.~ Synct'1rQnOL.llS MQhJw-Gerlerol J>- Princlpl.~ of Operotior'!

)00- Metillod of Si'(utlng

> MOTor on tooc with Go nstont Ex.cih:tf~otl

~ ~n~'~~Dn!~i~oto;lItil~f1 a M CYI-\OR

»IEquh!'alelrr~ CirclJ~r of a SyncilrOIlOLl!S, Motor

>- P'o\iller Developed by o Synclhrofiou8, Motor

~ S)mchronolJs Mo·tor with ICHn'®ren1 E~clh')Mlons

>- Wed otlncrecsed ILOQd wi'lih ConsI<Ol!It Excikrbiotl!

>- E11fecta:~ ChaFilg~ng I2xC~il'(lUcl<n of Gons1uni Load

>- Dlffer@nt Torqu®,s of (ll Syr!chrof'lolls.MotQr

>- Power Deve~Qped I:)y a Sy~chronous. Motor

»- A~Je'rnobive hp ression 'for

PO'W'®T De'Vs'lolPiJEid

]110. Variolls Conditfonl$ of MaxlnlliCl > &Jimil!mt POi@'Synchronousltvlofclt :to- Power Dev~ioped by 0 Sa liE1nt

Pole SYnlChrQflOUE MQtor

>- Effects of Exclrtatlol!ll on Armorh"lIr<;) Cl.lnerilt end Power Faidor

~ Constalt1t-Pow~1' lJIr1e~;

> Construction of V-ctJwes

,... Hun~ingor S~rgir:Jg or Phase

$v;ii n.gir1Q --

>- Me'hhodls of Starting:

~. PrOCl!,il.dLH'l9h::1f Stmtllfilg a S'ynclhr,(j nous Motm

>- CompClIiI$"!Qr1b~tw'een Synchronous and Indlucilion Motors

> SyncihrQ:nolJ$ Motor







... Rotary synchi"iono I.nS meter for lift @pp ~,i catli@i1S


A s)'i:lchmmms motor CF~g, 38.] I ~,S t:: ]eclrk.i.Hy id~flli,cal W uh an allenlHJor Or a.c, ge ne rn:lTIr, :~n fac t, fL g L veil sY,IJc]rn:rnflOlis wfic.hi ae l:tltlY be used, ~H le8~l 'rlh:ilJn.:tiC:3J~j .a3 fin tIJll(,l:mlJ:liO~. when tlr.'''t~mI Il'FCd'!l!ln.icaU), Cit u~ a motnr, whenl drive!'l ~~ec'lrit:'<!ny. just as In 'tJl~ cese of d.c, rnaehjnes Mo~t .sYiflchlf1U1JUlHi i uoturs ere rated between ~.50kW alid ] 5 MW and run :!I~: speeds n:uJ1ging fmm T50 In I soo r.p.rn,

Some ehsraeterisrie feamres of 11 . synehrenous rnO'ior are wonlm not~I1g : 1. II trlj,liI~ d~l,l!:r m symlir:hrnnnus $pi:,t::d [n n:Jot a~ all i.e. ""!ih~.~'i: Hlmll ifi~,g it 11.~;i.Li nwins a constam speed, The f:!nly w"Y In Ichi1j]geu~s, speed is to vary lhe supply fmq,'lleM.cy (be:cliliJ£e Ns '" I2t1j! ("').

,2. hi:srmli1:'llh~J'l;fill.ly ~cl r,:Sl<llfltng. h h as to be run upto 6 ym: h mnO~1 ~ (or nc jlli ,~y m::hmHu IoJI ~) liipt'!l:d by some rnel1[1S, bef~ ~n~ it Clll1l. be sYi:lchrori i,zctl lorrl1 e :supply.

J. It is C<I pihle oflDei Img. OI]JeT.1 ted LH'!,d er ,~I widcrongc of power fac~_or!i, both lag,ghilg mlid h:mdi:llg. :1:11:~I1C(:. it can be used fur ~~"'ei correetion pl~oses, ~111 .i1l~[Ji.~ ~:icm m slllppl,y.ing torque (t! drive loads,

3B.2. Prin ci~fe of Operatlon

As ~l1owll in An. 34.1,wlilen a 3",lP ~",i:!Lld~[Ig 18, fed by u ]-~ supply. then :I :linaIllll!l1C nUl; or eenstam m:Jgllli'[lfJde bm rnl'lltiQg: Itt S~IDCMJIlOlli S,~()e1. is ]:FJrOduccd. Co]]si,dier !J t~!vo--pole stator of

Jig. 382, ttl ... vl~ i [:n a:~i;l

show M two 81~~Qrpol;!ils (milrbiil N s and Ss) n~hl,L1J1]g IU syn,eh.rolJJra'U:s speed, S Ii)'. i:n e !ockw~~(l dill16Clio[!_Wil:b tile mW .. p~nllJiJoliil as shown. suppose Un: .~[t.a~.{lr ~;d j;l:S a_no, III tl-mt i n.'ilanl S"lttI!b'Ited til ]Xl,nm:s it ,1111 do.l1. Thetwo slmila r Pfl les, Ai (of rotor) ,~[iild Ns fof ,~~atrrl'j, aswell as Sand Ss wiJ~ repel eaeh other, with the result that illc retur [I: nd ~ ! n mW~L> in the ant lclockwsse



Ij;:ig. JE!.l


BIll ,lud'l 9: period.Iaier, 'itlltor ~Ij les, having r tated 'IWlJlld. interchange their p050lioll i.e. Ns.is at Jll'CI jill!. S' and Ss:rn1 poim A. Under these eondi Li. ms, N s aU racts and S s attracts N H nce, !iOIOr tends to rot.flite eloekw iSI1I (l.'.'ln ieh ]3, just the reverse uf [he fi rst d irectionj, Hence, we f nd that due to OOlt1 rlnuous andrapid rotation of SEnIOr polCll, the rotor i sll.bjeoted to a. HllrqUe whi 'h is rapsdl ii(:versDl1g Le., in qllick successlon.the rotor is ubjeCI.erl.llo torque which tends I move i~ first in one direetiort and nllen ion the opposite directien, Owing to its hu ... e inertia, tile rotor cannot cnslfLr.l,tanC'musly lTB..~roflt;l 'to sucls quickly-reversing ~Clrql,le, WLJI:I the result [~:mtiL remains statlonery,

Fig. 38.2

Fig. 38.::!

Fi~. S8.3

Now. consider tbe condition shown in Fig, 38.3 Ga)- Tile sl:ah r <1[10[1 rotor poles are aura uing each other. Suppose 1h.1I ih e rotor is M! stat i on.IIY, boris ruurti I"Ig cia kv.ri se, \vith ! .. uch OJ • peed til I it hi m:. tbnmgl~ ODe pole- pi tch hy rhe Li me the .!>llliLOt poles interchange lI:u::ir posi-hens, as shown in H . 38.3 j}J). Here, again [He stator and rotor poles attract each other, it means that if the rotor pol es al so shi rt the - r pas it ions along wi th the stator pules, Ihell they will COIl.rineously experience u L1.IilDdjn~e~ional torque i.e '. clockwi c [Q'rq~w, as 'l1owu irrFig, 3!:U.

38.3. Methoo of Starting

The r.olor (which is as yet 1I11L:'Xcited) is. speeded u.p 1.0 vuchrcnous Illlea)" synchrotrous s,pee.d. by SOTi!1e arangerncnt and then excited by the: d .c, SOUl:::e, 111.C: moment !lris( near) :o;,ynchrmmusl ~'l"Owli.fL,g rotor is cXccired,i.l is magnetically locked intn pcsltioe "villi the st<llor I_ ., the rotor

poles are engaged with the suuor p ~es and both run s:}'nt::hroil'OL!l~ly in the same dlrecuon. Il L~ because ohl:lis i!1 oc:rft)cking o f' rator and I tor poles I hill [he motor h& i::olbcr [0 run Nyrac:nm nously or not at tll, he s}I'idU'om1u.s speed ts giv .1iI by the 'lI ill.rill I" ;1 !tionNs"'" 12011 P.

The rotor and Il'u~ stator parts or molor,

How ever. II; is i mp0r!um to lIIiD(terl>[McI Lilim tbe i1f"'LIl,gem~ftl bN WCt.:Jl the ~laE!O'j' and :rotor poles :i~. fUJI an afualWi'lj' rigid onii' . As Ilhe lead Oil [h e mo~O'r i s increased. me rotor progressi velyteads ~.ofll]] back 'in phtl£.tr (but mn'i,[1 ~pc"Cdi ,11:5 i:[l. d.c; m[!~(~r:;:) by ~utIh:: ;m,g~e rF~K. 31'!.4l h.u it .~tll1 ~(mtinl'l'.\' ((J nif! S]nd.lffll.ltm.dy.Tli1e' '1:3111'3 or [his :l~ad OIng'h:: or cOlllpling O!JIIg~e t.ai~ i~ is. called] depelJd~~ on the alllOUm of iO(j,d~!o be met by the motor. In Ol:b:~~ words, (be w",!]i]~ developed by Ijle n LOlo.r dcpe nds 0[1

ti11LS aing I!:. $.a),. (ii. _


~1> II r!




II .,J I .. 'J_ _

ui!:lh! Loml I fJ: SmaIl I

I Ns I

I 1 I 1 I 1-

~, J I ~l II



H~iV~ Lmi!l I 11. L~rl'~l



The worki ifliJl lIIf a liy~lc.Jl!mnpU~ motor is, in mml)' W:lyN, ~tnlU,ur tel th~ tr:llm_'illJJinit i'rI u r 1·IJ!.CCi13fitC.:iI. power by 01" shaf~. ~f1 fig. 38.3 are shown lWQ plIUey ... P nnd Qlr.ms;rnittillig ~;mweJ!' from the drive.r IJo the load, The 'lvro pu~lC'ys &it:' IISsiJml;d to be· kl:y,ctllogetliiJt:r Oust:!:!o ~1Jr~m: ,a.:td rottlr ])O11:l> an: i.I'I.~rlodceJ~ hence lJ:u;:y runat e~[It;Uy the same (average) speed. \VlMen IQ is iO<lded., i~ siigJHJy f;l~hi. behind owing to lne' ~''\I,ri.'i~ i n ~he sha'fl (t:wi.lll :lflg ~e eurresponds [0 q hi rnolor),. the OlI:ngt~ flif ~wist. in fact, bel [I g <I rn e,,~ure 0 f the lon:lue ~TMSm]ued" It 18 clear (hm Ilrl~ ess Q US S{I Ilea;", ~ly loaded asto breJk the cOllpLiIrlg,. both! puIl~_'fo~ UUJ!iI ..-un Wi ~J(udlJ U1l' :lamE' i lJ 1'W'B~t' JI !ptt:.d •.

38.4. Motor enl LoadwHh Constant IEx.citatiol"l

Before oU1!t$ideting as ~o Wl:cl'l~~ g,008 {1!l1 ~1I!~ide a ~ ynchroN.ou~ m_,(1tot,.i ~ .~~ wott:lw,ll]ul;~ t.nrnkr briefly tcthe (L~. meters, We Imve seen U\1'L. 29.J)(~~;m whelYl :;! d.c, motor is rLH11!tUllg 011 a . .snpply of. ~ily. ~I volts rn~n.on ro~HI.irng, a hack E"m_[ Flo is J!('!:L up i~ uti: 3:m1JrlUlru C{jJndUClll:n._ The resu~Ui.[!t vohnge acrnssthearmcsureis (V - ,E'~} ;Jm] 1:1 C.a.lJL~~ fin :1mllJilU!1l~ curren ~'(~ za (V - E.,V !l:f( 1:0 now whl1:m RfJis ·1If1i!]:JWroe circuit resisraace. TIle value. of EIJ de]Xl11 ds, arnol!'l£ oll!er Jj'm,ctors, on the speed of the rotflli.~):g ~lim~hlre. The meehanical powc::r c1cve]np~d if! armaturedepends on !::.'h It! (t.'11 aad Ifj being ~n ~p;PQsiilil!l!!li'[) ~h oUle,)_


IFUg.38J6 Flg.3!l1 Fig. aUI

Simi]:t~ly. in [I syn:dllronOUStlM'ldwille. a back e.rn.f, Eb is set Lip in !11.e armsrure ~st.'l!tor) byul.e rotor nux which {l)iPposc~ rhe OipplicUi \'oiItl.,ge lV.This huck e.m.f. dcpe~d,~ n~~ !'m'Of ~xc~ta~im~ (lnl~v fmtcl nul [}I'] s'p~ed, U:.~ in d,c, motors). The net voltage iJili :JlrllTIi<ltt1!I'C (stater) is IJ1C ~Il'd,"· diJ1r:",~m~l' fmn arulhm~~ic.d, ~L~ in d,c. mO!ors.) of V nad Eli' Anm.llLII'tl ClU.Vl!:Il'1. is obtained by dividin1Jil [his w:'c.ror JiJfe[,Crl.L:'t: of \'n!t:Jgcs by :Jnn:Irtl!;I~~ im~OIince {no~ !ie8i~lIIm:e ~~ in d .. c, machlnesj.

Fig. :3 8.6 s hows L~1e condi rion when [he mOI.orpropcrly synehrcnized au L1ll::ulpply) is: !:llf!llIing om ,w-tumJ. ::iodlnal'lIUJlioJ.!;i(tJ_ f- and is having fIeld exriratlcn whl h makes i b"'- V, It is een Ill, t vector 'fJel1fln e of, b d ~J i~ zer and so il I.he armsmrc lIl'rem .. M

wire is 7..en"},:1_ there i~l1ei!:tle:r'lna,d norlosses tD [I.e met by it. ln other words. lile m tor just noons,


If IHOhJl' is on no-load. bur i ~ h as losses. then the VCt:'[Ou for ch, falJs back: vectors are rotating anti-clockwise) hy a certain small angle 0:. (Fig, 38, n '0 that a resultant yohag_e E[I and hence current 1" is brought lnto e~ istence, which supplies IO~~Ci;_*'"

IJ. nuw, the motor j loaded, l1len. its if tor will further fall hack inpltm-e bJ a greater value of angle a - I..YiLl.ed the I ad angle!" c up1'ing angle con s;p llding In the twist in tim hafL of uile pulley " Tin resultam. voltage E8.' i inercused adld rnut r draws an increased rmamre current Fig. 3~L?), Li'iUlI.~~] III a'~igluly decreased power factor.

38,.5 .. P'ower ~Iow within a Synchronous, Motor

JL.el Ru '" nrmeture re~isl1!m::t.1 pn:;lse ~ X, - KY'II'JCn;ronous n.l·lI~·~;a.iil;t'le I !. hase


m •• "" i:-::: z h.; Obviou ]y., V "",Eb -I- ID Zs

~, ;'il


z = s

The :l!l1gl.e a H:.llown. internal angle)! by whi h 1'1 Iaas behind F;'{ is giv,en hy tan A '" X lit".

URIs negligible. then IJ = 90P• Moterinput = V 1" cos ijl -perph,a.~~

Here, V is applied voltage ! phase.

Tu'l;:i11 i.rnpuL lOt a star-coaneeted. 3-,!l,b;'lS~ machme 38, P = ·,ji F~, _ lo£. C!l::IS $. TIm.1.: Ii[IOCh1:Ulli.c£L1 power developed in the rotcris

Pm =. back c.m.L .~. armarure current x eosine of (he :a_f\gle ~eltw~ell'J the [WD i.e., angle behveen If' and E& reversed ..

"'- f. b I;, cos ui -.if! p~r phase .. - F]:g ..lj 8_M

Out uf [his ,p wer developed, some would co to' me t iron !lind friction. and excitation losses, Hence, lhe power available at the shall would be less than the developed power by tbis ~uIllOUIU.

Out fth itlPUllJ' w. r /phase V.r" ,t.:)S ',and amount 1,;'1 t?'J is wasted la.armaun $**, the 'rm<~ 11_ I., eos ill - 1,,- R., l eppea as mechanical power in rotor: O~L£ ·pf i~. iron, Iji, liun and excitation losses ,~lr.e- mer and Iheresl L::-' available al the shaft II' power m~m! phase of li1emoLor i. P, thea

1 _ ,P ;;;;;;; PMl, ·IQ"'i~':J .~

or mechanical power in 'li1J't~rf"m ;;;;; P -1" ~ R" -----per phase

.~~OI! threephases Pm '" J3. Vi. 11. co~$ - J l} R"

The per phase power development in 3 synchron US machine is us under :

This tlgLII~ is e. I] II IJk~ Fig_ 37,74. for ahcrnaror cept that itl a~ iJ '!I u'hmrn hlJriz.on~ II;,' rather than

\'e!1i~Jd 11i'-

... [1 i~ w rtll noting that magnirude o( E~ does not ('hange. Illy its phtll~c c:hmij,1';S. Til ,mHgilirude will change [m'ly wlle.n .mm.r de exeltation is changed i_r! .• when mngneuc strengtb 0.[ !,(lilOr D' 'I~~ is changed_

"'III Tile ell I ()~~ i III WOOL' h not me. ily motor .:Ie D:IJJpllt_ blllb)' the de source LlSOO [or rotor excitarion.

:r~'\'~hW il!~pUUrd~U~il!1 flt']l[m' p "", V"/~ cok ~

M;e·cht:iJil kal p~wer i'l;) arm al1'll re ,pril = 1.::'/'1 J~ cos (0; - ¢ll

.------- -- ~

,~ffi![l. e :>lCil1!itUOll & fricuul;) .~~)~~t:s Ou,tptU jJu:we'li P ~~t




N~l ME!:'h~n,!=~ ]j';}wcr {)Ll1j1U~ :Il RI).1oc Slkrlf!.

R g. .3 3 ,.IJ ta' shows [he eq III i \' alent circuit mede] for une armamre phase of a c}' I isdrical eoter ... y U~ChHm(ltl s motor,

h i,~ ~~C'1'l rrom Fig. 3~_9 {bl U\,~t WlC, rh:J\iltl applie.d vCl~wge 'V ~s ~hL:l V!:lc:lUr ~LHlll Llr reversed back e.rn.f, i.e' .• -EI, and the im,ped:m"e drop J",Z!l~ i,ll utllt:ii wonl~, V;;;;;; ~-E'~ +lQ.z~. '[11~ ,mgtt: a:·lletween ~h~ rli1&~~r for V Mid (if) is ,c3]I~ed the IOEld ~ngle or pcwc:r angle of lin: synchroncus motor.

, ,..-



:3 8.7. Power Developed by IiJ SyllCh renous M afar

Except for very small machines. I[hl:' LH1i:rUHUru msi,~w!:lCC ur a syru:,hroni.Ju~ meter i,s, n~gligib.k as compared to it:>, synchronous reactance. H!..:ncIC, lhL:: equi\'.J~I1L circuit for the .tIl10UU' becomes as ~hflWIl inl F~g. '18, In h! I Frcm ~he pb Si£O I" diagram of Fig. 38 W Hi), u .~ seen nfuial

/'d'l :;; Ell S.i~L a '" ;t~ x.~ ,(;~,@ $


'_I'r_ SH"II a


1l1ulor pow c:r in pullrhiL'lil:



,- -- RI,n a.


"> E~V :

= ~""j-,-' - ~~11 a


Since stater ell losses have been aeglected Pill a IS,Q represeats ~he . gross mechanical rmw,~r {P",} developed by thE:


.. , for tbree phases


F' __ 3EflY sin l("t


The gross IOJ\qtK': developed! by the motor is T, = '95.5 PM I Nl N-m _._Ns in rpm.

E.xmnplc 38.1. ,..4, 75-kW. 3-,rp, Y-oun.l'tN'ted. 50-f-h. 44()- V c,vUwlrtcall'{,,!'C'l" syl'J'clm:mmi'~ mOiWr vper:cilest.U t~led {'"omJilivn Wi!l-l 0.8 l~'f. tet.ulh~g, 1:~e, mIOw.I' !.!jfir::hmI!!'Y cKdu,din,g Jidd and naso» If)J'[i(I:;~, (8 95% and x.s= 2...5 U. Caic!li{}Ll:' ~i) fnecfuJ.nka,J lJlr1!IVer ilefii:J{)tJl!a (ii) armosure c~m¥'m oUif) iJlI,r;:l.: e.m.], (f,,} power ang.le I:JJUJ (1)'1' mtl}rimJ.~m (Jrp~~n-m,tf .ronltftf! (i.'f lfxemm.or.

SoldJUuD. l\/ s = ~ 2n x 5[)t4= 15f;KJ rpm =25 rpll

W F-J = P == P ! n, == 75 x I (Jlm.95 "" 78,950 \V

m J(J u,·~t!.

[ii) Sincepowerinput is kIJ{lWIil

-. J3 x 440 x lu x (l.S =78..950;

(iii) Applied vnluLgr:!ph3:1.<e '" 440/,[3", 154 V,. Let V "'" 254 Llf as shown in Fig, 38.11.

Now. 1/= l:.'1,+jlXsof Eb"" V-j I{fXS"'254L O~-129 L 36.9D x 25 L 90'" = ISO"!' if - 322 L 12f1,"9" = 2.54 - 322 {COS .~ 2b_ 9'" + j N~1112() ,0/') '" 254- 322 ~ - {),6 + j 0.8)1 = s I flL ......,3fr

ti\' I .. _ (t = -30Q

~ I' I pul l-out lUfqm: occurs when a '" 9(f'

E~V . " .' 256 x 516 'f'Ln'J:'l7 27~ W

3-.-, - ~Ul V = 3 ? 'ii '" Sllli:! ~u ~ L; , .. J ..

As _, ..

9.55 x 157, 21j/U 50{l= U()O N-m

'Ll1<lxi'LmJillil P171 =

., pull-GUll torque es

a,8.8,. Syneh roncnJ:S Motor with Dif'feren:~' &citmi'on5

A synchronous moror is said re have normal excitation when i~M E), '" V"~f.fleld excitation is such that E'l' -c V, the motor i.~ said to he 'HJdlJr-~xciled_ In both these conditions. H hill: a laggilllgpower fl!1dJ.)f as ~h:l:Jw[J.~n Fig. 38J.2,

On the other h OIncl,i f d.c. field excitati ml is l:luch thall E~, '> V. [hen.notD!' is said to be fU!e""f'xcited ~nd druws .a lc1idingCll![ft:nt. as shownin ig, 38, 111 (a). Tlhere will be some v",~~eor e"ciLtLt~Oo[ii for which arraamre cUrI"C111 will be in phase "Vi~~1 V. so ~h~~ power f~lctur will becume ll:iJity. as shown Lal Fig,. 38,13 (h).



Strictly speaking, ~l shoukl be P'" .'" . b_ :ii.n {l


Tha \I<ilue or tt and back e.m.[ Ell '~:JJ1 be f(1l!a~d wilhLbc hL!.\~p of veeter diagmm$ [nr "·a:ri,m.l!;, liK.r""i~r fOlC~.C!I"1'.. shown ill ~g_ 3f:l. '~4!_

£ri=\-' L..n._~!;:~I1l~ r[; (Ill

.... 1" 1':1>< V LIl,gg~~.I! PF Ib~


Ifb:> V I...llgillgPF

111 ~

£~ '> \' Unil:y'!'F d.J

IFlg. $.1:2:

i il LI~~g: p.E', As, seen from, ,I::ii;g. 38, ll4 (11)

AI,~ "" AB~"" Be "" tv -Sf! oOS ~e - !j'IH~ + ~.l!::,1i' sina. ({I- '$)]1

e, - J[v -l{! z, cos' (e - $)]2 + i 101 z, sm (Ie-~}J,:l:

E" '" \1,," (J Z:S cos IllSrr - OJ + $n"" j I,r Zs sln '[HlU"- OJ + (~)J

-1 1'1 Zf, S~r! Ii g(1' - {(1 .~ I$)]

,0; "'" Inl:l, V .~ Jill Zs COS lU'O" - Ul + iP)J

1m ~ UnUJ p.r. lFig- 38.1<11'-')1

Here, OB J ~ R~ i'lilld BC=ftj I( s

( t x . J

e, "" (V -l,~ R,,) ~ . .i l~ Xs; ,0:. '" 'tan·1 1/"': t '~

. , ~ '~

c ,




[N Flg.38 .. U

J B.'. Elleet D1I Increased ILaadiwith Constant u;cikrtiol1l

We wm, :511rdly lhceff~~. of .i:~.C'reaooelloacll OU], 1'1 s)' fi.C~J!ltow:ms motor unde r ,o(!lnd~(kms [If nO:mJ:!J. !;iJn:~6r /;l:~d nVlN-.e:,;,ci[l:lliDiiI {~gm:lli:mI,g m~ Elff~c~~ OIif arml'Jilw~re[l~Jtiij!"l)_ WiU'Q ~O"nna~ cxci~:rrt:io:n. Ei, :00: V. wi.til under ,ellJelt;n.-illul, lSI.':: \r aJ'Ii.lll.wiil, ove.r-ex.dt:a"l:iulil. E,~:> \I, 'WllilJl:e"',er~e ",,;aJ~e Qr eil>ci[an:io]U., ~,._ wauld 'b€' kq:n t't111llim1 dtui.!iI.gL'lUJr di$Dtt"'~~(Jin .. ~.~ WQI.l~e1 Id~.o !tiL: assumed 1ti111l.t. lila is ne,g:~tg~,ble as ~(l~np~Lred tn X$ so 'l]~!:I!lphOl!~e tH!g~e between 1St: ~mr;l J~, Le-. Itl_ 901',

Ii) NHnTI.o'I E.l:rig-lion

:Fig" 3liL])_ (,a) tiJU:lWS, lIile cO!ltiiliornl, 'When Imid.t'lr i10 run:flJirn..g l\, .. in1] Ughl ~.m.l~ SO'llh.l[ If I l:o.rq:ue ilIIgXe

:Synchn:l:nc uS Motor




iEA,:I' '.~


0'.; is sm .. ll Iii, ~(I El\I~ is sm l.JJ I Iii.' ~ hence 1~1 is small and (h') ~1 j~ small so milt CO" $'i is b[, e.

NO'i', 8tlppmifl tl];ii.I()~lil on the motor is int'nased ,IS ~h. \¥I'!ill f-i:i g., 3R.II,:5 {b;, For meeting this e .. traload, motor mu~l develop more torque by drawing more arm:]ltmre C'[L9lI1':!rIL Un.like II t1.c. motcu", a syuchroneus

on otor C annot i nereas c its 1" by d.ecrea~iTlgit~ speed and hence Ef, because beth are con tam in i1:5. esse, Whag ,lCI>1,IJ;lUy bIlPp~Il~ ]S as under :

Fig. 313.15

"'. ~ I i ncreascs 110

1. ower factor dec,' (I!!P.!r fr the new value co '."

4J~. SQ that


HI C.QS $1 10

J. rot r fall- back ir, pha ;'f',. loaJ Wligle increases t Cl-:! a sh wu in Pig. 38.15 (l,),

2.. the re Ill! ,mt volt .. g~ in armature is increased cnn idf'.rolJly to new value Em.,

J. ,IS a result. '~I jncreases to l",~ thereby inueaslng the torque developed hyll~e rnennr,

Si nee increase ill ,I ~is much grcaIc.r thanthe sligirr deere ase in powerfactor, [he torque developed by the moto.r is inCl'iCiUM (on Ille wJmh::~ to. a new value sufficient to meet the extraload pul nn the motor, ]L will be seen th aressentl ali)' t l i by j ncreasi ~1gi i.~ !(~ that l:hL::- llIol1tOI: i8, able to ~aJ:fy the ex rl"OJ. I aad put (]!1 ill

G811rt1lel motor a<icleEi to s.lIm:;hrnr'iOiJEl serVO - lo~'or !Ine after,;; a wld;e f('!l'Ig~ of transmlsslen IUAIDS; and drive rorques..

i!1,<V Under [!:;,,;;;:-I1.OJriwl

Filg, 3S.;16

A phase :!>urntli:!IfY of the effect of increased load on a: ' ynchmnous .ITI(ltOf al/,wrmnl XcllalD"m_ ill shnwn in '~ig. 38.16 (I!l~ ~.'L is S,Br::1l ili[,l( there is a c.omp·o.mtively much gl',eater irJCIT'Ill' in '., than in ¢l.

rin Und~~'ft:ilHHnlll

}\s shown in HI?" 38.1:6 to), w~.I.h a 5J'rlll.~X h:md and :~tnol:, ~ml:lU [.orqm: '!J1g1i: (t.L./~ i ~ags br::liil.Ld \' boY ,I lMgeplla:51e <Ingle ~I?>,Ibjchm eans poor power faeroe UnlIke ~.l()ml nl excitation, J much larger 1LlirnaHJrH UI.rr1.'it::rU lUlI]~l flmv :f[), de'l,re'I(~pin~g the same JKHl;,'(~T because of ro~"~rlflJwer r,~c'LC)r_ Th1~t i_~ why ',II of F~g, 38.] 6 ( b) is iarge, than I" I of Fig. 3l:L·~ :) (a,"

A'j, load iucreascs. E:II.~ int:lrca.~~,~ W EJr:'J;' 'I::rm~cq[lElnUJ' I.r~ ~ncre;l~es to t'~4 and p.L angli:: dr!cri'rue~ :l'irom, $1 ~o $J: or p, f. mcrl'.l.INE'.'i' !From b"~n ,lit to cos ¢I'2~ !JUl: w ~ nLreSi~t::: both in I,; and p.f.. P'O,we, gellernlled hy the arJiI]<ItlJ!r~ increases to meet. the increased toad. A~ seen, in this case, d"mg~ in ,PflIt'C1"wrUJr is more llum rlle dumgr in [Ia-

I iin Over--..cxrttation

Whi:'TI tlLlnllilng 011:1 H ~~1U ~n::td, a i: is ~ s m1!!~1 btul J.oJ.! iscompara~:i \!ely ~a!'gel' <Inc! korl~ 1" bya.lan:geu tl.lii~~f!l; $1. I ik..e the~mi~e[f" --e;o!ci~ed motor, as TIm(.llFe .h;Jitld, is i!p'Pl~t:d.~L~ptJ~"l:r !1)tc:~(]1: i.I[I,pnnf\,;:~.,!!nd aJ1Pt'lJ{ldl~f l.m.ity. The a:l',[1f.l'9m:re eurrem ,8&£0 inereuses thereby produdl1! lhe necessary i ncreascd llI:rillli!:L.un~ p>O'WC:1I to, m~~U. the inercased appI~ecl h:md Wig, 38 J. n Howev,er,it sbmllldl be ~oled UHH~ n th i ~ case, power fm; I:Or angl e '" decreases (or p. L inGm~~~'?.5) .al. ,a ~:':l:SI:l,lr nile ~11~l[na [he a,ru],8YL~1:re eurrent th e reby prod ue i ug ILh~ n~e~iliil;1ry iacreased ,power [0 meet the increased ]aiiui 3\p,['l'licd IO~J~ mmor,



Tll:L1lima:ilf! pO~nl.li mg,,,,nJ~:li!g I.he abo\'c ~IHl;lC eases cOI_n 00 S;i1llili'll~JlIl.;,'lld rI~ LIIncl'i:lT : l. As l>mid onnhe ~ll)to[ lm]c;r'~li."es.ltJ ~nc~ ~. regtmlll[5,f fJ/,f'm.l'atinn.

2. f'o.~ un,a:er-llll,d ever-excited mntnrs, p.f. ~e!l,ds lO apl'H'CIIUb unity widluncrease in load,

3. Both wi.rn. under-snd over-excitatica, c:~l.aflg:e irt p.f, is greerer t11l111 i.nl" with mcreasc in load .

.;,L With 1101."J1Iru, exchatien. when .~o{!ld is lneresseu ch1![rnlg~ ill ! .. i~ gl!\eale.f' than in p.L whuch t!:.IiiI.d1zi ttl hE:cnli:l1t: unclil1:~~~llJg~}'~I.l.ggilng"

E:!ll!m,Je 3S~ A. J.O·po.IIl., 693· V, 50·,ff:.. J.¢. ,1-conncc:re.d "~_\'Ndl"(1.'1'1)U,~ moWr is f)"[N!.m$j/lg a~ nrJ·Jm~.[J WU',I 'llJ'I:m.l1/ tt::xcli:ath:m. If lUlu 111'1U(.IJUr:C ,'I~:s,{iMl(mf'e. pIN' piiB.JIt tJj zem and ,rynd~rj']ilh'JluCS ftlac~aJlce oj f(} n:. If roio« is re.~arded b'y 0.5" (uwdumirn/' from iJS ,Ql/ldJ nlPlOU;l' pmNriolJ, comp.ute. 'I t) ruUJI" d;~plfJn!'Nl,(m ~ ill elec« r.rfNij} degltet;.~

(in arma/~lre en~t! phase'

juij (WII;Ml~aro CWTe:fiil'! pluw;

rvl pm".,!?!' dl'r(!lo[J'EiJ b:y flJlll>!ltWI:'

.1-lQU' ~t'~'U ~heg(' qll:'m:tl~'ie.f d~a.ri.i!l'(' 'wh~n mO/'(N' r.~ lO'(Jr/(!(J mj'{1ll~e "TJlfIr J.~S'plar;el!It!/JI' rllrwiur:!,f m 5" (medlallicaH f"

(El£[L J.: Iaealnes, AAUE Sec. R. [\I9JI

Sn~nHon. h:l' j US' ~ mech I msplaeernear I [Fig 38-1 ~ \0)]


(i) 0, relecr.l "" 2 x Q (moch~

(X le~ec~)

.2,U "'0'5·

._. 2: .......

(ii) Vp= VL 1J3 '" 693 rJ3 ",,400 V,

F.t> - VI' "" 400'\/ ,

E, '" (V - E) C()~ aj + i e L sin '0: = (<IDa - 400 COG 5~ + j. 400 sin sa)

M p' ~ ~

= :1,;5 + j 35 -'" 35 L 87.5 Vlphlli.5.~

(iifl z, = I) + ]1.0 '" ,W L. 90o;~ l~"" E!~ I Z,~ = 35 L 87S/lO L 9{]!'", 3,$ L -2:S Alphase Oh .... ~r~t:I ~]1 y, "'J~ags behind ~J by 2;., S"

I iv I F\l\l,'t':1 inpliliphru.t \Iv I <r ens $ = 4~)O X 3.5 X cos 2. ~D ""- 1399 W 'fon1l1 i ~lpulpuwer = 3 X ].399 "" 4197 ,,,,I

(~~ Since R~ is negHgible.arm.<'i.ture Cu hiss, isalso ncg~igih!e.HE:~~ce 4l119'7W .11$0 represent pOWI::r deve ~ rJjJB(]1 by ~.Illl"UlLre.

(bJ 5" ~ rnechl [Ji1l,phliCl'_ll'n~: - ,Fig. 38.1 S (hl'

m 0:. (elec[j;; 220 x 5" __ :50~

(ijJ E~ = {4Cm - 4()O cO·S .50"} 1"' ,l4(lO ~i,lTII, .'i~y = 143 + J 30().4 "" 338.Z L U.IF tim l.~ "" 338.1 x 04,9"1 U) L.9G" '" 33.S ,L. -25.1~ Aipha5.e

(Iv I motor pewcr/phasc ~~, .l" (jG~ $ = 4rm x 33 .8~'o~ 25.1: c = 112,244 W Total puwer =.3 x n.~44 = 36,731 W "" J6.7:1Z kW

J[ Is seen frorn above ~hm as nLQlur h)<:l.ci i,~ incIT~'ieci

1. mtrl.r dli5plac!;ll1lleni[ increases f['{ltltl 5Q (elect) W 50~' (elect) Le', Elo falls back ill phase

con siderubly,

2. EN jncreases firom 35 V to 338 V lphillsc

3. I" ~ ncreases from 3,:5 A to :n.8 A

4. ~mgk~ if' increases from L5fl ~'O 25.1" so that p.f.. atcfetlSCS from 0.999 (.lag) ~o 0,906 (lag)

5. ~ ncrease jn power ~ 5 3IJlm5,~ directly propoFliu.rlal tu inrreas~ i~ hw.J at~g!(!. Obviously. lncrense in i'![ is mHch nnnre than decrease inpower facto!'.

h ~i'\ ~n~el",e8dng to note [hat not only power bm 'L:VC[J, [", E~I a~ld $' ~lsohl!:;rell!se ~1:!Hf)i'it Il!$ H1,~~ny rimes as 0':"

Speclal Jllm;tJ"'.llh'e 1~l\lllmr~lil 38.] Case of Cytlrulrl ... eal RolBr ~fucWn.e :

.1'11. 3 ·PJUJM! l;.'Ym;h..ron()u~' machir:.e is worked as j'olIOHts.,· Ge~r.f!!;l"lNo.~" • flwae "'4:00 VlPiJ, 12 AfPIi.

Ut~Uy pi X" '" 10 o;~m,f. MiJtol"il'rB • '~~Q.r1{~,' <too WPfl, 31 r11Ph. Unit)l pJ, ,j Kg ~ 10 uhm&. Caf£:l:ll(lf,e F:: r:~mJ S in bOOl l~re oases (H1d l·O'rm1~e~~l.

nlurlon, ln Fig, J8J!) {al'. \1= 01' = -Ion •. I}{~= AS = 32r] V

'" ~I" -I' .... ..,-~· _-i 3:20 3'" ."",::u

.G = l_"'''' "'" .!.LCI. U .". Ian -- "'. O.ul!.JC"

. .. -tflO .

'I;O~Ill pnM!.rcr In lC:Ii":Iil1S ofpiilr.am~t[lr.~ mcai{~r.abk Ol~ tcrm.imd!i< 'i.l'., V, 1. [JJnd ¢I' "" 3 Vr~ JI'~ cos ,0 "" J )( 400 x 32"", 33.<1 kW

',. ~ . 'L ... [~flt . £] JO-]'IC'"

,,01111 lIDwcr 1!I.tl.iflg Ulll.[:( PllffintL;l1er.. '" .~ x 7.. "In ~!'! "lIY

. "-!Ii'

- 3 4.flO ;.:' 5 :~ 2.25 (. - 38 66~' 'IIO-~ - 38 4 ~VI.'

- x ]0 X I Sm. .. } x.· -.... , ..

Sku;e IOiS~C".s ar"C 'uegi,ec:tcd. tld~ pewer is ~hc electrical m1tp~,1 or geneL<!~or ,md aJ~o is iliemllu.I!l'U:d meehun ic~ inpul '~Q the gClru~ro[.or.

F,DT mn~nrin~ mede : V - OA", 4!(10, -IXI '" J~JI = 320 E - 013' '" 512 . .2.5, us 11[1 .Fig.. ::UL ~ ') (bJ

Hence, lSI "" 3·8.66." ,as be fore,

l'mnl1lt'nLS: "flw ch~ln:g!l! i.TJ,lltif' ~lJ;,'IIl OIf!) l1nJ.cf>1 Ilo be 1IIi(]iit:CliIDI~11!; lWulJ:iffi1a. it i~ H'e for gii:n~rlJitmJj.nd -~'e. ,~(Jr motur. ~ bcijppen:li \0 be eqllil.l i~, born dC~,e eases due' to ILI:llI.il1y p.f, AI other p.L, lhi~wi.U, be diffe~cm

Al!> befaru, power c..u.[!,llLl (~!il.k:Ll.I,a!.tH:I in b!ii,ro WEl~'S und ~L will ItIc elcetrical power jnput '[j) IDCJtur and also the F.ii'leCba[l.ic.lI VLltPUL ef'the motor;

NahnaUy, Powe.r '" 38,4 kW

A .".""----;-~--- ~----I .... ,---- .. Rid

0 ........... 0

3B.10. rEflect 01 Changing u:clothJn on Constunf' Lood

As ~\h:O\li'll1 in F~~. 38.2.0 ~,rj ).~ufipa~ :.1, S~I niC~.mnr.m3 muter ~ S Ci''p!IC:J!;jiI~llg WH:l:1 nermnl C.XC·tlriilion USb = V) • .H I1'nii)' p.[ with a givCCJilL load. If R" is Ilegligj~]!! 11:5 eorapared 1o KS' lilie'nl IQ I:u.g~ ~R bj' 9U" undi il'l in phase wi t.1l \nJeClII.L"e p.I, i ~ lU!rIitLl'" 111~ UlrTTN;UUre [s d.rrawiHJ!l;;i PO\'VC'[ I[)n!J~ IJOC phase wltkll is enough 10 meet the mechanical lead 0[1 the ,l:lIuMm:. Now •. iet us discuss (he effect flf decrea~inJ,l, Of ll1r.rearoifl:g [1](: f.k;!d C1H.::"itli dtm wh~n:J the 1 o~ .!Ippl ~~d i!Ol~lC nlOwr l'L'mairn ,:ulnUlnt,

hJ~ l- licllulirln Ill"t::n'''_~1>''d

,\l; ~I:mw.t:l in Fig, 38.10 (h). snppese due' to decrease m. e),jcH .. tiou, blu;:k e.m.f. is. lied~~t:'eri m E~JI at [he 'iI1Hl~ fuaa atl6i11' '01.1• The n:sUll:lclll ~'oll1U~t:' Elfl ~a.M~.:I lagging DJrn!al.1!lre CIi1ITCI'IlJ'al lo nO"'-I. E\'er:l.tllw!;Ighfal ~s larger than I,] 111 1I'l>l,!l;nitude i[ is il'lcO!p.1lb!e [If p.rmh;u;ing J1~~<;:wry pOWE'1: H". for c.:1Irfi1il,grn~ l:um.lUn.l IOl!d because 1 .. 1 oosO, COll.lpOl1tlil'lt Is less t.hu.l ~ SiC) dun FI,H ~05 $ L -c ~c/l ,f

Hewcc. i ~ becomes necessary for lo~d :!IDg~,e to !jn(,f\~f! from o:! i!.:.O O'.z· hi~c~~l~CS D<ac::k !C'. Ill"f. from l!~ Ito EI.~ which. rn turn, increases resaltant Vl"'l,.~tage [{-om E ~ i to E k'l.' COIiI:sc:queTldy" armature t:1llm;:'I!!'l increases UI'I,r~ ,...;hcs-c Ln-plla~e I:Qm:poiilcnt prm:lm:f;.') I:nnlill.g~ pWwtF {VI,,} cO.5 41lJ to ~nlX[ '~Jbe co]lsmrn:~ load em the mmor,

j b ~ E"TIla.tiuu lnere3!S.ed

The elifecl of increaslng field exciterion is shuw!] un Fig. 38.20 ((,.') where increased {il'! is 5hoM~ ai tile o[uginf1i11o:!ltl i1IfigJe a.~. Tne 11t&u]J:am Yoh:.;;).,gc Ei~t causes a EeaJ'.tlg currenlln.l whose in-phase eHnnr(H;i1er1l~is h~g~r ~:h_,1.1il 1(,. Her!lc;~\ armature devc-;lops more POW('I[ nWllJ the lO~:lJ:I [K~ Ihe IJ.10Wr. AClcon:liilgly, ~o!['!ld angle det'reU5t!s from [II lo ~ which decreases resuh.n::H vol t.age from EI'IL W Em:. Conscqllcfidy, annature C;UJICnl deC'fellSeS from 1<11 W 1~2 whose in-phase CCltl]J)[}rl~'Jn J~2 cos ~I.l "" I". in lha~ case, ,nm<lWTe devcleps power wffk:iem [0 c~liITY [h~ OmlS!.ant IO<ld ontlse motor;

Hence. we find rhar variarions in the exci tation of <I. synchronous motor running wi lh agiv.e,llo.1H;I produi'(:'~ vali:.mu{m~ !!mi'LI'> WaLl lmgl.c !\lilly.

38.11. Olffemnt Tarq,lJ8S. of CIl Synchronous Motor

Valli:ous, [DlrqlUC$ aRM)ci ated wil:h III 8ync.hr,'i-

nou S I:no:to',r arc iLS follows:

.. M:anjng torqae

2. ~1lJ.nf.l.i.tlg torque

J. pull-jn lni'!:jLle and 4. 1;:IILlU.-'OUl tUl.'qule

~ a) Slil rLlJtg Tutque

It is rhe torque (01' ~.umillg ,efti'on) developed b,y lite: ITIJlJtm' When h;[~i vol.wge ~~ appHed ttl ilh.~ S'tilior €fLmlamre) w~.IJ.d:i.iJ.g. flus, alse s(Ji.t'r~et~rm::s called IlI'l'lIkowlJ.v torque. Its value llli1IY be as low a~ Hl% as ill the cuse of eantri fiJgai.p'it]!TI P$ ;I~ld ,,~ high [IS 200 to 230% oif fuU-~08!c1 ~!L)rqtlC 8!l, In the case of IO<lded reciprocating two>-cy.Hmler com- 1)l11!(',sMlT);.

I b I RIrninLug 'IOTlJl1~

To.tqlie mQtUm are [jesl'gl1!eGl~iJ' privide max1mum torque "'[ i:ocimdrotOF er noar sffiill.OO cOf1d:iti~ns

A~ i L~!IH~me ~ ndicl~l;eS. uL i 8 (iJ e torque developed hy the moror nnderrunniug cU~l.ditum]~, .~l i~ de~;J1llineci by the horse-powes and speed oftbe drhJen machiae, The peak horsepower determi nes ll'le IIHO!Ixlmu!rl torq ue ~ha.1 \·V'()!:Ul d be required oy the dri ven machine, The ~r~{l-tor flIIUl:S~ h a ve ;I. hre,alk· down or a max i.m um J,ll.l1l1i ng torque greater than lh is value in order 'to a v oid s.L~.IJJ.l1g.

It' ~ puU·in TOrqll!.l

A syncnronous J;I1(UUf is M.1!:f~ed 3~, i:mluC'lin~). mc~~t)r ti.Hil rHUS 2. In 5% hduw 1I11c sj'[ldUO!lOn~ speed, AflJerW.lIrds, excitation is switehed em and die 110(:01' pulls into step WMUI the .')ynch'rnnml:~~yn:HOuiug S!<UOlf .field. The ameunr of wrgue ~I whddlEh.e motor wLU pull ~nw step is calledthe poll-in

I t:n Pull-l.Iut TLlI">I,IUe

Themaxnnura '[()jlf1qil,f! l,;vtwch the meier can develop witlU::n.H llL!l~illig out of step or synchroli!j~m is C-1lUed lJ1e pull -OIJlI 'torque'.

NOITUlHlly.when I:oa.d nn the motor is increased, itsrotor pmg]:J.::Ssiv~ly IC[JtIi~ w j'lli,I~ bad. iu pJw'!iie hy SOIne ang~e {Ciil~](jdl:o,ld angle) behind tl'neS}'r1c:hn:JI~0!.l18ly·!:e'!l'ol,vlng sl,lltor []:l~n'!e~k field though il~ !keeP'S n;1!]fJiTlg sYllcl1mn01!~ly. MOii[U develops maximum ~.iQJrqlle whenirs 1:'0[01i is retarded by <till. ~m;g~c of '90" (or 11} ottller words. it has shiHcdrnLckward by [I. di~;~f!l:tnL"C equal lO [mIl' me d,i~Hlifice between .acljfieellJlpo~ 1:',:;,), .Aliiy 'fUJrl:liiier ~ ncrease inn JrllliTl wi II C .. U&e dilel'lI1(ltor m plliH (lut of step (or sj'ncilFo.IlJ:>rn.) and! stop,

ln Fig. 38.2 :1, 0;\ represents Slipply vClllage!phasc and: J,j "" I is [~l: armarure current, .. IU1 is back c'.I11.L at a IU:!Ll~ !Ulg1t: of O!" 011 givc~ U~!;; resuham "(I'll·

1L!le ER = f2s (rJF IX j' if ll'u i ~ negli gi.ble j'. Heads, V by ,~ illJd lags ~hllild E H by 111'1 3lf:lg,le 1[1 '" lalu -l (X~ I R J;. Li ~.e CD is rctim\'ffi :'U±!l ~:Ii!gle orlt! t.oAB. tlCail[l'ED ~'re l_ liil CD (000 hence to AE ill~(I',.

Mechaalcal pOlliVer per phase developed iurhc rotor

EI• I (;05 IV 1 Zs cos III

CD - Be,," Al: - Be

1V cos (O - 0:) - E." 'cos; !]I

'!! . . EIJ

-/- 008 HI - 0:,) -? {lOS, B

LS 1j,s



Pm = !~n ~ OBD •. lW "" Now. ,flu ""

I' Zs cos ~II '"

'lh~.s is ml1: e:>:Iil(~~'LCi:rn for the mechaaical power d.evelo]j'l'e.cll iID! te rms gf llleload illl:gl,e ((() and the ~nh~Ji[lail. OlLllIg~e. (a} of me moXl]r fm: ~~ cun'!"~[!Inll~lilJlmge ViUiid Er. (or cl(d!::Itioil" bceaasc Ell depends On e}';,cit<JIUQTI ('lin liy).

Jf:r~ ~s, the grn&sarmliln:l!I: I[CiTqlU,L: dl~'!it'\I!Qp!ed. by '[!h~ m n!.Qr, then

T~ x 2: '1Il: N~:- "rl.i or 'Ts '" PrJi 1(';;)1 '" p," I' 2. tt N!!!

~, ,C,-,.D n

-::---::-:L",!N...,--:;-::- = ~ _ ~ = 9.5.5 .5!L

TIl'-2~N!1f'OO IV!: Ns Ns


Cm1(:!~L~on 'rrm!'lJi;JxiLmuJJill. power de'!.iclOiPCd can be foaad by differelliliatiJlgme above expression wlth respect to load :llii.,gk and then 0f,ju,l[iing i~ ~o lj~rn_

tip. E\{

~- _.:3!.:.. siu t(ll- n) "" 0 or sln {O - 0:) "" (I dO..Z's

Since ft" isgenm:nJ!ly ru:::g I.i~jbl~., Z \' = )f~, _«l [hat e == 90", Hence

,f' =l'fl> V coo. ,tt,m" _ ([ I ",Eo V ~i['J 0:

J" XS . Xs

This .g!ve.s the ... alue ofliI1~ch~~j~cn! pow.t::r d~lJciop,~~ iiD ne!T1~S of «- lhtt Imsic v:l:rlli1Jlc of r. ~Yiilchn;mntls ruaeblae.


Ep'V e:' E} v £'l~ ..

. . value of In' xirnu rn power {'P"'),,,m = - ~ cos a r P' J' '" _- _' _ - -" cos H Uti)

Z.'1 £s m ,mIX Zs Z::,' .

·this. shows {hal the m JXll1l1L1 m power and hencen rqu ("." speed is constant) depend» on V and En .f,e., excitation .. Maximum '! ... alue of 9 ~lllildhel1ce tt) is 90~, FlUlf rill ''ii;dl.le.~ of Vand Eb" Ibis lirnitL.'1g value of 0:. is 1.11 e same b"LJ ~ rn ax~ mum torq LIIc will 00 pruport~ on1l1 to the

iaximumpo er develop d as given in equatl II 'Iiii'. EqLJ:!IliloflliO is plotted in fig. 38.22.

U' R~ i,~ neglected. then

~ 1

F..I:V , EI V •

P", '" -,-SIIl 0:. • •• {ill) {P"')""-\" ~ _'_ ,., f III equauon

X~ Xs

ml"" The: same value can he otained b ' putting 0: = 9(j~ ill equatl n li~', This corresponds to the 'pull-nut" 'l:orq,IJ'e.

38,.131. AHemaflve EXpfe5iEt:m fer Power [)ev,elor:;ed

In Fig. 38.23, l:IS usual, 0/1, represents the supply 011.· age per phas L i.e., V ~I!ul"'! 8 (= DC) is the induced Or hack e.rn.f per .p~a~c i.e., E~ a~ a:11 angle f£ widl GA.. T!:Ie arma'lure current .I (o:r I,) lags ~l hy C)I.

Mechenl '&1 power de \lclopoo is,


C .--- -- _


P,,, ~ E."h. I X cosme }f in angle between

l:."b am.l.;

- £Io! COS L. DOl

.:::; E,.] ''0$ (1C - L COl) = - E"i cos . + y)

=;; - EI, ( ~; J fC"{1·~ if! cos "l- sin e sin "f ) Now, ER [.![IO runchems of angles f.ll!IJlIld l·wiLi. be eliJ'I'Iln:ilil:d as fo~loW8 :

rom!J. OAB ; 'Vh.oll "If = E'R_ f sin u w. sin y = \1 :-lfll (1/ E/i/,

Fromli. OR,. ; EN co "I .. VCQS(,l,~'I' •. (us,),'" Eb- \lcos,c{ER

Also C06 (I "" R~ I z, ami sin, 0 = X.> f Zs

SlIibsli ~utl ug these value In Eq, (l) above, w,e ge;L

p '" _ Eli . E R ( R~ . E" - V CO~ 0:. -!__1_. V :iii II 0:' )

Il"J z, Zs EEl, Z;\, Elf

E \1 . £1 fir

"" _"- (R. C010 a+ .sin 0:) - ~

Z ~ s Z

s~ Us]

his seen thai Pm varies wirh Eb (which depends em e::t,c~larion) ,mil angle 0:. (which de:pe.~ld.'l on the motor load ~,



Note. ]I W substiture RII ." 71\' cos (I Md. XS = Z.~ :;;lin H in Eq • .(i"f). W~ gel

E 11 B~"Z~ COS, 6 EVES"

1"",,::l _I, , ZS CO'.'i I~ CU~ a + 21j sin tI !i~1iI fil} - '. i' =. ____fi._ ~Q.lI. (0 - a} - _J:;_ cos e

Zs~ .,1 Z:!I z,

l t ls the sume expressien II~ "f1l)und ill A:rL 38. H.t


lt i;" I he same C pression as found Tor au 'I.llen "lll,lt lIr syn ~lJO[)OI L~ generator ill Art .. 3]' _3 '7.


Eleciri(lal Tech nology

38. 14. Vel rious Condilans of Max im a

The f'O ~ lowing two cases nmy be considered :

(i")i ,t~ixl1d .:~. V, R(j Inn) Xs' Under these conditions, Pm wiil: vaL)' wuth laad angle 0; and wLI1 be maximum when df;N I rift. '" O. Dllfel'.emi,aling Eq, (ii) in Art. 38.11. We Im,av<IJ

dF;}i E: V


do: Z ~ (X S CIOS 0; - R.'~ SLID o;) '" () Oii [IlUlI 0: "" X s! /(" '" taa fl GIl.' 0': '" EI


P",Uing (t '" !;Jiu the same Bq, uo. we get EV

IF), - _~_ fl'), C""~ t;'I, + v ~'1f1 ''''l-

\ 1;0 ItljWr- Z~ ~nd -"''"'~ . AS'" ~

This g i ves Ihc value of power ail which the motor falls om of Slep. Sol \' ing for ~ from Eq, (l ~ above, We gel.

Z~ r' i-'" ]

E i> :;;,: 2.R _v ± ", V - - 4R" . (i~iI'~1J1>l!'~


Tille two values of ED 50 obminecl represent [he e){dLiJt~(]Ji1 ~il"l1li't:!l ftJir ~ny IJiJI1Id.

{iO Fix~£1 ".I{~ and X,~. In [his case, Pm vSliiC~ with ~'::\.Cilf.1.ti(lri ()r Elt Let ~~~.find the value nffh~ exc::~talLion Or iltd!l.l:ccd (;l,m.f. Ell which is necessary for maximum power possible, 'For thispurpose. Eq, ~~ll above In8J), be diflerendared wirh respect ~n Eb and 0!:.IJ,la~od ttl :l':Cl'tL

d (P"')i,, ..... , V _ 1R"Eh _ ('I • If' .. ~. V ZS' o!<

I.~ 1'- - .... - . :_"u. .1:...~J ",....

a En z, ZSl '2.R ~

Pt~Hirlg 'this v<l~ue en!' £{; in Eq. (i) above, maxi.rumn power df;\'lelopeil becomes

, V~ V~ V~

(1'-' ~J i"un '"' 'l'J'.~. - '~/.1 ~ "

Ii. '11' ""F '.01 ·"th d

38.15. Smlent Pofe, Syncl'1:ronu::ilLls Motor

Cy I. i.1lidific.al·mtcu ~ Ylu:hrm1ou,smQitmri. ,~I"e much easier ~'o .malys.e marl those having sal ient-pele rotors. It is, due. 10 [he fact thrl't .cy.Li.ndJricaJ.-color mot.CJrS ha ve a ul]ucron]~:1 a:i:r-gup., wh ereas jn ~.a~ic 1111- pole morors, H.U.,.g:ilp is rnnch g~·a~.er between the poles d'a,an along ilIe polea, Fon"mllJc~y, cylindrical ro~nll theory ~ s "e!l!8('1i!~<!hly nCCI.J'I"at-e in prod icri.rug the stead y-snne performsece of snl !.L'lid-pole rn,O[:o;t's. Hence, salient-pole [hem), is required t)(ily W[1Cn. v~r'i hig]] .rE:g~E~ Qf ~:I{l['un~L~y bl Ilre[k."~~ or whel~ problems coaceralng transients or power system SlSibiJitji !lilt: to hehnndled.


Til i ~ ~s tili~ ... g!llt~ of iHth.iCl.;::tiI:.m 1'. lei 1lny'~ rnaxlmum poow@l', hom it is not UtE IH8ximul.u possible; value of tl"t;2' g~Ti~!'1itetl vnit,lge, in whudl Lhe IlllIotor will operate.


The d-q currents and ocaNtlficcsfoi' II. ~1!.~i(lJ:~'L~pok: s.)1n,chroill!LIlJ~ mrmlOr areexactlythe same as discussed [or saliear-pele synchronous generator. The J1lWwr has d-Ilxis reactance X,I.l1l1d q·;lKis reactance X~, S~nr~:ulill:dy, rI!.l,o[or armautre current 111 has two ccmponents : ,lu aud i,.j' 1'1~e complete phlls~;r di8Jgfam of a salient-pole Sy[lchrm~ou~ (;;ru:Hm', for II. ~.II.gging [power f:BJdm' U~ shown ~:t] fig,. 38.24 ((,1),

" ., ~_, . . _ , V@in$'-l X

W.Lm [he he.~p ot JpIg. 38_24 (b), it G~LI) be [!1WVed that tan .~. "= '..'1 '1

V CO!!) ~ - i ~ l?1l ~f R~ ~~. :n~g~i.gi.hl.~. then IIlUl'lI' = ('II sin $' .~ If' Xc/ ) IV ens ~I

Por 11]] O\ierexcltedm,ntm' i.e., when m.oUDfi" has leading power fac~(lr, tan 'l!= {V sin $ +- 1" Xq ) I 111 cos ill

The power 1IIlJg~,e (t it; given by (t ""$ - IV

The m~~1'l1~~lllde or IT:~e excitation or 'Uhe back e.m.L E1• isgivcl:l by til; = Vcos a- fq f?rl-I(lXd

Simil afly, as proved earl ier for <I. synclnonou sg_.enenl.lm, it 'CilIlfll so beproved from Fi g- 38- 24 (b) for n synchronous momr v.'i th 1(, = (] that

! J( cos ¢ rann = --~-_,_~--v=t X s:inj~

Ii.J 'f1 -- Ir

hi case H,.! is net n,eg:i i gih [c~rl' em] hu pmved IWhl!l

1~ XiI cos $- t; N~. sin '$

ranc ..: '. '... "

V =l X sin e - I R cos ,0:,

1ft q 1f IlIt:~

38. '10. Power Developed by Or Salient Po1e SynchronQus !Motor

The ex rre~~i{jll r~)r the puwer t1e'\ielo~d by a s::dicllt"pole sY:I:iC.h:m[iOl]~ gener<-mQL" derived in Chapter 35tl!lso applies W a sallC:TIl-:poie synchronou s motor"

E V _ V2(Xd -X) . _

p ;;;: :::JJ:.... SU1 '0: + ~ !'il'lil Z 00;

'" x, 2X,.( X'I

[£~v_. . \;'2 (Xtl - X</) . -.'1

:3 x X 5U~ 0\ + 2. X. X 51.1.1 20:, ,., per three pha~e~

.1 J '1 _

'l~ - 9.55 Pm 1 Ns ,",N~il1 rps,

A~~ eXIj;liaine,'(J e<:!die;[, the lmw~r cOln~i ~[" of [W~j c(mnpoJ.iC'U[S" tht: :l'i:rsl ciQiIJlpOnf.hlluS called excitarien power or magnet power ami the second ls {;ali!w reluctance P{l'W~T (b6~au;s.e when ~xt;.iil;U[Qn is removed, the motor runs ill\ a rel netauce motor),

Ernmph~ 3101.4. A. J.~l, ]5(.\l·kW, 2JOO.1f, SQ.fll. W()~rpm '~',Cltiem~fHJk :ry~]C~tN.mtm!im(}.~o,t ):nt1.~ X'l/ -- 32 .0 / ph{.!s1! .GJ1d X'l '" 20 Q / ph=e. .Neg.le,ctb'xg lM86S. C!frCr.tfale {he ~u~t~e difvdoped by ~fje m:IJtor if Ji,d(~ ex:ciwti'r.m, is :~(J r:uljj1s~ei1 &,j' to 1'IUiKIl thlR Qr;jck .!1,m~J. twice the (JI,fJ'pHm w~!l~e O1llti 0:. = 16°,


EliillmpJe 38.5. II JJOO.v, /_j·j~rMi'; 1.~), Y·{\nm~II{·fed ,'!{~~rN.·h'7JfJOt~S mof@F has 'KJ '" 4:fl I p!wse a'ld X'l "" 3 £21 phrue. N.t'g.l'~il!hj'.1Jt o;JllrJ.\!is,l!J[., ealEular,~ .rJll! '<l.telifti'.~ioli l!-mJ~ ~~'he'~ rn!J~tir ilmppli/!$ "1J~'(!d !tW-d .a~ unity p.f. Cti1Jcultl'~,e 1.~I,e mfLyimmn IW1c-i!(;jlii.t::a~ fJt')M'r wMcli rJl~ mOlo." 'IIo1'ttJuM' d!!iI"eto'P jor ,riri9 fie1d ex.dtQfillll'r~IS~mimI" ampt~ Swanu RolPl;}nam:11ftrthu J- m"",J'Wna.do!llnh" NUl d~dlnOl j


V= 3300/JJ "" ~9[j5 v~ cos ~I "" I!; sIn ¢ ~ 0; 00;:0" t ::::l 15 x Ii rf I Jj x 3300 X 1 = 162 A




0: - I~ - ~ = U - ( - 2ZA~) = 21.4<>

IrJ - 2162: K ::.oil! ~- 22.4~);;;;;; - ]100 A~ lq "" 262 cos (- 224") = . .!41 A E:~- V COJi. f1" -l;jXa"" 1905 cos r- 2;2:.4") - [- ~OO x 4) '" 2160 V

~ W19 sin 0. -+ ]5'~ s,rn 2: a

E/i'. V" (Xd - Xq).

- -.-' - SIJI a+· 5~.f11 2J[],

X~ 2Xd '¥q

2Hi(h! 1905 1:~:n.6·2 (4 -3) ''1

= 4xUkn1 + 2: x4:.::3x]OOO ~U.Ll" 0:

,. .k W lphrn;e

'" I. U2:9 ~]fI 0; + 1 5,1 1;inJ'n.

In de velopedpower has mm::ll ieve mIL'll mum val ae, then

.d.P ..

___:___.!!!_ ~ ]029 cos Cl: -1'- 2:< 1:.5] OO~ 2~cr;"" []


1029 COli q + .302 (2cos2 0. -! ) """ 0 or 604 .1:;:C1iS2,~"," i ~29 .(;CI!S, ~ - 302 = 0

- W29± Jl U29~ .oil" 4, x 60<1 x 302

CO~ (l '" '. = n ~g5 - [i\'. = 73 4~

:Lx 6Wl, " . - .-- .

~-I,~m;:c ,m:t;f(i nllJUU:l power devel oped [Of I.hree .i?ha$e5 "" ], x H'70 es; .JlllJ 1.1, \\,

Examp.li~ J8. L. 'Tin: irlp'IM m ,,,lj' lu]on-~( 3-pims.~, sl(Jr-COmjju:~~tJ S]lfndlltWloJlS I.l'wlor is 60 It Tiil! ,e;fft!Cfivl! n'S'isu}nc~ om:i' ~'JiI'("Aln;n;lt:ilu;.s f'e(Jr:.~mjC,t! Pi:r' p~:la~,e fJre ~YfJ<2(ri\'l"~~ I t'lhm t1T!d 30' ohm_ F.irJd I i I the fJO~ ver .!iu{~pHt:':d ~() dtl! rJw,~{J,w (il m.f!t.'l~!dnic{J:r pmlv.:i"~' de'O!ei'o[Jt!a aUf] ,iii I huJ.~ceJ ifni! low !J' p~Wf'r f~'Cm'l" 010.8 l,rtUlillg'. IF I n:E. r· n • 4., U r:T!If f I!U" SChl.'lTtc I [rrne ] 91.HU

S~hUiolJ. ~,~I Motor power inptU "",./3 )( w:mo ~ 60 )( 0.:3 = 9]5l::W

riil st!l:t:o'r liCu ,losslphllse."" (J(l:t. )( J ::0: 3@OW'; Cu, less fu:l" ~~ret~ flhaJ>cs '" 3 X 3600 "" Hl.8 kW ,£1"" "" p~ - reter ,eu loss "'" 9 L'i- 1IO .. R = 91}t 2. Hill

\Ip - i 11000/13 :::: 63:50 V: IP "" CO",-I 0.8 '" 36.9a : 61 ~ lml-u 'JOf~ ~ ~. 88.]D

ZS - 30 0; ~:~JlI:~.OIl ~ rnpt:cl:li'llL"e iJIma~ I f,lh;!'!~e = .1,r Zs "" tJO x JO·~ 18~O V

As seem from, :Rug. 3S.25.

lit, ~ ea 63:5©l + ~ 8<002 - 2 X 6350 x I.E(l(] X cos ss. ~~i- 36,9~) "" 63ji~i T ] ~O[J' - :2 lot: 6350 x. U:U]O x - 0372

Eb '" 7528 V ; Une V3~ue @W el'~ 7528. Jj .:;: BfI42

Spcceial E.:uunph~ 38.7., Case of Sallem- Pllil~ M.a~b..ilU':!o A ~:Yf,~dirorw"~8 1.1J!achim~ i~{ (}l1{!flJ'~ed lUi he',ow ".

ill ,a G'i!!Wl~r'l~lJl': 3: -PJllJ..rl!.~![,~ = 4fJ(J. lph = 32, uniJiJ' pI. As !f.!I MotQr : 3' ~ Ph(Jt,v{f, Vp/1 '" 40f), ,"" '" 32'. I,lnity p.f.

Machil~e p~Plfnl;d{!n~ _. X'l= NJ n x; = 65 n

Ccdcldjj~e e.:'!.;ci{(J,tim'l If'mJ mrti ,6 ,ill flu> IWO nlodes I'lnMt ~letd wn11 I~e terrn'~;i),~er fl~ llut'iit' n~(!9 cases,"

]Q D


\ ,


O.··.~--~--~~--~~------~-------.Rd A

\ \

• •

" d-uxis


L;e.tu:' f'1!~ i ng l\Iodl! ~ \'n:ltu~es ~

- 4(]O V. AN = rx

. . -- ---{l

"" 32·~ 6,;5 "" 208 V

OB _ }4oo2.Ie 2!OS;2 ~ 45,.1 V.


~ tan -I "w '" 111[1-1 108 '" 'l15?

_. OA 400

BE '" Iff {-"oj -Xf/)

~ ~:40 x ],,5 -= 5l,.H, 'V~

E oe- 011 + IJE ee :502,.8 V

( '[J:l'Te]lto;' I"" 0("- 32 •. 1 ",.I COi> B "" ,OD '" 2R.4llmp __ 1,J "'" .DC"" I Rill i3 '" .14.8 al:'n,p, E l.Mds V in case of generator, as shown 1m H,g. 38. 2>6 (~)

Powe'f fbJ' oTlelhru:r:nnb) "" 3 x 4{]O x .32. ::<1.0-1"" 38.4 kW

.""-""'. -.~ (by-.. "·n-."'·".~. 'r-- ',ii,".r:m'- ·""-.1- .," ~ 3 I[.:too X 502.8 " ... "l .01) . £!!mi (3.5 ) . -~J

r ...... ~, u u u.'J,~ ,,~ ~ ~1 "" x [0 £llfl L.ld + ~xl 65 XS;U'I,;)J


tFig. 1l1.2fi ttl) iPi'taoor diagrilfll: M~tmiIIig l"l"'r!JIde I ubrln~ mlKiln t' r h sallem p le ~lIJclml[lIJU III ehlne

\'oUages : OA ;;;;;; 'HJl'J V. A.B ;;;;; - .IN,/ ",·20E: V

.r _ ,"' .'11 -

UB - \J40~)~ + 2{JS~ '" 4S] V

5 = tan -t A.B = '11a[l -l 20~ ~ 27 ,ja l'It!;i. b~fore bllll .!:lOW Ii: l;mgs ~bel;LiJ~ do V.

. 0;\ 400

CUtrrl'ub. :

I'll:;:' 14.8 limp Power {by one fOmiluh::l.j "" 38.4 kW

&iE - 1',1 (}(" ->l~) ~ :5 J . S V ]~lhe dire£[]on shcwa. ()£ = 502J:IV :JS before OC ... 32runp. ,011 ~ .18.4 ~l1!l[!p. DC "" 14.~8: amp, N3tmm:iy. 19 = 28.4 ::l~!ii!llP· a~d

N'.Il~. NiiU!Jlm"i.I:'aIl ..... alm:.s. or.E lIIull B llil:' ~ru:: In C:'~. of .gC:IiI!::r~l1lQr·nlilode Ilfl!i!l. mi'.l~~-·'J]M~ du~ ~o LLlliry [1.1. :fj, hi1-~ diITi!'~gl si,c;~ in 'th_iltWQ eases,

IExnmpi~ JIUt. .It SM· 'l!, J-p~/tlS-e syrM:::_t~roll(;}US mO~t1r giV(,3 ~ mu {.I~i'~P'~1J" m.l!dumical p...-}we" oj 7..16 kW mu:l (J1HJ'~"Ol,f.!,~ Q1 0.9 PI. la8J:\r'l/&. n.~' !d!~clbV! rmri.ff{JN.c,e is O.l!l ,Q .If /be_ !f"~1" fmdfric,~i(J~1 losses are 500 W' arui e.'l;£it(J{h:J~ tosses are 80D lV. ,f;w'im{jl~ ~'n: ~nm:lt~l.f-£" cUrn"U~ Calc£lifllt!' flit! ,r:tJl'lmludI:JJ ,t!fJid(,mc)~ I Ele "IT Winl",,·l, G!jarlt~ IJt:d~. 19KN.)1

luulIn. Motor ]DiIil1l1 ~ ~rr" cos ~ : Al"l1ilLl1IJHe Cu loss '" la Ri'Q~

:~m"'er dJB, ... do~,d in armflW:r-e is Pm '" Vi" C{!!S, cp - 1 Q ~ R,j

. ~r cn~ Ijl.± JV2 m5~O - :I R" P,~

~ ~ R -VI I;:O~ ~ '1' P - I) or ! = ' . .

(J'.IJ "'i'J "~III "IJ :1 ~~!J

1.'If) k W "" j Atl(li VIr


p -
"" P~1!1 -+- i IOn and fri~itiQn losses + c'i<cimuWII losses

7460 + 500 + Si]O '" S15() "'oV .•. ,M 38. 5i

SUO X [) .. 9 ± JISQO:x R9l- 4. K 00.8)( 3760


I~ ==

"~:'HJ± J2ij2.500 - 2~,030 = .45D ± ~Ul.7 .,,_ 32.3 "" .:!D.2 \

1.6 1.11 '1.6


4otorifip'LI[ '" son x 20-2 Y 0'.9 '" 9()90 W

111", "" net olJtpulli i.lilp'l.ll = 7460! 9090.,. 0.&2:06 or 81.tki,% •

.EKn.mpJ~· JH.9. A 2 .. 100-\(. 3-plu1!;e .~tlll'"-C{Hlnec~eJ :yndll'()'lwu,~ morar 1J.{~,\· {.l resisum e of 0.2' OnJf~T pe« phase aud a N)!rIch r-O\i'4J'Wl' rea:cft~mC'!t:' oJ 2_.2' ",h.m per phase; The mul'oj- is (Jp&mUl~g a:t 0_5 powe.1' /(1(,'Wf' iead'11,g with: II lim! "j:w~v.'m 0,( 200 A. Deter:rI'flJU! !h.e value oltr1e gf!ireraltJd e .m,l-per fJlw.se. IE.lecl. En .-J, Nagpur llnh. 19931

co. -:1 «(L ) = 60" (lead)

i:an-I (2.2!O,2) '" 84,8,0 84,.8~' + 6tr' = 144.8°

, ulutlnn, Here, ~ ~
e =.
... (61+ $) :;
cos ]44_.8~ =
V =
Zs .-
v, ;;;;;; -c0835.2a

2:30()! .,,/3 :;:1328 volt ~O_22 - 2_21 = :2.2[19 n .2f10 x 2.2U9 = 442 V

111t', VC'l..:10r diagram - S shown in ig. 38_2.7.

E~ = '. f·. 2 + E:«> 2 V. E '" cn~, ~O I'!jl)

,. 'II I~" "i

- JI ;m:~ + ,44i + 2: x l328 x: 442 X co 35.2~ = 1708 \i'oU I rbru;.e

t=l\.ump[ 38.10. A 3-plwse. 6.600"1if1't3:~, "iO-H.<., "mr-:Oi'ln.iJcJed: s)'nchrm:ro./Js nUllo(/" lakes 50' /\ curre» The ,·(!.I:isl'lrf'~ee arliJ' !1,111'tchrrmoll.5 reCiC'tance per pha 'e are 1 ohm and 20 oilm' ffS17eCfiw?/y. FiJlCllhe power suppUed ta ~'~lf' motor a11d lm;iuc-l!'I.J emflt}1' ll' }J'0lWH [a.ctor ;;f ri) 0.8 raga;ing and

Ill} O.8Ieadi.~g. IEftl. bngg. II pune [[Dill'. 1998)1

~1l!JUm. (i~ 1J.r. = U.S Lag (F:i~., 38,28, a)}.

Power input =;./J x 6600 x 50 x 0.8 '" 457,248. W SUipply voltage I phase - MOO f .,/3 = 381 0 V

~I '" cos - ~ (0.8) '" 36?52' ~ e = tan -1 (Xs I R) "" {20/ I:}= 87.S'

f ' ~ -~

Zs '" ,,20- + I" -- Kl n appmx.)

Impedance drop - If, Zs ."" 50 x 20 = 1 cmo V /phase

E~= 38W1 -I- ] OW - 2. X 38.i 0 X 1000 x t~I;I"S (.87D8' - 36~521)

Um: induced e.m.f "" 3263 X 13 "" S6Sl V

ii) Power in,,!.!!1 would remain the.s me.

A~, o n ill Pig. 3::L2H. (b' .• Unc eurren I vector is tll':1\ nat a huuJirlX angle of

(~) .,.,. 35"52·'

Now, (fl $~ = 87"'8' 36"52';;;] 24". cos 124D ;. - co '. 56"

:. E 2 = 38W~ 10002 - 2 x' 3810

J: 0100 »; - cos 560 •• E" = 4447 V ! phase

Lint:' im11.1ced e .m.f, ." -J3 x 4<\147

= 7.700 Y

E.3.am.plc 3i . .H. A 0!\'1,r~I'(lnflt~S mor:or l!r;wi'i~4€}% re!lU"/t.lr,I'!Ce and 0 1!'IlgliSjlJlfJ rfl~is.lt:m:c~ i.~ $0 D'l! aper.lJ1P'Il ~l rnled lfJ1(;uJ~' 11',~l.Pf.. I,ii) tJ.8p.Jlng I iii , r.J!,s fl'i- lead. Wh!:lll (}R a'e I"alues Dfi1iduITd e.m,J.. ? .lrulir:m~ aSlIM1II{HifJJ'l.'ii tm;ule. ~'f tltI~J.', (F.le~m'ic.:1~ J\IOI' I'lln ~~[1,. ~ndnre lll1h. 19~tn

50iutic.ID. Le:~

~~ll At uml~ p.r.

.,.,Fig .. 38.29 (a)


1m II ,\~ p.I, n.~ t~e £1.1 Here.. W' ""!Ill"" 901' 'F ],6.90"" 12ti.9P

l .22

Eb", 100 + tHl ~]: x 4U x cos n(j~9'" "'" 1 2Ji1 V

Agl'lil'll'irmm.f'ig." J~J,9 {C't Bb2.", (ON! + 01\)2 + Mtr = l~4~.Ji- 32~: l!S~,"" U3 V.

EncmI.tle38.u.. AI ~,.OOO-kV:A.1J.Ot']o.- ~~ 3"$. SU!l.J"-c:cmnecJ'fN18Jr'1l\~.l~tlIJf~m!s mm'cll'lm,~(m "rn!lf~W'"t" 1'e.~'ii~uuu::e rmd f1!lJ\C.WIlI::r: pel" ph.J·.~(/_ {J{ .l5 Q~md4f} Q r-esl1.(zr:.t.iw4y • .f).eilf:l"mf.~re. tiM' i1.rdu.t:'l!d /!.ml. (mli tIlllgl'lltlr fet(1t.ll1lio'~ of au: retar wii'en ft1lly ku~det' m hH ,riiJify p...f; I/H O.R p/ .fa3gir~g I£' I OJJP,! l(t'(iidiw~g. IEJ~d .. Engll1~erllJl;l.ll, DangaIDrf' Ualv, ]Q.lJ21

Fi~. im.30!

Snlutia n. FruH"~(l~i.d 3:rml:.n1lIru cu.rt~nl ."" ~ ,000 x ].m)o I • ..(3 x ·~I.OCiO '" 525 A.

\Ohit.age ! phase = 1l,!CiOJ! ,,,5 ~ 6,35·1 V ;oos $' "" '0.8 .',~, "" 36°53' Armn:111ur·e resisiaace drop J Fl\lma~e= 1['1 l? a '" 3.5 x 52.5 "". I 84 V

rcaclllHl'C dro,p I pi'la£'e",I;, Ks "'" 400)( 52..5"" 2, I {JO V

1Il'lI)edam;e dmp Il!lha~e ;;:1.rj 25 ee .JO:S4~ +2JOO~J '" 2.HlO V, .app['O",~

Ita~ e "" Xs I R~ . • 6= tan -I (.4.0 I 3,5, = ~5~

ti:" ~ '" tiJS.l :! -+ 2.1 i(lO~ - 2: K 6,35! x:2.1 ml'ClO~ ii5~;, Eg = fiI_'i ] 3 V pc Ii phase hu!u~dI Ii rU;~\ioJmge- 6513 X ./j", J 1.180 V

)]00 6~S3 6~53

8. ,0'1-\8, ;irl ,0; ~ ~~,11 &5'1 ;;;;;; 0_996 1

sin a: - 2,HlO x 0.1[;196 ~ /6 • .5 B -- O .. U 12

sb JI ~ p.r. O.S Lt~IJl > - M,g. 38,30 fb)

L BOA = 19 - ¢I = 85," - 3(l:)Y = '18"'7'

£I'~ '" 6,35 ~ ~ + 2. ~ 002 - .2 x 6,35 ~ X 2..1 em x cos 48"'f'

.t£~ - s J 90. V p~'r ph~st:

Wmlthlced line \l~ll:;Jgc - 5, ~90 x JS "" ".9g~) V AgD.i~ fm m lh~ tJ. o .. m of Fig. 3,fUO,~ b l

2UXI 51190 5J,9{l'

- ----=---_

sjn 0: ~ill1' 48~ 7' 0.7443

• SilH'l ee 2JOO x 0.74<1315 ~,g,O::;:; 0.3'012

h'j j\,( p.r. 0.3 f 'mtm~ I.Mg. 333'[) l(eJj LBOli

_ ,[I -+ ~:: .3Sa , 36':5,3' ~ 1.2P'j3'

= '6.!35 ~,::: .y • z, ~ oo;~ ",_' I )C s.ss ~ x z, '~ 00 .~ co..~ ~ 2. ~ D531'

lnduced l.i.iTIlt: e .m, r 2~~m) ""

7 ,670 volt pe r phase.

"" 7,670 X .fi ",. H.lIr:U "-

1,610' 1,670

sin ] 2:]D 53' 0.8493

:Spmal .F . znmple -':i.ll. JJmh .tIt,e ftWde.i~ o.f !:Jl'}{!'nJJi!J~ : P'hcJdif.! ~ angle", 2()" l:od~'

/It;m' (~) " A three ptr,(;M'I' diwr-wm~t·cted syndlttWWJi'i!i gt!l~aaj'Or m~lp:plies a r:~wnml of 10 /I_ Ir1jJ1Jh~~~ II p:jua.~~ Bugf(' of 2a" 1!J!Ut'llg at ",00 !·Ollsiplmwe. Fil!d l~le IUlJ'ij tm~h! jm~:l rr:(}mpm~~'IJ(,~ of aniJ,m'£Ifi" C~In'eu, {1iIll1nely l,j (m,d' 1~1 ifX,rI =W ,QJm!.S. >t,,'" 6,,5 01111j~~ N.l.18ler,' ~'". Calculate 1!\Dl~'l'Jg(.' ff!1ultuir:m.

Sul.u li 1m nrc IJhasoli [];.;I:§:rnm is, dlllwn i.ni.!~ g J ~UI "t:l')



,oF =
DC ""
OD -,
FE '"
E -, VA '" <iDO V. on -- 400 cos 20° '" 3 7 b V. AE- 400 ~.I.I~ 2:0° '" ,136.8 V fir '" !XI! "" :10 x Cd ~ 65 V . .fjf' '" B.4 + AP"" 20J.8 V

"f37f? ,. 20 1.8~ = 42.6_7 V,o= :R_2.2D

lJl '" l" sin 28_22~ '" 4.73 !lil:tlp. DC perpendicular LO OD.

I -~' )0 ~ Ja_ \J' s I

'1 - ~'I COS _,",,--, - 0 __ - tlJl1P

I (X" - X } ",-,II, 73 X 3.5 ""16.56 V. This is alone the C1ire:ctiotl of .+,~' -:iIX! S

rl, ~ q- ;::. ~

on = OF .. FF.= 426.7 +! 6,')6 = 443_3 V

443 - 400 ~ 00%- w.,- txl

400 X -'- .r» ~

l f the :;~une machine ~ ~ !l1i"lW l/\mrked ~8 :I ~rull(;hm.l1('JI]~ motor With tsnni FJ,tll vnllllgc." sl!1[i'i'ply -curreru and its IIDwer-factJO, kept lI:n:!l.ltcfed. fled [he exciratioa emf and the load angle,

FiJg. 3a.S~ (b) M!Qtorli1g"l'f~de

AI-' ;;;;; -16jXq'" - 65 V. All "" B6.,8 V. m;;= 7l,8 V

OB 400 cu~ 2(J" .::: 376 V

OF "" iJ76~ + 7],82 "" jg2_~ V

2cW -.5 ;;;;; 1.lfJ-1 131<'1013 '" tfLfi,-1 7 LSl376 == n.l.8~, 3: ~ 9.2"

-1(/ (Xli - Xq)~- 1.374 x {J,.:'i)== - 6_56w)[~, "!Ii shnwnin F~g_3::!,31 (b) OB '" or + FE=- 332,8 - 6.56 "" 376,24 vo]ts

FE ,-
S -'
Cu rrents .
.td ;;;;;
I =
</ oc ... Wat.np


OD", 110 CO .. s ]G_go '" 9_H2J ~lmp.ld "" DC "" sin ~ OJl" '" L874 amp

Nute. 1<1 ill itt dQWDS"'lL"1I ciiin:l't'km.

Hence. -IJ O:rJ - X'i)wiU beffo.rn F towards 0 i.e" along '-q' direction, Thus, ExdraliotD emf or 376.24, Vok:, Load lU1g1e .. 9,2,0

~N{lle. WiId~ respe,cl m the gellel"[J1Ql !node, E b;l!i deereased, w.fiDHe iOim_~ i:m::msseol_) P!lAlICr (by Olll~ ff()m:m! a) = 1 :1276 W1!UR" as b~furc

Power (bi' another formul Ii)

- .3 lCV EIX,) sinS + (V2/2) {U!Xql sin 28 J]

= :3 [(400 x 376.2"1,/10) sin 9,20 + (400 x 4()0:l2) (3.,.5/65) glllflil g_4~~ "'- 3 x [24G6 + :l360] "" Ill2:93 W[!JUS,

[Thismarches quite closely to the ][¥rf';VIGIIS value calenlared by otter fonnula.]


I!:clO.iJJ1liple 38.1-1. l-'~ lllt~'TlatlJr Ita.\: arnwture imJ#elitHi ,f: afm .. 5 +jO.866). When rwming ,a.HI _fY1fd.lnmoli:S motor 0111 200- V supply, 11 provides." ne.t rmlput al6 k'l-i~ l'hlf! haJJ a-nd j'ri,r·ti'OlJ J()SSf!~ Wrdl'J\r.mt Ie! ;500 1 .. IfcunY!IT.1 drcn-im' :py flut motor is 50 A, fircullhc: Iwtl possibt» [Jtmlle angles of cur-rem

aru;l two fJClsslb~,r~ iniluad e.mJ-.s.. I Ele .. !It thiru:s~I, agplll' lInh'. I \I\IOJI

. , ,

SolUlinD.. Arm, Cu lossrphase = t~- fl."J ~ 50~ x Q.S '" 1.2.50' \\'

[\,;'ln~Oiil1tJke "" 6r::mO + 500 + ~ 250 = 7750 W

p.L '" ens iji = Watt I VA", n50 I :?;(}O x 50 = 0.775:. = 39" lug or lead.

S = ran -I (X s! R) ;;;;;; tftlll- L n:l_"'66 I' .0.5) ~ (mQ ;

o 2J]IIY A

M ~


.L BOA. ;;; tSar::; - 39"= 2.1 a - Fig. 38.32 (a)

Zs - \/0_52 + O.866~"" U ,Q ~l'l Zs- SOx I = 50 V

AB "" El.; = bnoz + _jO~ - 2 x 200 X 50 (;TIS 21~; En- 154 \. rn Fi~'_ 3IL'2 tb), L BOA - 60"' - 39" = 99°

Atl· == l::b;;;;; Jrl,~n~ ,. 5(1) - 2 x 2>00 x 50 L~(J~ 99"; E" = 214 V.

1::Glmple :ntls. A 200-1!, J." r"c~ nnected, ~O-Hz. 8'·pole synchronous In tor hos

Zs -= (0. ) {)J' {)Jmrlj)htJse.Whe/~ rhe ~1:UJt_t)r FW'I.f a~' no-loa 1, thej~ekl excil'atim~ is (jJ.{~I·.w:d so tha: E

is rrHill;t:e eqMt'il to 'V,' When the moW!" is loa:t~ed: t:/w mtDl" L\:' n2far.-ded .by 3~ m;e.dll:mi~·at.

Dm" rhl? plw.sor diagram ana calc11.laM fh ~.1'1 r1ialW'E cm-rellt. po Iver !a.cwr 17ml pa ,i'e~· th« l'noWr. What ls JJU! ma.tinmm power {h,e uwro~- can slJ.tJpl:v wiriw1U j;'_~Ufllg emf of step?

lI:to\\'er Appamhls-D!, Delhil Utliv. 1988~

SoluLiulI. Per phase E." = V = 2')'0 l.fo,. ... 1270 V 0'. -"" 3~ (mech) -- 3~ :x (8(2, = ~ 2°' (elect).

A seen (ron. Fi.':': 38.33 a.

E = j 1270" + 1..7' '1 -.2 x .1170 x 1270 x cos 12"1114

R ' I

= 266 V; z, "" JOA~ + ~~ "" 6JH3 .Q,

1,/ -- E."/. I Z.;;= 2M 16.013 ~""'.l J.\_ From A OAR,

J 70 266

we get,


sin ~e, - ¢i) sin (,e - .¢l)

o =

sin .i2"

127 X .2..079!266 = 0.9926

IlIn-1 P() II?'{( ;., tan" I. (61 ~14, "" H6_18"

q~ = 86. lisa - 83Q '" 3_ ~ 8" .', p.I, ~.c s 3.18" '" 0_99'8r 'agl

VI" cos =:. x 1'270 x ·~4._ X 0.99& = 168 kW


TotE!1 u 10 Power developed by m()~m

; 3~,,~ Rfj ;;: 3 x 44 z.1 x >CIA"" 2,.34 kW = HJ8 - 2, .• '" ;; 165.66 k W

E'b\! E~: R,II 1270>d270 1270zxOA

... Z -'--l- = () O~"'i -. 11 := 25U k'\'

-s .z.T .. . 6.0 t3-

~)Larnpl38.lti. A 1-<!11, s)'nc.hl"mw~£ mol ,.lws tll:mck e.m]. ,pf2.50 '~ le ldi'~g by ISO tiectl'iml degrees ov~r ~he applied I'olwg,c of,20() vn1ts. The s r~ hn11lV'l.j· rea, ian e of the l.IYmal1lre ls 2.5 time; its resistance. f"bui the pow r factvrclt wbl ·h the mQlm' i, opfJ.rming lind stale'hether the' CW'It!f1l' drawn by 11~{! moWr i.~ ktuRng OJ" 'agging.

Solution. .A,J!. induced e.m.f, of 250 V is greater than the applie.d voltage ·f 2.00 y, it i,. clear that til motor is .. vet-excited, hence itmust b working w ii:h a leading [KJWer Factor.

III the vector d iagram of Fig. 38.33 (b), OA, represents applied voltage, AB iN had e.m.I, at an angle of 30" beeuu: e L llOC:= I 5~ and L COD = ,L. ,8EW "" 300". O,B 1.'epreSCtll)< re . .'mIHml of voltage 'P and Ej} i.e. ER

In ti. OBA,


Figl. 38,.33 (.1)

,lrl12 I- £/; _ 2\' Eb C(~M JO~)

)~220~ .. 2502 - 2 x 2-0n:x 250 x 1),866) == 126 V

Eb 126 __ , 250

or -

sin (8 + q.) 0.5 S,D ~l OJ + !l~)

125/]26 {<lppm~.) .: ((I + ¢i} :;;;;;; 90"

Now tan '" 2.5 .. H = 6WU' :. $; 90') - 6&"12' '" :11.~48'

• p.f, of motor - 0010 21."48' '" 0.9285 fleu.ding

E~l1mp e 38.n. The SJmdm:mous reacrw. 'r:; pI!N'phase Of Cl 3-pnr,Jse star-eonnected 6,600 'V sy,"jCh"Of1l0~Ili' mo~()W' rs .1O!l i'rJW'tl cen!'pill rood, ~'he i::1;Pil{ is 900 kW l/jTd rhe·inaue,eli Um~ .e.mj'. I:;S 8.Y(}(J V' (ling Ilalue)1 . EkJa.lMtlre the line C~1rr!?n!'. ,Neglect restsience:

mask ElecL M. dIines, agpnr Urn . Il993)

• ulI!lLinD. Applied vousge I phase = 6,600/ .. /3 '" 3.810 V Back e.m of. f phase - 8,900 f /i= 5,.14(1 V

E~ ,-
N~WI', .r.: '"
; simi (H '$ =
... Input = ·13 V~ _ .1 on,s $ = gno.,ooo

.. lcos$ :;;;;; 9x kQj I J3 x 6,600=78.74 A

In 6.. AJ3C otvector diagram U[U .Fig". 3fl . .34, we have AIJ~ :Ac2 +lJ;(:L

Na:w DB '" f. Xs"" 101

Be ~ on C06 <II ~. 10 1 cos $ 10 x 7&..74"" 78,7.4 V

5" 14n~ - 781.42 +AC:L ,,'. AC ~ 5.079 V or "" 5,079 - 3,810 : i ,26)9 V

tan ¢I = 1269l787.4 '" 1.612:', "" 58.2.~. c(),~ $ = 0,527

Ow .l 008'~ = 78.74·: I"" 7.71.l1.5:2.7 -- 149.4 A

Fig. 38.~

Examp I.: 38.18. A 6600-11; l'1'lJF.com;€,c.t.e.t; 3.phr.r.y:~! liJnchrot1.ou,~· motar work8 cil ct:}J:k'i/unt voltage and COfl:r.rW:l,1' f'_'IJ_·ir.t:J{io1l'. H.~ ,rynchmnmls reactance L~ 2,0 ohms per phas,e, lJlul tl,.,:r~a!ure resis/c,mce "to: 'liglM:! wh 1'1 rh _ {npm pcHrler i , 1000 k'H~ the PiJl~'er.fac.tor is D_S reading. Find It~e j(wwel- angle and lhe p weI' cto« w/teii flie .illlnt.r is increased to 15()IJ kW.

E1ed .. Mw:hines. MlE See, B 1991 j 5u1uumll., ,"Vben Pm.I·cr Input is UJ.IHlt Ik \V Fi~ . .J • .3_ (an

JJ x 6500 X ,I~I x OJl '" Imm,OOO; lr.I",WY'.3A

Zs ~ X.s- 20 ~1 ~ l~r:l Z:~I = lOSt] x 20 ~ 2186 V: $1.1 iii;;; cos" D ftS =- 36.g,rj·~ 9 ==: 90P Eb2= 381iOl f 2~ 362 - :2 x 3810 x 11.86 x C~)~ f9U"'+ 36.9")

'" 3,8, mi2 + 21861 - 2. x 38 Hl x :2 ~ gi) x - cos :5:3. 10; .'. E'" '" ~ ,;1 II (J 'Ii

Since e citation remains constanl, F.IJ in Ihe When Povo CIr En UI' 1 Soo k W :

Ji x 6600 J,,! (;0 - Itt'! = 1500,000; 1~2 cos!j)l = II'"' 1.2 A~ seen from Fig. ':'8.35 (b).

os -1,Q ZS '" .20 Ie ec = O'B cos $2"" 20 '..;2 CQS$~ "" :Zn X .1 3 i.2 = 26241 V ·r. .~ ~ DC' 1.." 'lD.2 ;i _.2 .ll.TD L\ t'!Ii i11'· ",~\,re u[J:\' e'l .1- il.)i ee . .t'1, L

+ lJ~ or 54101=.AC, 26:24~ fig. S!I.3'S

, .~C ~ 4730 V; OC ",4730 -3810 = '92,0 V


tan . ~ = 920/2624; (I>.. '" 191.4B; p.f, '" ces lID" -- co: 19.4:"' = 0_94'"'2 (Ielld)

~ f1 ,. .£

t:;JJ[I (Xl ""' Be l.AC '" 2624.14730:,.~ = 19"

K\J:I.IlJpJ~ 3H.J':I •. A. 3'pcir.ase;, .~tur·com~ected 4 ' - V 8yj'U;hrofj@IL~ man'or

~ak.e.ra.l:l ... (}w"'r i~!pul (JI-'.~472 ~'1i'tHf.'S. at .1'.'at.ed~GJ~W8.,e. lr~ '>J.md~ru.'mOf,jS ==: ~ ~'~l

ts .10 Q [ler piul~'e aud j'es!sWnce M' mtgllgdJr.e, ,,~~S eXCm;Il'L[mMltage ~I!' ~ ( l.-

adj.r.I~'rea eq~~' to the rated 'j){)lwf::et~f400 V. c6~/mla.~'e Ih~ road a;,j'gie, pa""'~er 9 ~ ,

Fac~(}ramJ aU! al'rm]ture C1U"F(!nt. I E.l~Cl. r-.1acldne~ A'MIE ~~e.. R. 19-90) ,0 ". J Il>A

l' ~ 231'\0'

~nlu.U[ln. ,./3 x 4UO x IfJ cor; q) "" ~47': ta 'C(JS QI ;: 7.9 A tu

Zs -- ~ I] il; Ef/ = '; Zs "" ]0 I" Fig. 38,36

A:. seen from Fig. 3:g.36. Be ;;;;; on cos ~ "" 10/" cO~'IP= 79 v


AC • ../2311. _792. '" .17 v; OC;;;;;; 23 l - 2J7",14 V

[£1.11"1 (;(I -- 14 I 79;tli = lO"; (;OS '" 0.985 na,g)

I~I co~ $ - 7.9: i".'" 7.9 f;;;; B.A~ tarn ,0:; '" .Be t .A.C .. 79/2 n; D'. = 211"

r.xl£mpln 38..2..0. A 2',OOO-v, J-phU.iM:', :Jda/f-carm'rlCled ,~)'m;::hliiJrMH,r.!i mtJ!:fJr h~s ~jlJ'" ejf:ectille reststaece ~~I~d ~)lnd~rOl.i{,mS reactance ,of 0'.2 n amt 2.2 n I"I!S[MC' til't'iy, Thi:.' iJ7PUt is sor; kJY aI' ll{)'n'fl.111 va',ag ami ~he irtduceti (!,m·f f.~· 2.500 V. C(ll ~ll(Jt ~h~ lin,e current CIIulpawe.1'.facJi.n;

r Ek -L Engg. A.AU.E.. .f~.r une l !,I!l.!j

Solution. mce the: induced e.III.f. is. greater than the "llplied voltage, the mot r 11111lil be running \"'i~th a leading p.f. If unll:: motor c urrent i s J, tlben its i n-phase OF power CODUPil:iiC,LlI ili.l COS ~l and reacti ve CUD.f.lp'OI.tit",[i.t i~ I sin $',


Electdcall Techno:IDgy

Let I cos ill - 11 8!lIcll sin 41 = '1 so !hall ~ (1.+ j 12) I (!OS~ - [1= 800,100 1-J3 '" 231 A

Applied voltage I phase '" 2"m!(l/./3 = 1.]54 V [m:lm~~dEl_m_f.1 phase ='= 2.500 l,fj ",.1,443 V

ln '~g. 38.37 0...1 '" l·~ 54 V and

AB j 443 \1, 01 leads Of!. by $'

d'l '" I Zs and fj "" 'l:lrn-! (2:_1/0.2) "" &4.80

Be i.~ j_ A 0 prodsced,

Now, F.J;I = I Zs, = (11 + jl!) {O.2 -I- fl.2)

., (231 .~ jlJ to.2 + }2;,2)"" 46,2 - 2_212) j r508_2 0.2 '2)

Obviomdy. 0 (46.2 - 2.2 l_): JJC =.i (5(l8,1. + 021,;,

Frum LI~ right-angled l\, A.BC, we have

JIB:! = sc'» AC ea !JC' -l- {AO + OC}2

or 1443~ ~ ~508.2 + t121,/+ {I ~54 oj. 462 - 2,212)~

Solvlngl!be above qmul:rm.ic equlli:ion. we· geli1 "" 71 A

I ;;; Jl.2 + i; =J2Jf ,1" 71~ '" 241 p.f. "'" '1I1", lllt242- 0.9:5 (lead)

F.nunp:1E .38. ':II. A 3' phasf!, 441)· V. 50 HZ. ."tar-ctmru!GWli ir:~mdn;rmoui~ mmol' ',IJVJi: 7,46 ,leW /mm tJu~ tnree phase l.llll'lliJ/,. Thx: resistance per phase o/the ,armtUtIH! wl;ru:lillg is O.i ohm, TIll' motor operate m {l p. o. 0/0]5 Jag_Imn Ql'ltl medmmicaJ dOS.H!·S t.mw~ml· to 500 W'll'U,V_ Tile excltasion los is 650w(-ttl~. SSlJJJ't~ the SIJUn.:e lor excitation 10' be a separase (me_

C~tc!ttll.'f.e_ 10 ,n'm.mL~te·cm-nmt, {iiJp17we'l' ~H~pplie,d M tlie motor; (uti e:}ficie~rc:y of the .p'j'wlar

(Afll!"ln'njiJ L-nivc.mtr II"}l

Sf~·lution. A 3 ~ph~lii:e . ·ynchr~~nQIl5 IDolar receives power linm two sources :

I.u ~ 3-phasc 1), Co. source feeding power to the armsture,

(1';1) D.C. source for the excitation, feeding electrical pOW'C[ ,dy tn the field winding.

ThlLS,. power received :froWlJ t~.e [I., c, seurce i~~ uti~iZ'.ed omy 1;0 lneenh,e copper-losses ef the fieM


3 Phase liII.C'_ S01l!rre feeds d ctrical power to [be annaturc ferfollowing components f power:

VI Net mechanical power output from the; shall hi) Copper-lesses iM. armature 'Wiliad:iTlg

am Flf'klion, ami. i1n:natlilJe-c(l[·e-looses.

[11 case of tile given r1roblem

. ./3, X J'fJ X 44 . X 0.75 "" 7460

!"J "" E!,052 SiInp

Toral er}ppEir-h;jlss in armature wi.ildi.~g - 3 x ·13_U52~ x 0,510 "" 255 W.[JU 'Power supplied to tile motor '" 746G + 650 "" 8110 watls




- (An[uatm.", ~:np[IJt)- (COip]Jef lesses in annatare w~.il.di:r~.g)

- (fJr-h:a:Lon aad irmi k:»l~e~)1

- 7460 - 2.:5:5- 500= 670'- warts

es 67U5 x WO% = H2.1?1 ann

eITiciel1!C)i' of the motor

Efficiency of the rnoto


E:mm p le 38.22. Consider C~ 33()f) V deua a:mflii3Cll-'tt Syl.rch1C(mO,~ts motor ho~il~g a Jlym::hmnml,\' rt jctal!ce pel' phase oj' 18 nh,~.. "r openues {J,t (~ leailing pI of O. 707 wl'lmi dn;tu'ing .flOO kW ;'om mains. C(J.lc.~!I(l~e. its ,ex- iwtiou ''fI!l' ~l,uj the rotor . .'I'!3Ie ('" defJa), t'xp'iainil'lg the taller tenn.

1".:1 'l.. MOIl:biQe5 N<I~1Il1' Unlv, 1.993)

So]ulioD. ..)3 x ~ 300 x I x 0.707 =: S (1.000

Iff -

Line current "" 19~ A, phase current, f~ "'" ~ 98/,JJ =]114,3 A;

.Gj -18 n: i,] z, ""' 11-1..3 x: 18 -- 2058 V $ _ Dn,~-l n.707~ $= 45°; H "" 901';

cos ~O + $') - OQ~ 135,0 '" - cos 45~ "" - 0.7.07 "·ro.iill Fig. j 8 . .3f!. 'we find

Et? = 330n~ . 20581 - 2)( 33Q(I:x 2058 x - 0.707

. ~ ~ ~73V

From A OAB. we get 2i158isifl a -. 4Y73ls,j[l I:~ c" .. H nee, (~"'" 117"

Example 38,,13. A 7j·kW, 400.V, <f.-pole, 3-phase star connected .Iym::hmm:ms motfJ',I' hl!J$QI re sistance t1~d S)'nchrotlOUS tet,lC~afil(:e pep pha~'e oJ'O.04 ohm of/nul 0.4 Ol'l1J'1 res~!'Jectl~te,ly. Compille for .ff,l.u-l~md 011 pj. leod the ope~j circui: e. mJ per pJlwe ~j'litt m.lZckcmka! jiNlwer dev(floped. As £tI1ne ;(:11/1 ,(!Jfkhmc)I 0/92. %. fETcrL MIl.chi.ueg MIlE See, .u. 1991)

SoiulJion. Mot.or n nlJlLl t = 75,000 f .915"" 81. 080 fA

1;'1'" 81,0&01 ·./3.x 'OQtx t;3=1463.:,7_5'=\/010.2 . OA~ ~O mll I~Zs = 146.3 x O. 02 ~ 58..8 V: tan.~ - 0.41 0 .. 04 = 110;

e __ 811.3"; ~ = COS-I 0,8 : 6 '" 36.9": ~ e I~) ~ ]21.2";

u ,1'f1i\ ,. M ')·"1 ~,

~p1r = ....... v . \!,l = .. .:1 .~.

As. ~~!lI from F6g. 36.39,

Eb~ '" 23 ~ 2 .. 58.82 - 2 x 23 ~ x 5~Ul X 008 121.2~ E,~ l:p}1,ase.~ 2.66 V Sl11!tur Cu los ~ f ". 3 phases "". 3, xU~6.3 2 x OJ14 '" _j70W;.

N. "" l20x 50/40 "" 1500 r.p,m.

p;" "" 81UiMO -2570 = 785,10 W '~ Tg "" 9.~. X 78510/1500 "" 5011 N-m.

E.sample 3!tl"., 1\ 400- V. 3-{)hmit!, 50-1'1 " Y-cmm cudl JJ]ll'.lchronous motor has ~ resistanee w~d ZYl'i('ht{)!~(jw~ imp{~dmle~' ofO~5!l and 4 n pel' phase re :Wu:r.ivd. It l€lke;\' (l qt'rh~'flt of is ./\ tu unit)/ powerfactor when (}pettI:l'ingwlfh II c:erwillJield current. '[rhe .lotJd toi'tj~!e·i.v inC:I'l!'ll!ied r-l'r1.tU rAe line C:Ul"llerrl i.~ increased ~'O, 60 A. liM fii!!ld C1.'l·n·ertl' rei'nahlh~g un.r:JU;lJl'?le.d, .ctJlCl~I(JU rile grO!i,1J: torqUl' r1~I}f:l{)pedan.d ~he~,I~ w power /aLror. (El~t:t .. l\laJ.:Mnes. A.!\'fIE, SItC. R .992)

SO]UUUh. The comlhi{l\~lS corresponding to ~ne .fir.~l case are shown i.Tl1I Plg, 38.4,0.

VolHlge!phase 4{)OI· .. ,/3" '" 23] V '~ 1,1 ,z.~;;;;; OB '" l5 X 4 "" 60 V

x JZ; -.lit! :;; ,J4- - 0.5'l"" 3 . .968 0:

e ;;;;; trul-I 3.96&111.5) = t[~rtl 7.936) == i t8"

Et/' "" 2::112+60.2-2>:: 3.1 x60xcud::I"48'; EiJ = 2:111 V ]r is obvious Ihtat motor is running with normal excitari III because E/) '" V


V{llcn the m~tor load iltl· ii ncreased, the I?h£LSe. ll]llgJ.e berweea the app.~icd vo]t~~g~, ,<InC! t~e induced (err hack) e.m.f. ] s increased. Art (31t'7 .. The vector diagl'am:is as showe ill Fi.g, 3SA·l,

.Lc:l,~be the nw phase angl '. 'a z, "" 60 x 1, "" MO V

L. BOA - (RI"4W - iii),


Fig. 311.41

Since the fie ld current remai Iil~ constant, the value of l' remains [hIe same. .. 2J~~;;;;;: 23I~.;. 2.402 - '2: )(131 x 240 cos C8lQ48' - ¢I)

• • CO~ (81048' - iln = 0,43025 or 810 48/' - $ .... M~24'

.. 4~- IW4S' - 64Q24':: :1.7"241', New p.]. '" Co;" rr24' = U.954 Hllgl

MQltorri:npul- ,fj X 4U X 60 X 0.954 - 39;6fiO \V

anti anm tu:rc Cu .lts~_ = 3 x 602 X, 0 .. 5 ~ 5,400 ,\\1

Eltttrica] r ,lWEi" convene limo mechanical power "" 39,660 - 5,"ln[l - "4,2)0 W

N". - 120 x S;% = 1000 r.p.m, Tg"" 9.55 x 3A.,.260/WOO "" "3,27 N-m

Ex..'illlpl~ 3S.lS. A 400-v' .10 h.p. (7.46 k W)" 3 -phase .wnchWilloUR motor has negUg rb'le arnunure 1f.!wi3'r:i11'IC·e fJmJ a ",)wchmm)'/'!:!i reactance oj W W' ! p'~(J','\'e. D'ilfemfine {]~e mbilimwlI C~l~:·"{,~~'t {;~~r,d the c(;Jr'rfNjPtJndi.1:'~r: i1J:t:iIJ;CetJ t!'.m"f.lor fuU-Ioa.d (xmditkms, 1\ ,&um:/i' ,rlIU 'efficiency ,oj t"/5%.

f A.I ·.lVIilldIim:fv·l! Jtld ¥pur Urn", 1111871 Solution. The c:unrent is rninlmnm whenthe power l~i!lCJl~~r is l.IJfi,ty

i.e .. , when cos ,$ ." .1. 'he vector diagram is m; shown ill Pig" 38.42.

l_ qotor input 7460 I 0.85 '" 8,775 W

MOI(Jr I,j na curreru 8. 1i.5 I ·./3.x. 400;.;; I ;;;; n .t17 i\

Impedance drop '"' fill Xs = I {)I x 12.67 =- 126.7 V

Voltage / ph:.'_~e 400! ·.,/3 '" 31

s, ~ l'2J, 12 + 126.72 '" :!.I'u.", V



'r- ,"/




n :lJI.V

fig. 38.42

~lTIp~~ 3H.26, A, 4QO-'~ 50·Hz, 3"[iilCJSI!, 175 kliV,' SltJf~('m:~j1W[·ted :~)i.w~d:1n~.rm!1.~ mato« has .1. ,/idl·loaa efflden~:~' of 88%, The .5}·Jldu;t)mlm~ fmp~rilmu::.e 0101(1" f~iorO.r ts (0.2 + j 1.6) ohm: per ph~1~Y!, lJrhe a'(.'llatifm "i Ifw. motor is {}(~fiiS~ed to give a /el1dh!g {Jol,jtcr"j.i:1ctnl" (}fO. 51!, ,c,akui'.au: tr~ti' fo!l(nili~ .• .for ftdll(){;Icl r

11 lite e ,dUJtjcnJ' e.m];

ii) the total meckinnicrupow8r delletO{Jed fElcrt.Macbin.f's. A.J\LLE. ,. ee, h, 1~K91

Sululiu!.l.Mulnr illput= 37.Sl0.S8 "" 42.6] kW; !,j ;;;; , 2,6HlJ,fi x 400 x 0.9' = 68.3 A

V ,..400/..J3 ",,231 V;2s""0,,2 .... ; L6-L612L:B2Jfl'"

EN ... 1" ZN= 683 x 1.611 ",I U) V~ '$ '" cos-J {O,9} "" 25.84~

Now, j,$ + ®).'" 2.5.84D.~ 82.87" "" 108,.71'0 cos ('$ + 6) .., cos WS .. ?l" '" - 0.32

, 11 ., , . _ _ _ '._

\a) :. E1.- = V" I E~--2 VER cos 108,71worE/,,_2$6 V

Line valine ot excitatlon \loItHg,e"" .Jj , 285 ... 4~5 V

I h)rorl1ll. DAB, (Fig. 38.43) ER I sin Cl: "" E b I sin {~ + £I};, rJ: '" 21.4"

Eb'l, 286>: 23.1

P f/j - 3 Zs sin '0: "" :3 USl2 sin 2.1 AD = I·US,,! "

lAg. 311.43


TIxrunpJe .lX . .!7. A: MOO·I~ star-connected: 3~phw!e ,Wl'u:JJrm.W~I:,f motcwwrJl'kJ] ~t C.o.r1Jta1t~v:oltage ,fmd C'{m,~wm ex(:ltG1iGI~,. Jb' s nc:hnmn.us reaaanc« i$ 20. oiun per phcu;e cmtI m"J~rl1ru.w r sistasu:e lwgUgiM , WfwlI fh i1iJ!u~ power is 10()Q kW til ~IOl'l',f! factor IS 0.8 'eactiIlM_ Fhlll tire power all le and tile pcn er {j 'WI' ~'Jum Ihe .irrpm is increased W 1500 .kW:

Eled~ ladtines. AJl.l.L ., S ee, R., J 9'J I J

SJilluUnn. V"" MOlH 3 "" 3810 V.I '" ](100 x l03,Jj X 6600 x 0,8 ~ 109.3 A

The phasor diagram is shown in Fig. 38.44, Since N." is

negligible, 'EI "" 90"

E~ '" J~ Xs = W9,3 X 20 "" 2186 V 0.8. $= 36.87"

~ ~ 'or -'8~

v- .~ fiR - - 2Eh ~I COS (( .. 1" ~ 36. 7 )0 :

5410 V

co -
E,b I ==
£/, = ow, excltati I1i h been kept O[lIl."Lr.in I. but power ha ' b· en lncreased [0 11500 k\V'

E .

3 Zb sin 0:' - ~

P 3 .54IOx;;8]o. I~"'O' 101 "II'\D

; '. x '. SIliI 0: = :l'u. x " r ; 'ct "" ,_7




~_ V

cos. cos (0. .~ '$)


II' "" 19,39'\ cos ,~;; c s 1939~ = O.9,;JIk'ad I

EXilmph:,' 38.28. Il iDO-'v' 5(),H-;., 6-pok, 3-pha:!'{!.-cmmected' svnchronaus motor bas II S}lllf:hroUf.}Wi H!~lCUUW(: of4 o.hmlphase and _~ re. istanc o:{O.5 ohm/phare., Qrjfi:dl.llJ'(JIJ~ the excitation is mijuste,d so that machine lake {Ill armature ,c!~rHml (Jf6,o ampere eM Q',866 fJ.. • lemJi'~f;.

Keep'iflg (111! ,~';rrcttmfO'n '.:.II;Cntmgea. jiJliI ,~lw mu:.riil1ump.o,we ,- all tput, E. -cit(<l/ion, frier-ioll. ·L'1tld-

age and iran losses ~O{(Jl, .2 .I(~V. tElttlrl1:all\llu:Wner.~'-m. Baugu.lure Uu.l1r'. 19~m,

So~ulJun. 'V ;:; 4fmr ,J3 = 23 ~Vfph<!se; Zs"" 0.:5 + j , ;; 4 .. 03 L 82.'9", EI -- ~2 . .'9'~

l~ Zs .:. 60 X ;j,03 '" 242 V~ C[J~$ = [1'-866

$=3_ lad A s.eerli fl" m Flg, ~~ '. 15,

2 = 2312 242;! - '2 x 231 X 2,t cos I :12,~ Eo .: ,31J4V

= Ei}l £1: R., 394 X 231 3942 x U .. j

z:;,-- Z,~ "" 4 .. 013 -UB~

= .17,8U4 Wtrh'I~.e. -A.r[, 38. ~:2

Mux:imumrnwer deve loped in armature for 3 plut. .. es = 3 x n,R04 = 52,412W

Netoutput = 52412 - 2. no == 50.,4 L \\.r = 50.11 kW

1EKamp1~ 31L211 •. A. (j'~f}{}le .j;) .U:hro'flO1 :I' motor tias al7 W'I1I'll:jU1'e impedance of-I () n and a H!'si,~1:tJm::c olO',5 Q_ WheN t<Jm.mg Uri 2, 00 IJOl(;f, 25-H'l. ,~l,p'P'ly mait, > its field e cita ,hm i Sfl ~'i. !)ltlt "he e.m..j: l!u'hJI:ea ilJ the m{JcMIU~ is 1600 ~~ CarcultJ3'e lhe F11C1xi)num total Umj14e' ifl! N-!lj dei1eloped before the machine (H'ops o.u'l' oj' :!IYI'ld~ro'ldsm,

So]ul i.IH, AI;~urn.ing a three-pilasem.owlf',

If = 2000 V.Eb = 16®OV ; l?~ "" 0.5 fA; Zs "" ]0 [~~ ClOS EI'" O,5nO "" ~120 Using eq[lS!doI~ (ii~) oiAr~. 3"7, to, t.hc totalmax.powerfor 3 P.kLSe:sil~

E- V e t.2:m:m X 160016()f~2 =< ]

(PI _ _12 __ -~ cos e -", 307,200 W:lIU

,: In"'","",' ,_ Z Z' _ 'I no '~O'x 20'"

~s 'S ' 'u l

Now, N s "'- 12:0 f I P '" 1210 X 2~)1fi "" 500 r.p.,~.l,

l:'el7~. mf"~' ~,e tile mexumim gross torque, dlen

l' _ 9.55 x 3'~7:0 '" .5,8fi8 N . rn


Example, 1!1'.30. Al.2,OOO··1f,' 3~ph(Jse, 4'fJo~e" l"·ro~fleCft'd .\iY!1ChroIW'~fS mmo'/' I'~ms at 1500 r.p.m .. The exc.ftatiou iscol'~.s'ram arid c::orre:;pmuJs:u, an ope,~'j:-dJ'!~f;1,dt terminal ~Wf,{;jR'e of2.000 ~' 17M re;.\'i,~{('1~1(:': ,,~ ~e.gUe.ibte ,Cl!.j' {'ompal'ei1~i{fh £.\l\flchJ'onou,~ reacUJ;nce of J ~~ pel' 1"JiftJii8. J)~hmnLI'le the lJ'QW~T b~fJll(, ,powelf facto,,/,, a1'uj' ~'wqtie dev'f,;~f@peti 1m' al~ m'n!alureCUrmm ol2'OO A.

IEIt!'l~lEnID!.A. Nagpu Unh' . .l993)


Induced e. m.f, = ~ 1.)0 V

- given

Irn pedam::e drop = 200 x 3 "" 600 V ..::..

As shown ill F~.g" 38:.146, the annainre current is 1H'i~~un:Uf.\d llD la.g &

behind V by an Hnl.g:le ¢I, Since R~ ;~ m:::gligi.ble, 9 = 90~.

L BOA ~ (9(r'- ¢l) '0 ~Y---:-----___"'.A

!,l.50 V

C()[),.,~ dering tL BOA, .we have

! i .5U!-1 L'Hl2 ~, 6mi·- 2 x 6GO x .1 LSD cos (9 (I - ~)") si.ml.$ '" O.2:6Q:5~ ¢I' _U:1.2u; [L(''''' enR l.6,2'~ '" lI.9U,\llagJ

Pml,'e! input "" Ji x 2/0r:m -x 200 x 0"965 "" M&.S k W

N 5/ ;;;;; 1500t..p.rn, . , 1~ -- 'l.5:5 x 66,,350fL'5iOtJ= 4,2:55 N ·m.

Etl!t'dmJl]~' ]!tJ 1. A 3 -(~, 3300-1!/;' Y'CGflrI,e'crea syr,IC"i1rvl~m(l; mel'!tJr nt:fJl 6~1',r eif'ec1i~V! fe:si.~~{uwe ~md sy'u;hror~(ms n!elCfeMICe of .2.on (md. i 8. 0' .ll pel' phase uli~:p:e£d~1Id:J.i, ,if ~/if' Opt:/i -c£f(;"~d,t glmettlted ,eo. tn.f is 3800 'V I.N_'(We~m Unes. t'CLkIJ'a re ~ i I the I~Jltl'A1inntm {.CJlaf Itre(.'h(Jl~i('.Cll powe r 11'UJt the mOira," Ctlll ile~;e.l()p (lJull it ~ the current fJfI(;t p.f. &t the n'JaJl-tlii',11.1m1'l:rech{,mJc~tll1.o~'ve~

~£I~L:l..d.t:al t\Jm:hilm~fU. (';ujl.lrlll [llll". ~I)HHi



S:olutioR. €I", t.ailCI {lSJ2} - 83.}"; \f!,~ "" ssoo !.fj= 1905 V~ s; = 3B(lO ! ... /3 = :H95 V

.Remembering thal a. '" e for maximum puwer dcvdoprrnem fAr: 3g~ 10) ,

Er~ - (119056.~ 2195l - 2: x. li905 x 2195 x cos 83.7")1/2,,, 2744 volt per phase

lor z, ee 2.,744·~ Now. Zs- }l.? + ~g~ ;;;;;; .~ R.II ,Q

I a -- 2744n S. ~.I=t52 A1rh<!!sl;: ; 11m;. cnrrent = [52 1-\

, " , -

l' ~ " .E[,V E;;R.~. 2195 x isos 2~95- x 2.

(".),J1 .... perpr ase '" ZJi - Z s~ = i 8,]1 '[8,1]"

ea 23'0.900 - 29,380 '" 2:0152.0 W pel.' phase.

M3x~mu:m power for [~:m'le ph'ls.e~ ~:hal fhe motor C<'lJJ devdop h~ its (1rmamro' '" 2:01,520 x:3 '" ~.s6D W

Tot.a~ Cu losses ;;; .3 x .1.522 x 2 '" ]JS,7(W W Mot:or inpul "" 604,560 + 138. 7GO '" 743,260 W

fj x 33fm X 152 X ~'()8 ~._ 7413,260 .'. C(K~ $_ UJ<l5S U~~u..n.

Exanrp 3R.3J.. The excit ttio» U/Cl 41 J-V, 3-p11Q 'f',,~ s.fl-··;mlfiect"rl ~yd~chro·,lt)wJ moeor is such lhm the indiJCed f'.m,·. is' ,2 ~(The imped(lm:,_ per phase is (O.5 +4.0)' Im1 . .l fheir; 11:f1/'J and iron losses are! con -wm m l(}tJ() \IK 'r"almlCJte the p'{}~w:!r t}ul1mf. rifle CW"I' m. {HJ.l!f'" j'i:u;.rm- and ej)"ideJiLY for mwdmwll power j}'Lf1:p~,!t'. fEkCL Ischi:nes·[. M~dl'a,~ LJl'!h,_ 19871

Suillilion. AB seen from Art. 38~12. for fixed E~. V, N", and X:" maKimum pt;l";,Ve~ is developed vdleil ft = tI_

N w,


lZs = 6~3; ZS"" .J4'2 +0_52 = 4JB Q Lim: current ;::;' Jj X U ~ '" 26 .5 A

I '" 625!4.03"" 155 A

520l x 0_5

---- = 45,2.:l0W ] 6.25

P "" !JaV _ Eh- 1(J. ... 32U x ~fI5

C-,nJJlI!Il!L ~

2';\; Z~~ 4.0.3

M;nc. PClWl:T fOIf 3 phases ~ 3 x 4j.23fl = 135,690 W

Power Illr,mt = pOWe.l~ developed - 'iron andfrictioa losses ; 135.,6'90 - 1000= 1 34,69n W"" 1.3~Ji9' k\\f To~1 OI~{l;.~S _ :3 X I 55'.1: x 0.5 ;= J6~080 W

To[8i.I motor iaput» .1.35,690 oF 36,0'80"" I ?l.no w

-/3 x 41)x 268,,;5 x cos 'V =. 17']'110 : 'co~ \il' .. 0.8 'lead II Efilici~nit:~' "" 134.690117 i;nO = 0.7845 or 7R.45 %

Tutorial Problems 38.1

I. A 3-phase. 400.v, synchronous motor t!kJl~~ .52..5, A .ill:l. power factor '01 O.:8.l!;.l! ~jilg. C,,1;et~hll,e the powe r sepplled and ltl!!': muoc1l ~.IJ:~J. 'TI1.e awmj' i IT;lpeaanCJe per phase Is (0.25 + }3.2) ohm.

Il9!,l\,\'~ !C'ij!'UVl .!.c inpU!t UJ :II H-kV. 31jl Y..com~ccl:Cd Syilclm:.1Iluli motor Is flll.A.. 'Ihe effective re .istance 1111£1. 'ync:hrou{lUS reacsaneeper phase arc 1 :Q and 30 Q l"Cspt:'lC!:i ely- l'rm<i \11 I powc:rl!p:plil:u (0 tile t O'[U1' <mt'! (01 the laduced e.m, ._ for II p.f of O.S l1:luJing.

I~a~ ~15 kW (bl J.J'-'1 ~Grui'l, ucu: 1Jm:.1978J :1_ .i\ 2,2!OO- V. :I-phase. star-oonnected SYI·I~ru·O!ll)(ll.~~ mol (lJ' 1.1a~ a resistanceof p. 6 .Q ~.nd II Syn,d11'ODOlJS reactance aif6 n. F'imlllll!;:; gC:l!lc:ra~c 1 e.m.f and l.I'le angular retardadon of the motor when Ihe input KS 200 kW aHll.! power fa tor lmit)' aml I hI power f.'l .ior 0.6 leading.

IIIill_21 kV; IJ.3" Iii :!.62I>iV~ 11..11"1

01,. A 3-lf.Il'l!~!;ie. 22U-V. SO-.Uz., t:;uo r,p_D1 ..•. m.eBJI·Cglllllc~led ~Jil~hro.rLDIJ .. Ulmar has a SYIU;:IrI1JllOlIS iinped 1J:Ib!'C iJI II oil! n .[:If!!r p~1a_~ .. k.recei 'i' an ir.IJ:llIl1im; enrrent gf)~ I A at 11 1~~ililgpQw~r r<L(;(or (If n. 8. -11IJ1J W' line value of the laduced e.m.f, mid the 1 ud ~ungle ~·l;.Dre~ed In. mechanical degree .

II i- til mecbanical load is thrown ff without cl'l~j'ige of exei.lanoll, deterraine the m~lg. itnde of the curren; under the lIew condi lions. Neglecl losse .. [168 \r; ,t·. 1f1_b /\.1

5. A .<ill!]. V. 3-'ph~se, 'r{ --t,;OIlllilec~ed. ~j':niClh.rDrnou~ mCltm takes 3.7 J kW IT nonl'lal V'l1J'ta,ge and has ,[[I inl[l!&lllil.!::C o:f (l + jfn ot.l LTl Il>;;~ [jll~_e_ CalcLllate tlrm G"L1m:.1iIl ami p.r. if ttieindll.ced e.m.I .. is 4C:iO V. rU8 ~ II I'i k;11l1] ,1F;hcl1'l£.td lillgiDt!fflnf{, ,,,Iadrns Unil' .. -lpnl J.!J7llIl

D. The input to> MOO-V, 3-phi18e. star- .OllllCCIOO s),IlCbl'IIJIllOHS motor ls - O[) k-W. Tile synehron U~ reacWI] . e r er phase Is :!O fA 11l1d [he effective res1stHJJCC is m~gl l!!i'ble" tf the generated volt gc is 8. 00 V

rlme], I;UIJCU]l.1tc the mU1itJr ,~il!mml amlll}; pt::n .. cr :Eacmr,

~ illlllL. Sc~ ~ng,!o'I!.j F..k. 3M.11 'I ~ J,71£l',rmlI!l'IItJ'ir I, JUS {.r'J~!f" ,1 JJ.rl~ lil19,

7 A ~-JjlI1Oh-~ ~y~chri:l~I{liY!l, mmOr cOl'll1!eC'led ro ~l:'OQ-V n!~~JlIS ~,-hl> ,u SI:ilJr-ct!'lm~lI;:d ,[1IJUmlIJL'i!: 'I'Il111l nn ~m,pi!d:I!!C"C (I r OJ; +,) ~ 5) YhriilfJ~ r ph.ti....'iII:. llu= 1:);l;;ifi!liIJ.fHI'f rnm,;;[nnc gives 7000 v. Tin: tron, hil:ln,m iilnd <I: ~'ii. .. ih~n Ips.sc::; MC 1'2 11:\\'. Fb:n~ ~h;: nilll:!!~m1J!m QlllP;!:! L {If 'the m~t0r 115i!.MI ,11(' l

8- j\ 3~OO-\l. 3I.ph:J£E1_50-Il'b ... stor-mlJliiootoo iiyrnchr!)nOLl5 mOlm tim: 3 ~!"m:1H'(mQus, iI'lJP~dD.llI00 or (2 + )J5} 01.11ll_ Ope"t':!l.I1I1g with ~J1 e:O::.l:'ilatJ.GIII mrrespol1ding mlln e.m .. t, Ilr :!,:_'iOO V t>el"Ween Im@.!L. It JU~~ fi1,I~s ml~ L1h'];eJ~ ~!r fi;!iHo@l~I, n, "",lull j)lIT'er~-·d!"C'!Ji'[ e.rn.I, will it h,~vt: to be t:1'll;;ill:d uHU1nuJ II 5fl% i!';M:~5 tcmqlJc. H k'" I

~. A b,6 kV. :;;[:If-Co[lnC't::loo. j.pha:m. synchseaous mOtDr works ~l oonsronl ... olt~~c and eonsian I: exe I' IJlJUDrI_ ~"5. 81'fI(:ltrQflfUl' nmlJ,ed.DllC~ i!. rto .;. j ::!DJ per phase. ,,"Vhelll tile i fliP'1[ ~ urn k'lU, its f'l1'1!.'er f acter LS U.1l ,lead! 1iIll. Find lil~ power f acWr~' hen (lim Ln(l'LI~ IS ~ ocreased 10 ~ ~OO' ~W (50 I ve ~li1Jpl:lIcrrlly or otherwise).

lD.iJ"lS ~iI'Sdl'\A UTii' Suo n .4dIi1UH"td mm. Mad)fJ1 ',\: (~-9""J15rlm.mi'"1' ~r)lil) U)" A 22M· V. 313 kW, .l-ph"~se, srar-cenneceed ~ym:'1],m!1d!1l~ J!lA'H!l!' thO.!l q re~is~;:U1J;:~ ~f .0.3 r~ ,~rrHI ,n ~yl'lC~li'[ltIlJUfi, DeuCllHflCl:: tj,r ~)O n ~l!er p.r.f"lliC rell[Jt:c[ivd), Determiae 'lite .illlducoot:...Iiil.:f. peFpibill.i: if the rnotofwC!rk.!. en full-l Dad wiU:1 an i1 ffielf'IlIC',Y of Y4~r t:en!. rmi:! rnp_f. 'llif UJl l~dnllIg.

II'; 10 \,'] tEl ~-mfid' .~IJ1r-I!mcT;l' •. R~"·lJrI' t m r, J WJ'

11. n~ 'i)'flL'h.rnnoill rea;:::li:hm:'~ per [).~;~~ rlL.l 3-pl!a_~-e~t~lf-<.'Unl1:ect.td I6fiJUJilI V ~foc:l.'1ff1f1 [Jus mGtD~ i~ ~D n. Fnr,~ certain Imld. 1.111: inp~t 1 ~ 9 ~ 5k\'!;r 1l.,nO:m1JEl~ YlJlra,!li1: .IJ:iU tin: uidl'u:eoo lim 'i::.Iii] of. lli 8.942 V. EvaJuiliLe tllle lme curnnu and the ~'Lf, N~gl~ct resist:ml::~_ 191 A; O,K2-5H 1I~.(h~

~:L A SiYIII~hm:nous 1!11OtDr' hns an ,@ql!l.i,v~lenl II!m:I:ILI!lII'e .~e..il.etflnc:e o,r :1..3,0- The ellcHirng CUiff[1;lII~ [s !IdJ t1Sled ILl ~u~h II ''I''bl1klC ~~~~ m:!:g,.:nern~ctl c,mJ. i-:; 9!~;n v. 'Pih~ 1iI'iiI: pU-WCf fru:l~~r ,m! wh~ct:J Ilh,.: '!l1l[1t~lf ...... mJli1I operate when mr.lf.lg [I kW fmlll'lli &OOJ..V supiPlj' lI111ins_ [ 1,%.5 Imdlng!ICitj ,I; Gi!iIJ~. l .. jfiJlIr/l Lt, The mpat to nn ~.lt:ml, v .. 3.ph:l>!il S{[lH~QMernerl sr.1lD11~rnmll~ U.u,i!U is 61:Ji l\_1be e'rfe:cuve resi.st..:lnCl:'

~tnJ ~ynciI!nl'ilfl.~ re-;;ll:;!l.!IH~e per pt!< .. se ure reslil~cli~'~ly 'I n:llm and ::m ~rnm;'S. Flrnl .h~lnLW'ler SU:llpihBL1 lQ ~h~ mO(iLl, .md tht~!1d(1~<=(:l d~lf>tinlOttii".~ 'f~r~ for (I pow~'r' r.ll;l~lr a['Ullt~lj~ing.

Il ~1 ol.S k W. 1 J k V) [Eil'.r/. j\l(u;/lffl.~,r,; .> t.M.Li":' ."ii!l'". 11, I V9t~ J

W -J. A.:IOO- V. ,('i-pooh:. J.plm.£e'. 5IJI.,(-fz. stl!r-eonrneC:l"ll'd sya:u::hrt!n.om IllDLiJf IlaS ,m. rru.islJlil]ce' Idl.CI s;ynchroI'lIllU~ reactnnee I."lHl,5, l~tI:n~ ~r filil.'!l!:>""'e ,~'nd .:l~~H'!:lp~r ph~:<;e fe!O,~~li\l~I~. n .~ ul.::lE!i. .a, L"1r~[I! of !;:; A m ,ulilil}' power f;J(;rof ""'h~ifI (!J)Cfa(i~]r WiUil:l ClCrtaifi fLr;h1 wm::l'll, 111 .he i(mi1l Wrqltio: iii iru;1'C~d, lIil\~~ I ~'ie' line. ~um:rnt I~ 60 A.." tI:J~ :ti ~:]d CwrnlIlIll"Ci.J]minilJ_g ul:lclmn~ed, filld. thegmss [!CIrque d~w loped. and Il:oc:

Ilew p(i\,~rer r~L'lm; 135-.1 ~m.: 0'.93] rEtt,a. £"gg .• 'LtlliETE lkr:. 199.tJj

15. The inpll'l. 1.0 a I :1.OlIO .. V; ~-Jllm!'i~. ~~l!tr-C:(l!!llectl1l[1 ~~'fI~hi'O~lrlli$ tltfl!l'Or ~~ (iO rl~pi;res. 1'he ~'!'Ifee~ij\ie resistance al1d .''')'TLchr{Ji:I(I:L!S~t:;;]cmnc!i: per pha:sc ITB~ ,~Jlt'~1i.'Vc ly i olmi II.nuJ JCl ohml, Find lI~e power sUlpipHoo to nim mmnr and the Lf1duQ;l~d e.I'IlJ". ror fI(Iwer fEi,d~r 'Ylf 0.8 (~)i i~ifl-.!Jl ;lm;1 ~h)hlg!ll.i'lg

1915 k\'II' iui 1.:1, k,\" r&~ '9'.Jli l.Vr .£lIT" MIJ~liliJt"'l.U> Sarr.tll, Guj~rai ,(.'tj'!'v. 19,ji't) 1

11\. De~rlbe '" il h Ul~: i~icl uf 0. I~hfil:>flr dirtgililiitl .h~ h~b.wjtlUr 1;1 f <I i>)'fK'1"~r't)I!ii(li1i~ mt'lUl[ ~~~'fi'j_i]g fn:Ii'!'l !!~- 1Dl!~ [0 Ilhi: pUU-oulJ!!illJm,

Wha'l L.; the iJlllp1ll cClm.l!lpoudnIlg to, a mmd.liIl,mJ],in~UI, [:0 a .J->lp deha·wnnC(:,terll 250-V. 1:4,i\)J k'W s-)lnt:hfCim:ms motm w,I~1l! i~l e ll,o!ll!ernm:e.t'1 e._!lfLJ is 3020 V 't llh~ ~fll'ec'tive ~;~~~~I!~'E '~!i!tH 5YIl!t:"hrofl.{lliL~ I'Cf!CI.llIn~ iJ!:f pllllli"C ~ 0.3 f.I and 4.:5 g, &"pet'~,v!O:I)'. "i11n: If[klij{Jn. wi]];diL~C. ~'rL11'1 and c.'(clrullOrl lim= 1l!I~ i!RM]' W".I1i13: ~1I'!.d ,~m a:!ll!;linl~dltii ~mlli iii 'Wru;~IlL 'C:i.v~'V,~.ll!ill:!:C~ f~r W ounpul. (i.H l Ln~ CIl.=Ji~ 'liill p.r.

17. A ~yl'!chron:Qvs 1'I10'Ltir fID.;;e:s, 25: l-! W f:mlrrl 400 'V fmpp.l)' nllil.liIs. 'Ihe ~iy[lc:lm]J]ou$ reactance [i,f the moter is <1 ohms. (',[I.~C'!iIl,[ue ~:Ilie l)(lwe:~ faclm nt which '~Ile IU(lUl~ wO-1lld 0l~:rIUf' wh.e,~ ~he:[leM, ellcnta· tl(!jll i ~ so' 'I~~I.! 'it~d ~(;i!! Hl~ ~11t:mtl:ld EMF ~ 5Ull v,t!)'lls.

~ Ifill L~g] !Rajl~' filmd.iU l"rnmii:.W U/l1l'I'll'n'Jy. llbQpilJ, 201ml


38.111. :Ettecl,of Excitation on Armchne Current c nd 'Qwer F'eJ:ctor

The value of e:x.dWJhl'.n. for which lJ:i9d. e, m _r. Ell i1> equal fi [I. '!H<lgllLwde): to applied yolitllge V is known as 1.0'1% eXlc~t,~tion.Wewill.IlQW discuss what hSiPP~I'lS when mDrroir i£ eitherover-exeited or under-exicred flJlhm..ugnwc have :l.h"Em.dy touched this point in AI.'~," 38-8.

Consider ~L synchronous mOllOr in Wllic:h [he mll'lC'h~micallo~,dE::; CO!r'J.Stml!t .[ and hence output i s ~180 (;m]S&;I~t i r iossesase ne,g]ecU'AI) I



.1 .. A

-~--l~;r-- -







Pig. 3.8,47 (a) s.hurws me ca~cfo'tI{J()% e:o::c~tll!~O'IITI i.e.; when lEI> =V~ The "m~ntlirlre.'~~lUrlre!~t nag s behind VbYil small angle 41, lrs angle €I with !J:R is fixed by S:W[Q[ constanrs i.e. tan B '" Kg! Rd,

[[I Fig, 38.47 ~b}. exeuanon is lessthan '~.m)% Le_, E~.:: V. Here. E[~i~ lldV<lXlced dockwi~e and sn is armature curreet (because it lags behind Elil b'), fixed fffl.glc®)" We. note th:!l~ l:i1cl'Ifj,agnJ.tll(iJe; of.l is i ucreased bllt its power factoris decreased {41 has iI:lCre;ilM~m_ BGC~~I]~eurlJlut!,ls wel last! 1i.TE censtant, .~e[J.ce the Imwm comp'lmefit of l' Le" I cos !(l remains !:i1{l saate <IS 'befm;e. ]JlU! wauless component i sill $' is Juereesed, Hence, as exclterion is decreased, ! wUI increase b~H [l.f. will decrease so Ithlli.! IP'i)wert'ol]lf1'Oi~J,e;n[ of 1 i.e _, 1 cos $1 "" OA Winreim~l~n CQ[I~':i[a!llJt "In f;,Jd, the hJC:I:E~ of the e:;!;1li.Yemhy of

ClUliiI\em vectcrwonld be a straighr nur.iruffii ~"LI ~ i:r;e a.~, ~J~OW!TI, .

[rIGid)ent~.Uy, i ~ may be noted thatwhen l'ie]d cunem is reduced, the merer pull-cur torque ,~s also reducedin ~rn(mrliOl].

Fig., 38.47 (c} represents the coudirion for overexcited mota. i.e. when. E~:> V. Here.the resulrant voltage vector Ell is pulled antlclockwlse and SiD ~s.l it ls seen [ha~ now meteris d:rn.wung a.leading curreet, h [nay also happen II\1:r some valUe (If: ex,l;:ila~i()ir~,tb<H lm~ly be 1[1 ]l~a8e \'1tth V i.e" p.I, iSI 1HiI.~ty IFig_ 38A7 (.d)]. At ihll~ tiim.e, the current anlwil by the motor wml:M L1e n;lRiml:tm.

'U.'.'Vf~ innpmblrltpomts sWlITld ou t elearly from rJill.e above: iliSCI];SSUOIl :

til The m<lgnitmle cfarmature CIilJTem varies with. excutall]O[l. The curreatbes ~<lrge value both foil' low and hi.gh. values of ,exdt.uIQH (thol.lgh it is~ag_giflg .for low excitarion end Ieadlng for hi.ghc[ excitation). InoctwC'£Il, itha~!lIJi1Jimu!T1' va~ue corr~pondi[!g In :I certain cxcitariem. Thevari ~~ti,LJ!n 3 of 1 willi excitatiou are shown ill Fig, 38,48 (1'lI) whlcb are known as "V'cy[ves because of their shape,

~ i~ l !f(lllf ttl e S<l.li11e~nput,. armature earrent varies O'Veli a w~.d:~ raageand so causes ~]me power factor alae-to vary ru:jco[{:li~,g:ly_ W~]e:r~ over-exculud, n'!(~~nrrtHTI,~ w~~~~~e:$di[lg p_f_:illncl. Wi:Lh lagghlg p.f, wllenJ. U[!dC;f-cxc:uted.~[l be~Wt';Bn, N'~e r_L~s. tm~ly., The:vllI!nOllin!]s ofp.:!. wifh el'tci.i,al.iQt!J

re ac ti vepower

i'\eq~i !ii!!d by IUlle lrig. :3il • .:l9

~.l!nc:r is ~~pphcJ .. Ioul ~y IlJry [he .huLlJi.!tI.g reaeri vc component lli!~I:i:.e~ by!1'n,e feHmer, l:hl'l[\eiJy re~le'!l':ing the lim!' and ,g;elJJem~Offi oil' minch of [he reacti ve ~Gm~J~eJJ![_ Henee, tfuJ!,lYi~{)W; sUlliJpfy ~]n~y I.&!e active cnnlfitmci:l'[ ,of me lOliitl ciJl:rru:f1IL Wh~n lils~d i.f:1 thu.~ way. "<I 'l'>YI1~hmnn(JIUs metor is ~.utl!Itli:lI1.sYII&Ju'Coml'lLi C::Dpaclmr" because lt drn;ws" like 11 ~iJll"rlcito]". ~ !\lIujing ClJlrre:lil'~from me I ine. Most syndlro!WU8 c;!lpaot:;:i~uli'lS; .ll·~ 1~1~~:e>!1 I;;f;ltwe~ii!J 2a MVA,R ,~I1:r1 :200 MVAR. am:! ~l~:arly arc hydn:og.c[l-{_·oo~,cdl.

E1illmlp~1lfo ,;nI.JJ., De<w:~'we b.,1,lJjlJ' ~"l!~ It!ffe.c:{ {JJl'(!I"J~ "~g ~C,il{:!~i~l~ l1:prlU the: Qni~I!rI,~rn.IC ,(;'lU'f-rtl'll' uf(.d pf. of ~ !I~'\I;r,ch,ta"I(Jr,tf Il~r:,I~Or 1 L,}'r,e'li ililltU :f.u:n,,'t'1' m I~:le

nWJ'Cw 1~' ~'I'1t1i.tmiinedQO!~~:lmU,

AiJ()()- V; jQ-t-h, J-ijl, 37:1 .UY.:>f(J:rccamU!(N~t1 :Jf)tt!Chrm7ml;~ ma~o,,' t~a.,1i ,fi]fi~lf".r{i}lZid ,!:!jl~cielu:'y of 88%. 'f~;~ S)!.f~dIIO~@UI impWlmctoj'rlte fr,Wl'W'ns rO.2 + j 1,6} n per piU.lS,I! •. 11 rhe e'N!d~a~ii111 uf 111f:! mllJ'~l:i\f .i,~ (Jdju:Fuui l'@gil'll !;)J w~di~8 .f),f ,fl/O.9. cak;'lttlrr. jrJr juJl-kmd (a the tmJuef($ f!.rtt.J lh'~ tile J£J'l,ul ,r-lUH!JUJJl rc'tJl po'~1A~r de ~'(d(Jped.

i J


~ G

~~! ~ .r.:: .. ~

leilldil1J~ w.----- p,r. --

~I,c, fi~I'ct Cl.LrfellL I

.2 3

L~~cUTIg ,~:'I?,



are shown in Nll,. 3 S .4S (b). "he CUf'\ieforp.f. looks li ke invenccl 'V' CUIf'V,e. ~;t would be noted that mini· 11m III armat Ii re "Ii rre III carresp« uaf to II nil} [lrlIW'1' !od,lr

It 1 S seen if and i l was~iintedOl:n in Art :3 8.1 ~ ~ha~ :1111 cf\!e!l"c:l!ldlield moro, C'~l1 -be rll~wi~h ~eOl;diJ:1g pnwar .fac tar. 1-:11 is prope:Jfty olr fhl::tlil01()r roli,rlCf~ u extremely usduJ. for phase advMldn.g f iu:nrl se I.mwer fatetlJr correclung ~ :Pll'rpOSJl::;;'l i U~. me case of tmlustrial 11];]~1~ d_ri.vc!1ItJ~' Induc:tiu!lJ :lInmnr}.lIW~g_ 38.49') rJlfI!cl HghUllIg :lln.d hc;[uillg ljo~iJ~ .su,pri!I~,cJ. tb:rougfui, [n1fl.:i rC:lI'1mer,s. [to ~h lriJJn:!>f(lj,l"mer~ and i nduetion rnnmrs draw i<lggtlmg currents from the nne. E.\~i'DI ~y IrJli1~~.gIU Ilo1lJ[~l;., ~ht:l PIJ~~r dm;wil1 by n:i;u;:m. I].:m5 u ~ <1f&ere<!(:-I[],ve (;Q:mpnnnc:nnt ,Sind the pawer faclO);, aas n ve:rylow value. Thn s rem:t:uve eompenest; though essenrial for opennilll:g ~he elecn ic nlill! ch i 1I1J,~ r;r,

en tails appreelable IQi5s .in mllill1:y W<J.yS. 8011' [:I! 8 i ng ~ j' n c h r o rH1'U S, meters i_UiI cOllill !JlI:ICOOIJj wid]. irndllction malum ,and tn;JIl5f{:lnlllll!::n'J. UiII.C .I.<'lggilllig

11 ~iIIGti@n M'iJ.lnr.'j

~'J'I~h Mfl,1flr

Full-f ad current -

., 1 Zs - 1,61. x 6:8 "" 109.5 V

Wilh reference to Fi,g. 3.50

l TI B - 1.6/0.20: 8, 13' '" 82"-4' ros·~ = O.Q, IV '" 2S'~50'.

m -I- 41) :;;;;;; 82°54' + 2SD.50' '" W8D44'

Now 0' U::U~D44' = - 0.3212


la\ In L'i. 0' 't·1>7."" 23[ . 1(19.5-- '2 x ::'31 X 109.5 x (- (l32L2) = 285.6~; Eh"" _85. V Li nevalue orl!:~ =.J) 285.6= 495 V

~b) l' oral motor i·IfI.,~t "" 37 ,30n t 0.88 '" 42,380 W

Thral Cu lo-sses = 3 x r R<l;;;;; 3 x 682 x O.:!: "" 2,'r74 W

.. Electllc p wer COil\' ned illto mCdi,i:Ul,ica!pm er e '2,380 - 2.774 = 39,3, kW.

IExllmp.e J)lJ4. A 3-dl, .slrll!"-collnJxled: ,~ym::.hmt!tJLjs ,:nowr ,~{1,kes 4 k\~r "11 693 'K the power ji;~:cmr b·d~~g 0.8 laggir~g. 'The fndu(;,ed.,e.lrJ'.j: is £l'u_~'nl;!u..'d b)1 30%, tfle power raken re"I~ail:li~~g the ~a1\l'le:. Flm! the c ~m'e~1.I and the pI. J"tw m.M ~.!hle has ~ .l'YWldmmmr,~ ~oe,(~ct,'m't·e. of 2' W' per' ,ha.~,~ and lte li !?ible resistance.

The vector diagram .. Or in teased e.m.f. is S,O[J!WIil [lUI I-"ig .. 38.:5:2. Now, t::b = 1 .. .3 X 349;;; 454 V.

U can be sa:fel,r assumed that in the second case, current Is I.,earling Vby s(,mC angle ,~'.

Let :the new current and the leading angle of cutreru hy l' and '$' respectively, As pow,er inpm

re mains the same ~1a:hJ1V is 3.1s{} constant; 1 co ~l 8 tlalil(! ok: the; sameter the same inpl!H.

.. . I cos 41 = 50 X 0 . .8 ;;;;;: 40"" l' cos ,pI

In L'i. ABC. .4.Ii' - ,AC BC

Now Be - r XSCU5 '$"' (": 0'8"", r X,sJ

- 40x L=80V

454:2 - A~ + 801m AC= 447 V OC == 447 -400 "" 47 V

- 47/80. ,~)' ",,·01'26'

SolLltion. Full-load CIlium I

'" 48.m:mlJ'3x 6'93 x 0.8 = 50 ,1\, Vc!~ ~.a.ge/phl~l.ll~= 6'931 ,.jj ;;;; .lOO V

Zs = X.~ "" _ fA .', 1Zs "" 50 x 2 == Ion v

L"I1I fI = 'I'D = <><> :. a =9(1"; cos cp ;; 0.8. si ,(I "" 0.6

Ttnc ector dia.gnlJlu i shown in F~g. 38.51.lll .6.. OAb', E~2 . ." 400~ "" mi- 2. x 400 x 100 x cos (9{f - 'V) ;:; 4002 + ~.ocr - 2 x 400 xWO x 0.6 ;:; 349~


tan eft' p .. L =

!'=40A ....

;;;; 01i623 tlcadiog.l

Also, r cos ¢It '" ~O :. r "" 4011}Jl623 ::: "'li.~ A.

EtulIllPJe JS.J5. 1I ,~)w.dm)~.!.fJ~r;.~ ,.rwnu f;JIMorfJb~g (j(j if, W .',w ,,·.o.ml!HYe.d ifi para/h'l' il'i~'h I} lliJ,('!Q''11' load of 2'40 k W ha~1iflg tI .lagging p.f oj O.ll If the ['ombi:1U!d !m:u:l bas I!:I pI {l;f O. 9 •• llhm is fhevy;d~u! nj.ri1.c !1].(,_MlilJ!t ~;VAR L~IJPpbed by the liWJO" (mil ~'M ~~'/UlI p,t is U workir~g ?

I Eleetrieal F.nginH'rillg-1 t BllnghlJ'l! IIJ nlr, 1991J I

. nlutifJn. lDiI!dt:ul]H:leCiil1'~~~ ~lIJl.d ph.1t'it: rdai.i()l:rl~hip~ ,[[fl' s.howlI! in Fi~, J~53-

Total ~(llild = 240", 6{] '" 300 kW, combined p.f "" O.,9liEl~,J

¢II "" 25,&'l·. tail 0 "" (1)1,,8.14, c.onllhi,~'1~tI ~VA~ - :lon;:.:: OA3J·~ '" 145inag)

cos !iJ 1_ "" U.S, ¢L - 36 ,go, l~11J] $,- '" U_15, h.m.tl k VAR .",,2~O :.0: 0:75= U'II] ~ lag~

or load kVA = 140/0.8 '" 300. kV,t\R ~ JoO x sin "h. '" 300 X D.b "" ~ ao

" . h'tldlng l~VAR ~ u.p'Pbl)~ by -'W!1lt:hn:m()u~ mo~.of= 1 [1l0 - ~ 45 = lSi.

'~.'.- J {------~-' .. -


~ ~ --H+----"\J'I


rl,.!)!\D Z~~IJ.;W 'I 0.,8 ".f. fll.A.Cl

hfikW tP·r. .')..~_~ Lend

Syn!<:;11 M(!'t(]{

3~J(lW V

--Jy- ...

t t t 1 t t

::--"1 ~n,3kVt\.

1< l1T S) I'l eh rnnrms M .... ![nT

k"V "" ,tjO. Je:u:HIl£ kVAR "" 35, tan III", ::: J5i60 ; $"1 ~ ]0.3" .~ cos jO.3~ :::; O.l:l(Ji3

" • mO:LOf p.f : OJ<I(d I lead I. Indtlelllr;t;U.y, motor k'l/A '" \~(lJf. + J6:i! ;;;;;; (,93.

315.18. Co flstCflt-powe;r Unes

~mI Pi~_ JE.54, ,0;\ :1l!,reselilt~<lPliHed 'lfo~tmge , plHIL~e t~f the motor and A.B is Uile back e.]'Irn.f. I ~1~lls!!. E/" OlJis their resuJta.[I~~'o]I[tl!!e s; The anncrure cunem I!; 01 lagging behind Ell !by ill'! angle e ;;;; Itoo -IXS f R.n, \iaJ ue of 1- EN I Zs" Si~lC~ Z_~ i,~ i::of1~~.a!lI, l:.~ vI: vt.'l:lull 011 IT:Pt~~t:nllS WI sume M,I~Lluhle seale] 1J1~ m.1.in currc ~~'t J _ 10 r .~!;, dmwlt! <111: an an gle II\) Wilh Of} (0" lilt an ~;lli!Ig~~ ,0 wi'[Jh CA ).lJl.i& dr;]wn per1~~~dktd3r Ito OX which us al rig~l;~ ~J~gh'.ls ~C1 O.Y. Vector 0.6, when. referred to 01", also represenrs, 0[1 8i!:Uf-erernl scale, the cum: L'lt oo~.h ill. ffiag1l1limlt:le .fIlIIJp.hrulJ.

Hence, UfJ'r:o:s. ¢I - 1 ~m Ijl - lJL The power irlpm I phase Dr the metot

.. 'lItco~ 'IP - ~/x I:J'L

A~ Vi)) OImslllllJt, powermput is de:~[ld~l: Ol'l BL.rf nlol:o]'i~ wurking wi~h 11 constant ~ntnk,~, ~hell kJot:u:~ of B is. .1.1, .~~]·.i!li.r~J!.llim~ I~ to OX and .L w or i.e, line li.'F I'elr whieh BE is CU!i'l:slnIliL ·He,n.oe, EF . rcprcseats l!I .: c:rm~hlilit-pow~[i!TIIpillt linetor III giVE!1; \!o]~.[lgli;'. om vll:rying e:;';:Cit.::l~~O:!1. Simular:ly, a. series of such parallel lines can bedeawn each representing fL definite power i utake of ~l1e rueter. A~re,gi1l!'~s these ecm 8t,mt-pow,e!' lines, i I; is to be noted that

I. ttl]' o[lmd iacreusein iJrt.ake, thepnwer ~ines areparallel and ~q~ .. m.lly.);pacCod l.. 1';~~.'.f.I pnw'E:r~iil"iC: mWl .aI.oIi'l,E', OX

3. lhL:pL.:fp.cnd:icl..lilm!f d:i,~tlJIT]OO from. B ~oOX ·(ur zcrQ powcr~]m:~J represcrus lhl:.'n:I~Cit!L1:r intake ~Io [fexdtatjo[l is fixed i. e. All is constaet in le agth, [hen as the losd on l'I1!otOJ: is increased.

increases. .~nl other words, locus of {j is II circle w itll radius '" AB and centre at A. With incn:.~l!sili'lg :load, .B gO[l~ ()11 ~t} line .. ~ of ]tught=,rpcrwt:'11 liH pCli.~1rBiisiIC~l,eh(':ct.. Anyfur~:l~.er increuse ju Io.ad OIl r .. he mm.o, wil I O[iug .pDir~t B down W a IGtl."t::r line, h means that as load increases bc:yorld the value cm'w~pom~.~ng [0 [lOil1l.81, the II:!1Jolu, il1ii.flh decreases which ls impeasible, The area 10 the ri,gh~. of A VI represeats u:n~t!lblL.: cClw:l.1I:ih:ms. For a given voltage. lLilidi. c'i(ci.hlliurJ., l~:u~ maxi m.llI.m. po<wcrLhe motercan d~ velup, ill r~clcnn1.i:[le.d by the location of .P"U,UHl .111, beyoad which the IlnO~~.~r [m1.ll~ O~I~ nf ~ .. ')il]d:n"mism.

J 8.19. Co rmtlll.llcfion of V -eu l'Ves

Th e V~clu",e8 of 11 syndlOll1!CmS motor show how~nn;!~ullie current vOI!!'ies w ith i t:s field cunenlI when motor wpm i,~ kept canrf{HU, These an! Qbl1l!,lned by pl oH:im:g ac, ;;I;rmiU~LlJ:e C!,Jlrreilt agi!~ns,[ d.e .. field currem while motor inpuris kept censtant

and are so called because of their shape ('F1.g ..

38.55).. There is a farnUy of such Cll.rves, each r··f .. {1<1~}

correspoadjngto <I. defl.l1i:te power 1.llItiil:ke,

'~f1 order to ~~rn w these ~'I1',"Ves e;';]J'erirnentally, the mo~or is I'~m [Tom ccnstant voltage and ecnstant-frequency bus-bars. Power inputto motor is kept COIl stan L at <I.. deflni re val ue, Next. field curreut is i ncreased in sm8JJ steps ami corresponding armeture cunents are noted, When plotted, we get OJ V-ClU'V\! Dor a p9!t[icula:r censtant nlf.1t.oru~:~pUiL Sillni~m:t curves {:£[11 he drawn b,y .ki~epi~lIglt1,mm ~l:Irrut ~O~l~t.':f11J1 !II (l~Jfe[t·tIl ';{1t.lII.le;_~, A fll:n[~il.y G!r SIilt:i1 curves is ~hocw:tI ill. ~.::;ig" ].8 ,55,

lJe:t.li:ulcd pro>Ll(~l~llU~ :for g'mphdc construction t)if \!-curv,es. is given ooi!CIw :

1. Fi.nli,c~!Jl;;lm'li-pow~r lines ~ln~ dnlw~ as di*(':l~~,'!lEld ilm An .. 38 .. ~4.

2 .. Then, W~dl it ,,~~he~e;nhie, C{m~eli'll'rii(: circles of c1~n\ereilu radii AB, ABJ, A.!J2:' eL.G .. are drawn where .A.B, .tB L' AR2, etc ... <lire rrbe: blld!: e .. m.f~ c:c)~~p(ln.di[lg ~.o diHcre:tH excuadoas. The intersectlons Oit' these cir!(,:~e8w~lb lines of cOl:lsl1uu pm; ... )'~m· g~v!1:: p05 iti.~n~ of the wo[,k:ing posns for specific ~om;l8<1inde:;;;;dt<lttom Cbelloe~lld.e. [I] .E~ t TIl~ vectors DB.. OB,. Ol1~. etc., represent diftiere'nlv:allJIfS of Ell: ~ITlld hence eunentsj for dinenmlexcit1~lion~. Back e.rn .. t vectors ALl', AB tetc.., have not been d L,row fJ purpose lytn order to avoid !;Onl~[l8i(m {Pi:; .. 38 . .:5 6)"

~\. The: d.i:ITeiffint \'111 ues ofhnck ,C'.rn_fslike .!lB'. All 1 > ... W~. etc •. are projected 0111 me IDilgneu.s.molJi and co:rrespmulin£, vslaes O[ [~~e[1clel ~ er czei ~iill,g) lUIIPCre.~ arc read fltn nn i l.

4. llw. field ampel!eH are pleued <lgrunst Lhe cor.resp;oudit-.:g m'!llMWLire eurrerus, giving IJI~ • V' curves,

- --------7!--

. I


V!lhe i1 :1 ~ JIIli;];aro:nrH,!!$ motor is used for dri vinIl a varying IOililJQ .llm.el111 CQllllditiOIl known as bUl'lring is, produced, Hu.i1u,rl~, may ,~~~11(). be: clImed if BUpp;~y frequency is pu'I~~~:il1g {as m lhe C;lse 01' genem· WI'S driven by ~.ledpmCfu:i:~g i nremal combustion eng:i.llt:~),

We lfi!Ci'W llin,at wl~l[;n a. sy!lJChmm~l~~

motor li: loaded f such as punchpresses, !Oh~~. com.r~"~(lr'l and pumps etc.), its rotor Hill:s bac.r.. inphase by I:ilm cOUlpi,i,lil,g angle 0:. AI 5 ~oaJ Is progress] vel), i I)'JC rcased, til i ~ ,!Tilgl~ al ~o i ncreases so as to produce mere terq ue for eopi Ii:!M wi th lhe inc teased load, ~J .L1C1IW, the!.'e~s sudden decrease in d~e meter load, the mmlC'lf is irn,1Ili1edi8!te~y pulled up Or a.dvam:.'t:d t(~ a l'le~1I! valu e off a ce:rreS'pO'IDld:illlg w the l'Iew ~ olld. Btu i n this pro L; e s s, Ih!e re to.f OVC'J'S! lOOts fI!1.UJ hence.is l!.[!l!in1 pul led bl'l1::IL In ilii S 'I'>'ay. the mtor starts oscillsring W~C ;1 pendulum) 1l.bt:IliIL i L~ me' \,1,.' P!l~~ tinnof

Sync hirono!!Js M'oto r

equillbriurn corres;pou:u:Jiug to the neW :Iolldl_ ~J the tl me period of ~.h~se n~ C i ~I.ujon~ happens IDa be equal to the n&tUl'<lJ time period of the machine (refer ArE_ 3736) then :i:llcdl:fl11luc.:al lr~nnll[lC:C i~~ x.e~. [IP_ TIle ;!Jn~~JnWdE;: of these oscilletions is buill IJlP ~(I a huge value and rnayevemually become so great m:i to Urmw me mach i ne out of synchronism, To M.ol~ the lmi ld-up of these oscillaJlio(lS. dampers Or cll:lJ1"1ping grud~ (a~so know ~l m~ ~ c~ ~1 irrel-cage win ding) are e mpl oyed; These da mpers OOI;l_g~ sr of shortC]I\CU~re.d, ell bars en1ocd.dDcI in, Ute faces cf !Lhe fi.BJdlOo~~ ofthe !lll~t!O;t: (~g. 38.S7}. The O>,:\Cm.aWiry mOliol1l of rhe rotor sets lip eddycurrents in Uw £ilEl!tlpeFS which flow in s ueh a W:ly 11~ IJ(I ~Upj:Jil!6~~ I.hebe osci ii:l'I:io!1~.

:Baliel':il " polad sq;uirml ~a9!$1 motor Bu t it shoe Id be clearly understood tha~

dampera de HQl complelclyp;revent hunting because tbeir operation depends upon me presence of some o~dH~.tnry morion, However; ~hey serve the additionalpurpose of m.lik.img LhE: sync:hImlIOu~ TVlj;lhJr li]elf-:;~rt:i:rtJg.

38.21. Methods of Startingl

As, saiIJI above, .i!.~J:nu~l all ~Yrl.chmt:llou~~ rnotors are equipped w~lh d<lLmpers or squirrel cage windings consisting of Cu bars embedded in Lnf:l pole __ ~hc~~ ,md sooU1l"dR1!'!ited atboth ends, Snell a motor starts readily, acting as an induction [t]olO;r dl:t.ril[lg the Ntm:ting pe:Jf1od_ The procedure is as [-oHows :

Tile line voltage is applied tothe armature CStf){Of) ten:llli:ml:fLl.~ and ~QC field circuit is Ij~h uttesCitl!d. ,\1o~or scans, 0'1:5 itt1 i:[Ic1uctl on motor and w.l:il~~C i t te1).cI~c;gfle<!rly 95% 0:[ its syncluoneus speed, the d.c. fie]d Is excited, Atthar mement thl:: st:Um and N}~.Oil- r~~Jes, get ef\g1~ged oor i!1ter~ocked w~!h each other and hence pull the motor into ~y~1ehlr0I1,i Nl n,

However, two points should be noted ::"

L At Ine begimlllng, whenvolrageis applled, lite [o~O![ is Mali.atnl!ary.,. The li1il~li~1Ig field or the stator windillg ~nduce-s a vefY large e.rn.f, in tile rotor dnring the ;Stflrtungr~r~()d. ~h()ugh the va 1 ue of this e. Il'l.f. goes em diecrell5i ng <IS tile rotor gathers speed.

NJ(}rm~J~y, lite field '!AI indings ,~re meant for I W- V (or 250 V forlarge machines, Inn dnrIng Ma!L1~.ng pc:r.iod ~hcrf:: aile B'I8.11J' l:hOl1tS3.t:II.G:ll of volts lndueed in them, H~I)jCC, the rotor windings have to be higllty insulated r(~t wlU:I.· standillg such vo!tllgts_

1. Whflf!I~I~] nne voltage is ~wilchecl {lin I (I ~h~ ,~nI]<I~ln~a! res L. a V,~[)' lOlrgc 'lJ!.liTem, u~IJ=~~~y ;; to '7 limes the fL!:I~-·I(JI~Jd ann<lw,re curfe-mll is c1ri1Vi'H by the motor, ln somecases, lhl~ Im~.y !ilO~ be object:ioJl<lb.~e tim where it iS,the app~ted VDitag,e <lit sl<utlng, is redm::e,d by us ing<uu,~o. trn.liIsfo,rrI,ers Wig. 31': . .58). Howevcr. It.hi: \I,ohr!l~~ :Ilhoul[l iiU::!t. be ood:iJ!G~d lo fI, "l!ryIO'w '~ialm= because 'the sn:allti.ng torque of an i ntll1.L':Uoili. Uit~~L!):r varies ,CIIppro:d:ml~n:ti!ly as the ~mIDe oftl~e appL1l:d l,'ol'i:~.l.glJ. tJ wu,all y • .aVIll~I[jC l1 ~ 50% leil &0% II f l~le rlJl.I~-~imi~ VC!:~HI;gc ~ ~ ilH'~iiSJ!!.t:'lOUj'. AlnO-i:mUsfol'mer eennecticas rule S~l.(iiWI!l. in .Fig. 38, 5&. For f{wjilillclngrne supply volUlge" &e ~wi~ch~~ 8"1 [Ire IL:ljo~[!d and S;! ,a~ kept o,p00ii1" \lVl~elil, IJrnn mlJ~tJ!rr h;l!SiOOElIl ~~-edL·~·-!!![P. St are c: ~o~o. and S I opened to CEll 01lt the trnlilsfTIm1l3fS.

Whik~ Mlll.ting amodem sylllC.~Jfo:nOl!S mmCiI"'I~rlmfi.ded l?fhh diln~ITJeL' wiml~.I~S:S, r\)~~,[lwing prg~~du['E: is, i11.d,Opted.

I, First, rnSiirl~,e~ di li!.,ojmlil'l(g is short-ciliCll!i ted "

!. Rctlll~ed \'O~~ H~e ow ith l~:H'j 'I.~clp or fLljJl!o-tmnK~Clmle rs is Bppl led aeress ;,Hll:or termlnals, TI11C motor stans up,

J, When i~ reaches a steady S[~~~ La5 Jilldged by its ~(YL]lIild",Ol \~cak d.e, e:xcil<l~:igfl ils~pplie;d lily removing [he sl]Qril-d.rcl1il 01'1 the main fleld ..... ~mlillg.If!l:xduuiolJJis.~.yfl.icierH.llle]] rhe nla,C'hinc wli] t lJC pull ed into ~ynd111.'mi ~'I;[I.

"', Fujii ~lI.PP~]I voltage :i ~ upp.l:i ed ueruss 1:.~,a~lIr I.!:'rm U,[lals 'by c:m~i.iiIIg mJ,~. I:il(! ~llIl~o-lxnm furmers. 5. lillie Il',[olor m(1'Y ~; ope.lll.tiL:t!. <It :]!I])' desired pClwlir r;lC~or by 6hD~iflg rn.t: d,e, exeitatiea

,38,.23. Com.pmicSon Between ,Synctuonolils ,and rnaucHQn Motors

1. ~~Of .a giY~n freq!;!len{;}" 'dle ::'YIlJ.:hronu!!:)s Uloior (f!Jlm ai ;i ~() rm~Ul.~ !I!Ive!"<l.gc :\il)~i;ld \!','JiI~l~cjJer '[~l.e lO<ld, wh~~,ethe speed OfCLH ~nd~!cti()llimQI[Q:rMls scmewhatwith ii]C'IEU~e ill ~bl!i(t

.2, The ~yncl:Jrom:u.l8m(.Hm can be opelll~f!d aver a ""'~ del<mgc [lr lPG'WC r fOle rers, Dmn, I'b@;in,!!l !m(] lending, bm in(IU:C1Lkll'l metor ,alw,tys runs with <1 ~.<l~gji[lg i.~.f.w'hidJ lTI!Jiy beCOil'lI'u:VEITJ low at I iglrt loads.

3. At synchrom::nllo l'l1C1tW' is lnherenrly net selr-slfLfri'~lg.

~. The cb:illlJ,gcs in a,pplied '\!o.~tllge do Ilotaffed sync]]m[lomi m O~UJi torque as l:I!iJ.uclM :!_~ 'they uIfecl the WdW;:it:kllll m(}~.o.r lD'lJlJe. TiII.e litJ.iil!akdtllW:l'! terque of a ::;Yl'ldm:m rm ~ rnoU;lf l!;!llri es <lppirui!:imillel,y as thefirst pOWt"li of 2ippti:(!d voltu~e \1I1heIDeas.[ITI:iu of ,ll'Il llt(luclicm motor depe 1]1(1s on~h~- i'iqu<:we: n[ th~~, vo~~ag~.

:5, A !:I.c. C1!lcitati.on i~ required hy ~ylinclrn:~mmu~ mOlar bU.l M~, by illJtlilllcti,(1m11:rlot[Jr"

fl. .s: yJ]ch:rt'lnou~ m!)~ are !JSl!laJ~.!J' !1lOlC C(»;;U~ and c:omp~ i~ Utlo[;~ 'tih:;H.E1) i[!diul;:lijOIii moters, Ii)ILH ~hey ar-c rl!rtk'uk]~'ly aI'lnleti've fOIF lew-speed drives (below 3IJ[J r.p.:III!1.J OOb"I!.!~C their power riIC'[Or,eOllIl .. iLlwu}'s be ;Jdjus~eClliCI 1,0 Jmlrnei:i efficiencyis 'high, EI(I<wev.er,iu~duct:iCin m.olnr.. m:e excellenr for speeds above 600 :(:, p.m,

i. Syru;:hwno1Jsrnowrs cu be run arulsra-Iow sJleedsby IJJsmg ll~gh pl)wli:l.'e;lectmlllkmrl\'en~J1;' whi.ci't generate VC'F'J ~(}\V frequ:ende~" Sliildll meters of .10 MWml1,geare asedIer d ri\,' Lng crushers. rOIIliI)' kilns rnnd vsrinblc-spced ballsnil ~s (:1":.

Sym::luOll'lou.s rrlolQltsFimtd extensive 1lipp~ic~~tkmf:ur the fallowing classes of servlce :

L Power faetor CGrre.C'EUOl1

.2. COrJswau-speed,C;Oll:'it,tt]ll-'load drives 3. \1b~tagereglillation

Iii) '[lower in d>or cnrrertion

O\ic:rcxcitc-d :flyrtcl:!ironO!1J}; mmfl'm havi IiiIg leOld~ng power factor are: w.ide~y usedfor i,~n')I.·aying power facLot" of ll:iirll.'iE: IJ{]weT ~yt;;lem:s wfuich employ a brge' mmJ,oel' of induction mo~o.ll'S {Fig, 38,49) and ether de v~c~); ha vi ng~;9ggin:!§ p,f. 8W;:.]:l <1£ welders and no:urescem ligbts etc,

I&l {"1}nl>bn1·l'i'PeEd .;JppHod:ion"

Because of d~.ei.' high e:fl1.C.iC.tlCY and h;~gh~speod., sJ'i;;l.d~f{)]]@U~,IiIiI.O:t{)h (i!h~]vc finO J.'.,~)_Il:iL) are well -·811 itecl fur loads w here CG[isHI:n:I ~ speed .i s required sueh as ct:ti'l:iifl~g'TL~. pLl I]] ps , btll~·d:[L'Vc;[~ redpux:,ui rig oOl.npressortJ, blowers, Uf.i C shafts, ['u;l'J'oc:r fUl1JtlPllpl:l'~l]i]ls INe"

Low-speed .synchronous motors (below MO r.p.m.) aue ~scdrm: drives .'l(uch 21> oerltrifugal and screw-type p!l1mps" b®.~]1 and ro.beil'ilUlls, l,Il:liC~LUUjn pllinlJpS, cloippeT:'; and rn~ [ill. roiki:l]g IilILl] ~ cUe,

! c ~ Voltage rtfgul ahon

lnh~vo~llage at ~:liiI.e end of <L lcmg a<l!lllSm.ission. line varies greB!tiy especially when I:arge im:luc~,l ve loa![h ,lJepresJE::ntWhen aL1 ~ eductive lead ~ s dlsconnected suddenly, voMage [ends 10 rise considemb~y above i I.~ normnl value because of the line capaeitaace, By insta.]lllJig a synchroaous lUOWI.' 'l"im a !1,ldd m~!1J<lwr (f~r V;j_lryllli.g its excitation), this voltage rise eaa be m:n.IriIJIUed,

When line vol ~a~e decreases due to 1.llia uct ~ve~oa.d. motor exesarion ls increased, lhel.'el»yrn.~si ~~g its p.f, wh~cb !;;ompeflsme~ fm: the line clrop, If, (][I IDe other hand, ~i[je volmge rises due 'Lo line cap1!!c~liv~_efl'ecl.!nmwf,ejl;;cl;illtiQl1 is decreased, t;hel:,eby rrm!kli.ng_itsp.f. ]agg:ing which help!> wilmimfliml [he: I:~m~vo[~age <ltL~8 normal value.

Q.1. Dues cltllmg~ in ~xdl~llunlll1:NL UU~ ~~ nehruaous nmiur ".~d '! .A...m;.[\Io.,

Q. 2- 'lrhll' pnwcr Iaclnr '! A.m,. Yes,.

Q.3- Hnw'!

An:s. Wh~!i1! over-excited, sy-ncfuu:mou:'J< metor has Ileai!:li.llg I)owe'r :l'llcW· r, However. whea

nIld~.r!tltc:i[Cld, ~ll]!I;s, lag"1!;i.llg pm.verf!lct(lt.

(J.;jJ. 1<'111" \\ ~111.1 st!n'it.-e IJn~ "ynchrtJnnH_~ rnntnrs ('$TII~dHl1y ~[iL~1J ? A [!.~. Fer .high \/oltag,c m::.!'>'it'El_

Q.5. \Vhkh has mont efl1dl?llcy: s}'m.:hmQflLlS or ludueskm I11l1mr :' An". Sym;hn;m,OHSrn:DUQ[,

Q. 6. JiI.Irlltiu sume S p~dfic IipplkaLil1lL.~ III tooj' n ehrum IlL, [[Inl ur ~!

.\[1. . .,. 1. ecnsrast s~c1lo.ad service 2.mdproc£lliul:g ~(l!'1lp[~SSur drives

~1. rower f:l,c:~ar cpj;i;~ctjJOn 4.. voltage regl]~ation of transralssienl lues ..

h An gvereXdlie(] sY~lc]bml1Q1l!1s ~n{)~o:r is ~J1e0i S,YiLtdl£Q.Uitllm i:mp<lc[w'I,", l:let;ause.111ke ~l'c:~~rmd~:(}r, ~I. hlKe.r.; :t'!, le;:ldin:J,g current,

Q.8. U'lwL lin lh~ 'i:~ ur rllllll} !!.lorlin!,l; U n ~'II:u::h:I'1:Hmw. mnltrr ~ Amno.. I ~ enuld be lhu~ u~ the m,l]owung caases ;

I. \lO~t;lge mlly be teo low - at least hall_( vo~age ful, r"O'lIuired Ier MruUJg

2. illeJ1t: mal! be O]l'f!l'l-cireu.it.in O'ill': ]plD1'I:Se - due to 'iA'linich 1'I.1OWr. Hlil!'}' heat ll,p

J. s~mic fI'~e(llitJi:'I m,~.J' be ~.~I!Fge - ti[~i::r dnc [0 bLgh b!:1l t~Im:!l~!m:\ r.i r [00 lJj,ght 'iJmllri:l!lg:s ... :;.~ mur w;i.[nJ:i[j,!}~ muy bL.:i:tlQ'lm"Cl~y 11:(]t1]]eCEj~J

50. fi~ ~d c1!l;d mti:DI1 !mil],J be m~· ~lro~~~

Q. III. \\ haf LtlUld t LI ~ru;:Dn U" .\ nehru tilL'" motor til [0 I ?

\U5. It~::; ~"IJr3JLy due I.D ~h~ fQ!I~~7(iJ1lg ~:s~:m:; :

1. VQ1i::1ge may be. hlrl W'W

2. some fE!.II.llLycoJ1n~e~ioli:l ,~Il ~tIINnialry ap~:m.tm1Jl:S J. hID m!].t:b SH!.ruimg .~o'o1id

..t. tlpell-dn:I1~!. i:fi1. [I[I~ p!U'H.~ ur :>hOl'l~rrUffiiC:U~L _. field !i1:>:cin.aliml, ma:y be 1I::t;~C:Ol-ii \/6,

Q. 1.0. t\!;J nc:hoou us otur ~tJlTl.O. :J:!o lli.uu] buHllih 10 d., el up ~b lull lUll:! u~. \Ybm eenld il

h" due In:'

ns, I. m!!cilili:': l.'o.lmagL:: mil)' 'bt: h'!t'l low!. field ~p[)IJI~~ay ~re:vernii!;~ •. ru.tlre [lj,ElY !he eH:I:i.eJF ~~Il:-cireuit ar S:l1.orH::in:1iIilt ~[JI 'tlu~~el~1.

Will I! ruutur • tart • it h th hclcl ~A;dtl!d _ No"

U uder U II 1m rmull Lluruo '!i)'1lc:h mHlllJ_", matur Min r:JJJ lu pull tnlu .Ii l1!p ?

I. rlt'l,fie1.C11 eNiI;:iw~illJ\rJ, :!. el(jt;~s8'h~loo:cl J. ,e;.\(;e;s;~i'V~ ~I:'mcl i~ertu:n

Q.7, \lbBl

L lTIJ i!l sl'fle;lIimll!!lUS I1H![or. dampi:'f wlf:lll.~'lg is rro\l~deil in 'l1'rller 1111

((~ ~ ~!I:abiU1i~ mlliJ1r OJ nti~j1'

th 1 rnpflre~s r01J:lr U!>lCm~tion~

~(") I:h;.'I'clop nQ~ Slru:Uilg, liOfqllL:: (d'n blmh (oj arrd tC'~

2. 1I1~. sY'l~h:roI'l(ll!ls mnIDl', Ute m:1L-.fillij~(J'~ flf !1;~u~f.tr b~",k e.rnf, &jio d.epends em

I,u) '~1)eml,()rU1C ml,jl~ur

~ I)) ItlLidl1fi !hc mI':HOC

(i"} Duth!:he ~ocrl :IIId mWtr fiLm (,(1) d.e, CI11J1'IIJ]:UOIil (jll~1'

.~. All e1eI;Lr~'iHgro.r ill which l"lnt'i 1.11(: ro~m mall, S~tllr !fields rolut!l:S witli lh'!:; ~aJllIe Sftloo .is eldled ~h]I, .".,," Im:U1lr.

hi} d.c,

Ihl dJr.Lg~'

~ i!') s),lIJ.chrullol.l.S (d~ lI![ijvcn;f1I

... Whileii'lu~!!ing. em SJ'ttdIlVnIlU~ 111(11(11' ~s coraVenled ~l) ron ;)J~ SYlldlroi'liO~~ 8!lee~ because of {u) d!!mlf~r M.mling ln i:~~,I'ClJ.e ([l(l(l>5

(b, m.agn~tic :i.lX'tJlI1g ootwa:n S'lffLQf and rnlJtlr poles

{~~ ~lIduc:c:dI e.m.f, ~11 .m~m ,r:ietdi win~Irl,g by SWlmn!l~

It.i) oomiluJ~~o]], dllil lD kDll.·51~.w

s: 11 if: di:rc~~l.~n or rota~ij on !l!f II ~}'jjdm:UlW.~ !l1~li~f can be 1'C¥C'.r.5'Crli by rn~ing

(a) t'm:rCn!. ie IIie HeltJ! wimllt~g

~ 1~, ~~j ~ply p~a.'te ~~q,L1e:iiI~C

~,,) ~").Olruil)' or rotlEhi p(de~

{Ill rume or tlll~ aOO,w

fi. \¥hen ru:rulic"l,g lmK~r no-lead oOllld~~j()i1 and wI~b nonna] ,e.>:JC:i~l'O<J'l. tj,HWnme (;U[Hl:m t~ drawn hy II Sj'nC~Wl1nOU8 IllLC~;OIJ'

'(.fl) leads the hack. e~.nlJ .. F.IJ hy m .$I:nall ill'igle (h) is large

(c) illgs ~he applir.{l "'oU~~ge V by ~ sumll ,~!1,gle

It!) l:lg~lj:le f('.!)\il!:ilJl]t I,'~U~ge £101 by Il(r,

7. 'Jim angle between !:L~e sj'llcl1ro:nous~)f-.mt@.ting statorflux and. OOilDf poles of a ~y:~chmO(lus ffil]J!}~(!(1: is cclled.; .. __ "., alll~~e.

(a) sym.:,hro.t1i:tl:ilg

~b) tor.q~le

~ d po,vcr fno~o:r lli) slip

ft rr i()f~d ;mgle of ~ 4-lPo{~ SJi~(;lnIrol1l1~1~.lITnmOJ is :R~ (~Iecn • its ',lulu!\: il:~ mecltnllif~kil] die:g""--c;;; is

(tlj 4 to) 2 k) 0.3 ~d) .0,25

1,1. The mll~.irl1ll1I:11 value 01' lorque ,~_ug~e n in ;Hjm-

cnm:11OUS moW~ is _ _[jeg~~;'3 eleetrlenl.

(Q) liS (lJ} 90

((.] between 115 Iilld 9[1 (d) Ihelm.\' (,,0

HI. A syaehronnus motor ml.ming with normal cxcitau.GIiI l1rljUSts to load uicreases eMf.>i'l'~ii.AJy by increase LI1I. it~

(a) 1)O'Wi:c':r hlcc,o.t

~ b) torque 1l!1g!~

(c) back e .. mJ_

(d) ,l'lITl1atUJ:C eurrem.

II , When ILJ~~dI OIl ~I syn ~hr(lJ]OI:!3 motor rlJll]]iIliil wittl IJlHli1la] (!C~'ci'l atien i~ inereased, ~Imw~m~ ~Llm:!U dl"~Wql by i !i.R~:';~S because

(a) hack C_IU.I'_ £1. hecomes less llhl~i;n applied \lo~t~ge V

(b-) pmver factor is decreased

ie} net. resultant voltage E~ .1m a[rrn.~UJJ"e ls in~.mIlS€d

(4') !1J10Wr :s.p~cCl is reduced

I ~. When [oad on a normaUy-E:'1>;;ci~ed sy[)J~hronous ~I1o'or Isiacreesed, Us power taetor tends ~o


(.~) ~pwfldl U:lilky

(bl b~(:O[I~ei:nct~<!siilgly b1!:gi~Jg (cJ become lnCi,'e<:lsingly I,eading

VI) remain ullchang.e(!_ •

B. Till: e:f.fb::l of increHsi:liI~ load! Oil II SYIiICffi!roIlOU1:i motor n:mni:ng: w.~lh normal excitation ui~ 10

(,~), increase 'bCiCJ~ its J'~ m~d P', L

{fl'} decrease I" ~LI~ iuerease p.t,

{c)i increase I~ bu.t decrease pJ_

{d} decrease horuh J ~lliIcI p.J,

14. [gnori~}g tl)[~ effects o:f ,aTl!iI1~I!;lI'a reaerion, if exdtfitiOi'll of 0 .. ~yur.b._rn~"I!()U!S 1ll0<1.Or [Uflrui'ig with ,c;fm~i:am IO.!lt! i.s increased, i~s Wl'que angte ill!l!~~ nece!;,,~;"IiI'ii~:r'

raJ! decrease

(b) increase

l c) !IO;;:[[Illm c~n"mOJ~

(d~ ile;C(lirne twice ~he nf}-lloaclv0.i,ue_

If the fleld of fl. s:r11dumlollls inO~DJ is uader,~~dt0d. tffile power facl:ar W]U be

(a) J~ggiIl,g {b) ],(:{~<lrug



'~gnf.lwl ng ~he (:!i'feo~· (if armature reaetlon, ~:r: e:o.::d~:M:1.on of a 8yj)c~]mi.1(liIJ~ moto!' .ru[j].1.~ng witt.! constant :IQild i:!;, decreased from its normal "'~II1C, .~l leads to

(tlI) incrcase.jn but decrease ill E~ {b} l m;r(,:!I;.5ie~1iI £1) but de"re1L!le in f~

{c} increase ] nbclch I;, :I:l1:d p.t, w h icl~ IL~ Im~:ging

(&£1 il:mr~= .~n bam l~ and (fo

1.7. A syndm:mmtsmm:m I:.mll1l0Ctcd [0 infi.njte busblUffS has ILl Ct}[JSlt]/U fu.l:l-lood. [00% excitation ~u:Ld il!uity p.f. Om ~hi:!i.1g~la;g the e'"xi,'H,~rj{lil o~t1y,

lihc ~rJ:rn~t"H~ eurrent w~U have

'fI) :!eadingp.r. w'i!lilt under-exeiuuion (l,} J,e,LI1~ ng p_l: wHI'! ol\!er-exdUlI.iol'l (I.') I ~ggillg p.f.witl1 ovcr-cxciratinn (d) ue cimogc of p.f

jPoW~f' App.-n. Deihl Unil. Jan 19871

lit l['he ~/-CLllr\~~,~ oJ OJ. gyncllron()1t~ nHl~O~ 8,1mw reiati()!l~hlp I.'li:lWeen

(a) excitation C:IJ!Lcrent. a1l!l::il back e.ns.f {h [i:eJ:tl current ilIi]d p, f,

k) (j,,,:, field current llil[~ ;I,", mtn~I~'!:ITC ~~Wren! (J) armature current arid wppt, volragc.

1 (,I. \Vllel1 k'Jld tin Il ~!r' !lC;h.~~WlOUS< Itlo!CJr l s 1'[[cre'~~ed. H~ ,~n~,,~j.u,re ,C'!.lrre~l~ i~ IQc.~~~- ed [)~Qv!d~d ~~ is

'(,(j l !l[lIillil;LUY-1:.oU:l u:t1 'lit 1, ~l~'~r-C:;!Id'cd

V"} under-excited (d) :!U of ll1~: above

;m. U III ain fi ~Jdl c arrent lof a salle nt "I'm I t> ~.cllil'Qf:I.oLfS mo!Alr .red .. fmIll.:lil:~ illJliJllLte btl:> and nm.!'lirng III rno"lo~d: is redured to ~I'O. it would h~ ~ (;f.lm~ ~I;I' III MI!JP

~ h} C'mnnhn~:le rnll!lfi I.ng ,I~ ~Y!Khrmmu~ ll;pee!l'l (d run III ~liIb-ti.YildmJ(lwus ~p~c~

~ if) roJ11 am Sllper-t!IJ'lIl.'CiI1i'Ol100US Sllet.'ld

21.. In a sYlilchIT!nml5 macmm: when '!:he rotor speed becomes mm'll lhml th!:' s"j'[J!dlrQnOll:lS speed d:lJJring hunting. the darT.!tpill,!!; burs devialap

f (J 1 ~)';n.l:hTmmm l1l>mm wr{luc

an d£. rnalm tOmqllC

t cj il'l.dmtiol[l mmm Ll(lIl:!)I!It:

(dl i~lductiQ:n !!!e<moe.L.i:tOf lto~we,

11'1I!~j t ,\ l)pA I. nl'lh~ IllIh_ J.UIl. !1J87)

U.~11 iI ~ylilchruI101l~ :moLm:. Ih~ rotmr eLI Jesses !I]lJ: met !:!J'

ll~' !1iInti;!ri nl1iJ,~ (b, ,mmlatlll11 i:[I~i!l ~ ,,1 S'l1.,Dp'ly Ii n es {,d) d.e ,source

~. A syuc~,,~nl~~O\IE m~,chinE; ~~ called a doublye)!cilm:i. rnD.ch1.r:J:~.hee::Il!1Se

(£J} il cMl1il1ol o'O'CR::lii",imw

if 'J't il hiIRi lWrl ~~~N (~f rat~r pflt~

'leI !-1mb iltlruloor und slmot ~ex,~l~g;r!I

« d) it needs [""~{l~ UU~ norm.a'i eJld'til~g eurrem .• 1J. Syncilwl:LOuS, 'Cflpodto:r ]s

't1' !I!IfI ~und~.nDTy ~I;~tic C~ifl'~cil:m b:!llk

01) fin ,~j\'cr-i:;x(;'L~cdl ~.:fl'iiChrfl~I.J!!i-~ !iil(]~m- drlvllilg mcehan b.Y ~!}l1d

(c) 11111 Oi'!Ol\jll:·Ilt)1~i~edl gJlilch:r-onoLis IlIl Dl>o[ run:I'lin;g Vll,Uu!:iOtli: InecLUlnHCa.i loorl

(ill :ItOliie of lh~ ,iL[]~Jv~ 623

j 1'.Ii!. t, I\Tn.chirlL'};;, t\.M.JI.J. •. SfC. n. I'NJ I

1.,11 I.d J . .c' ..t.b ~. b flo ,(' 7. b 8.,i\lI IJ.b lit d u.,
u, b Ll. C 14.(J rs, a lb. d ]7. b HI .. c llJ. d 20.b lLd 2.:!. d
2.'. (' 24, (" CHAPTER

l . Ob'" ~.

,etUnllrlg-~,I'ec n v'es

~ Introduc1lon

.. Stepper M!)tpf~

.. Types, ct St,epper Motors

>' Vmlabl,E) REl.luchJhCe Stepper MlQ~'Of'S

> Multi'stock VR stepper MoIor >- Perman9Ir1t-Mag!let SuF.ipplngl


>- Hyb~lld Sh3pper Motor

> Sumi'rl(i ry of Sh3pp,sr Mofors ;,.. PermClnent-MagFlf.l:"t DC Motor • Low-inertia DC Motors

Ji>" She,ll.:type Low-i nterno DC IMotor

~ P,runted-cirCIJIt{Drsc) DC Mo Or :;.. Perman.ent-Magnet svnebro-

nous Motors l!O" Syncllfos

]!>. Types of Synchms

]!>. Applications of Syncit'lr,os

.. Corfrol Dift9r®ntlaITral'lSirnitfer ~ Coon rol Dijf€lrentla I Receiver ~ Switched Rf:3,lw:;;tance Motoor )!i;- Cornponson berureen VR Step-

per f·.'llotor and: S[;( Motor >- me Resolver

» S@r'\ICmot'orE

,... DC Servomotors > AC Servomotors,


.. Stepp er mete r


EI!ectlJ'ical Technology

39.1. ~ntloductlon

Tlri R clmpt I' pr " .. 1. lei> II. brief i ntroductioa to I'!l, . errical m chi ae whk h ave SI .~ ial appl,icn:li~ ns.

It incl tides macbl nell hose stah r c )j I:;; are enereized by elecm me lllly switched currents. The examples rule: various lypoCs 0 r ~tepper motor" brushless d.c .. mDLOr and KW i tc bled reh rc ranee IT! otor etc. There is also 11 brief de-s~'l'ip~jol1 off d .e.ra,c. scrvometors, $}i'91C hro 1l10~ors and resolvers, These mCllo:~ am dC~'i'gned and built primarily for Usc in I'eedl:<!C'k COnLl'O~ system

39.2. Stepper Motors,

These motor are also called steppi ng moton ur step motors, The nan1 steppe .. is used beeau e this m ·toO· :rotalte~ through F.I. fix d angular step in response to each input current pulse received byils eontrnll er; ]JfI receat ),C:lrs. lhere ha~ beenwidespread demand of ~teppil1g. motors becau e of the expl si v c growth of DJIL~ computer i nrlustry, he ir popul arit)' is due to ~he fac t thar ~bJt.:j' can be controlled di.rect:! by cnmputers mi, ropr cessors and programmable .Ofilf{)II!Z~.

As, we know, umlusll-j;li. mQj~Jrs Steppe r Motor

are used to coavert electric e·JJe'rgy

int.nmedt1mical eaergy lrut tbte;y camiot be U"'Bd for precision pesitioning of iiILIl object or precision eonrrol of spe,edwilliiou.t usi Iil,g do ed-loop feedbn, k, Stepping mo turs are id ~lll}' II i ted for itnation when: either precise positioning or precise speed e!mtffi,r or both are requited in aotornerioe systems,

Ap:!lrft from tepping motors, ath.cr de VDce!'w'1ed fortheab ve P~] rposes are s)' nehrus arul rcxol ver~ <lI1i. well as dclac senrO[[J'Lllors, ,td:ii5cusOO(l. later].

The unique fel'ltnre of a ~llepp6f mOlOJ[' is [hal its outplIE. s,hall :J:f)taLi~~ inn II series 'Of di serete an: ulur il1!~er\'alg or ~tBfis, nne step lJeiung takem. each. ~[i.l'IlIl~ a command pulse .. , te eived, \Vben deflll:lilf: nember of pulses BIT' supplied the' haft tnr ~ throngha definite known aUlgh!\_ This fact make the moior we.H·.~H:~.ecl ~nr open-locpposltlan eomrel Dt:Gl1IU,'!E: nn feedback need be m:ken from the output haR

Such motors d n:Jop 1OIJ'qUt:S ralilging l'rom I ~J N-m {in a tiny ~'risl wfltlch mulorof 3 man diam_'!cr) up 40 N-1l1ill ::Ji motor of 15 ern diamet r uhal ,Ie fill' macbino tool ,applicali 11'. Their p w outpm l'aillgc from about I W to' J maximum oJf2.50n W_ Tile only moving part in a. neppiag motor is its rotor which lrn<l.~]]{1 wlndlngs, coenmuuucror brushes, This feature makes [he motor quite mbu~t f~nd reliable.

Step Angle

1!! angle (hrough which til motor shaf rotates for ca",1iJ command pul e is called the step angle jj" Smaller the step angle, greater 11k number I(Jf ::;tep~ per [~V luuon and higher the resolmion 01 accuracy of positioule g ob laincd, The step angles can be as S D 1~'i:lI.1 as rn2') or a~ l ~lfge [11j 9(1".131..111 [[le most COlTII110mL ,tep :siZBS are ~ ,8", 25", 7 .5~ and l5~.

The vul U1iE of step angle cal'] be expressed ei ther in term of the I'O[OIi and stator pole.~ fi.cc Ih) N r [Iud, .respectiv Iy fin terms of HII'! number of taro phase (m and Ihc number of rotor eeth.


3601' ~, ""

I:l:I lV,. Nn, of slfltm·~]~]a.~s x No" or rotHr ~ff:>e~h

FOI" eXOlJ111PJ e, if Ns ee, 8. aad N/. = 6, ~ '" (8 - 6)x 360 ! s: x 6 "" L)~

Resol uslon is givcli:I. by tht: mnnbsr (]if steps fi]lf:)Bdec] k~ cOl'Jlpll61~e one mVO~l!Jlioi[! ofthe rotor ~ll wF~.

Ilugher tharcsel [~l~ori. greater rhe accuracy of posi~.o[liJ.]g of .objects by rhe mmO.r

. . R.e~n~ution = No. of steps ! revel ution "" 360" j 13

A steJPilf1h1g motor has the ext'r<l()!\clHnary abUity to OP€;L'lltIC at. vCljlhugh 8l(~pp'ung rates ~Uipm(] 20.;m:W s~ep.s per secondia sorlliemmor8) ilnd ye~ ~Q remain t~uUy i~l sYllclu'omsm with the OOIliID'J.<t!;Ld pu]~e8. When the ~m] xe rate is h.i21~, ilie shalt rotadon seems COl~l~f1l](JUS.,. Op-ernt.lon ail. high, speeds .. !S CJ:i led 'slewh1.g' .Wl'le:n i.~] tl~.e s~.ew.i:n;groJl~e" the motor gcnern.tly emn.~ 11[1 audible whine ha.ving a rlLl.tl.d~r[le:nl8!l freqiL1('tl:cycq~mllltn the s~eppillg rate. If/is the S:tteiiJphlg. frequency {or pulse rate} in pulses pel' second (pps) and P is ilie step angle, tkiel] motorr shaft speed i'sgi.ve;Im.L.y

.II ;:;; .~ x.ll 36@[j)s -pillh,c fl'eql:looa], msoiJutio.mi

If the s[eppin g 'rme ; s~J:lc:rea~ed lnO qlllckly. ~he: molu!" Ilol'l,es 3}'1l~~hroJ;',[i&m :!1m:! ~~op;s_ Sarne ~hing l:laJi1P~m. if wl1e:rJ" lhe metorss "'~iewjm:g. oOl11l11I1aJuil pulses are st1ddJell~Y sropped instead ofooJJlg progress i vdy slowed.

Steppl.ngrnntots 8!rt J~~.,ngneJ. ~n {lP~I,-~tl;1lfnr l nng~e:fiod~ W~UI the 11"lJ~nl- held in :I. h~.ed po~~ti(~~l afJ~ with l1Ii1:ed (:a]I~I"I~ fl~wirlg ill tile stator windings, [t means liuJi( st:<iU.1.[Ig is acproblemfo« such meters w.iilereil:s.fol'~l.wsl[oft'h.e O'[he[roo:tJ}Jr~., sla~.~.i.]1,g rC~;ll.Ms, iJ:l the ,coU~Up~11: of back !t:ltIf (EbJ and, H ... ery~igh c:u!"fen.l Wfufich canlead to a qu1ckltmll'll-cmt

_\.p~~1 k~lljl ID_O;: :

Sueh mClrOr_~ are In.~[l(~ f:ll!f gpe~-a~~on eoutrol ~ n. c['mp'U!f~ pfriplu:rn~~. textile tm::lllstry, lC fabrications and mboti cs etc. Applk:mi.o.~s requiring i.~.ereifi~erJ.t.a1 mO~.ion ate typewri IHrN, ~ i ne pri 1lI[.erl'l, t<li[H'- dri ves, t1~lJrY d!i sk d:r~¥~. numerieally-eonnclled machine tools, process C~I1tIlO~ .~y s tern 8 and X - r pi QUe rs. USI!J.~.I!y., posiuoninformetion C.UII be obrained si.r:nply by keerpi,llg couot of [t:t,e pulses sen l w UJ,L1 motor ~he:reby d~.mi.l1r!I.Ling ~:be needfor expensi ve positioJl ~e[lM)ni ,l;lld feedb~J:;:k consrols .. Stepper meters also pe rfo rm COUll i ~,e s s tasks 011 rside lh C COIl1pru let in.dltl~tJ"Y_ h includes commercial mil,J~ary :'mi! .medk:al ap plknl ions w he re these I]WIOf~rerJorm such fU.llcLinlfl.8 as mixing, c~th~lg, striking, mel cering. lJkn ding and r~l·g:i]lg. They also take 'pflC[ in ~.he manufaerure of packed food stuf£~, cml!1me[rc~j!~e!llda pmd!ucls and even ~I,u~ preduction of scieuce fletion movies.



E ~-a mple J9.1. .A. hybl'hl VR s~'epp~'ng~Ho~"Or JlQ~' 8 maill pOies which Iww: been cClsliemeJ if) h:flve S teetlt ,e,adl. if ~'OWI' has 50 teetk; C(Jlc~!l(Nel.hl1 Slepp#tl1 angle.


Ns '" 8 x :5 '" 4[j~ .Nr ,:0 50

l3 '" (50 - 40) x 360 j 501 x 40:= .~ .S~ ..

.El.:unpl e J~)2. A sf;(spper moWr tI.£l8 til step tiiflgle ol2.5~.. Det-erl1l~'U1 {a) f:&'w . .J'!!~h:,(}n !b" m;mibtJ/' oj iiie.pli ~'eqrli1;etl jeF ~/1JI1 sh~!f} to nnr::r.&e 25 l'El'O'lI:tUrm,~ {{lUI, t", shaft spl?gtl. If ~~!e' ,Nl3ppil~gfFf!q~U1'1'M~}' is 36{),()pV~'


StI]ulh:lh. ta I Reselntion '"' 3600 ! P '" 360~ I 2.5'" = :144 Melll~ ! revolUllioU)

(IJ I Now. steps! revelutlon "" 14-1L Hence. steps required for ~·.I'l£lki:~g 25 rcvohllk!f].s:;;;;; 144 x: 2-.5 "" 36m.

t e ~ II '" ~, x] f36{)P ... 2: ,j x 360f) ! J6(f '" 25 rps

39.3. 'Types of Stepper Motol'S

There ~ s a largevariely of stepper motors w.h.kh. CIl!i1 00 ill vided ~ll~O the [rJUowi:n.g. [~n:ree basic categork:s :

I flVnriabJe Retuctance 1S~,eVJ:ler Muil.lF bn.'l:S wound: s~mQ,po,~e~~ but Ute r~tor poles aremade of II terromagneuc n1a~:e,ialj <IS slbo'w~~uJ1 fig.J9.1 (a}. h can be of the single ~[:ad, ~ype (Fig,39_'2) or multi-stack type ("Pig,,3.9.5) whkh gives, smalk::i! step iing~e;.~. Direc~inrm of ruotor rotarios is ~ ndiepem:lelU Oflhl~ j)Gbuity of the srsror current, U. ~.5 caflad vari !lb~ere~lUct,~[!C~ moWr because (he re:luctance of the magneric cirenit formed by dK~mt.Cir and st1!il:.o.r ~eJh varies wilhlheill.lgu~ M posltlen of the rotor,

Hil P'ennilnenll\logn~l Strpp~r ]Hot.or ]l;<I.Rso aas wound stator poles, bm ks rorer poles 8!re perma!llc[lJUy mag~letiLet~, H h;l~ a 'Cy~iLld:ric,,~ Io~ZYr as snoWll :inFug. 39.1 {b}. 11s dire-etlan of rolfLlioliil. j]e.p;t:ndN an the polarity of the stator CUlITeiIH.

~ riil H l~)I'i II S1epp<e1f ""'f otor

It has, wouad stator poles and pe[tnalmenL~Y-ITl8!gfletized rotor poles as shown in.f'.ig.3:9.1,k). his best S"1!l:itcd wh(:lI! ~m:l.U ~'te,p .u~g].e:s of 1.80• 2.5~ etc, are' ~.\equit'eicL

VRM<)l'Q, {a)

P'MM;),;or {b)

Hyib;r:ijd, MOlu[ (d

Fig. :3<9.1

As a v<JiriaMe speed machine. \lie morcr is oorneili.rrn.e designed as a switched-reluctance 11!WWr.

Si.~.lH.f!!t.ly, .P'~:l ~lCpr:~c~.· mt)l[.l'rr h; ,lhn c<i~l:ed v,Lriable spee>d brusbless c!c!;l1owr. The hybrid motor 1;:Qmb<ine5 the features of~m s:~.e;pper mmOff and PM s:roppcrn:l0mt. U s St8[Of .conlsl.n.1G!:i.on~s SbHi~.a,1' in We ~;u~l,gle-stack VR moliOr but~lle rotor is cyUndrical mind is composed ofradiaHy magaetized permaneru mag[l.e~s" A recent typcu Se~, a discrotor which is magnetized OlX[<tUytrJ give a small stBrVllllg 8ta1:!§1 c .md~ow inertia

J9.4. Vwiab eRe. L.u:h:mcs Stepper M'olms

Spec lat Mach inss

('nnl~lruct_inn : A '!j',afil;Jh~ei.;r'ehtr,;'W~l!;e m[J~n'!i li~ OonS~ll!iIiCl~d fH~m fermma~J]le'tk u~le!i~OlI Willi ~'Lllli~!illt ro~e~ 38sl'!w;vn tn Fi.f.l- )i;;)'.2. 1l1e ~~~IU!i i~ made from !II s~,a(;k of ~t:ee~ '1"llIli!li!,~liotii!;~ ~r]jd has 81)1': ~U!l~1 Y-~~1tcedpmj~i:;tirlg lI{]:les 'or tee!h), lem;;lhi wO!.1ind with .m ex dli oS; CO]T. 1iIle wtoll1(l,'ih~c~, mOlY he ,wlid O-f ]amllll<lwd has fu~ r rrojedi:ng h~C:[~ (lifl:h.e same wi dlth nsthe SUUOf teed]. As seen, there aretheee illlde~endent Sil1!11e1T eircuits or phases J\, IJ Jml Co:ucl e.'lCiil one can be eaergised by a d'i.re~·l curreat pulse fro-m 'the ,d'r]ve dI1CUIt 'tlllot ... hewn in the tIgur,e}.

A :>i!1l',ple d,ncmt a..rro'ngefiliLe:nH ['OJ'' Sl]pp~yilil".,c:m'Ji1em tothe stator coils in :propCff se(jllem:e is slilowlII inl Rg. 392 (o~. The Si~:5Lilli:or 001 I s are c:mmeC'l.ed ill 2-ooiJ groWJlS ~o f®rm I.kree sepilli1!lle dic,cwts ciilli!d phases.

Ead pJH!J~e has irs nwn_ indepeudent switch. \l~rJa!i!Q I'E!IUct;;l!!'lID~ i'1Ilotm

Diametrically opposiee 1)JIJ"S of stator CO] hi; are

eonaeered in series, s~ l113a when ('Ifle Iwotil beeeeies a N-po~.,e,ru.e other one beeomes .a S-pole, AJth[lIJg;~ shown illlll1ec.hilll.i.cl'll. swi~des ill R.g. 319.2 r t'). ~IlI1CUlnJ. practice, swlH:hlI~g of p.lliLf1SC' ,cl.lrre'lilils ]5 done will!! the help of so~d..st.il[~ control Whcl!i, l.itere is no C~ ~m il:l(!],e .st:uo, coil!t:,. ~he rotnr is comp.le-re.ly free W 00[::111:: •. EnGfgisiJ,l,g (];.rn.C' Ot[f!lLf.ffi' t.~al.m CO]IS.C;1LlI£Cll, lh~ .ronnr~.o swp for;vard (or backward) 1'0 H 'pD1itioJTIl. tlUll fOF!illS apil:th. of .ieast .ool!ll.c tanee \l;rit!l[fuJlll .rta::l,gn,eli:2le!!l starer teetb, The ste,p <IT!gle (If this three-pbase, [ulIlr r-O~,Q, teeth mow]' is p", 36014 X J "'" 30".

Srni[lE A
B ~).,
4 r :!.
~ 3,
.. -
A ~ ~
~ C'
.1, ,. I
} -'-][I'
A. ~r
B ['I.
~ •
C ,["'
~r __ ---t ..
j~l c S

SI~IA'F p..!~ f'h

Fil:g!. 3~.2 \\rrr1dn:g, TIlt: m,tHlIJf has, foUowing n~ocle:;; of OretmUo!l1 :

~ .c'
~fi ., v ~.
-.. .I
~ ,~ ],
C" 'EI'
M '[ruth T~hl.~ N4I I

~Ii, C fI


.' IJ L~ r,f

[I + u 30


4- IJ i.l ,~.

___ ...l__

l·!1'b~·ON Moo~, I\~C~f'I

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