Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information Academic Year 2010/2011 Semester 1 H6675 – Systems Analysis

and Design

Case Study: Internet Banking
(With reference to Nov 2009 Exam question 5)
Course Coordinator: Mr Richard Xu Rong Members: 1. Luo Wee Hiang, Sam G0803489K 2. Selvaraj Vijayanand G0901659K 3. Yin Marlar Myat G0901576B 4. Yap Sheue Mui G0801656A m080062@e.ntu.edu.sg selv0012@e.ntu.edu.sg yinm0011@e.ntu.edu.sg w080030@e.ntu.edu.sg

Table of contents
1. Case Study ...................................................................................................................... 1 2. Login ............................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 Clarifications: Login ................................................................................................... 2 2.2 Use Case Diagram: Login ........................................................................................... 3 2.3 Use Case Description: Login....................................................................................... 3 2.4 System Sequence Diagram: Login .............................................................................. 5 2.5 Detailed Sequence Diagram: Login ............................................................................ 6 3. View Account Summary ................................................................................................. 7 3.1 Clarifications: View Account Summary ..................................................................... 7 3.2 Use Case Diagram: View Account Summary ............................................................. 7 3.3 Use Case Description: View Account Summary ........................................................ 7 3.4 System Sequence Diagram: View Account Summary .............................................. 10 3.5 Detailed Sequence Diagram: View Account Summary ............................................ 11 4. Inter Account Fund Transfer ......................................................................................... 12 4.1 Clarifications: Inter Account Fund Transfer ............................................................. 12 4.2 Use Case Diagram: Inter Account Fund Transfer ..................................................... 12 4.3 Use Case Description: Inter Account Fund Transfer ................................................ 12 4.4 System Sequence Diagram: Inter Account Fund Transfer ........................................ 16 4.5 Detailed Sequence Diagram: Inter Account Fund Transfer ...................................... 17 5. State Transition Diagram .............................................................................................. 18 5.1 States Transition ........................................................................................................ 18 6. Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 19 Appendix A – Requirements Description ................................................................................ 20 Appendix B – The Thinking Process ....................................................................................... 23 References ................................................................................................................................ 24

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Login Use Case Diagram ........................................................................................... 3 Figure 2: Login System Sequence Diagram .............................................................................. 5 Figure 3: Login Sequence Diagram ........................................................................................... 6 Figure 4: View Account Summary Use Case Diagram ............................................................. 7 Figure 5: View Account Summary System Sequence Diagram .............................................. 10 Figure 6: View Account Summary Detailed Sequence Diagram ............................................ 11 Figure 7: Inter Account Fund Transfer Use Case Diagram ..................................................... 12 Figure 8: Inter Account Fund Transfer System Sequence Diagram ........................................ 16 Figure 9: Inter Account Fund Transfer Detailed Sequence Diagram ...................................... 17 Figure 10: Internet Banking Application State transition Diagram ......................................... 18

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List of Tables
Table 1: Login Use Case Narration ........................................................................................... 4 Table 2: View Account Summary Use Case Narration ............................................................. 9 Table 3: Inter Account Fund Transfer Use Case Narration ..................................................... 15

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1.

Case Study

Joe is a fresh graduate whom recently joined Centurion Information Systems Pte Ltd as a System Analyst. Centurion has won a contract to develop an Internet Banking Application for Trillion Wealth Bank a couple of months back. Joe‟s boss, Don has just completed the requirements gathering phase and tasked Joe to perform system analysis on the requirements in order to derive the Use-Case Diagram, Use-Case Description, System Sequence Diagram, Detailed Sequence Diagram and State Transition Diagram for the following Use-Cases;    Login View Account Summary Perform Inter Account Fund Transfer

Please refer to Appendix A – Requirements Description Don has gathered for the above mentioned Use-Cases. Imagine yourself as Joe, what would you do in order to derive the above mentioned diagrams? Being a newbie, Joe has a series of questionnaires to answer in order to deliver the product. Please refer to Appendix B – The Thinking Process for the series of questions in Joe‟s mind. Armed with answers in his mind about the Process to deliver the product, Joe styled his report in the following order for each Use-Case;      Clarifications – To address uncertain portions Use-Case Diagram – To reflect the functions Actors may perform Use-Case Narration – Description of the Use-Case, including System response System Sequence Diagram – Actor and System interactions Detailed Sequence Diagram – Application of the Model View Control methodology for classes definition

Lastly, Joe included a single State Transition Diagram to cover all three Use-Cases and concluded by summarizing the highlights in the adopted approach.

1

2.
2.1

Login
Clarifications: Login

1. Logging off – Trillion Wealth explained that customers can only logged off from the respective Screens; a. After successfully logging in b. After execution of the View Account Summary c. After execution/cancellation of the Inter Account Fund Transfer d. After execution/cancellation of the Inter Bank Fund Transfer 2. Account Management – Trillion Wealth explained that all customers Internet Banking Account information (such as User IDs, Passwords, Mobile Phone numbers, Security Question and Answer) are stored in a database application already implemented by another vendor. The Internet Banking Application to be developed by Centurion may provide login details to the external database application which perform the first layer of authentication. Successful authentication would return the customer Internet Banking Account information (less Security Question and Answer) as well as CustomerID (primary key) to the Centurion Internet Banking Application. The One Time Password (OTP) is not necessary as Customer set his/her own password during application, OTP is required for cases when the System auto generates the password and Customers might be prompted to change during the first time login 3. Security Token – Trillion Wealth explained that this is the second factor authentication. Customers whose User ID and Password were stolen have to lose their Security Tokens physically in order to expose their accounts to possible thefts. Each customer Security Token is unique and each time the button is pressed, customer must log in within 5 minutes or the randomly generated 6 digit pin would expire. This layer of authentication would be managed by Trillion Wealth in-house IT Department. Centurion Internet Banking Application will need to send CustomerID and the customer entered 6 digit pin to the in-house system for second layer of verification. Successful verification would present the Main Screen of the Internet Banking Application to the customer. 4. Joe added that Log off, Change of password and Retrieve password Use-Cases will be modeled at a later stage.

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2.2

Use Case Diagram: Login

Figure 1: Login Use Case Diagram

2.3

Use Case Description: Login
Login Internet Banking Use Case #1 High Requirement – Internet Banking Requirement #4 Trillion Wealth Bank Customer Use Case Type Business Requirements: System Analysis:

Use-Case Name: Use-Case ID: Priority: Source: Primary Business Actor: Primary System Actor: Other Participating Actors: Other Interested Stakeholders: Description:

Trillion Wealth Bank Customer Account Database (External Server Actor) Second Factor Authentication Manager (External Server Actor) None

None This use case describes the events of a Trillion Wealth Bank Customer performing a login to the Internet Banking Application via the Login URL on the Bank home page. The Customer enters his/her UserID and Password for authentication. Upon successful authentication, Customer manually activates the security token in his/her possession for a 6 digit pin. This pin is then entered to the Internet Banking Application for verification. Upon successful verification, the Main Screen is presented to the Customer. Customer must have a valid Internet Banking Application Account. This use case is initiated when the Customer access the Login URL from the Bank home page. Actor Action System Response Step 1: Customer requests to log in to Step 2: The System responses by Internet Banking Application. displaying the Login screen. Step 3: Customer enters login details. Step 4: The System checks the current state (Log off, Log in, Locked) of the

Precondition: Trigger: Typical Course of Events:

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Customer is Log off. Step 5: The System validates Customer entered login details correctly. Step 6: The System prompts Customer to enter his/her pin. Step 7: Customer enters the pin on displayed on his/her security token. Step 8: The System verifies Customer entered pin correctly.

Alternate Courses:

Step 9: The System displays the Main Screen. Alt-Step 4: If the Customer state is locked or already logged on, notify Customer of the unavailability. Alt-Step 5: If Customer entered login details are invalid are the third time, change Customer state to lock and notify Customer account is locked and to contact bank. If Customer entered login details are invalid for less than 3 times, warn the Customer and go to Step 2. Alt-Step 8: If Customer entered pin is invalid are the third time, change Customer state to lock and notify Customer account is locked and to contact bank. If Customer entered pin is invalid for less than 3 times, warn the Customer and go to Step 6. This use case concludes when the Customer views the Main Screen. Customer state is updated as Log on, any further attempts to log on will be denied.  Customer must apply and register for an Internet Banking Account before accessing the application.  Customer must have the security token in possession.  Customer has 3 attempts each for password verification and pin authentication before being having his/her account locked.  Inform Customer to contact Bank if Account is locked.  Use case must be available to the Customer round the clock.  Able to support up to 2000 concurrent Customers.  Validation and Verification process must be completed by the System in not more than 5 seconds.  Customer can log off only after successful logging in (separate use case).  Customer can change or retrieve password (separate use case).  Customer can change security answer/question (separate use case).  One Time Password is not necessary as the Password is set by the Customer during registration None

Conclusion: Post condition: Business Rules:

Implementation Constraints and Specifications: Assumptions:

Open Issues:

Table 1: Login Use Case Narration

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2.4

System Sequence Diagram: Login

Figure 2: Login System Sequence Diagram 5

2.5

Detailed Sequence Diagram: Login

Figure 3: Login Sequence Diagram 6

3.
3.1

View Account Summary
Clarifications: View Account Summary

1. All of the accounts information and details account transaction of a customer are already stored in the database application developed by another vendor. Internet banking application developed by Centurion just needs to retrieve customer requested information from this database. 2. Customer‟s accounts summary will be retrieved by means of CustomerID. For account details will be retrieved by CustomerID and AccountID for one customer may have more than one accounts. 3. For security reason, after idle time of 5 minutes, system will alert automatically whether to drop the screen or not. If the user‟s choice is „Yes‟, the system will be logged out automatically. Otherwise, the user has to log in again to view account summary.

3.2

Use Case Diagram: View Account Summary

Figure 4: View Account Summary Use Case Diagram

3.3

Use Case Description: View Account Summary
View Account Summary Internet Banking Use Case #2 High Requirement – Internet Banking Requirement #7 Trillion Wealth Bank Customer Use Case Type Business Requirements: System Analysis:
 

Use-Case Name: Use-Case ID: Priority: Source: Primary Business Actor:

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Primary System Actor: Other Participating Actors: Other Interested Stakeholders: Description:

Trillion Wealth Bank Database (External Server Actor) None

None This use case describes the event of a Trillion Wealth Bank Customer viewing his/her account summary. Customer can view the summary of his/her accounts by clicking on A/C Summary link from the Main Screen. When he/she clicks on one of the account type, detailed transactions of previous and current month for the selected account will be displayed. Customer must successfully login to the Internet Banking Application. This use case is initiated when Customer selects View Account Summary option from the Main Screen. Actor Action System Response Step 1: Customer selects View Account Step 2: System retrieves all of Customer‟s Summary. accounts and the accounts‟ current balance from the Trillion Wealth Bank Database. Step 3: System displays all of the Customer‟s account and the accounts‟ current balance. Step 4: Customer selects one of the account to view the transactions for default period (current and previous one month). Step 5: System retrieves Customer selected account and its transactions for the stated period from the Trillion Wealth Bank Database.

Precondition: Trigger: Typical Course of Events:

Alternate Courses:

Step 6: System displays all the transactions within the stated period for selected account. Alt-Step 4: Customer selects exit and this use case terminates. Alt-Step 4: Customer selects one of the account and the desired period to view the transactions within the selected period. Go to Step 5. Alt-Step 6: System finds nil transactions within the stated period and displays “Nil transactions”. This use case concludes when the Customer views his/her account summary or transactions details for the selected account. None  Customer can only view accounts under their names.  This use case is available for all Trillion Wealth Internet Banking customers 24/7 where internet access is available.  For the usability purpose, web screen provided to customers must be simple so that they can learn and use easily.

Conclusion: Post condition: Business Rules: Implementation Constraints and Specifications:

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Assumptions:

Open Issues:

Screen idle time should be not more than 5 minutes for security purpose. If the idle time is 5 minutes, user will be asked that he wants to drop the screen or not. If he chooses „Yes‟, his account will be logged out automatically. Otherwise, he will be shown the log in screen again. The Trillion Wealth Internet Banking System provides „Account Summary‟ as one of the main categories and lets customers to access directly from the main screen. Other Internet Banking systems put it under „Account Information‟ category. If the screen design is complicated, novice users may face difficulty even for a simple use case.

Table 2: View Account Summary Use Case Narration

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3.4

System Sequence Diagram: View Account Summary

Figure 5: View Account Summary System Sequence Diagram 10

3.5

Detailed Sequence Diagram: View Account Summary

Figure 6: View Account Summary Detailed Sequence Diagram

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4.
4.1

Inter Account Fund Transfer
Clarifications: Inter Account Fund Transfer

1. If there is any system failure, system will roll back to the last successful completed transaction. Customer will be notified of unsuccessful transaction. This rollback will be handled by the External Server Actor Trillion Wealth Bank Database. 2. Clicking the Refresh or Reload during a transaction session will terminate the current session and customer has to wait 5 minutes to be able to login again.

4.2

Use Case Diagram: Inter Account Fund Transfer

Figure 7: Inter Account Fund Transfer Use Case Diagram

4.3

Use Case Description: Inter Account Fund Transfer
Inter Account Fund Transfer Internet Banking Use Case #3 High Requirement – Internet Banking Requirement #9 Trillion Wealth Bank Customer Use Case Type Business Requirements: System Analysis:

Use-Case Name: Use-Case ID: Priority: Source: Primary Business Actor

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Primary System Actor: Other Participating Actors: Other Interested Stakeholders: Description:

Trillion Wealth Bank Database (External Server Actor) None

None This use case describes the event of a customer performing an inter account fund transfer (Fund transfer within Trillion Wealth Bank). Customer can select which account to transfer fund out and which account to receive funds from. Customer enters the amount for transfer and selects immediate transfer or future transfer. When the transfer is completed, the customer will receive a SMS notification if this option is activated. Customer must successfully login to the Internet Banking Application. This use case is initiated when Customer selects Inter Account Fund Transfer option from the Main Screen. Actor action System response Step 1: Customer selects Inter Account Step 2: System displays Inter Account Fund Transfer. Fund Transfer Screen. Step 3: Customer selects from one of his/her own account to transfer fund out. Step 4: Customer selects from one of his/her own account to receive funds. Step 5: Customer enters the amount for transfer. Step 6: Customers selects immediate transfer and commits selection. Step 7: System checks that the amount transferred is greater or equal than the minimum sum ($1.00). Step 8: System checks that the amount transferred is within the minimum resolution ($0.01). Step 9: System checks that the amount transferred is less than the selected account available balance. Step 10: System checks that the remaining balance after transferred is greater than the minimum balance ($20.00). Step 12: Customer confirms the selection. Step 11: System displays the transfer details for customer to verify.

Precondition: Trigger: Typical Course of Events:

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Step 13: System invokes the external Trillion Wealth Bank Database with Customer entered details to perform the fund transfer transaction. Step 14: System received the successful transferred confirmation from the external Trillion Wealth Bank Database. Step 15: System informs Customer of the successful completion of transaction. Step 16: System send SMS notification to the Customer if he/she opt in for the service and that the transfer type is to other person. Alt-Step 3, 4, 5, 6, 12: Customer selects cancel and this use case terminates. Alt-Step 6: Customer entered a postdated date. Go to Step 7. Alt-Step 7: System checks that the amount transferred is greater or equal than the minimum sum ($1.00) and informs the Customer. Go to Step 2. Alt-Step 8: System checks that Customer entered a transferred amount is not within the minimum resolution ($0.01) informs the Customer. Go to Step 2. Alt-Step 9: System checks that the amount transferred is less than the selected account available balance and informs Customer. Go to Step 2. Actor action System response Ext-Step 1: Customer selects another Ext-Step 2: System responds by prompting person‟s account to receive funds. for the receiving account information. Ext-Step 3: Customer enters the receiving account holder initials. Ext-Step 4: Customer enters the receiving account type. Ext-Step 5: Customer enters the receiving account number. Go to Step 5 in Typical Course of Events. This use case concludes when the customer receives a transfer confirmation message. The right amount of fund is transferred from the selected account to the designated account.

Alternate Courses:

Extension Point (Extends from Typical Course of Event Step 4):

Conclusion: Post condition:

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Business Rules:

          

Implementation Constraints and Specifications: Assumptions:

Funds transferred are in local currency. Customer can only transfer funds out of accounts under their names. Only 3 types of accounts that funds can be transferred out – Personal Savings, Joint Savings and Current. Minimum sum of $20.00 to be maintained after the transfer for Personal Savings and Joint accounts Current account can be $0.00 after transfer but cannot be negative. Minimum amount to be transferred is $1.00 and minimum resolution is $0.01. Use case must be available to the customer round the clock Validation of account numbers and verification of minimum sum must be in not more than 5 seconds A cancel button available to Customer before confirmation. Rollback capability provided by Trillion Wealth Bank Database (External Server Actor). Background worker in to detect the Reload/Refresh button of the browser would trigger an automated logoff. The Background worker is transparent to the Customer and therefore need not model here.

Open Issues:

None

Table 3: Inter Account Fund Transfer Use Case Narration

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4.4

System Sequence Diagram: Inter Account Fund Transfer

Figure 8: Inter Account Fund Transfer System Sequence Diagram 16

4.5

Detailed Sequence Diagram: Inter Account Fund Transfer

Figure 9: Inter Account Fund Transfer Detailed Sequence Diagram 17

5.
5.1

State Transition Diagram
States Transition

State Transition Diagram is a tool used to depict the sequence and variation of screens that can occur during a user session (Bently & Whitty, 2008). The State Transition Diagrams enables us to understand the navigational pattern for the functionalities in the system. Below is a group of GUIs for the following use cases: Login, View Account Summary and Inter Account Fund Transfer. The navigation between each Screen is also included in the diagram.

Figure 10: Internet Banking Application State transition Diagram 18

6.

Conclusion

From this Internet Banking Application case study, the sequential application of analysis processes and methodologies are the main takeaways in System Analysis and Design. The process begins with User‟s requirements which form the scope of the project. Analyst should clarify all ambiguous requirements prior to analysis. The next step is to perform analysis modelling which Analyst needs to identify role playing actors and use cases for functional as well as non-functional requirements. The actors and use cases are translated into Use Case diagram followed by the narration of the Use Case diagram. From the Use Case narration, the nouns (objects) and verbs (methods) are identified and translate into System Sequence Diagram that describes the Actor – System interactions. The detailed Sequence Diagram is then derived based on the Model View Control (MVC) approach whereby the classes, methods and arguments are specified in details for implementation into codes by programmers. Lastly, a consolidated State Transition diagram is derived to describe the required screens and the navigation between them. This case study emphasised on the importance of analysis process, applied methodologies and techniques. Resulting output (diagrams and documentation) for one process becomes the input of the next process and by adopting this set of sequential approach, Analysis and Design can be applied to all developing Systems in a systematic and comprehensive manner. Future studies Efforts can be spend to improve on three areas; Development Scope, Time and Cost.    Scope – Apply PIECES framework to ensure scope are comprehensively covered Time – Adopt the hybrid approach of the waterfall model during analysis and design Cost – Explore the feasibility for COTS products

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Appendix A – Requirements Description
Login All Trillion Wealth Bank customers need to register and be issued with an Internet Banking account before they can access the Internet Banking Application. During registration, customer must provide the following;     User ID – 6 to 12 alphanumeric characters to represent each customer Password – 6 to 12 alphanumeric characters for authentication Security Question and Answer – Question and Answer each in string of not more than 250 characters for retrieval of password Mobile phone number (optional) – For SMS notification of Internet Banking transactions (Inter Account Fund Transfer and Inter Bank Fund Transfer only) carried out by requester. Customer may opt out of the service

Upon registration, customer will be issued a security token whereby customer manually pressed the button on the token to display a 6 digit pin for verification purpose during login. Customer can access the login URL from the Bank‟s main URL. During login, customer enters his/her unique User ID and password for authentication. Thereafter, customer enters the 6 digit pin generated from the security token for verification. Customer has 3 attempts for authentication and verification after which his/her Internet Banking account would be locked. Locked accounts can be unlocked at any branches or by phone call to Trillion Wealth Bank customer service. Upon successful login, the main screen is displayed and customer may select options to View Account Summary, perform Inter Account Bank Transfer and Inter Bank Account Transfer.

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View Account Summary Each customer may have up to 5 categories of accounts and each category may have its own types of account;      Savings account – Up to 1 Personal Savings account & 1 Joint Savings account Current account Credit Card account – Trillion Wealth Visa & Trillion Wealth Master Investment account – Unit Trust & Fixed Deposit Loan account – Housing loan and Car loan

Upon request, the latest account balance for each of the customer available account types would be displayed. Customer may select each account type for detailed view (previous month and current month transactions). If there are no transactions during this period, the term “Nil transactions” would be displayed. E.g. If Johnny has a Personal Savings account, a Joint Savings account & Trillion Wealth Visa account; selecting the View Account Summary for him would display the 3 accounts latest balance. Johnny selects his Trillion Wealth Visa account and the previous month as well as current month transactions would be displayed.

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Inter Account Fund Transfer For Inter Account Fund Transfer within Trillion Wealth, all customers can only transfer funds out of accounts under their names, including Joint Savings account. There are only 3 types of accounts that funds can be transferred out from and to certain account types only. The types of Inter Account Fund Transfer are as follows; Types of account: - Transfer To Trillion Wealth Own accounts Other‟s accounts - Joint Savings account - Personal Savings account - Current account - Joint Savings account - Fixed Deposit - Personal Savings account - Personal Savings account - Current account - Joint Savings account - Fixed Deposit - Personal Savings account - Nil - Joint Savings account - Fixed Deposit

From Trillion Wealth Personal Savings account

Joint Savings account

Current account

Personal Savings account and Joint Savings account has to maintain a minimum sum of $20.00 after the transfer. There is no minimum sum to be maintained for Current account, can be $0.00 but cannot be negative. There are no charges for Internal Account Fund Transfer but the minimum amount to be transferred is $1.00 and the minimum amount resolution is $0.01. If customer opts in for the SMS notification, he/she would be notified of the transaction for transfer to other‟s account only indicating the amount transferred from/to respective account numbers. E.g. Husband and Wife are customers of Trillion Wealth Bank and both opted for SMS notification. Husband has $21.01 in his Personal Savings account. He transfers $1.01 to Wife‟s Personal Savings account at no charges and receives a SMS notification citing:”From Trillion Wealth: Inter Account Fund Transfer - $1.01 has been transferred from Personal Savings Account: 008-44144-0 to Personal Savings Account: 168-88188-1”. Wife receives no notification as she is not the one initiating the transaction.

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Appendix B – The Thinking Process
Below are a series of questionnaires Joe must find out; 1. Clarification of Requirements –Were the requirements clear, concise, complete and unambiguous? The set of Requirements would become the baseline for software testing which in turn determine the results of the final implementation. 2. Identify the actors – Who are the role players here? What are the external Systems that required interfacing were already in place? Can generalization of the actors take place here? The actors are outside the System boundaries which are already implemented. 3. Identify the Use-Cases – The 4 Use-Cases were already identified here. Joe must ask himself what are the scale of these Use-Cases? Are there too large to be implemented? Can the UseCases be further broken down? Any missing Use-Cases? 4. Draw the Use-Case Diagrams – What are the relationships between the Use-Cases? Any include, extend or dependencies? What about the relationships (association or initiates) to the actors? 5. Describe the Use-Cases – Narrate the Use-Case Diagrams in Users‟ perspective. This enables Users to envision how the System would be used even before its implementation. Do the descriptions lead to the fulfillment of the requirements? What are the scenarios (alternate flows) in the Use-Cases? 6. Draw the Sequence Diagrams – This is done using the Use-Cases description. The sequence diagrams describe the process flows and interactions among the entities. What are the data, control and boundary entities? What are the persistence data of the entities? What should be the logical sequence of the interactions? What are the arguments in the interactions? Through the design of this diagram; Joe slowly realized the structure of his coding. The entities will become Classes and their persistence data become the Attributes. The set of interactions will lead to Methods and the arguments become the Parameters inside. 7. Draw the State Transition Diagram – What are the available screens in the Internet Banking Application? What are the conditions for these screens to be realized and how does the transition occurred? How should the System react to each state? 8. Repeat Step 1 through 7 – Go back to requirements to ensure all are covered. Are they any missing/broken links? Keep refining the Use-Cases.

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References
1. Bentley and Whitten, “Systems Analysis & Design for the Global Enterprise (7th edition)”, McGraw-Hill International Edition, New York, 2008.

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