from your listener. Check your understanding of Communicative Language Teaching. Interpersonal: study group. discussing.81 Musical: singing a song. 1. Choice is the possibility to choose what say and how say it. prepare journals.
I would like you to meet Paula. Advanced class: Allow me to introduce Paula. meet Paula. meet Paula. Which would you teach to a beginning class. Let me present Paula to you. for who/whom and where. an advanced class? Why? List linguistics forms you can use for the function of inviting. What does it mean to say that the linguistic forms a speaker uses should be appropriate to the social context? You have to choose what to say. . Roger. you might say: Roger. this is (my friend) Paula. an intermediate class. Apply what you have understood about CLT. The listener will demonstrate through question or expressions if he or she understands what you are saying. Which would you teach to beginners? To intermediates? To an advanced class? Beginning class: Roger. Roger. 3.82 When you are speaking to somebody. 1. You need to choose what you will say based on the social rules. this is (my friend) Paula. In other words. If you wanted to introduce your friend Paula to roger. when. Intermediate class: I would like you to meet Paula. there are a variety of forms for this one function. you receive immediate feedback from the listener on whether or not you have communicated. Let me present Paula to you. B. Allow me to introduce Paula.
83 I decided divide like that based on the difficulty of the grammar point. - Beginning class: Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Let’s go to the movies tonight. These are the timetable of the Face West Fitness. The students work in pairs. And in the beginning class I think it is important to show students more than one form to say the same thing. 2. each one receives one timetable and they are supposed to fill out the information missing. Imagine that you are working with your students on the function of requesting information. . Design a communicative game or problem-solving task in which the timetable is used to give your students practice in requesting information. The authentic material you have selected is a railroad timetable. Each one has some different information missing. Why don’t we go to the movies tonight? - Intermediate class: How would you like to go to the movies tonight? How about going to the movies tonight? - Advanced class: Do you feel like going to the movies tonight? I wonder if you want to go to the movies tonight.
Try to choose the better exercise for Meg. so she called the Face West Fitness to try to find what exercise she can do. One student will be Meg and the other student will be the gym’s receptionist that answers the phone. Meg needs to make exercises but she is pregnant. She has only 30 Euros. Plan a role play to work on the same function as in Exercise 2.85 3. .
86 ANNEX 12 Universida LETB28 – Profa. Man .
87 It is a s COM knowledge identify a p .
88 Approach Function Learner-c of functiona Focus on Interactio .
89 Design CBT is d The focus m Eight key to what they .
90 C Procedur Gramma How fram .
91 Stages of At Step 1: Y At Step 3: At Step 2: Y Competen .
Focus on application There are Critics tex 6.92 5. Use reach comp .
aumentar o vocabulário com o conhecimento de palavras novas. B . METODOLOGIA: A . COMPETÊNCIAS E HABILIDADES: .Atividade inicial: interpretação de texto com aula expositiva.93 ANNEX 13 Lesson Plan 1 Disciplina: Língua Inglesa Tema da Aula: Afixos Série: 8ª série / 9º ano OBJETIVOS: .reconhecer palavras novas através da adição de prefixos e sufixos. .Atividade de desenvolvimento: aplicação de exercícios. .levar os alunos a reconhecer a formação de palavras através dos afixos (sufixos e prefixos).
cobrir – descobrir. chocolates. quadro. exercícios. moral – imoral. regular - O professor deverá dizer aos alunos que é possível formar novas palavras apenas com a adição de algumas letras. o aluno possivelmente dirá infeliz. por exemplo: feliz. nacional – internacional. piloto. possível – impossível.Atividade de avaliação: game e exercícios para casa. RECURSOS UTILIZADOS: handout. . determinado – indeterminado. – irregular. • - Reading: 20 minutos Pedir aos alunos que leiam o texto abaixo e observem as palavras que estão em negrito. legal – ilegal. O professor deverá dizer palavras que possibilitem a formação de outras com prefixo. salientando que isso é um dos processos de formação de palavras. concentrado – desconcentrado.94 C . CRONOGRAMA: 2 aulas de 50 minutos 1ª aula: • - Warm-up: 10 min Pedir aos alunos que falem palavras que tenham o significado contrário da que for dita pelo professor.
Exercise: 10 minutos Pedir aos alunos que respondam as questões 1 e 2 do exercício 1. Escrever as palavras no quadro e pedir que eles identifiquem os sufixos ou prefixos e a raiz de cada palavra. Pedir que respondam todas as questões do exercício 1 e 2 em casa para correção e discussão em sala.95 Summer Suit Magazine. February 2010. Com o auxílio e leitura do hand-out mostrar os prefixos mais comuns. Salientar para os alunos que o conhecimento de como as palavras podem ser transformadas auxilia na interpretação de um texto e a ampliação do vocabulário. com as próprias palavras. Distribuir o hand-out. • • - Discussion: 10 minutos Pedir a eles que definam então o que são prefixos. • Colocar em discussão as seguintes perguntas: - Qual o tipo de texto? Qual é a fonte desse texto? Sobre o que o texto trata? Sobre que tipo de tatuagem o texto fala? Como deve ser aplicada a tatuagem lavável? Você tem alguma tatuagem? Você colocaria uma tatuagem permanente? E uma lavável? O que você pensa a respeito das pessoas que tem tatuagem? Depois da discussão sobre o texto. chamar a atenção dos alunos para as palavras grifadas perguntando o que elas tem em comum. • - .
im-. alterando o seu significado para formar uma nova palavra.: feliz + mente = felizmente Leal + dade = lealdade Prefixos Os prefixos mais comuns que dão sentido contrário ou negativo são: dis-. de-. Eles têm a capacidade de alterar o significado das palavras e até mesmo mudar a sua classe gramatical.: des + fazer = desfazer i + mora = imoral O sufixo é uma palavra acrescentada no final da raiz. Un + able = unable (incapaz) Un + successful = unsuccessful (mal sucedido) In + different = indifferent (indiferente) Il + logical = illogical (ilógico) Im + movable = immovable (imóvel) Ir + relevant = irrelevant (irrelevante) Dis + honest = dishonest (desonesto) Non + scientific = non-scientific (não científico) Outros prefixos importantes são: . un-. O que são prefixos e sufixos? O prefixo é um elemento que se agrega ao radical. non-.96 Hand-out Affixes: Prefixes and Suffixes Uma ótima forma de expandir o vocabulário de Inglês é através da utilização de prefixos e sufixos. Ex. in-. ir-. il-. Ex.
para significar uma habilidade ou competência. Ex.: under + developed = underdeveloped (desenvolvido de modo insuficiente) • Over-: expressa a idéia de ‘excesso’. ou ainda todas as pessoas de um grupo especial: Ship: member = membership Champion .: over + charge = overcharge (excesso de carga) Sufixos • Verbos ou substantivos transforma-se em adjetivo - able (possível): to drink (verbo) = drinkable (bebível.: mis + spell = misspell (escrever mal) • Under-: expressa a idéia de ‘de modo insuficiente’.97 • Mis-: expressa a idéia de ‘fazer mal’. possível de beber) less (sem): Hope (substantivo) = hopeless (sem esperança) full (com muito): Hope (substantivo) = hopefull ( com muita esperança) • Adjetivos transforma-se em substantivos Ness: Sad = sadness Ty: Formal = formality Ance: elegant = elegance Ence: differente = diference Cy: frequent = frequency • Substantivo forma substantivo feminino Ess: actor = actress • Substantivo forma substantivo designando um estado especial ou um período na vida de alguém: Hood: child = childhood • Substantivo forma substantivo abstrato para designar uma posição. Ex. Ex.championship • Sufixos que formam substantivos: .
Instruct + or = instructor. (PUC – Rio 2002) in ‘misrepresentative’ (‘The ratings of children watching the adult- oriented shows may be misrepresentative of what children are really watching and may represent what their parents are watching instead.’) the prefix mis. This spirit inevitably invests the Internet with transcendent significance … We suffer from historical amnesia. -tion. (PUC – Rio 2007) Mark the only item where the preffix ‘un-‘ cannot be added to form a word a with the opposite Idea. • Formam advérbios: -ly (equivale a –mente em português). Seguem-se noções expressas por prefixos. everything is the newest New Thing or the biggest Big Thing. e) Missionary. c) Impaired d) Affected e) Masked. d) Misunderstanding. dois – repetição – posterioridade – de forma ruim . -ment: estado. b) Increased.: loud + ly = loudly Exercício 1 – Prefixos 1. 2.vários .98 .has the same meaning as in: a) Miserable.-er. b) Mistress. 3. a) Clear. -or. (PUC – Rio 2001) In line 1 (‘In our self-absorbed age. ação: explore = exploration . Ex. ‘self-absorbed’ means: a) Materialistic b) Revolutionary c) Self-admiring d) Competitive e) Self-conscious.-ation.’). Gang + ster = gangster . -ion.-ese: nacionalidade: China = chinese. Negação ou oposição – a favor – entre dois ou mais – novo – anterioridade – imitação – metade – próprio – contra – duas vezes. -ster: aquele que faz ação: drive = driver. Correlacione-as com os prefixos sublinhados nas palavras. -eer. 4. c) Miscellaneous.
Estude o sentido dos prefixos do quadro abaixo. She should see the bright side of life instead. complete as frases derivadas dos vocábulos em destaque.99 a) Unexpected: b) Pseudo-intellectual: c) Post-graduated: d) Pro-abortion: e) Interaction: f) Dislike: g) Predestination: h) Bilingual: i) Antinuclear: j) Autobiographic: k) Inanimate: l) Semi-tropical: m) Non-smoker: n) Multi-racial: o) Re-evaluate: 5. (behavior) b) Mrs. Dinah __________________ your future for five dollars. (pity) . Em seguida. a) His _______________________ eventually led to him being expelled from school. (tell) c) She often refers to her life in a spirit of _________________.
Prefixos . (estimate) Exercício 2 . You would be surprised at how creative he can be. (use) e) Do not _____________________ Bill.100 d) The _____________________ of antibiotics is a great worry in medicine as it is responsible for bacterial resistance.
O exercício de revisão será corrigido pelo professor.101 2ª aula • - Warm-up: 10 minutos Utilizar o piloto como instrumento para o game. • Correção dos exercícios: 10 minutos Pedir voluntários para dar a resposta correta dos exercícios e explicar o porquê daquela resposta. enquanto isso os alunos passarão o piloto entre si. com as próprias palavras. • Exercícios: 15 minutos - Pedir que os alunos respondam o exercício 3 e o exercício de revisão. • Discussion: 15 minutos - Pedir aos alunos que definam sufixos. . Com o auxílio e leitura do hand-out mostrar os sufixos mais comuns e como é possível formar novas palavras através da adição dos sufixos. - Exercício 3 – Sufixos 1. os alunos que restarem no final receberão um chocolate. quando o professor parar a música ele dirá um prefixo e o aluno deverá dizer uma palavra com esse sufixo. O aluno que errar sai da brincadeira. de forma dedutiva. O professor irá tocar uma música. Os alunos deverão trocar o exercício 3 entre si para que um corrija o do outro. Qual o sufixo mais adequado para as palavras nas frases abaixo? a) Janet is __________________ (response) for the whole Department. b) The cave is only __________________ (access) by boat.
102 c) Worker at nuclear plants are ___________________ (constant) screened to avoid exceeding the maximum _____________________ (permit) levels of radiation. 5. 2. 1. 6. 5 d) 3. 2 e) 3. 4. c) A condition present at birth. d) Many politicians’ activities cannot be morally ___________________ (defend) e) The __________ of the hi-jacked plane is still uncertain. 3. 1. 6. 4 4. Marque cada palavra na coluna da esquerda com a definição da coluna da direita. 6. 4. a) ‘MAN WINS RENOWN UNDER PSEUDONYM’ Is the man famous now? __________ Do most people know the man’s real name? __________ . 3. 2 b) 4. A congenital condition is: a) A necessary condition. 6. 4. 5. 6. 5 c) 1. Leia as manchetes de jornal e responda as perguntas. 2. 1. Então escolha a alternativa que tem a sequência correta: a) 5. 2. 1. 3. b) A doubtful condition. (destine) 2. 3.
There were only a __________________ of people at the match. He didn't pass his exam. This word is very difficult to spell. Some of the shanty towns are dreadfully __________________ . and even worse. The team that he supported were able to win the__________________ . (comfort) 2. You will have to use prefixes and/or suffixes. 1. He was acting in a very __________________ way. He wants to be a __________________ when he grows up.Exercises • Put the word in brackets into the correct form. DEPARTMENT HEAD CUTS BILINGUAL PROGRAMS’ Did the department head consul others? __________ Will there be more education in two languages? __________ Exercício de revisão Prefixes & suffixes worksheet . There is a very high __________________ that they will be late. (mathematics) 13. (crowd) 9. He was __________________ for the second time. (green) 3. You need to be a highly trained ___-_____________ to understand this report. There was a __________________ light coming from the window.103 b) ‘USE OF BIODEGRADABLE CARTONS SHOWN TO BE BENEFICIAL TO COMPANIES’ Can the cartons be broken down by natural processes? __________ Does the use of cartons harm the companies? __________ c) ‘IN UNILATERAL DECISION. (likely) 11. (weak) 12. You shouldn't have done that! It was very __________________ of you. (hand) . (economy) 14. (child) 4. He was sitting __________________ in his seat on the train. (succeed) 8. it's __________________. (champion) 10. (pronounce) 6. (think) 7. I couldn't find any __________________ in his theory.
(consider) 21. (tranquil) 19. I told him my plan but he wasn't very __________________ . (practice) 24. (receive) 28. I think that you should _________________. (economy) 25. Failing her driving test was a great __________________ to her. (sleep) 16. (false) 18. She arrived late at work because she had__________________ . It may not be the best thing to do. (reflect) 27. It is very __________________ to run air-conditioning with the door open. I try not to go to the supermarket at 5pm because it's __________________. She had no __________________ of going to see him. (wide) 17. There was a three-hour __________________ because of the strike. (appoint) . (familiar) 30. He needed to __________________ the temperature. so they had to __________________ it. They had to __________________ the lion before they could catch it. She looked at her __________________ in the mirror. (intend) 29. (arrive) 26. organization and revision to learn English. He was accused of __________________ documents. (stop) 22. He spent half an hour __________________ himself with the building.104 15. (regular) 20. You need a ________of motivation. His __________________ has been expected for the last half an hour.(combine) 23. The road was too narrow.
1 lesson of 1 hour Warm up • The teacher writes the word 'Stereotype' on the board and asks students what the word means.. blackboard. "All Americans." or something similar. If students are unsure..105 ANNEX 14 Lesson Plan 2 Skill lesson Skill: Speaking Level: Intermediate + Aim: A discussion where students talk about stereotypes. marker. the teacher must help them by asking to finish the phrase. Materials: hand-out. .
Ask them to explain why. Discussion • The teacher asks ask students why stereotyping can be often bad and which stereotypes of their own country or region they do not like. American: British: French: Japanese: • • • • punctual tolerant romantic respectful • • • • outgoing nationalistic well-dressed humorous • • • • hospitable talkative sociable serious • • • • aggressive polite rude arrogant . They are supposed to have in mind what people from another country think about Brazilian people. the teacher asks them to mention a few of the stereotypes about Brazil. The teacher goes through the sheets asking different students to explain their reasoning for the adjectives they have chosen.106 • Once students have understood the concept of what a stereotype is. OR Brazilians make party all the time. They will need to explain their reasons for the adjectives provided. Example: Brazilians do not like working. Activity • The teacher will divide the students in pairs and give a hand-out. Hand-out Stereotypes Choose two adjectives that you think describe the nationalities listed below. Include a few provocative stereotypes of your own at this point in order to get students thinking about the negative aspects of thinking in stereotypes. Choose two countries of your own to describe. The teacher asks other students whether they agree or disagree to promote conversation. They are supposed to choose two of the listed adjectives to describe each nationality.
107 • • hard-working emotional • • lazy sophisticated • • quiet formal • • ignorant casual .
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