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You are on page 1of 51

Rachel Hodos

University of Houston

Dr. Martin Lo

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

● Topology

– Introduction

– Specific Tools and Concepts

● Topology of a Point Cloud

● Application: Structure in Galactic Distribution

– 1st Approach: Persistence

– 2nd Approach: Genus of Density Isocontours

● Recommendations for Future Work

Topology

● The study of shape, structure, and connectivity

without a notion of distance

● Two objects are topologically equivalent if one

can be deformed into the other

Topology

● The study of shape, structure, and connectivity

without a notion of distance

● Two objects are topologically equivalent if one

can be deformed into the other

Topology: Some Properties

● Dimension

● Continuity

● Number of holes

● Number of components (i.e., distinct objects)

● NOT: size, angle, curvature

Topology: Betti Numbers

● Counts number of topologically distinct, non-

non

bounding cycles of dimension k

● Only concerned with first three Betti numbers

● B0 = components, B1 = tunnels, B2 = voids

● Examples:

B0 = 1 B0 = 1

B1 = 2 B1 = 0

B2 = 0 B2 = 1

Topology: Genus

● Number of handles:

f

*Images from: “Genus, mathematics.” Wikipedia. December 19, 2008. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 5, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus_(mathematics)>

Topology: Genus

● Number of handles

● Bonnet Theorem for compact, 2D surfaces:

Gauss-Bonnet

g = 1−

( B 0 − B1 + B 2 + b )

2

Topology: Genus

● Number of handles

● Bonnet Theorem for compact, 2D surfaces:

Gauss-Bonnet

g = 1−

( B 0 − B1 + B 2 + b )

2

• b represents number of

boundary components:

Topology: Genus

● Number of handles

● Bonnet Theorem for compact, 2D surfaces:

Gauss-Bonnet

g = 1−

( B 0 − B1 + B 2 + b )

2

• b represents number of

boundary components:

Topology: Genus

● Number of handles

● Bonnet Theorem for compact, 2D surfaces:

Gauss-Bonnet

( B 0 − B1 + B 2 + b )

b=3

g = 1−

2

• b represents number of

boundary components:

But what the heck is computational

algebraic topology??

● Subfield of topology

● Uses concepts from abstract algebra on finitely-

finitely

defined structures to study topological properties

● One example of a finitely-defined

finitely structure is a

simplicial complex...

Simplicial Complexes

● Building block is called a k-simplex: a k-

dimensional analogue of a triangle

– 0-simplex: point/vertex

– 1-simplex: edge

– 2-simplex: triangle

– 3-simplex: tetrahedron

k

Simplicial Complexes:

Finitely-Defined

Defined Structures which Imitate Smooth Ones

● 6 Edges: {1 2} {2 3} {1 3} {1 4} {2 4} {3 4}

● 4 Faces: {1 2 3} {1 2 4} {2 3 4} {1 3 4}

Simplicial Complexes:

Finitely-Defined

Defined Structures which Imitate Smooth Ones

Pause for some acknowledgements…

software version 2.5, written by Patrick Perry and Vin de Silva,

Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Galactic data was provided by Tom Jarrett of IPAC, taken from the

Two-Micron All-Sky

Sky Redshift Survey from the April 2009 release.

software package by the Computational Homology Project group

from Rutgers University, Newark, NJ.

Topology of a Point Cloud:

A Game of Connect the Dots

Topology of a Point Cloud:

A Game of Connect the Dots

Topology of a Point Cloud:

A Game of Connect the Dots

just kidding...

Connecting the Dots:

Čech

ech Complex

1, 2, k

simplex in a Čech

ech Complex, Čd , if their closed,

d/2-ball

ball neighborhoods have a point of common

intersection

● Example: {p p }form an edge if they are within a

1, 2

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Čech

ech Complex

Topology of a Point Cloud:

Persistence

Application: Finding Structure in

Galactic Distribution

● Data: positions of galaxies from redshift surveys

Application: Finding Structure in

Galactic Distribution

● Data: positions of galaxies from redshift surveys

First Approach: Density Isocontours

First Approach: Density Isocontours

genus: 4

components: 4

tunnels: 16

voids: 0

Problem: Non--Integer Genus

Case #1: the “Point Violation”

Problem: Non--Integer Genus

Case #2: the “Edge Violation”

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Second Approach: Persistence

Problem: Redundancy in Clusters

Recommendations for Future Work

● Density Isocontours:

– Apply existing topological correction algorithms

– Obtain isocontour using another method

● Persistence:

– Use different type of complex (e.g., Witness)

– Reduce number of points in dense regions

Acknowledgements

Papers:

De Silva, V., Carlsson,, Gunnar, “Topological Estimation Using Witness Complexes.” Eurographics Symposium on

Point-Based Graphics. Eurographics Association, Zurich, Switzerland, 157-166,

157 2004.

Gott,, J. R. III, et al., “Topology of Structure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Model Testing.” The Astrophysical

Journal, Volume 675, 16-28, 2008.

Gott, J. R. III, Melott, A., Dickinson, M., “The Sponge-Like

Like Topology of Large-Scale

Large Structure in the Universe.” The

Astrophysical Journal, Volume 306, 341-357,357, July 1986.

Schaap, W. E., van de Weygaert,, R., “Continuous Fields and Discrete Samples: Reconstruction through Delaunay

Tessellations.” Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 363, L29, February 2008.

Zomorodian,, A. J., “Computing and Comprehending Topology: Persistence and Hierarchical Morse Complexes,”

Ph.D. Dissertation, Computer Science Dept., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Urbana Urbana, IL, 2001.

Websites:

“Genus, mathematics.” Wikipedia. December 19, 2008. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 5, 2009.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus_(mathematics)>

Acknowledgements

Data:

Added Galaxy Catalog (using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey):

**We worked with the void0 subset of the LSS-DR4plus

DR4plus galaxy sample from the NYU-VAGC.

NYU

Adelman-McCarthy,

McCarthy, et al., “The Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 175,

297-313, April, 2008.

Blanton, M. R., et al., “New York University Value-Added

Surveys,” Astronomical Journal, Vol. 129, 2562-2578,

2578, June, 2005.

Padmanabhan,, N., et al., “An Improved Photometric Calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Imaging Data,”

Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 674, 1217-1233,

1233, February 2008.

Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions,

Instit the

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japanese

Monbukagakusho,, and the Max Planck Society. The SDSS Web site is http://www.sdss.org/. The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical

Research Consortium (ARC) for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the

Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the th Max-

Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute

Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of

Pittsburgh, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington.

Acknowledgements

Data: (cont.)

**Our data was provided by T. H. Jarrett of IPAC, published April 2009, entitled 2MASS_XSCz_09Apr2009.tbl.gz

and can be found at ftp://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/outgoing/jarrett/XSCz/.

ftp://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/outgoing/jarrett/XSCz/

Cutri,, R., et al. 2003, Two Micron All Sky Survey (Pasadena: IPAC), http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/2mass

Jarrett, T. H., et al., “2MASS Extended Source Catalog: Overview and Algorithms,” Astronomical Journal, 119, 2498,

2000.

This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of

Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics

Aero

and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

Software:

CHomP, Software Package,, Advanced Version, Computational Homology Project, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ,

2005.

MATLAB, R2008a.

PLEX, Software Package, Version 2.5, Dept. of Mathematics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 2006.

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