Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of the degree of


V.Vikrant Reddy 03881A0258 Pavan Manilal Savla 03881A0223

P.SeshaNaveen 03C11A0243 N.Satish Pavan Kumar 03881A0236
Under the guidance of

Prof. K.V.R. Prasad
Head of the Department


Adams College of Engg.















PROTECTION” is a bonafide report of strenuous work carried out by V.Vikrant Reddy, P.SeshaNaveen, Pavan Manilal Savla and N.Satish Pavan Kumar under the guidance of Mr.K.Sreenivasulu, ADE/MRT/KTPS Vth Stage, Mr.M.V.Suryanarayana, AE/MRT/KTPS - Vth Stage and Mr.K.Vasu, AE/MRT/KTPS - Vth Stage, Paloncha during the period 15.02.2007 to 03-03-007, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics engineering.

Mr.SURYANARAYANA, A.E., (MRT) KTPS V-Stage, Paloncha.

T.S.N.MURTHY, D.E., (EM& MRT) KTPS V-Stage, Paloncha.

Adams College of Engg.




This is to certify that the project entitled “GENERATOR

PROTECTION” is bonafide work done by V.Vikrant Reddy (03881A0258), P.SeshaNaveen (03C11A0243), Pavan Manilal Savla (03881A0223) and N.Satish Pavan Kumar (03881A0236) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, J.N.T.University, Hyderabad during the year 2006-07.

External Examiner

Prof. K.V.R.Prasad Head of the Department, EEE Dept.

Adams College of Engg.


The development of this project through it was an arduous task, has been successfully completed. We are pleased to express our thanks to these people, whose suggestions, comments and critics greatly encouraged us in the betterment of this project. First of all, we thank the Mr.C.RADHAKRISHNA, CE/O&M/KTPS Vth-Stage, for giving us the opportunity to carry our project work. We also thank Mr.T.S.N.Murthy, DE/EM&MRT/KTPS Vth-Stage and Mr.K.Sreenivasulu, ADE/MRT/KTPS V-Stage, who helped us for the completion of this project work. We are grateful to Mr.M.V.Suryanarayana, AE/MRT who guided us in every aspect of the project and provided valuable material with out their motivation and inspiration. It would be impossible for us to complete this project. They helped us a lot to understand the theoretical concepts of our subjects through practical point of view. We also thank our Head of the Department Prof. K.V.R.Prasad for giving us permission to do this project work and also acted as our internal guide for giving us valuable suggestions and proper guidance in the preparation of this work. We take opportunity to thank our Principal Prof.P.Nageshwar Rao for permitting to carry out this project in college. Finally we thank all the people who helped us complete this project successfully.

Projectees: V.Vikrant Reddy P.SeshaNaveen Pavan Manilal Savla

N.Satish Pavan Kumar

Adams College of Engg.

2 Generator faults and their effects 4.2 Relays 3.1 Nomenclature of relays Case Study Conclusion Bibliography 3 30 31 33 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 51 54 78 83 86 4 5 6 7 Adams College of Engg.4 About KTPS V stage 1. 1 Title Introduction 1.2.1 Need for electric power 1.2.1 Circuit Breakers 3.5 Content Chapter No.3 Automatic Voltage Regulator 2.1 AC Generators 2.1 Need for protection 4.5 Protection of 250MW Turbo Alternator 4.3 Instrument Transformers 3.2 Types of Excitation 2.2. LT and 220KV system 4.3 Excitation in KTPS V stage 2.4 Protection used in HT.2 Excitaion Systems 2.4 Surge Arrestors 3.3 About APGENCO 1.5.4 Electrical Layout Major Electrical components in Power Systems 3. .5 Plant overall Layout Page No 5 6 8 12 14 17 20 21 23 24 25 26 28 29 2 Power Generation in KTPS V stage 2.3 Essential Qualities of protection 4.6 Carrier Communication using Coupling Capacitor Protection of Alternators 4.5 Isolators 3.1 General Structure 2.2 Role of thermal plants 1.

6 INTRODUCTION Adams College of Engg. .

131 kWh in 1979.7 1.000 kWh. 349 kWh in 1997.000 kWh. Asia and Latin America it is too low to be considered. Electrical energy occupies the top position in the energy hierarchy. particularly electrical energy.5 kWh in 1950. Besides its use for domestic. say from 8 to 13 thousand kWh. The industrial growth of a nation requires increased consumption of energy. 299 kWh in 1993. 105 kWh in 1975. increase in productivity in industry and agriculture and improvement in the quality of life of the people depend so much upon the supply of electrical energy an that the annual per capita consumption of electrical energy has emerged these days as an accepted yardstick to measure the prosperity of the nation. Further. commercial and industrial purposes it is required for increasing defense and agricultural production. The annual per capita consumption of Japan 8. UK 7. This has led to increase in the generation and Adams College of Engg. Some of the advanced and developed nations of North America and Europe have a very high annual per capita consumption of electrical energy.1 Need for Electric Power Both the historical and the present-day civilization of mankind are closely interwoven with energy. agriculture and even in transport. The United States has only 6% of world population but accounts for over 30% of electrical consumption of the world. industrial and agricultural fields. The process of modernization. 154 kWh in 1984. It finds innumerable uses in home. it can be adopted conveniently in the domestic. . while in most of Africa.200 kWh and USSR 6. industry. Electrical energy is a convenient form of energy because in can be generated centrally in bulk and transmitted economically over long distances and is almost pollution free at the consumer level. and there is no reason to doubt but that in the future our existence will be more and more dependant upon the energy. India had an annual per capita consumption of electrical energy of 15. it is used for pumping water for irrigation and for improving the methods of production and numerous other operations. In agriculture.

A. It is much cheaper than other forms and therefore. . fumes. the demand doubles every seven years which requires considerable investment in electrical power sector. like India. it is economical to use energy in this form for domestic. its use ensures cleanliness and pollution free conditions. usually located quite away from the centers of usage. commercial. SUPERIORITY OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY Electrical energy is considered superior to all other forms (chemical. an electrical motor can be started or stopped by making the switch on or off and its speed can be conveniently controlled over a wide range with simple arrangements. The Electrical energy can be transmitted conveniently and efficiently from the gathering stations. the demand develops every ten years. Use of electricity (electric drive or electric heating) does not produce smoke. dust or poisonous gases and therefore. For example.8 transmission facilities to meet the increased demand. light. Adams College of Engg. (iv) Cleanliness. till the early seventies. through conductors of suitable size. (ii) Convenient and Efficient Transmission. industrial and agricultural purposes. Electrically operated machines have simple and convenient starting. In U.S. control and operation.. heat. In developing countries. sound or mechanical) of energy due to the following reasons:(i) Cheapness. (iii) Easy Control.

especially fluorescent give rise to pleasant and cheaper light as compared to that produced by lamps of Other types and can be located at any desired place where other lamps cannot be placed due to the danger of the fire or due to other reasons. mine etc. Larger sizes of units due to Adams College of Engg. Electrical energy offers greater flexibility as it can be taken to any corner of the house. Electrical energy is a very convenient form of energy and it can be easily converted into other forms of energy—heat. . light. For example electric lamps.2 Role of Thermal Power Plants in meeting High Load Demands The fact that the thermal energy is the major source of power generation itself shows the importance of thermal power generation in India-more than 70% of electric power is produced by the steam plants in India. factory. street. mechanical. residential heating and industrial heating and industrial heating use energy mostly in non-electrical form) but because of numerous advantages. It is expected that the electricity demand will continue to go up for more years to come. through solid. Versatile form. Though at present about three-fourths of the total energy is still used in non-electrical form (transport. mentioned above. even in developed countries. stranded or flexible conductors. hospital. electricity will account for a greater and greater portion of total energy consumption in the coming years. (vi) 1. sound or chemical.9 (v) Greater Flexibility. This position is likely to continue due to large pit head plants being setup. farm.

USES: The thermal power station can be used as 1. The size of the thermal plants grew from a few KW to more than 1000 MW as of today. Fossil fuels became the main source of energy for quite sometime.e. Trends: The next era in thermal power generation in India started with commissioning in 1952-53 of 50MW units at Bokaro. central stations The use of steam station for privative industrial plants is purely a question of economics. The overall thermal efficiency of this unit was 28% the fact that thermal energy is the major source of power generation itself shows the importance of thermal power generation in this country. geothermal etc. private industrial plant 2. . wind.10 overall increase in the demand for power and because of necessity of keeping down the cost of power generation with increasing fuel prices are the developing trends in large steam power plants. STEAM POWER PLANT With the invention of steam engine for obtaining mechanical energy the so called non conventional methods i. There are some industries which require steam at lower pressure for process purpose. The concept of generating electrical energy using fossil fuel has Adams College of Engg. were abandoned as the cost involved was high and also there was no flexibility for transportation of this form of energy. tidal. The development of steam turbines and then electric generator completely replaced the non conventional methods. Larger sizes of units due to overall include in demand for power and because of the necessity of keeping down the cost of power with increase in fuel process are the Diesel opening trends in large thermal power station.

11 changed completely the concept of location the power plants near the load centers to location near the fuel pithead. a 400MW capacity plant requires about 5000 to 6000tons of coal every day. which involves a large percentage of total capital cost and transmission line losses. On the other hand by installing a plant near pithead saves the cost of transporting the coal etc. . Adams College of Engg. Super thermal power plants have come into existence. It has been found more economical in general to generate electrical energy near the pithead rather than near the load centers even though the energy has to be transported over the transmission lines.

71 MW Adams College of Engg.12 Thermal plants are major source of power generation Thermal capacity in India : 80777.45 MW Thermal capacity in AP : 7058. .

Its installed capacity is 6550. Landmarks and Achievements: • Unit 3 (210 MW) of Vijayawada Thermal Power Station has established a National Record of continuous service for 441 days from 14. APTRANSCO and DISCOMS.3 About AP GENCO: As a consequence of AP Electricity Reforms ACT enacted by Government of A.2004 to 28. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation limited is the power generating company of Andhra Pradesh. Construct and Operate Power generating stations. It has also achieved highest PLF of 94.P the erstwhile APSEB (Andhra Pradesh state electricity board) is unbundled in to APGENCO. Srisailam left bank HES. efficiently and ecofriendly. Mission: • • • To generate adequate and reliable power most economically. Vision: To be the best power utility in the country and one of the best in the world. It is the third largest power utility in India. To spearhead accelerated power development by planning and implementing new power projects. . Adams College of Engg. Establish.9MW. APGENCO is entitled to Acquire.5% in the country (in year 2004-05).02.12.2006 • First in the southern region to commission fully underground power house. To implement Renovation and Modernization of all existing units and enhance their performance.13 1.

4 About KTPS V stage: Kothagudem Thermal Power Station.6% The Hon’ble President of India and Hon’ble Union Minister for Power have awarded gold shields and certificates to RTPP.14 Types of power plants APGENCO operates : Source Installed Capacity (MW) Thermal Hydel Wind 2962.2% : 90. It was the first major thermal power station to set up in Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board. K. TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY: KTPS-A Station : 4*60 = 240 MW KTPS-B Station : 2*110 = 220 MW KTPS-C Station : 2*110 = 220 MW Adams College of Engg. VTPS and KTPS-V..P.40 2.5% : 91. .T. 1.5 3586. a place of pride in the thermal map of India.00 The top three PLF's achieved by their thermal plants: KTPS V RTPP RTS : 94.S.

15 KTPS-V Station : 2*250 = 500 MW Total installed capacity = 1180 MW DATE OF COMMISIONING: KTPS-V Station was commissioned in 1996. Rail head: Adams College of Engg. . It is also fulfilling the role of social responsibility objective by encouraging local small-scale industries. Units 9&10 of KTPS-V stage were successfully completed and commissioned in a record of 31 & 28 months after commencement of work. Objectives One of the important objectives of K. Since when the station has started its working it was running successfully with out any problem. which is about 12 KM from collieries town Kothagudem.T. which is highly technical and have more advantages.S. Locations: The actual site of the station is near Paloncha town. providing employment to the people of the backward and tribal areas. It has crores of rupees controlling pollution by installing Electrostatic Precipitators. The site of power station is only about 3 Km from the main Bhadrachalam road. KTPS-V Stage is the one. is to generate thermal power efficiently and economically. The project authorities to connect the main road with the power station have constructed feeder road.P.

700 crores.T.. Annual coal bill works out to about RS. Yellandu and Rudrampur mines. Primary Fuel Supply: KTPS Complex is linked to Singareni Collieries Company limited. The advantages distance of S. coalmines by rail around 50 KM. Extent of Land: In site of the power station and its apartment structures as well as the administration buildings and residential colonies are located. Annual coal requirements are about Lakh tones.C.) for supply of coal from Manuguru.C.L. Electrical power will be generated in the generator at 16.connected.C. Adams College of Engg. GENERATOR: Generator is an electrical synchronous alternator in which the mechanical energy conveyed by the turbine will be converted into electrical energy.P.L. Ash Pond: The site of the power station has a low laying area to the south of it.16 K. The crushed ash dust is hydraulically disposed off in the ash pond. is located about 12 KM from the near rail head at Bhadrachalam road Railway station. (S. where Ash Pond is formed.5 KV and will be stepped up to 220 KV through 16.C. Y. Generator is of 2 pole 3ф. which is the terminus for the broad gauge branch line taking off from Dornakal on the south central railway. .5/220 KV 290 MVA transformer and then connected to the grid through 220 KV SF6 circuit breaker. lap wound machine of M/s BHEL make.S.

17 WATER SOURCE: Water requirement for the KTPS complex are provided from Kinnersani Project. The Kinnersani is one of the principal tributaries at the mighty rivers Godavari flowing on its right side of Warangal and Khammam Districts at A. It is essential that the supply of water should be available at all times with complete reliability.000 Tones per day. The total water requirements for the station 1.04. Water is one of the basic raw materials in the production of power in a thermal power station. Kinnerasani Dam was constructed at a cost of RS. Project was taken over by APSEB/APGENCO on 01.P.50 KTPS-V Stage Power Plant has been awarded the ISO 9001:2000 certificate Adams College of Engg.95 94. 50.5. . The carrying of channel is 110 cases (4 cubic meters second).6 crores and maintained by Irrigation department up to march 1998.53 79.16 91.Reservoir level is 407 ft. The water supply for the power station is drawn from the reservoir built across Kinnersani River at a distance of 10 KM from the power station is through open concrete lined channel and the flow is by gravity.1998. AWARDS: Year 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 Shield Silver Gold Gold Gold YEAR 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 ALL INDIA RANK 3 2 1 - MU 4080 4040 4140 3482 PLF 93.

5 Plant overall view Although steam power station simply involves the conversation of heat of coal combustion into electrical energy. The schematic arrangement of a modern power station is shown in figure.18 1. Feed water 6. The whole arrangement can be divided into the following stages for the sake of simplicity: 1. Steam generating plant 3. Coal and ash handling arrangements 2. Steam turbine 4. Alternator 5. yet it embraces many arrangements for the proper working and efficiency. Cooling arrangement. Adams College of Engg. .

.19 Adams College of Engg.


as it is driven at constant speed for it to produce a constant frequency essential for the power system to be stable works on the principle of Faraday’s law of dynamically induced emf. . Friction and windage losses and stray losses are also dissipated through hydrogen. such as Iron losses. The two pole generator uses direct hydrogen cooling for the rotor winding and indirect hydrogen cooling for the stator winding.C GENERATORS An A. The generator consists of the following components: • STATOR Stator frame Stator core Stator winding Hydrogen coolers • ROTOR Rotor shaft Rotor winding Rotor retaining rings Field connections • BEARINGS • SHAFT SEALS The following additional auxiliaries are required for generator operation • • • Oil System Gas System Excitation System Adams College of Engg.21 2. The generator frame is pressure-resistant and gastight and equipped with end shields at each end.1 A.C generator also known as synchronous generator or alternator. The losses in the remaining generator components. The hydrogen coolers are arranged horizontally inside the stator frames.

C generator except that instead of a commutator it consists of 3. In such generators the required magnetic field is produced by DC electromagnets placed on the stationary member called stator. no difficulty being experienced in collecting such a current. The rotor houses the field windings. called the rotor. and the current generated is collected by means of brushes and slip-rings on the revolving member. Revolving field type alternator Practically all medium and large machines are always constructed with revolving field. They are built only in small ratings up to about 200 or 250 Kva because the voltage generated is comparatively low and current to be collected by the brushes small. Such arrangement is economical for small low voltage generators. The magnitude of EMF is given by the following expression. DC voltage is applied to the field windings.44 Ǿ f T volts Classification of Alternators The A. the lines of the magnetic flux cut through the stator windings. When the rotor is rotated.slip rings in place of commutator. E=4. generator or alternator is based upon the principle of the Electromagnetic Induction. The advantages of stationary armature and revolving field system are: Adams College of Engg. .C generators are of two types. The stator housed the armature windings. 1) Rotating armature type alternator 2) Revolving field type alternator a) Salient pole type field structure b) Smooth cylindrical or Non-salient Pole Type Field Structure Rotating armature type This type of alternator looks very much like a D.C.22 Principle: The A.

it incorporates voltage regulator. There are two schemes for supplying the excitation. 3. The duty of an exciter is to provide the necessary field current to the rotor winding of the alternator. 4.C source or from A. Only two slip rings are required for the supply of the direct current to the rotor and since the exciting current is to be supplied at low voltage of 125 or 250v there is no difficulty in insulating them. 5. Due to simple. It is easier to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage e. source after rectification.000 volts because insulation of stationary armature is not subjected to mechanical stresses due to centrifugal action and more space is available on the stator for providing more insulation as the stator is outside the rotor. while in Adams College of Engg. One is the common excitation bus scheme while the other is unit exciter scheme. When the excitation system has also the task of maintaining the terminal voltage of the alternator constant under varying load conditions.2 Excitation Systems: The excitation system comprises of an exciter and automatic voltage regulator. as high as 33. therefore. The D. the slip rings and the brush gear need to be only of light construction. .C excitation needed for the alternator may be supplied from D. 2. 6. Each alternator is fed from its own exciter in unit exciter scheme. The load current can be connected directly with the fixed terminals of the stator without passing through slip-rings and brushes. 7. 2.C. light and robust construction of the rotor higher speed of rotating DC field is possible. The armature winding is cooled more readily because the stator core can be made large enough with many air passages or cooling ducts for forced air circulation. This results in increased output. Fundamentally simplest excitation system consists of an exciter only. The armature winding can be more easily braced in a rigid frame to prevent any deformation which could be developed by the mechanical stresses set up due to short-circuit currents and the high centrifugal forces brought into play.23 1.g. Since the exciting current is relatively small.

24 common excitation bus scheme two or more exciters feed a bus bar to which field systems of all alternators are connected. the main exciter is a separately excited D. To give an insight of excitation system. . a general structure of excitation system in the form of block diagram is depicted in FIG… Adams College of Engg.C machine as exciter.C machine supplied by the pilot exciter. As the rating of the alternator continues to increase. The simplest excitation system consists of a shunt wound D. 2. it is getting difficult to supply excitation for the large alternators by D.2.C exciters due to commutating troubles and also a large number of brushes are required on the commentator because of high excitation current at comparatively low voltages. These difficulties have been overcome with the use of modern excitation schemes namely STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM and BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM which are finding more and more use in the present day excitation schemes. For large alternator.1 General Structure of Excitation System: We shall now present the physical components used for excitation system.

namely. It may be a a. rheostat type regulator. But in the modern systems of excitation. In fact voltage regulator couples the output variables of the synchronous generator to the input of the exciter through feed back and forwarding elements for the purpose of regulating the synchronous machine output variables. Voltage regulators are generally classified into three categories.c bus or from an alternator-exciter 3) Voltage Regulator: voltage regulator working in conjunction with the exciter tries to maintain terminal voltage of alternator constant.C excitation system 2.2 TYPES OF EXCITATION SYSTEMS The excitation systems can be broadly classified into following types. the exciters are solid state systems consisti9ng of some form of rectifier or thyristor system from the a. It should be noted that exciter and regulator constitutes excitation system.C excitation system 3.25 The various components present in the general configuration are: 1) Synchronous Generator: Synchronous generator is a machine which generates a. 2) Exciter: the purpose of the exciter is to supply field current tot the rotor field of the synchronous generator. However all these components may not be present for each type of regulator. D. In several aspects the voltage regulator is the heart of the excitation system. 2. The terminal voltage of the generator is maintained constant during is varying load conditions with the help of excitation system. regulator and synchronous generator constitute a system known as Excitation control system. It may be a turbo alternator run by steam turbine at a very high speed or be a low speed a. compensators. Exciter. 1. stabilizers. three phase powers. auxiliary inputs and limiters. power amplifier. . non continuously acting regulator and cautiously acting regulator.2.c generator driven by either the steam turbine or an induction motor. Thus the regulator may be assumed to consist of an error detector preamplifier.c. A. Static excitation system Adams College of Engg. generator run by water-turbine.c.

C excitation system have been superseded by a. The brushless excitation system eliminates the use of commutator. Man exciter.C excitation system. In this system an alternator exciter with rotating armature and stationary field is employed as the main exciter. Main exciter.c generator and thyristor rectifier bridge directly connected to the alternator shaft. Self excited exciter with direct acting rheostatic type voltage regulator. For example we may have: a. b. An A. It incorporates a pilot permanent magnet generator with a permanent magnet field to supply the (stationary) field for Adams College of Engg. The complete structure of this excitation system is depicted in the figure.2.C excitation system are large time constan6ts and commutation difficulties.c excitation system and static systems. d. slip rings and brushes . 2. It means that constant maintenance of the carbon brushes to feed field current still exists. . The advantage of this method of excitation is that the moving contacts such as slip rings and brushes are completely eliminated thus offering smooth and maintenance free operation. Such a system is known as brushless excitation system. A static excitation system draws the excitation power from the alternator terminals through step down transformer and a rectifier system using mercury arc rectifiers of silicon controlled rectifiers. Main and pilot exciters with indirect acting rheostatic type voltage regulator.Such a system is shown in fig by a simplified diagram. there are various configurations of rotating exciters. The portion enclosed by dashed lines is the rotating portion of the system. amplidynes and static voltage regulator. The main drawbacks of D.26 In D. magnetic amplifier and static voltage regulator. c.C excitation system consists of an a. In view of this D.3 Excitation system used in KTPS V stage Brushless excitation system The problem of feeding excitation current from static to the rotating field of the main alternator persists even in the static excitation system.

For base excitation. Adams College of Engg. Direct voltages for the generator excitation is obtained by rectification through a three-phase full wave rectifier bridge . the control signal is derived from the permanent magnet generator. however.thus the permanent magnet field of permanent magnet generator.27 the (rotating) alternator-exciter. compares it a set of reference and utilizes the error signal. in the diagram. Note. that since these components are all moving with the rotor and no slip rings or thyristor type. if any. to control the gate pulses of the thyristor Network . Draw back of rotating Diode Bridge is the presence of considerable exciter time constant which affects the rate of change of voltage. These elements are labeled “rotating elements”. . The voltage regulator measures the out-put or the terminal voltage. The base excitation is controlled by an input setting to the thyristor gating circuits.the rectifier bridge and the generator field are rigidly connected on the generator shaft.Thus the regulator controls excitation by supplying a buck-boost control signals which ads algebraically to the base setting. the armature of the main exciter .which is mounted in the hollow shaft of the generator .

.4 Automatic Voltage Regulator: Adams College of Engg.28 2.

29 2.5 Electrical layout: Adams College of Engg. .


Based upon the quantity of oil used in the circuit breaker these are classified as: Adams College of Engg. these contacts remain closed and will not open automatically until and unless the system becomes faulty. Oil Circuit Breakers : The Oil Circuit Breakers employs some insulating oil (e.1 Circuit breakers: A circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which can • • • Make or break a circuit either manually or by remote control under normal conditions. Based upon the medium used for arc extinction. Transformer oil) for arc extinction. .g. The production of arc not only delays the current interruption process but it also generates enormous heat which may cause damage to the system or to the circuit breaker itself. Therefore. Operating Principle: A circuit breaker essentially consists of fixed and moving contacts.31 3. The current is thus able to continue until the discharge ceases. the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energized and the moving contacts are pulled apart by some mechanisms thus opening the circuit. the main problem in a circuit breaker is to extinguish the arc within the shortest possible time so that heat generated by it may not reach a dangerous value. When a fault occurs on any part of the system. Break a circuit automatically under fault conditions. Under normal conditions. When the contacts of a circuit breaker are separated under fault conditions. an arc is struck between them. Make a circuit either manually or by remote control under fault conditions. called electrodes. the circuit breakers are classified as: 1.

The conducting free electrons in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions. The SF6 circuit breakers have been found to be very effective for high power and high voltage service. it insulates the current conducting parts from one another and from the earthed tank. Firstly it extinguishes the arc during opening of contacts and secondly. The Sulphur Hexafluoride is an electro negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The air-blast cools the arc and sweeps away the arcing products to the atmosphere. Cross-blast type in which the air-blast is directed at right angles to the arc path. c. 3. In such circuit breakers oil is used only for arc extinction. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high pressure flow of SF6 gas and an arc is struck between them. Axial-blast type in which the air-blast is directed along the arc path. The contacts are opened in a flow of air-blast established by the opening of blast valve. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc. Low Oil Circuit Breaker which uses minimum amount of oil. Depending upon the direction of air-blast in relation to the arc. Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker : In SF6 Circuit Breakers sulphur hexafluoride gas is used for arc extinction. b. Radial-blast type in which the air-blast is directed radially. 2. b. Adams College of Engg. air-blast circuit breakers are classified as: a. Air – blast Circuit Breakers : The Air-blast Circuit Breakers employs high pressure air-blast for arc extinction. .32 a. the current conducting parts are insulated by air or porcelain or organic insulating material. Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker which uses a large quantity of oil so as the oil has to serve two purposes.

33 4. Since -7 vacuum offers the highest insulating strength. To operate the correct circuit breakers so as to disconnect only the faulty equipment from the system as quickly as possible we need relays. Adams College of Engg. These contacts in turn close the circuit breaker trip coil circuit. Therefore. 3. When contacts of a breaker are opened in vacuum. it has far superior arc quenching properties than any other medium. every component and circuit which is involved in the operation of the relay plays an important role. Characteristics of a protective relay: A protective relay is required to satisfy four basic functional characteristics: 1) Reliability: The relay should be reliable is a basic requirement.2 Relays : A relay is an automatic device which senses an abnormal condition in an electric circuit and closes its contacts. . There are various components which go into operation before a relay operates. Vacuum Circuit Breakers : In Vacuum Circuit Breakers vacuum (degree of vacuum being in the range from 10 to 10-5 torr) is used as the arc quenching medium. the interruption occurs at first current zero with dielectric strength between the contacts building up at a rate thousands of times higher than that obtained with other circuit breakers. It must operate when it is required. thereby it opens the circuit breaker and the faulty part of the electric circuit is disconnected from the rest of the healthy circuit.

Quantities. these relays can be used only on a. Adams College of Engg. It is normally expressed in terms of minimum volt-amperes required for the relay operation. . In this type of relays the operation is obtained by virtue of an armature being attracted to the poles of an electromagnet or a plunger being drawn into a solenoid. circuits.C. These relays can be operated by both D. Therefore.c. Types and Operating Principle: Depending upon the operating principle the relays are classified as follows: 1. circuits and not on D. as well as A.C. Electromagnetic Induction Relays: This type of relays operated based on the electromagnetic induction principle. 3) Speed: A protective relay must operate at the required speed.C. It should neither be too slow which may result in damage to the equipment. nor should it be too fast which may result in undesired operation during transient faults.34 2) Selectivity: It is the basic requirement of the relay in which it should be possible to select which part of the system is faulty and which is not and should isolate the faulty part of the system from the healthy one. 4) Sensitivity: A relay should be sufficiently sensitive so that it should operate reliably when required under the actual conditions in the system which produces the least tendency for operation. 2. Electromagnetic Attraction Relays: This type of relays operated based on the electromagnetic attraction principle. Selectivity is achieved in two ways: (i) Unit system of protection and (ii) non-unit system of protection.

ERRORS IN CURRENT TRANSFORMER There are two types of errors in a current transformer (CT). The Instrument Transformers are used in a. Such special transformers are Instrument Transformers. The ratio error comes from the deviation of the turn’s ratio from the current ratio.In other words.c power systems. The cause for this error is the exciting current. The Adams College of Engg. of turns of fine wire and is connected across the standard 5A or 1A ammeter.c systems for the measurement of current. Current transformers or simply C. to transmit at very high voltages is a usual practice. The current transformer has a primary coil of one or a few turns of thick wire connected in series with a line whose current is to be measured. voltage.T The current transformers steps down currents to the range of ordinary ammeter. To solve this problem.T 2. which are useful in measuring large currents and voltages. It is a difficult and not economic to design meters to measure such large currents and voltages directly. Instrument Transformers are categorized as: 1. CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT) These transformers are used with low range ammeters to measure currents in high voltage alternating current where it is impractical to connect instruments and meters directly to the lines.3 Instrument Transformers : In a. while the Potential transformer steps down voltages to the range of ordinary voltmeters . the Instrument Transformers extend the range of ordinary meters. large currents. a special type of transformer came to support ordinary meters. . They step down the current from the high voltage line to a low value.They are the ratio-error and the phase angle error. The secondary consists of a large no.35 3. power and energy. So series transformer is a better substitute to the shunt for increasing the range of the ammeter. Potential transformers or voltage transformers or simply P.

Adams College of Engg. The ratio error is defined as: Percentage ratio error = (nominal ratio-actual ratio) * 100 Actual ratio POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (PT) The theory of a potential transformer is essentially the same as that of a power transformer . DIFFERENCES BETWEEN C.T is independent of the secondary winding circuit conditions while the primary winding current in a P.T vary over wide limits in normal operation.The main point of difference is that the power loading of a P. Under normal operation the line voltage is nearly constant and .therefore the flux density and hence the exciting current of a potential transformer varies only over a restricted range whereas the primary winding current and excitation of a C.T 1. Thus the secondary winding of a P.T is very small and consequently the exciting current is of the same order as the secondary winding current while in a power transformer the exciting current is very small fraction of secondary winding load current.36 current ratio is not constant.T carries the full line current. The P.T certainly depends upon the secondary circuit burden. full line voltage is impressed upon its terminals whereas a C. . as it depends on the load current and its power factor and hence a considerable error is introduced.T & P. The primary winding current in a C. 3.T can be open-circuited without any damage being caused to the operator or to the transformer. 2. In a potential transformer.T may be considered as ‘parallel’ transformer with its secondary winding operating nearly under open circuit conditions whereas the current transformer may be thought as a ‘series transformer under virtual short circuit conditions. 4.

Circuit breaker can make and break electric circuit under normal current or short circuit conditions. Isolators are necessary Adams College of Engg. near the terminals of large medium voltage rotating machines and in HV. Surge arrester discharges current impulse surge to earth and dissipates energy in the form of heat. Surge arrester provides protection against surge voltage waves.4 Surge Arresters (Lightning Arresters) Surge Arresters are usually connected between phase and ground in distribution system. The surge arrester does not create short-circuit like rod gaps and retains the residual voltage across its terminals. Thereby insulation of protected installation is not subjected to the full surge voltage. While closing a circuit. While opening a circuit. Isolators are used in addition to circuit breakers and are provided on each side of every circuit breaker to provide isolation and enable maintenance. Gapped silicon-carbide Surge arresters 2. Isolator is not even used for breaking load currents.37 3. then circuit breaker. Zinc-oxide Gapless Arresters 3. . then isolate.5 Isolators : Isolator (disconnecting switch) operates under no load condition. It does not have any specified current breaking capacity or current making capacity. At present the following types of surge arrester are used: 1. the isolator is closed first. HVDC sub-stations to protect the apparatus insulation from lightning surges and switching surges. the circuit breaker is opened first. EHV. After discharging the impulse wave to the earth. The resistor blocks in the surge arrester offer low resistance to high voltage surge and divert the high voltage surge to the ground. the resistor blocks in the surge arrester offers a very high resistance to the normal power frequency voltage and the arrester acts as open circuit.

v.. ii. ii.g. the presence of higher harmonics in power currents may interfere with the communication signal. As the phases are separated from each other quite appreciably. Since the power is being transmitted at relatively high voltages. surge voltages or corona phenomenon etc. the operation on these lines may prove to be dangerous to human lives and also to telephone apparatus. Lines are disrupted during foul weather conditions as conductors are strung on very robust tower structures. During transient operation of system e. Leakage is negligible even under wet weather conditions as lines are insulated with high voltage insulators. However there are certain difficulties associated with the transmission of communication signal over the power lines: i. iii. cross-talks between lines is practically avoided. Adams College of Engg. . iv.38 on supply side of circuit breakers in order to ensure isolation of the circuit breaker from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. The power lines offer the following advantages. switching transients. Lines have thicker cross section of wire and hence attenuation of signals is not much. The cost of providing extra lines for the purpose is avoided. 3.6 Carrier Communication using Coupling Capacitor: The term power line carrier is used to represent the entire process of communication which uses high voltage overhead power lines as the means of transmission. i.

noise introduced in carrier signal would be very large and hence carrier frequency in the range 30 kHz to 500 kHz is used. tele control etc. have been overcome by selecting suitable coupling capacitor and carrier frequencies.39 These difficulties of course. The power lines may have higher harmonics due to switching surges and corona loss on overhead lines. The power line carrier communication finds application in telemeter. if carrier frequencies are chosen in this region. power line protection. line traps are used which offer very high impedance to carrier frequency and low impedance to power frequency. These frequencies generally lie between 100 Hz to 50 Hz and. therefore. Similarly the coupling capacitors are so designed that they offer very high impedance to power frequency but low to carrier frequencies. Adams College of Engg. In order that these carrier signals do not interfere into the adjoining section of lines and also that these carrier signals are not lost by being shorted by low impedance of transformer or generator at the end of the line. .

40 PROTECTION OF ALTERNATOR Adams College of Engg. .

accompany it. The various power system elements include generator transformers. The protection of generator is most complex and elaborate. the protection of the complete unit and stability of the system due to disturbance in generator in addition to protection of generator it self. trip circuit. . bearing insulation. prime over. So it is not single equipment. auxiliaries. Several other abnormal conditions give an alarm and indicate on static protection schemes have been developed for generator protection. etc. Each protective zone protects one or two components of the system. Each component of the power system is protected by a protective system consisting of protective transformers. The neighbour protective zones over lap so that no part of the system is left unprotected. The generator should be protected against several faults like differential. back up over current etc. During fault conditions the protective relaying senses the fault and closes the trip circuit of the circuit breaker open and the faulty part of the system is disconnected from the remaining part of the system. restricted earth fault time over current. bearing temperature. cooling systems etc. excitation system. Generator is large machine and is connected to bus bars.1 NEED FOR PROTECTION: AC power system is covered by several protection zones. voltage regulator. While selecting the scheme for generator protection. all or nothing rays. protective relays. trip coil. bus bars. transmission lines etc. negative sequence. The protection of generator should be coordinated with associated equipment. Adams College of Engg. rotor earth fault.41 4. Generator should not be shunt off as far as possible since that would result in power shortage and emergency. Unit auxiliary transformers.

If a second ground fault occurs a part of the filed winding is by passed. Phase faults & inter faults are less common. Stator faults 2. 2. Rotor faults: Faults in the rotor circuit may be either earth faults or between turns. Thus the probability of occurrence of the second fault is increased. This causes an unbalance in the air gap fluxes. phase to earth faults phase to phase faults inter turn faults Most faults occur in the stator windings. Arcing to core which welds laminations together causing eddy current hot spots on subsequent occurrence. The effect of earth in the stator is two fold: 1. thereby increasing the current through the remaining portion of the field winding. miscellaneous faults or abnormal operating conditions Stator faults: The stator faults include i. Rotor faults 3. ii. However. these usually develop an earth fault. with possible fire risks. But as the rotor field circuit is operated ungrounded a single ground fault does not affect the operation of generator or cause any damage. repairs to this condition involve considerable expenditure of time and money. Adams College of Engg. of which majority are earth faults.2 GENERATOR FAULTS AND THEIR EFFECTS All the generator faults can be classified as: 1. iii. leading to severe vibration of the rotor.42 4. . Severe heating in the conductors damaging them & the insulation. It increases the stress to ground in the field when stator transients induce an extra voltage in the field winding.

Stator also gets over heated due to wattles current drawn by the machine as magnetizing current drawn from the system but slower then rotor heating. Hence spurious currents of twice the machine frequency are induced in rotor body leading to overheating of the rotor. which sweeps through the rotor with twice the rotational speed. Unbalanced loading 2. Round rotor generators don’t have damper windings & hence they are not suitable for such an operation. F a i l u r e of prime mover Adams College of Engg. b) Unbalanced three – phase faults: The unbalanced operation of the Alternator may arise due to Fault in stator winding An unbalanced external fault.43 a) Loss of excitation: Failure of excitation system is one of the serious abnormal operations of the alternator. It may occur due to the failure or mal operation of a faulty field breaker. Over loading 3. c) Miscellaneous faults or abnormal operating conditions: 1. Over speed 4. . The rotor is over heated quickly due to heavy induced currents in the rotor iron. which rotate in a direction opposite to that of the rotor and hence produced a flux. A large machine like a Turbo alternator may upset the system stability because it draws reactive power from the system stability because it draws reactive power from the system when working as n induction generator. which is not cleared quickly Open circuiting of a phase Failure of one contact of the circuit breaker The unbalanced operation gives rise to negative sequence currents. Over voltage 5. The alternator speeds up slightly & operates as an induction generator.

Faults are detected automatically by means of relays and the faulty section is isolated by circuit breakers connected at the boundaries of the section. The combination of relays and circuit breakers is known as protective system. high-speed reliable protective devices are the essential quantities of a power system to minimize the effects of faults and other abnormalities. Excessive bearing temperature 9. so that it never operates unnecessarily. and it must. This is of the order of 30-100ms. Sometimes a compromise method has to be adopted. Economy: The most important factor in the choice of a particular protection scheme is the economic aspect. depending on the fault level if the section involved.44 6. Motoring of generator 4. The protective gear should not cost more than 5% of total cost. Loss of excitation 7. Sensitivity: Relaying equipment must be sufficiently sensitive to operate reliably when required under conditions that produce the least operating tendency. However when the apparatus to be protected is of utmost importance economic considerations are often subordinated to reliability.3 Essential qualities of protection: High grade. Reliability: Relaying equipment must be found in healthy operating condition when called upon to act as years might elapse between two consecutive operations of relays at particular station. Adams College of Engg. Faults should be instantly detected and the faulty section isolated from the rest of the system in the shortest period. . The essential qualities of a power system protection are: Speed: Faults at any point in the system must be detected and isolated in the shortest time possible.. Selectivity: relaying equipment must clearly discriminate between normal and abnormal system conditions. therefore be accomplished automatically. It is obviously not possible to do this manually. Vibrations 8.

3. Usually. Condensate extraction pumps. Bearing failure. REMEDIAL MEASURES: The followings are made to avoid these failures 1) 2) The motor should be selected according to application & operational constraints. Motors is a matter of great cancer everybody.T.45 Protection relays used in HT. ID fans. failure these H.T.T. The manufacture should be informed in details about application. environmental conditions etc. H. Others. The major auxiliary equipment of the station work on 6. 7. The equipments include PA fans. station service transformers. 2. it is noticed that motors are mostly failing because of the mechanical problems & subsequently resulting in failure of the H. coal mills and step down transformers like unit service transformer. Excessive vibration.6 KV comes under category of HT motors. 6. operation procedures.6 kv voltage level. Motors are used for critical applications. Electrical problems. Hence. LT and 220 KV systems H. & their failures results in stoppage of system & subsequent loss to generation / production. so that care is taken at the same time of design. Boiler feed pumps. Adams College of Engg. 4.T MOTOR PROTECTION: The motors driven by the supply of 6. Design lacunas. . ESP transformers etc. Operation procedures. FD fans.. 5. Misalignment. motors are 1.

.T. motors should be periodically monitored to take up re Manufacturers / Rewinds should be asked not to use graded insulation for those material for tie rods. motors having internal neutral. 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) No foreign material should be left inside during assembly. increase service life of motor. The breakers are extremely reliable in service. tapered washers should be provided.46 3) It must be ensured that the manufacturers strict quality control at time of assembling at every stage. require only a minimum of maintenance and have long life expectancy. quiet and low vibration levels.. place. will IR values and delta of H. HT motors protection is done using Vacuum circuit breakers VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER: The VM12 Vacuum circuit breakers are designed to handle all recognized switching duties. should be avoided. . tying at overhang portions. if they are doing the same. eliminated. the fact that they are not affected by variation in temperature and freedom from fire hazards enable the breakers to be used in locations subject to adverse conditions. varnishing etc. their small size and weight. This will avoid over heating of motor. Use of bolts magnetic Timers should be used for those systems where frequent ON/OFF operations take Causes of excessive vibrations. over heating should be immediately Frequent checks of associated auxiliaries. 10) Care should be taken to check the proper contact between power cable lugs and motor terminal studs. lugging etc. Adams College of Engg. noise. Otherwise. If possible these motors should be provided with earth fault trip circuit. should be very carefully done. Brazing. Moreover. which may get loosened in course of time. environmental conditions etc.

2/12KV 630/800/1000/1250/1600/2000/2500A 50HZ Rated impulse with stand voltage : Rated 1-min power frequency With stand voltage : 28/35 KV rms Adams College of Engg.6/7.5/40KArms 1 or 3 seconds 60 + 5 ms 80+5ms 75+5ms 0-0. each with its vacuum interrupter are mounted on a common mechanism housing the energy storing spring mechanism is motor operated and can be actuated by hand also.5/78.5/40KA rms : : : : : IS 13118 & IS 3427 VM 12 3.47 The three breaker poles. RATINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS Applicable standards Type Rated voltage Rated normal current Rated frequency Rated short current Breaking current Rated short circuit Making current Rated short time With stand current Rated duration of short circuits Rated opening time Rated break time Rated closing time Rated operating sequence : : : : : : 16/20/25/31. .3 seconds –CO-3min-CO 75KV peak : 40/50/62.8/100KA peak : 16/20/25/31.

A module consists of fuses. .6 KV buses and 32 Air Circuit Breakers.6 KV/415V power transformers fed from respective 6. power contactor . The station service transformers termed as SST-IV A & SST-IV B fed from station transformer bus contain important loads such as DM plant. The protection for these motors are provided in the form of modules . control and service air MCC.switch fuse unit .T MOTOR PROTECTION: The motors driven by the supply of 415 V comes under category of LT motors.relays . The lighting for the entire station is fed from this transformer. The simple construction of protective system employed for a LT motor in is described as stated below. Further an Emergency bus is formed which is fed from SST-IV A or SST-IV B which contain LT loads which are to be in service even if the entire grid fails.circuit breakers which helps in protecting the motor to a greater extent .48 L. 6. Hence a 250 KVA Diesel Generator set is also connected to the EMS Bus to meet the emergency. Adams College of Engg. The 415 V systems comprises of 9 Nos.

Pole column Adams College of Engg. SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER: Type: ELF SL 4-1 Type designation: E L F SL 4 1 SF6 gas insulation Generation Outdoor design Extinction chamber type Breaker construction Code BIL rated voltage.49 The relays generally used for L. a common control cubicle and a pneumatic unit (compressed air plant) A breaker pole consists of: 1.Support (frame) 2.T motors are Thermal over load relay Ramde relay PROTECTION OF 220 KV systems 220KV systems are protected by using SF6 circuit breakers (mainly in switch yard protection). . 4=245/460/1050KV Number of chambers CONSTRUCTION: The high voltage circuit breaker type ELF SL 4-1 comprises of three breaker poles.

It remains stable up to a temperature of 500º C It is an electronegative gas. Adams College of Engg. VI.50 3. SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SF6) CIRCUIT BREAKER: The SF6 circuit breaker consists of interrupter units each capable of dealing with currents up to 60 KAmps and voltages in the range of 50-80 KV. A pneumatic unit.6 times as much as that of air. All three pole columns are filled with insulating gas and are interconnected by means of pipelines. VIII. A number of units are developed for voltages 115-230 KV. It remains in a gaseous state up to a temperature of 9º C and its density is about 5 times that of air and pre heat convention is 1. IV. a short time constant. V. II. The pressure switches are installed in the control cubicle. non poisonous and odorless. Properties of SF6 gas: I. (With the exception of the density monitor mounted on the middle breaker pole). High dielectric strength. Pure SF6 gas is inert and thermally stable Arc extinguishing ability: It should have a low dissociation temperature. III. The common control cubicle which is installed separately contains all control devices and most of the monitoring instrumentation. The gas is monitored by a density monitor (temperature compensated pressure monitor).Pneumatic actuator The actuator operated with compressed air. power ratings 10-20 MVA and interrupting time less than 3 cycles. VII. Thermal and chemical stability Non inflammable. an air receiver and a unit compressor is installed to supply the compressed air. . The compressed air stored in the air receiver is distributed to the three actuators via pipelines.

C 2 Adams College of Engg. The gas comes into LP cylinder. 0. Data of the Generator Type Apparent Power Active power Current Voltage Speed Frequency Power Factor Interconnection of Stator winding Hydrogen Pressure Continuous permitted Unbalance load Rated field voltage : : 8% 2386A D.M 50 Hz. : : : : : : : : : : THRI 108/44 294 MVA 250 MW 10.85 stat-star 3.0 bar Rated field current o/p: No. The gas is admitted into the arc extinction chamber just before the contact separation. The gas from the compressor is let into the auxiliary high-pressure reservoir at a pressure of about 14Kg/cm2.P. The moving contacts are pulled apart from the fixed contacts by means of insulating links. The arc is extinguished by hot air flow.51 Arc extinction in SF6 circuit breaker: During the arcing period.290A 16.C 319Volts D. of rectifier wheels: . The following are the current carrying parts: The terminals are connected to the neighboring equipment form the conductors are taken through bushings. The arc extinction chamber house is made of dielectric material and the chamber is mounted on the insulator supports. SF6 is blown axially along the arc. At the same time valves on the high pressure cylinders are opened and the gas from the high pressure tank flows to the low pressure reservoir through nozzles.5KV +/-825V 3000 R.

3. Negative Phase sequence relay (46 GB) RARIB 2. It covers all types of major electrical faults in the Generator. 4. 1. It is known as simultaneous trip Turbine Trip Class-A Protection Generator Trip The faults come under class – A protection is as follows. Generator stand by earth fault relay (64 GC) 5. 2. Reverse Power relay (32G) RXPE 7. GT and UATs. Generator differential relay (87G) 8. Loss of excitation relay (40 G) RAGPC 3. Low forward power relay (37 G) 6. Turbine and Generator tripped simultaneously due to sevearity of the fault. 5.A Class – B Class –C Class – A protection: 1.52 4. Over speed is tolerated in view of the severity of the fault. .5 Protection of 250MW turbo generator The generators bring the most important and costliest equipment of a power system it is provided with a vast range of protection schemes as categorized below: Unit protection can be classified into following three categories Class . Generator stator earth fault relay RAGE A (64 GA) + RXIG 28 (64 GB) 4. It causes over speed of the TG set. GT restricted earth fault relay (87 NT) Adams College of Engg.

Then the generator trips on low forward power relay interlock 4. It is also known as sequential trip. Back up impedance realy (21GB) 13. 6.53 9. 1. No immediate danger or damage 2. Low Forward Power Relay Turbine Trip Reverse Power Relay Reverse Power Relay 2 sec 2 sec Generator Trip Class-B Protection 20 sec The faults which come under this category are as follows. GT winding temperature high ( 49 GT-W-T) Adams College of Engg. stage – II (99 GT) 14. 7. Over current in UAT – A (51 UAT – A) 16. stage – II (98 G) 15. Pole slip relay. Turbine trips instantaneously 3. Over current in UAT – B (51 UAT – B) 17. Back up is the reverse power relay 5. Rotor Earth fault relay (7UR 22) Class – B protection: 1. Faults in UAT & GT which are not severe covered by this protection. Overall differential relay (87-O) RADSB 12. UAT – A differential relay (87 UAT-B) 11. Over flux relay. . UAT – A differential relay (87 UAT-A) 10. No over speed in the TG set.

UAT-A oil temperature high (49 UAT –B. Negative phase sequence relay ( 46 A) 2. 2.A winding temperature high (49 UAT A –W-T) 5. TG set maintains house load operation 4. 3. UAT.O-T) 8. 1. GT oil level low trip 9. GT over current relay ( 51 GT) Mechanical protections of the Generator: 1.B winding temperature high (49 UAT B –W-T) 6. Liquid level in Generator terminal box. Seal oil may enter into the Generator chamber due to more gap at the seals. UAT-A oil temperature high (49 UAT. UAT .B oil level low trip Class – C protection: 1. Unit can be reconnected to the grid after isolating the fault. UAT . Hydrogen cooling water may enter the chamber due to hydrogen cooler leak. .A– O-T) 7. High cold gas temperature in Generator: Alarm 45ºC Trip 50ºc 2. Faults in the grid. level detectors are used to find out the liquid level. c. Adams College of Engg. Faults covered in this protection are as follows. b. a. GT oil temperature high (49 GT – O-T) 3. UAT. Back up impedance relay (21 GA) 3. Only 220 KV circuit breaker will be opened. GT OLTC buchholz relay (63 GT) 4.54 2.A oil level low trip 10.

3.55 d.Single piece of device D. .Relay A.Assembly (single parts are assembled) X. Nomenclature of relays: R. Latest trend in the protection of Generator is to use Numerical or Micro processor based relays. 2/3 logic is used for operation.Current F.Frequency E.Voltage Adams College of Engg. High hot air temperature in Exciter unit Alarm Trip Generator.Differential relay I. 50ºC 75ºC Above three faults initiate class – B protection as there is no immediate danger to the RELAYS IN KTPS V STAGE: The relays used for Generator protection is of static type of make ABB in KTPS – V stage.

.56 Product overview: Adams College of Engg.

Core.5 KV) CT 12500/5A 4. . Core. Core-3of UAT-B duct (16.1 of 220 KV switchyard CT 1000/1A 2.T cores 1. Core.A duct (16. Overall Differential Protection Relay 87 (RADSB): Make Type: ABB RADSB This relay gets inputs from the following C.3 of UAT .57 1.5 KV) CT 12500/5 A Relay details Operating voltage: 100-400V Adams College of Engg.5 bus duct in the neutral side of generator CT 12500/5A 3.4 f 16.

Adams College of Engg.35V. 2.1 * Max voltage = 100V Recommended Setting: RADHA set-to 100V.Under voltage Stand by earth fault relay---.25 Max Voltage developed across the relay = Ik* (Ret +R1) = 88.Over voltage 0-95% Earth fault relay: An over voltage relay is used for finding the earth fault in 0 – 95% of the stator winding. Normally a setting of 110% of this voltage will provide full stability against external faults.117 p.52A Secondary Fault Current Ik = 58120.52ohms 0-95% E/F relays------------. Generator Stator Earth Fault Relay 64GA & 64GB Make Type: ABB RAGEA This relay gets input from the Generator Neutral Earthing Transformer secondary side voltage across the resistor of value 0. .58 System Details Sub transient reactance of the generator Xd" = 0.4 Fault Current If =Full Load Current / Xd11 = 58120.5 KV = 294 MVA =12500/5A =3 ohms Rl (loop resistance) = 0.5KV) = 10287.8 ohms (assumed) Calculations Full load current = (294 MVA) / (>/3 *16.u (To be checked at site and any changes has to be incorporated).33. Voltage Rating MVA Rating CT Ratio Ret = 16.52*(5/12500) = 23. Relay setting > 1.Over voltage 95-100% E/F relays---------.

45V Supervision unit RXEG: 40-120V Time delay: 20msec . 330A. Adams College of Engg. 46.5KV / 240V 3OKVA continuous.59 95%-100% Earth fault relay: 1.99sec System Details Neutral Grounding Transformer 16. So a under voltage relay is provided for detecting the earth faults in 95-100% of the stator winding.52ohms.8KW. 3. Third harmonic voltage is measured at the neutral of generator. 1100V. Neutral Grounding Resistor 0. In case of earth fault near the neutral third harmonic voltage falls. . Relay details 95% Element RXIG 28: 5-15V 95-100% Element RXIG 21: 0.15-0. 2. 80KVA for 5 minutes.

60 64 GA Trip High Current Adams College of Engg. .

401V Supervision unit RXEG: Range available: 40-120V Recommended setting = 85% of rated voltage = 0. Failure of fuse near PMG 4. Setting of 95100% element will be half of the peak value measured.5V 3. its terminal voltage reduces observed as dip.56 = 6.92V Lime delay =3sec. 95-100% Element RXIG 21 Normally third harmonic voltage is measured at generator neutral.5KV/V3 = 95. For example Third harmonic voltage=l% of normal system voltage =0.01*16. which causes very high current drawn from the network.56V To cover 0 to 95%.05* 138. Characterized by dip in stator voltage and rise in stator current. . 2. Heavy reactive power drawn from the grid.5KV / √3 = 9. when the machine rated voltage is build up and machine is not loaded. Adams College of Engg.26V Approximately more than 30% appears across neutral = 28.57V Secondary value = 0. 3.52KV Voltage across relay = 240 / Vs = 138. Loss of Excitation 40G Make type: ABB RAGPC Causes: 1. Accidental tripping of the excitation system 2. setting should be 5%of the above value =0. Mal operation of field circuit breaker 3. As excitation fails. Open or short ckt occurs in the DC excitation circuit Effects: 1.61 Calculations 95%Element RXIG 28 For phase to ground fault Vph-n =l 6.85* 110 = 93.

5KV side of generator duct.62 4.5A Lime setting: l-10sec. situated in the generator neutral side 16. core 4 of PT situated in 16. Instability may occur. 6. if other generator in the power system could not be supply the required reactive power. Immediately after the operation of loss of excitation realy. Adams College of Engg. Excitation--.5AT/V3)/ (110/V3)/ (110/V3) B. .MW Generator MVAR MW Grid 40G C.T P.5-7. 5.MVAR Steam Input. The PT ratio is (16.T Generator MVAR MW Grid This relay gets input from A. runs above synchronous speed and machine works as Induction Generator. Relay details Directional unit: 1-4A Under voltage RXEG2: 40.5KV bus duct. Results in overheating of the rotor. ensure The 220 KV breaker was tripped otherwise trip the breaker manually. Generator speed increases.120V Over current RXIG2: 2. core 3 of CT ratio 12500 / 5A.

Negative sequence flux rotates in opposite direction to that of the rotor flux. Negative Sequence Protection 46G: Make Type: ABB RARIB It is also knows as unbalance protection Causes: 1. Breaker failures Effects: 1.5V O/C RXIG21 =5A Time setting =2sec. . Unbalanced system faults 3.63 Calculations Under voltage element RXEG Setting recommended will be 85% of nominal voltage = 0.e. Unbalanced loads 2.5V Recommend settings Directional unit RXPE = 1. 5. 2. 100 Hz) currents and voltages are induced in the rotor. Open circuits 4. Relative speed will be equal f – (-f) = 2f. Double frequency (i. 4. 4.4A U/V RXEG 21 =93. Negative Phase sequence currents are induced in the stator body. High frequency causes increased iron losses and hence heating of the rotor Adams College of Engg.85 * 110=93. 3.

System details This relay gets input from C.64 With negative phase sequence fault in one phase. the magnetic losses i.e.T. Generally every Generator is capable of carrying negative phase sequence currents to a certain time.5KV bus duct. Adams College of Engg. the frequency becomes f . 46 B relay: even then also if the fault exits. class – C protection). .e. the hysterisis losses increases and the rotor overheats. Normally two relays are used against negative sequence protection 46 A realy: It only trips the 220 KV breaker thus isolating from the grid (i. then this relay operates and initiates class – A protection.(-f) =2=100 Hz With such high frequency. core 3 (12500/5A) situated in the generator neutral side of 16.

: 6 sec Trip: 10% of the rated current.29. 2.T.5. 1. core 3 (12500/5) situated in the generator neutral side of 16.5KV bus duct. Effects: 1.3. So a reverse power relay in conjunction with over current relay is used to detect pole slip condition..Tcore4 (16. b.65 Settings: Alarm Time delay : 8% of the rated current. 3. 21 .5KV/V3)/( HO/ V3 / (110/73) Situated in the Phase side of the generator bus duct. Is = rated current = 5A Adams College of Engg. P.2. (2) Insufficient Field. 5..6. Time delay: inverse characteristics. Generator out of step (pole slip relay) 98G Make Type: ABB RXPE + RXZF21 Causes: (1) Excessive Load on the Generator. C. Generator will draw reverse from the network. Also draws heavy current from the grid. System details This relay gets inputs from a. Relay details d= 1. Q = 20.5. . (3) Generator breaker closed when out of synchronism.

after tripping of turbine.e.T fuse is healthy.66 6.T fuse failure has occurred. Low Forward Power Relay (37G) Make Type: ABB RXPE40 (< 2MW) Generally Generator Circuit Breaker is opened for urgent faults in which over speed can be tolerated. low forward power relay is used. In this process. V I 37 Turbine Trip 220 KV C.T Fuse healthy To find whether P. VT1 60 G1 VT4 PT fuse failure VT1=VT4 PT fuse failure Adams College of Engg. If the low forward power realy fails to operate. then P. If these values are not same. . a relay 60 G1 is used. For non-urgent faults GCB is to be opened only after falling of Generator power to a low value (which will not cause overspeed) i. For detecting this low power from the generator. VT1 and VT4 are compared. then the machine runs as a motor.B closed 37 <2 MW Trip Generator P.

This reverse power is sensed using this relay.core4 (16. If the relay doesn’t Adams College of Engg. Reverse Power (32G) Make Type: ABB RXPE I V 32 2sec This is like a back up protection to the low forward power relay.120mA Time setting: 20msec . 7. The realy used for reverse power detection is as same as that of the low forward power – difference is only the connections. The level of power drawn from the power system depends upon type of prime mover. b.T. .67 System details This relay gets inputs from a C. core 2 (12500/5) situated in the generator neutral side of 16.5 KV bus duct. the machine draw power from the grid and will acts as a motor.99hrs. P. Recommended settings Setting of RXPE40 = 30mA Time setting for trip = 2sec.T.5KV /3) / (110 /3 ) / (110 /V3 ) situated in the phase side of the generator bus duct. Relay details RXPE40 setting: 30 . Incase if the generator is not tripped by low forward power relay.

5 – 3.25% 10% . Prime mover 1.T. This is 0. P. Phase side of the generator bus duct. Adams College of Engg.5KV Bus duct.68 operate at proper time.T core 2 (12500/5) situated in the generator side of 16. Calculations Minimum setting of 30mA corresponds to primary current of 75A with 12500 / 5 A C.90hrs. the alternator will run as a synchronous motor and over currents will flow.2 – 2 % 0.5KV / V3) / (110 / √3) / (110 / √3) situated in the Relay details RXPEi setting: 30. core 4 (16. . Steam turbine Motoring power 5% .T ratio.77% of full load. With out turbine trip = 20 sec. Gas turbine 3. Time delay setting = 1 sec. b.15% 0. C. Hydraulic turbine 4. Recommended setting RXPI< setting = 30mA With turbine trip = 3 sec.120mA Time setting: 20msec . Time trip = 20sec. Diesel engine 2.0% System details This relay gets inputs from a.

Distance type of relays will operate when the impedance seen by the relay is less the set value.5KV/ V3)/(110/√3)/(110/ 73) situated in the phase side of the generator bus duct. P. System details This relay gets inputs from a. Phase faults in adjacent transmission lines 4.648ohms. Usually backup impedance is set to 70% of the terminal impedance = 0. 1 10V. Relay details RAKZB: 5A.T core 3 (12500 / 5) situated in the Generator neutral side of 16.5 * 16. C.69 8. . Distance type of relay is used. Operated for the prolonged uncleared faults out side the yard.7 * 0. Adams College of Engg.5) / 294 = 0.5KV bus duct. Calculations Impedance as seen from the Generator terminal is given by (16. Secondary value – Zf = 0. When main protection fails 5.648 * (CTR / PTR) = 231 ohms.926 = 0. 6. Generator backup impedance 21GA & 21GB Make Type: ABB RAKZB 1. b. Time setting: l-10sec.T. 2. Phase faults in the unit & switch yard 3. characteristic angel = 75deg.926ohms. core4 (16.

99sec. Over Voltage RXEG (59G) Make Type: ABB RXEG-21 Causes: 1. .1 * 110 = 121V Time delay Stage 1 = 2sec Setting of RBEG = 1. 9.15 * 110= 127V Stage2 = 0.240 V Time setting: 20msec . 2. alarm only 19. D= 1.2sec Adams College of Engg. Sudden loss of load. trip is provided.35.8KV. Effects: 1. Relay details: Setting range: 80 . B = 7. time setting: 3 sec.15 KV. Higher voltages may damage the insulation of the stator winding Stage 1: Stage 2: 18. Calculations Over voltage protection is set to 110%of the rated voltage Setting of RXEG= 1. A = 20.70 Recommended settings Time delay = 3sec. Sudden increase in turbine speed. Time setting = 2sec. time setting: 1 sec.

Under Frequency Relay PCX 103 B As the frequency of generation falls. . Definite Time Overload Relay RXIG 21 50G Make Type: ABB RXIG -21 CT ratio 12500/5A Current setting = 1 *In where In=5A Time delay 2sec 12.72 * 110 = 80V Recommended setting RXEG: (2*40) Adams College of Engg.120V Calculations The voltage balance scheme is generally set to 70% of the rated voltage Rated voltage = 110V (on secondary) Setting of RXEG = 0.71 10. 11. Make Type: ABB PCX 103 B: Stage I II III Frequency (Hz) 48 47. No trip is provided for the Generator.5 47 Time setting(sec) 5 3 2 All the three stages initiate alarm only. Voltage Balance RXEG 60G Make Type: ABB RXEG -21 Relay Details RXEG range: 40. all motors connected runs at lesser speeds which reduces their rated output.

5% Calculations Max through fault current = 1/0.248(3+2*0. Through fault current in amps on secondary ((290*10A6/(sqrt3*220*10A3))*(6.72 13.145 = 6.5) = 20.1 1/5 A Restrained operation 0. Generator Transformer REF relay RADHD 87 NT Make Type: ABB RADHD Phase side CT 1000/1A Ret = 3 ohms.2 Voltage across relay = If(Rct+2RI) = 5. Overall Differential RADSB 87 GT Make Type: ABB RADSB 220 kV side of GT CT's 1000/1 Aux:0.992V Therefore the setting is 40 volts Adams College of Engg.25 * In Unrestrained operation 13 * In 14.11/5A 16.5kV side of UATs 9A & 9B CT's 12500/5A Aux: 4. RI = 2 ohm km Total distance (134 mtrs) System details Transformer impedance 14.712/2.88A Gen neutral side CT's 12500/5A Aux: 4.896 pu. .896*l/1000) = 5.

Turbine speed is less than the rated speed Effects: 1. 2. 3. Higher amount of Flux saturates the core. In correct voltage regulator action 2. Load throws off.0 V/HZ Time multiplier K = 1-63 sec. sudden over voltage. 4.5 -3. Also known as V/f protection for generating transformer. Flux = V/f Causes: 1.1.5-3. Generator Transformer Over Flux RATUB 99 GT Make type: ABB RATUB 1. Damage to the insulation of transformer.1.5 sec Stage II (trip): V/F setting: .73 15. 99 GT Adams College of Engg. . V Relay setting Stage I (alarm): V/F: . 3. Overheating of the stator.

2A.2A ' K . Generator Transformer HV Overload Relay RACID 51 GT Make Type: ABB RACID CT Ratio = 1000/1A Relay setting In.8 Is»— blocked Inverse time characteristics. M= 1. Ig = 0.5 V/Hz Time setting 1 sec 16.5 sec.74 Recommended settings PT ratio 16500/110 V V/F (alarm) 2. 17. Is >= 0.2A K . Switch "Normal" position Adams College of Engg.2A.5 V/Hz Time setting 3.Ig = 0.0. M=l.Is>=0. V/F trip 2.1A.8 Is»= blocked Inverse time characteristics Switch "Normal"position. Generator Transformer E/F Relay on HV side RACID 5 Make Type: ABB RACID CT ratio = 1000/1A Relay setting In 1A. .0.

182/2.205 A Set time +0.02pu.02pu Full load current = 10287. the time delay .33 Full load current on current transformer secondary side =10287. Hence the RXIB24 current unit in RAICA can be ser to 0.2-3A Timer 0. 0.37/5A LV side of CT's 2000/5 Aux:4.20A RAICA to be set to 0.33/1000= 10.2A Time delay The time delay should include RXIB pickup time + Breaker opening time +Reset time of RX1B24+ Margin i.e.88 A Adams College of Engg. Unit Auxiliary Transformer Differential 87 UAT RADSB Make type: ABB RADSB IIV side of CT's 800/5 Aux:4.20 = 0.75 18. Generator Transformer LBB relay RAICA 50 GT Make type: ABB RAICA Relay details RXIB24 Range: 0. i. .4 ms+60ms 12ms+75ms(assuming 3 cycle breaker)= 150ms Time setting = 0. in this case it is the reverse power protection..02 * 10..2sec Settings recommended = 200mA Time delay = 200msec 19.e.1 sec — 1 sec Calculation The LBB unit is always set as sensitive as the most sensitive protection for the unit.

. M= l. M = 2.25*In Unrestrained operation 13*In 20. UAT O/L Relay LV side CAG 37 51 UAT Make type: GEC CAG37 CT ratio 2500/5A In = 5A.5 In 5A. A single ground fault connection does not cause flow of current since the rotor circuit is ungrounded. PS = 400% Time =1sec 22. Rotor Earth fault relay . When the second Adams College of Engg.25*In Unrestrained operation 0.76 Restrained operation 0. UAT Overload Relay HV side RACID 51 UAT Make type: ABB RACID CTs 800/5 In -5A. Is»=10 Inv time characteristics Switch "Norm" position 21.Siemens relay (7UR22) Rotor windings are damaged by earth faults.Is>=5A K 0.

Any further earth fault in the excitation circuit results in a double earth fault. thermally endangers the rotor due to the high fault current.77 ground fault occurs. and. Adams College of Engg. which. part of the rotor winding is by passed and the currents in the remaining portion may increase. For this reason the single earth fault should be either alarmed or initiate tripping. on the one hand. . mechanically endangers the rotor due to magnetic unbalance. The protection has two stages. a solid earth fault initiates a trip. gradual deterioration of the insulation initiates an alarm. on the other hand. The rotor earth fault relay is used to detect high and low ohmic earth faults in the excitation circuits of synchronous machines.

The testing of gas gives clue regarding the type of insulation failure. floating in the oil in the Buchholz relay tilts down with the lowering oil level.78 The same figure can be shown as: BUCHHOLZ RELAY The incipient faults in transformer tank below oil level actuate Buchholz relay so as to give an alarm. The arc due to fault causes decomposition of transformer oil. rises upwards and tries to go in to the conservator. While doing so the mercury switch attached to the float is closed and the mercury switch closes the alarm circuit. Buchholz relay gives an alarm so that the transformer can be disconnected before the incipient fault goes in to a serious one. which being light. Thereby the operators know that there is some incipient fault in the transformer. The Buchholz relay is fitted in the pipe leading to the conservator. The float. . The gas gets collected in the upper portion of the Buchholz relay. there by the coil level in the Buchholz relay drops down. The transformer is disconnected as early as possible and the gas sample is tested. Adams College of Engg. The product of decomposition contain more than 70% of hydrogen gas.

79 CASE STUDY Adams College of Engg. .

So the earth fault is at the 27th topbar. IR values of stator windings is to be measured. The same kind of fault occurred thrice in the total year (twice in 9th plant and once in 10th plant). Hence 27th topbar is debrazed from the winding and high voltage test is conducted for rest of the winding and the results are as follows: Adams College of Engg. the core stamping (laminated stamping) came outside from the core and it was pierced into 27th topbar which created earth fault. IR values are measured at 5KV with insulation meter and the results are as follows: R-E : Y-E : B-E : 45 M ohm 50 M ohm 0 M ohm So from the above results it is known that the earth fault is in the B-Phase but it is very difficult to find out the exact location where the earth fault occurred because of the large volume of the stator core and winding. . To know the healthiness of insulation anywhere in power system. So in order to find out the exact location of the earth fault. Immediately voltage switched off. smoke test is to be conducted and it is as follows: At around 32V from the 1-phase variac and a current of about 8 amps. only a small current called capacitive current flows through the circuit and resistance is very high and when an earth fault occurs.80 Case Study: Generator 10 was tripped in the month of October 2006 with 95% earth fault (64 GA) and standby earth fault (64 GC) relay operated. a DC voltage is connected to each phase and it is grounded in one side and the other side is connected to each phase. When the phase is healthy. Even then the entire stator core and winding inspected physically for locating the earth fault. Finding the IR values here means that we have to calculate the value of resistance. This is also called Megger test. But it was not visible. The area where the smoke was observed is fully cleaned with contact cleaners. smoke was observed at 27th slot top bar (double layered winding) nearer to end winding. In this test. a very high current flows through the circuit so current if very low or approximately zero. It is observed that.

000 M ohm 30 sec 2. tested for high voltage and IR values are also measured. it is found that the remaining winding is healthy. New top bar placed at site. 00. .87 A So from the results it can be seen that all the three phases are healthy.92 A 2.000 M ohm Adams College of Engg.91 A 2.6 KV 22. 00.81 HV test: Voltage applied R-> E with Y+B-> E Y-> E with R+B-> E B-> E with Y+R-> E 22. IR values are found again with 5 KV source: 15 sec (in M ohm) R-E Y-E B-E R-Y Y-B B-R 500 500 350 1000 1250 1000 60 sec (in M ohm) 2000 1750 1950 2750 4500 3250 From the above results. 00.1 KV leakage current 2. HV Test 31 KV (for 1 minute) Current 90 mA IR values at 5 KV 15 Sec 5 KV 1.9 KV 23.000 M ohm 60sec 40.

82 Top bar is placed in the 27th slot and brazing was done on both turbine and exciter end sides. Insulating tapes were wound on the brazed winding. Insulating liquids are also applied on the brazed positions. Stator overhang position was kept for heating for 24 hours. Again the test was conducted and IR values are also measured. Voltage applied R-> E with Y+B-> E Y-> E with R+B-> E B-> E with Y+R-> E 23.0 KV 22.7 KV 23.0 KV leakage currents 2.92 A 2.88 A 2.93 A

IR values at 5 KV 15 sec R-E Y-E B-E R-Y Y-B B-R 550 450 450 1050 1300 1500 60 sec 2500 1850 2000 3000 4000 3900

It can be observed from the above results that the entire stator winding is healthy. There was also some special tests were conducted both on stator and rotor. • ELCID Test (Electromagnetic core imperfection detector test) It is to find out the healthiness of laminations of stator core. The maximum shootout current should be less than 100 mA for better operation. • Wedge deflection test It is to find out the stiffness of the wedges fixed on the stator winding with hydraulic jerks. A dial gauge will be placed on the wedge and a pressure of about 100kg/cm sq. will be applied with the hydraulic jark.The maximum deflection of the dial gauge will be measured and is found to be normal for the total stator wedges.

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83 • RSO Test (Recurrence Surge Oscillogram)

It is done for rotor winding. It is to find out if there are any internal short or earth faults in the rotor winding. Modern technique: A new technique is implemented at Rayalseema thermal plant (RTTP) in stage-2 in which there is negligible chance of vibrations which caused trips in KTPS V stage thrice last year. In the slots, the insulator is poured at the time of construction and then conductor is directly poured on that so that, the whole stator is a single and strong piece and less damage is done to the system during vibrations.

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Upcoming trends in protection:
Adaptive Protection Systems Adaptive protection is as "an online activity that modifies the preferred protective response to a change in system conditions or requirements. It is usually automatic, but can include timely human intervention". An adaptive relay is "a relay that can have its settings, characteristics or logic functions changed online in a timely manner by means of externally generated signals or control action". In other words, adaptive protection systems are systems which allow changing relay characteristics/settings due to the actual system state. For example, the primary zone pickup value of a distance relay can be changed online according to power in feed from a T-connected generator There are several adaptive techniques proposed which use online information of the system to optimise the protection system function. Some examples are: • • • • Adaptive system impedance modeling (an up-to-date impedance model of the Adaptive sequential instantaneous tripping (for faults near the remote station). Adaptive multi-terminal distance relay coverage (regarding in feed from TAdaptive reclosure (prevent unsuccessful reclosure for permanent faults, high-

network that provides input data for a relay).

connections in the relay settings). speed reclosure in case of false trips).

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The basic requirements for implementing adaptive relaying concepts: 1. Appropriate software for relay modelling. Adams College of Engg. relay coordination and communication 3. . Appropriate means of communication A relay coordination software model as shown in figure is introduced which makes real time changes of relay configurations possible. Microprocessor-based relays 2.86 Block diagram of adaptive relay coordination software It is proposed to use real-time synchronized phasor measurements of bus voltages and line currents as a source of information for adaptive relays.

Rao 4. 3. Wadhwa 5. BHEL – Manual for Alternators KTPS. Electrical Power Systems — CL. Switch Gear and Protection --.87 BIBILOGRAPHY 1 The Manual of Asean Brown Boveri. Paloncha. 2.Sunil S. . The Art and Science of Protective Relaying — Crussel Masan Adams College of Engg.

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