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**Approaching the Riemann Hypothesis with Quantum Chaotic Systems
**

Proving that All Non-Trivial Zeros of the Zeta Function Lie on the Real part 𝜎 = 0.5 by Creating the Perfect Quantum Chaotic System

Candidate: 000480 034 Word Count: 3806 Session: May 09/10 Physics

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ABSTRACT

The Riemann hypothesis has remained as the greatest mystery in the study of mathematics for the past 150 years. Hundreds of theorems in analytical number theory depend on the fact that the Riemann hypothesis is true, the greatest mathematicians of the past 150 years have made little progress towards the solution, and most importantly, the Riemann hypothesis holds the guide to the most elusive, yet fundamental entities in the world of numbers, prime numbers. The Riemann hypothesis remained a purely mathematical question until it was realized that the Montgomery pair correlation conjecture (the formula for equating the spacing between each critical zero of the zeta function) was exactly the same as that of the formula for generating the spacing between energy levels within quantum chaotic systems. This essay explores how and why the Riemann hypothesis can/should be solved by finding the Hamiltonian matrix which will produce the perfect quantum system whose energy levels are congruent to that of the zeros of the zeta function. In section one, the Riemann hypothesis is introduced from the definition of the zeta function to the Riemannian landscape of the nature of the non-trivial zeros along the critical line. In section two, the values of the zeros of the zeta function are cross referenced to the energy levels of 68Er166 with the zeros of the zeta function, introducing the link between the Riemann hypothesis and physics. A discussion is made regarding the steps needed to solve the Riemann hypothesis by searching for a congruent quantum system. In section three, the conclusion is made that the Riemann hypothesis could potentially be solved through quantum mechanics. The implications that this discovery will have on previous existing and potential problems in analytical number theory and quantum physics and its impact on the social and scientific world are discussed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2 Section 1: a Mission to Uncover the Mystery Behind Prime Numbers and Background Knowledge on the Riemann Hypothesis. ............................................................................................................................................................... 4 Prime Numbers: The Building Block of Numbers ...................................................................................................... 4 Research Question................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Origin of Primes .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 The Zeta function and the Euler product..................................................................................................................... 6 The Gauss Estimate of the Density of Primes.............................................................................................................. 7 The Critical Zero Line and Its Critical Zeroes ............................................................................................................. 9 Section 2: Understanding Quantum Physics, Making Sense of Randomness of Subatomic Physics ........... 12 Coincidence or Key ............................................................................................................................................................ 12 Introduction: Quantum Mechanics .............................................................................................................................. 12 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and Hamiltonian Matrices ........................................................................ 13 Section 3: Math and Physics, The Random Connection and Approaching the Riemann Hypothesis Through Hamiltonian Matrices.......................................................................................................................................... 16 Math and Physics Go Hand in Hand ............................................................................................................................. 16 Data Evaluation ................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Skeptics and Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 18 Appendix .................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Prime Numbers ................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Proof of Euler Product ...................................................................................................................................................... 19 First 100 Zeros of the Zeta Function ............................................................................................................................ 21 Works Cited ............................................................................................................................................................................... 22

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SECTION 1: A MISSION TO UNCOVER THE MYSTERY BEHIND PRIME NUMBERS AND BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ON THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS. PRIME NUMBERS: THE BUILDING BLOCK OF NUMBERS

For the students of mathematics and physics, the study of prime numbers has little significance in relation to the vast collection of formulas and equations which are used to send rockets to distant planets or to build exquisite bridges. Prime numbers are visited very early in a student’s career and for most; knowing how to factor numbers is the greatest role they will play in their lives. However, this is not because prime numbers are insignificant, but it is rather the opposite. Similar to all other disciplines of science, the fundamental building blocks are the hardest to understand. Even though Gregor Mendel discovered the phenomenon of recessive and dominant genes hundreds of years ago, presently, biologists have a hard time explaining why this happens at the molecular level. When Isaac Newton presented the world with his revolutionary ideas of the existence of gravity, physicists nowadays are at a loss to explain why it exists. Likewise, prime numbers, the essential elements which build every non-prime number, are one of the hardest concepts to grasp in mathematics. Amongst the many mysteries which shroud prime numbers, the greatest would be that of the distribution of the primes. The closest that mathematics have gotten to understanding the nature of the distribution of prime numbers, is with the Riemann hypothesis. Since its discovery, the Riemann’s hypothesis itself has been chaotic and disorderly, at least to what the human mind can see. There were no apparent patterns even though this mathematical occurrence was intended to find exactly that within prime numbers. As a result, with thousands of brilliant young mathematicians with their eyes on the 1 million dollar prize and fame that would be awarded to the one who proves this hypothesis, their feeble attempts were as close as they could get. Instead, the recent advancements regarding the Riemann hypothesis come as a result of discoveries made in the field of quantum physics. Since it has

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been realized that the zeroes of the critical line of the Riemann zeta function behave the same as energy levels, solving the Riemann hypothesis seems to be plausible purely through the study of quantum mechanics.

RESEARCH QUESTION

As the relationship between the Riemann hypothesis and the world of quantum chaotic systems have been confirmed, one could ask the question: “How can the Riemann hypothesis be potentially solved by using quantum mechanics and what significance will the relationship between energy levels of quantum chaotic systems and the zeros of the zeta function play in quantum physics?”

ORIGIN OF PRIMES

The Riemann hypothesis is as the H.M. Edwards 1puts it: “the most celebrated problem in mathematics” and having been unsolved after 150 years of trials with the greatest mathematical minds, it is arguably the most difficult as well. To summarize, the Riemann hypothesis attempts to explain the seemingly random behavior of prime numbers2 by explaining their origins. The hypothesis revolves around the zeros of zeta function and to understand the meaning of the term “zeroes of the ζ function”, some introductory knowledge about the Riemann hypothesis is needed and this can be done by first analyzing what the Riemann hypothesis derives from: the zeta function.

1 2

Harold M. Edwards, Emeritus Professor at New York University and author of Riemann’s Zeta Function Further analyzed in the appendix

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**THE ZETA FUNCTION AND THE EULER PRODUCT
**

The zeta function is a very simple function which is the infinite sum of the reciprocals of all natural numbers put to the exponent s, where s is the domain of the function (also known as the harmonic series). This worked for any real numbers greater than 1 and it is expressed:

∞
𝜁

𝑠 =
𝑛

=1

1 1 1 1 1 1 = 𝑠 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + ⋯ + 𝑠 𝑛 𝑠 1 2 3 4 𝑛

This function by itself is a very simple function and when it is graphed on the x and y plane, it is shown in a graph which looks like:

Figure 1: Harmonic function on the x,y axis3

The connection which this zeta function has to primes was first introduced by Euler, as he changed the equation to the Euler product4: 1 1 1 1 1 1 = × × × × …× −𝑠 −𝑠 −𝑠 −𝑠 −𝑠 1 − 𝑝 1−2 1−3 1−5 1−7 (1 − 𝑝−𝑠 ) 𝜁

𝑠 =
𝑝

prime

This is proved in the appendix, but the Euler product is only the beginning of the importance that the zeta function has on prime numbers as the Riemann hypothesis is based on the zeros of this function in the imaginary plane, which will be expanded on later on.

3 4

Graphed by D. Jeong For all real numbers, s >1

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**THE GAUSS ESTIMATE OF THE DENSITY OF PRIMES
**

So far, the only way to calculate the number of primes between the range 1 to n (the density of primes), would be to iterate through each natural number and check if it is a prime. However, a very close approximation of the number of prime numbers given a sample population could be made by the application of the logarithmic function. This guess has an approximate 3% percentage error and was derived by the young and gifted Gauss from the formula: 1 ln 𝑛
𝐺𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑠

′ 𝑔𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑠 =

Since this was a mere approximation and no proof could be given for something which is partially true, this was far from being perfect. Unlike the facts derived from the scientific method, even if the data proved some sort of relationship were to exist, mathematicians needed solid proofs to acknowledge something as a truth. However, it was a sufficient start and it was widely acknowledged that the next step that was needed to be taken was to come up with a way to make this original guess into a working formula. As seen in figure below, the smooth function which is Gauss’ guess, had to be matched up with the ragged staircase of the actual prime numbers.

Figure 2: Gauss' guess compared to the actual prime staircase5

It was the zeta function mentioned beforehand that proved to be the key to making the original function into the staircase of primes. How the zeta function fixed Gauss’ conjecture is similar to how an

5

Graphed by M. du Sautoy

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orchestra functions. Gauss’ original conjecture acts as a single note, held throughout the song and each one of Riemann’s “instruments” created from his zeta function act as the supporting instruments. Each adding its own unique feature to the original note and hence creating the music that one can appreciate. The way that the zeta function alters the original conjecture is similar to the nature of other “harmonics” as the analogy alludes to. The zeta function is not directly added to the natural log function, but it alters said conjecture through adding various sinusoidal curves “generated” by the function. As seen in the progression of diagrams 6below, as the number of the added harmonics increases, so does the proximity of Gauss’ guess to the prime staircase. Eventually, if an infinite number of these harmonics were added, the prime staircase could be replicated exactly, step by step.

6

Sautoy, Marcus du. Music of the Primes. 2009.

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**THE CRITICAL ZERO LINE AND ITS CRITICAL ZEROES
**

The sinusoidal curves that are generated by the function are unique because they are not functions that are seen day to day. In everyday life, a function is a relationship between two different values. For example, in chemistry, the rate of a first degree reaction is a linear function where the increase in the concentration of reactants results in the direct correlation in the concentration of the product. However, the for Riemannian harmonics to arise, this type of relationship could not be used because as seen in figure 1, this entailed the zeta function to have only one identity, which was not a harmonic at all. Instead, Riemann implemented the idea of complex numbers7 into the zeta function. As a result, the function now lay on three dimensions, two in the real and one in the imaginary. The resulting graph, which is also referred to as the Riemann’s zeta landscape 8looked like, where the three axis are the x-axis, y-axis, and the imaginary axis:

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A complex number consists of a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers are usually denoted as: a+bi where a is the value of the real portion of the complex number, b the imaginary portion and i is the imaginary unit which makes b the imaginary portion of the complex number. 8 T. Majláth,” Java Implementation of Riemann’s Zeta Function”

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Figure 3: The Riemannian landscape of the zeta function in imaginary space

The astounding discovery 9 lay in the fact that the non-trivial zeroes 10 of this function, where the ripple seems to reach a trough/fold (as shown by the red dots), seemed to lay all on the line where the real part is 0.5 or otherwise known as the Riemann critical strip/line. If this phenomenon had a greater purpose (which would come with a proof that all of these non-trivial zeros did lie on this strip) and was not trivial, then this would prove that every harmonic which was generated by this function would have the same magnitude. This meant that, no harmonic overshadowed the other and the pattern which lay behind the primes was indeed quite random, as many different patterns contributed to the major pattern of prime numbers, but was a measurable deviation from the line ln 𝑛 . It was an order within the chaos, but as incomprehensible as it may seem, it was a way for us to find the reason and the cause behind the randomness of the distribution of primes. The critical zeroes lay on the line on a horizontal axis and exited at various seemingly random points. The first 20 values 11of the critical zeroes lay on the values:

1

9

Published by Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866), “On the Number of Primes Less than a Given Magnitude” (1860) There are trivial zeros of the function where the function is in the negative of the imaginary part, but these are of little significance as they are merely a part of the nature of the function 11 Table provided by A. Odlyzko, “Tables of Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function”

10

10

14.134725142 21.022039639 25.010857580 30.424876126 32.935061588

37.586178159 40.918719012 43.327073281 48.005150881 49.773832478

So far, this list of critical zeroes seem to be the only list of zeroes as the first 1022 zeroes 12of the zeta function seem to lie on the real part = 2. Where scientists would find this recurrence of 1022 zeros on the critical line more than sufficient data to come up with conclusion, mathematicians cannot accept this as a truth until a solid proof is found. The hypothesis that all the zeroes of the zeta function lies on the critical line at real part =

1 2 1

is more commonly known as the Riemann hypothesis and the

only solution would be a proof of this conjecture. The conjecture is exactly as the following: All the non-trivial zeros of 𝜁 𝑠 lie on the vertical line 𝜎 = 0.5.13 As a result, many computers are being dedicated to calculating the zeroes of the zeta function in a nervous search for the zero which does not lie on the critical line. Nervous because hundreds of theorems in the field of analytic number theory start off with the statement: “Assuming the Riemann hypothesis is true: ”.

12 13

A. Odlyzko and M. Berry (continuation to first 100 values in Appendix) Riemann Hypothesis, G.F.B. Riemann (1860)

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**SECTION 2: UNDERSTANDING QUANTUM PHYSICS, MAKING SENSE OF RANDOMNESS OF SUBATOMIC PHYSICS COINCIDENCE OR KEY
**

It was not until a chance meeting between a physicist turned mathematician, Hugh Montgomery and pure mathematics enthusiast turned particle physicist, Freeman Dyson, that the Riemann hypothesis was introduced into the world of physics. After Montgomery had given a lecture on his recent advancements on the pair correlation of the zeroes of the Riemann’s zeta function 14, his fellow professor Dyson, pointed out that his formula was the same as the formula for determining the spacing between energy levels in quantum chaotic systems. With or without exaggeration, the relationship was still breathtaking. Because of this chance meeting, the Riemann hypothesis gained a whole new dimension as the zeroes of the critical strip acted just like the electrons distributed randomly within the energy levels of atoms as outlined by the random matrix theory and proven through trial. Although it started off as a mere curiosity, due to the recent advancements in the Riemann hypothesis in the field of quantum physics, it seems as though the Riemann hypothesis could be solved through analyzing the behavior of electrons specified by the wave theory.

**INTRODUCTION: QUANTUM MECHANICS
**

When the laws of physics attempted to explain the behavior of particles at the subatomic level, physicists realized that their current model was inapplicable to the behavior of subatomic particles. As a result, the study of physics was divided into two: quantum physics (the study of entities at the subatomic model) and the classical physics (the study of entities everywhere else). Whereas classical physics was relatively straight forward and could be easily portrayed by mathematics, quantum physics

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A statistical analysis of the differences or spacing between the zeros of the zeta function

12

was chaotic, literally. As Richard Feynman15 stated, “The more you think you know about quantum mechanics, the less you actually do”. The erratic and unpredictability of particles was first observed by the famous double slit experiment. When photons experienced the features of both a wave and particle simultaneously, the models given by classical physics deteriorated. As a result, the apparent failure of the classical mechanics gave rise to quantum mechanics, a new model which attempted to study the laws of particles at the subatomic level. However, as quantum physicists strived for more information and insight into the sub-atomic world, more strangeness, uncertainty and properties of curiosity were witnessed by the eyes of physicists.

**HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE AND HAMILTONIAN MATRICES
**

The previously mentioned double slit experiment was repeated with other particles, such as the electron and eventually resulted in same three conclusions. First of all, a new physics was to be needed to explain the behavior of matter at the subatomic level and hence quantum physics was created. Secondly, it seemed that all subatomic particles experienced a particle-wave duality16. Thirdly, that observing the particle would disturb the particle itself and alter the results. The third realization gave rise to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle showed that it was impossible to measure the position and the momentum of a particle at the same time. The more that was known about the momentum of a particle, the less was known about the position of the particle and vice versa. To describe this foreign behavior of uncertainty, quantum mechanics came up with various theories and mathematical methods to calculating the position and momentum simultaneously; one of these is the wave function, which could give the probability distribution of the possible states of the

15 16

Self depreciating humor as it is likely that he understood quantum mechanics more than anyone else All energy and therefore matter experiences both properties of waves and particles

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particle. This wave function would be implemented in a Hamiltonian matrix, which is a matrix with infinite rows and columns storing data of the quantum system as it moves through time. Using these Hamiltonian matrices, many pieces of information about the quantum mechanical system could be calculated, including energy levels of chaotic quantum systems17. Sample Energy Levels of 𝐸𝑟166

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Corresponding Zeros of the zeta function n/a n/a n/a 911.234951486 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1693.053020930 n/a n/a

80.57 265.0 545.4 911.2 859.9 956.4 1075.4 1216.3 1376.2 1556.1 1666.5 1693.0 1787.3 1828.1

As opposed to classical systems where an object can exist at various distances from another object, the locations of electrons are quantized into certain regions called energy levels. These levels are typically quantified by spectroscopy and it was from a spectroscopy lab which resulted in the realization that the energy levels of larger atoms, such as erbium, matched that of the zero of the zeta function. These results were consistent with other quantum chaotic systems present in heavier atoms such as U122 and Y96. However, certain energy levels of certain elements exhibited resemblances with certain zeros of the zeta function. Instead, other specific quantum systems, held the match some certain zeros and this is where physicists used Hamiltonian matrices to find the combination of

17 18

Quantum system of an atom bigger than hydrogen Results are only up to 0.1 because of research limitations (Phsyics Review Online Archive protects their journals), but are confirmed in Stalking the Riemann Hypothesis pg. 222

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nucleons which would allow the energy levels to correspond with the other zeros, yet to be matched up. The goal would be to find a Hamiltonian matrix which describes a chaotic quantum system whose energy levels, which are the eigenvalues 19 of these matrices, include every single zero of the zeta function to infinity. However, this may or may not exist, but if it does, this specific quantum system would definitely have to have no T-symmetry 20 which allows the system to continuously mutate, which keep generating different eigenvalues which correspond to the zeros of the zeta function. This quantum chaotic system then could be studied by the laws of quantum mechanics to shed light upon the Riemann hypothesis from a tangible front, which may just be the crucial link to the solution to the hypothesis.

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A matrix X by X, is associated with a polynomial to the power of X, and the X number of roots of the polynomial are the eigenvalues of the matrix. For a Hamiltonian, which has the dimensions of infinity by infinity (Hilbert space), there are infinite eigenvalues. 20 Time-reversal symmetry: “the observable universe itself does not show symmetry under time reversal, primarily due to the second law of thermodynamics.” - Wikipedia

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SECTION 3: MATH AND PHYSICS, THE RANDOM CONNECTION AND APPROACHING THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS THROUGH HAMILTONIAN MATRICES

**MATH AND PHYSICS GO HAND IN HAND
**

While the relationship between mathematics and physics has been one sided so far (with mathematics giving physics the tools needed to advance), if the breakthrough or even a solution upon the greatest problem in mathematics could come from the order within the chaos which exists in quantum mechanics, physics could be revolutionized as a tool to solve problems within other subjects. The elusiveness of quantum mechanics still has yet to be understood perfectly and having a link between pure mathematics and quantum mechanics can also work towards solving problems within quantum mechanics with the use of analytic number theory as well. Having the explicit link between the zeros of the zeta function and the energy levels of quantum chaotic systems will allow for many other problems involving the zeta function or energy levels to become applicable to be approached and possibly solved by the application of the respective fields, giving new insight to various fields regarding quantum physics. With a pure math approach to quantum physics, crucial technologies depending on advancements in quantum mechanics could be made much more efficient and sooner. One of the most prominent technologies is the field regarding quantum computing, which would allow computers to run at 3n, instead of the present-day binary 2n and would have a exponentially greater processing power and save gigaWatts of energy running and cooling servers annually. The Riemann hypothesis, if solved with a quantum chaotic system, would raise many more questions in both analytic number theory and quantum mechanics such as: “how is it that the prime numbers have such a balance of chaos and order?”, “why do the energy levels of a physical entity, an atom, correspond with the law of primes?” and most importantly, “what will this link between primes 16

of number theory and energy levels of quantum mechanics reveal in both of the respective fields?” Surely, the answers to these questions hold much promise and hope for both physics and mathematics and it would definitely be much more exciting for the perfect Hamiltonian matrix to exist and the link to be made, than a proof to be found purely from math.

DATA EVALUATION

The data regarding the energy levels of atoms was gathered from various lab trials from S.B. Burton, P.F.A. Goudsmit, and J. Konjin in the Instituut voor Kernphysisch Onderzoek, in Holland. The journal included the specification of the energy levels of 68Er166. Although the journal could not be held accountable for every value of the excited states of erbium, 23 of these excited states were crossed referenced with Stalking the Riemann Hypothesis: The Quest to Find the Hidden Law of Prime Numbers and the matching energy levels were pointed out. These lab results are not entirely accurate as there are uncertainties, especially in quantities which are as small as these and even with such respectable labs such as the one located in Instituut voor Kernphysisch Onderzoek. However, for the purpose of the comparison to the zeros, the exact value was not depended upon, but rather the relationship between these values to the critical zeros, which are certain, only the uncertainties which exist for the observations account for the uncertainty for the whole correlation. Also, these results can be backed up by the mathematical approach to these energy levels, which have no uncertainty. The data consulted in the essay are mostly of mathematical nature. Since a mathematic proof is a reliable truth, the question regarding validity of these sources could be dismissed quite easily. However, mathematical proofs at this difficult of math are known to be extremely complex and extensive and commonly contain errors which disproves the proof later on. The proofs which lead up to the Riemann hypothesis could be considered as accurate, reliable information as for over 150 years,

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gifted mathematical minds from all the world have reviewed and confirmed these hypothesis, however the more recent proofs, such as the pair correlation of the zeta zeros could be disproven any day.

**SKEPTICS AND CONCLUSION
**

As the answer is being searched for in the world of quantum physics, there are doubts to whether the question should now be approached from physics. Apart from the fact that throughout all of history, physics has been the one to receive help from math, one could ask the question, rather than being solved, is the question being replaced by a question of the same magnitude? It seems that the only thing that this quantum system will do is come up with more zeroes, whereas a computer could do the same thing. What significance does this quantum system serve towards solving the Riemann hypothesis, other than being an elaborate coincidence? The answer may not be clear now, but the chaos of Riemann’s harmonics seems to be of a nature and of intellectual complexity which does not allow for mathematical analysis. Whereas mathematics can explain the unseen world through ways we can understand, for the purpose of solving Riemann’s hypothesis, it seems that the world of subatomic physics holds answers more accessible to the world.

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**APPENDIX PRIME NUMBERS
**

By definition, prime numbers are numbers whose factors include only itself and 1. The first few prime numbers include: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13. From this definition, various mathematicians have come up with other features about prime numbers, some which we take granted. First of all, every natural number, which itself is not a prime, can be written as a product of primes. This is also called unique factorization and this theorem is true for all natural numbers. This is practiced very early on and is called “finding prime factors” or “prime factorization”. For example, the number 50 has the prime factors 2 and 5 as 2 × 5 × 5 = 50 Therefore, the statement that prime numbers are the building blocks of all other non-prime numbers stays true to its word as in fact all number are indeed a product of a combination of various prime numbers. Secondly, it can be assumed that there are an infinite number of prime numbers. This conjecture was proved beautifully by Euclid in the times of the Ancient Greeks. He first assumed that there was in fact a specific number of prime numbers which made up every possible natural number 2 and by the means of contradiction; he proved that adding one to the biggest number possible would result in a new prime being needed to factor that number since all the ones before it are odd and adding one to any of the primes would introduce an even and non-prime number.

**PROOF OF EULER PRODUCT
**

By applying the law that all numbers are a product of prime numbers, as proven in the essay, the zeta function can be written as a component of prime numbers. Hence, the zeta function can be

19

shown to have a deep and meaningful existence in explaining the fundamental theory behind prime numbers. Both sides are multiplied by 2𝑠 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 𝜁 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 𝑠 + + 𝑠 + ⋯ + 𝑠 𝑠 2 2 4 6 8 𝑛 That product is then subtracted by the original zeta function: 1 1 1 1 1 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + ⋯ + 𝑠 𝑠 1 2 3 4 𝑛

1
𝜁

𝑠 =

By subtracting the second from the first, the equation, all the factors of 2 which existed in the first equation was removed and redefined outside the function: 1 1 1 1 1 1 𝜁 𝑠 = 1 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + 𝑠 + ⋯ + 𝑠 𝑠 2 3 5 7 9 𝑛

1−

Then this same subtracting process can be repeated for all natural numbers, until all the numbers have been redefined on the other side of the equation. When all numbers of the infinite sum have been subtracted by it the corresponding modification to the zeta function, the equation becomes all the natural numbers expressed through the use of prime numbers: 1 2𝑠 1 3𝑠 1 5𝑠 1 7𝑠 1 1 … 1− 𝜁 𝑠 = 1 𝑠 11 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑠

1−

1−

1−

1−

1−

Then, it is simplified giving arise to the celebrated connection between this zeta function and prime numbers, also named the Euler product: 1 1 1 − 𝑠 5 𝜁

𝑠 =

1 1 − 2𝑠

1 1 − 3𝑠

1 1 − 7𝑠

1 1 − 11𝑠 …

20 𝜁

𝑠 =
𝑝

prime

1 1 1 1 1 1 = × × × × …× −𝑠 −𝑠 −𝑠 −𝑠 −𝑠 1 − 𝑝 1−2 1−3 1−5 1−7 (1 − 𝑝−𝑠 )

**FIRST 100 ZEROS OF THE ZETA FUNCTION
**

14.134725142 21.022039639 25.010857580 30.424876126 32.935061588 37.586178159 40.918719012 43.327073281 48.005150881 49.773832478 52.970321478 56.446247697 59.347044003 60.831778525 65.112544048 67.079810529 69.546401711 72.067157674 75.704690699 77.144840069 79.337375020 82.910380854 84.735492981 87.425274613 88.809111208 92.491899271 94.651344041 95.870634228 98.831194218 101.317851006 103.725538040 105.446623052 107.168611184 111.029535543 111.874659177 114.320220915 116.226680321 118.790782866 121.370125002 122.946829294 124.256818554 127.516683880 129.578704200 131.087688531 133.497737203 134.756509753 138.116042055 139.736208952 141.123707404 143.111845808 146.000982487 147.422765343 150.053520421 150.925257612 153.024693811 156.112909294 157.597591818 158.849988171 161.188964138 163.030709687 165.537069188 167.184439978 169.094515416 169.911976479 173.411536520 174.754191523 176.441434298 178.377407776 179.916484020 182.207078484 184.874467848 185.598783678 187.228922584 189.416158656 192.026656361 193.079726604 195.265396680 196.876481841 198.015309676 201.264751944 202.493594514 204.189671803 205.394697202 207.906258888 209.576509717 211.690862595 213.347919360 214.547044783 216.169538508 219.067596349 220.714918839 221.430705555 224.007000255 224.983324670 227.421444280 229.337413306 231.250188700 231.987235253 233.693404179 236.524229666

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WORKS CITED

Burton, S. B. "Energy Levels of 68Er166 and 69Tm166 (7.7 h) Excited in the Decay of 67Ho166 (26.7 h), Ho166m (1.2×103 yr), and 70Yb166 (57 h)." Physical Review Online Archive, 1967. Derbyshire, John. Prime Obsession: Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics. Joseph Henry Press, 2003. Devlin, Keith. "How Euler Discovered the Zeta Function." 1~4. Dyson, Freeman J. "Missed Opportunities." Bulletin of The American Mathematical Society, 1972: 1~18. Li, Pei. "On Montgomery's Pair Correlation Conjecture to the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function." 1996: 1~68. Odlyzko, Andrew. "Table of Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function." http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/zeta_tables/index.html (accessed 01 04, 2010). "Prime Time." New Scientist, 2000: 32. Riemann, Bernhard. "Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse." 1860: 10. Rockmore, Dan. Stalking the Riemann Hypothesis: The Quest to Find the Hidden Law of Prime Numbers. Toronto: Random House of Canada, 2005. Sabbagh, Karl. The Riemann Hypothesis: The Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. An Infinity of Primes. Directed by Marcus du Sautoy. 2008. Sautoy, Marcus du. Music of the Primes. 2009. Sautoy, Marcus du. "Prime Numbers Get Hitched." Seed Magazine, 2006. —. The Music of Primes: Searching to Solve the Greatest Mystery in Mathematics. Harper Collins, 2003. Wells, David. Prime Numbers. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

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