ARTICLE IN PRESS

Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759

Shopping experience evaluation: a case of domestic and international visitors
Atila Yuksel*
School of Tourism Administration and Hotel Management, Adnan Menderes University, Candan Tarhan Bulvari No. 6 Kusadasi-Aydin 09400, Turkey Received 26 October 2002; accepted 25 July 2003

Abstract Understanding domestic and international visitors and delivering service quality that meets the expectations and needs of these markets should be among the key objectives of retail and commercial sector in tourist resorts. Shopping is an important tourist activity and its contribution to the economy is significant. For many visitors no trip is complete without having spent time shopping and tourists often feel they cannot return home without buying ‘something’. Shopping on vacation goes beyond functional utility and task orientation and provides other experiential benefits. This research examined domestic and international visitors’ perceptions of service provided in shops and attempted to understand whether domestic and international visitors differed in their service evaluation and shopping item preferences. The analysis was based on Kusadasi Chamber of Commerce database. Mann–Whitney U-tests indicated significant differences between domestic and international visitors’ evaluation of service delivered in shops. Domestic visitors were more negative in their service evaluations than their international counterparts. Chi-square tests revealed that these two groups also differed significantly in their shopping preferences. Management implications of the study are discussed and recommendations are provided. r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Shopping experience; Service perceptions; Domestic tourism

1. Introduction Shopping is seldom mentioned as the primary motive for undertaking a trip. It is however an important leisure and tourist activity and also a significant contributor to an economy (Cook, 1995; Di Matteo & Di Matteo, 1996; Jansen-Verbeke, 1991; Timothy & Butler, 1995). For many visitors no trip is complete without having spent time shopping (Kent, Schock, & Snow, 1983 cited in Turner & Reisinger, 2000; Heung & Qu, 1997). Previous studies reported that travellers often spend more money on shopping than on food, lodging or other entertainment (Turner & Reisinger, 2001). In some regions of the world shopping ranks number one in terms of tourist expenditure (Turner & Reisinger, 2001). Shopping may constitute a major attraction drawing tourists to many less developed countries where prices of goods are generally low (Jansen-Verbeke, 1991; Ryan, 1991; Timothy & Butler, 1995). Hence, other than
*Tel.: +90-256-612-5503; fax: +90-256-612-9842. E-mail address: atilayuksel@yahoo.com (A. Yuksel). 0261-5177/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2003.09.012

simply accounting for the largest portion of total tourist spending, shopping actually offers a real attraction for tourists (Law & Au, 2000). Although the retail sector makes a significant contribution to the tourism industry and forms a major tourist activity, little information has been collected on how domestic and international visitors perceive the services provided in shops and other retail outlets. The limited research focusing on domestic tourism is surprising considering the annual growth rate of domestic tourism worldwide (3 percent), its share in total tourism (75 percent) and its economic impact (Turner & Reisinger, 2001). Focusing on shopping experience, the present study sought to assess domestic and international visitors’ evaluation of service provided by the retail sector. Mann–Whitney U-tests indicated significant differences between domestic and international visitors’ perceptions of services in shops and chisquare tests revealed that these two groups differed in shopping items purchased. Compared to their international counterparts, domestic visitors were more negative in their service evaluations.

the shopping street) in different ways (Bloch. product attributes and location of stores (Gee. The reverse however could also be true. Japan and Taiwan. 2001) and the items bought may differ from culture to culture and also between young and senior travellers (Kim & Littrell. Domestic visitors. direct and unambiguous) (Mattila.ARTICLE IN PRESS 752 A. The tourist departs from his relatively constant ordinary world and temporarily exists in a non-ordinary world at the destination (Jafari. It includes items such as clothes. including the motives of diversion. 1987 cited in Turner & Reisinger. USA. however. 17). spatial change and length of holiday. had dissimilarity in their expectations for hotel services. and it is a source of pleasure and excitement’’. increased unplanned purchasing and increased liking of the store (Jones. whereas most Western cultures prefer low-context communication (explicit. the UK. The purchase of a product may or may not be an important element of enjoyable shopping experiences. Once the individual has arrived at the destination. Turning shopping into an enjoyable experience has become a frequent strategy of many retailers in tourist destinations. increased spending. As a result. Tourist shopping behaviour may be different from that of an ordinary shopping and there may be several shopping motives when on holiday. talking with other shoppers and shop assistants. 2001). most Asian cultures (arguably including the Turkish culture) prefer high-context communication (non-verbal mode of communication). Wang and Ryan (1999. & Dawson. For example. Mok and Armstrong (1998) showed that tourists from different countries. This argument is based on the elements of relaxation. 1999). Different cultures may value different aspects in a service experience. which latter can be characterized by intrinsic satisfaction. The desire and necessity for shopping could motivate a tourist to travel (Timothy & Butler. 2001). p. and sensory stimulation (Tauber. 1999). 1993). 16) enumerate several reasons for including shopping as a tourist activity. particularly in the manner of negotiating the purchase. 1999). ‘‘it creates an attractive and inviting environment and incentive to travel. Tourist shoppers may seek unique products and souvenirs and are concerned about the brand names and logos. art and craft. among other things. It should be noted that tourists may have multiple motives for a single shopping trip. These reflect the capabilities of shopping to entertain and include looking at exhibits. may not shed their home culture to the extent that international . 1994 cited in Jones. Mok. 2001) suggest that cultural differences between international tourists shoppers are significant. many tourists may seek to experience a specific habitat (i. Choi and Weaver (1998) identified many significant differences between Korean and US business travellers in the importance placed on specific hotel characteristics. as they are in a different country. as this will be an indication of the hosts’ welcoming and caring attitudes (Reisinger & Waryszak. the traveller may become less critical. the tourist sheds the culture of his/her home environment and assumes a tourist culture. the subject of shopping as a tourist activity has been relatively under researched. and browsing with no intentions of buying (Jones. Tourists from different countries have shown evidence of differences in destination behaviour patterns such as trip arrangement. Shopping behaviour may change within the exciting and non-home atmosphere of travel (Turner & Reisinger. price. The extent of submersion into a tourist culture may differ between domestic and international travellers due to. The service providers’ ability to speak the customer’s language is thought important. 1987). 1987). it develops an attractive tourist product. cited in Turner & Reisinger. 2000). p. 2001. Literature review A considerable percentage of a tourist’s time and money is spent on shopping. books. The physical attributes of a store can also significantly raise or lower a store’s evaluation (Peritz. In other words. duty-free goods and electronic goods (Turner & Reisinger. 1995). learning about local traditions and new trends. 1994).. 1999). previous travel experience. being in their own country. expenditure. distance travelled. McCleary. self-gratification. Tourists may seek utilitarian or pleasurable shopping experiences. recreation and shopping activities. jewellery. In other words.e. 1993). Jansen-Verbeke (1991) emphasises that the development of shopping sectors is instrumental in tourism promotion. In the hospitality literature. Go and Chan (1997) reached a similar conclusion that customer expectations for hotels might be culture-bound rather than culture-free. more tolerant of mistakes and may even find some failures amusing. Australia. Turner and Reisinger (2001. 1972 cited in Jones. perceived freedom and involvement. the home of ordinary life culture assumes a backdrop or residual position (Jafari. In addition to acquiring goods. tourists may have an extremely fun filled and entertaining shopping experience without making a purchase. socializing with friends. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 2. etc. product and package size. Ridgway. The range of goods purchased by tourists is large and it does not just consist of souvenirs and necessary personal items. Studies have shown that how shoppers are treated at the store figures prominently in the evaluation and price has major bearing on shoppers’ ratings (Peritz. 1999). 1999). Emotions characteristic of these shopping experiences have been linked to several important outcomes such as increased time spent in the store. The literature on shopping is replete with studies indicating that consumers may view shopping experiences as entertainment or recreation (Jones. escaping from the mundane and accepting a challenge that is associated with shopping (Law & Au. Armstrong. Adopting a tourist culture may be quicker for international visitors.

2002) (Interested readers are referred to Jafari (1987) for residual and tourist culture). . decline may be offset if counter-measures are adopted. whose broad objective is to reinforce civil society in Turkey. lack of new investment. The town is located closely to Ephesus—the Mecca of travellers visiting Turkey—and it caters not only for international and domestic holidaymakers. unfashionable image. such as the re-orientation of tourism attractions.) (Cavus. Domestic visitors are in an environment that is similar to that of their place of origin and these similarities may stimulate the tourists’ residual culture and prevent them from adopting a tourist culture and behaving in a hedonistic/ passive manner to the same degree as the international tourists (Carr.g. etc. and the town is also accessible by sea. if not all of the characteristics of stagnation (e. 1994). The Association of European Chambers of Commerce and Industry (Eurochambres) started this new initiative to establish sustainable linkages between EU and Turkish Chambers. repeat purchase) depends on the perception. Kusadasi has transformed itself from a resort town visited mainly by domestic visitors into an international destination. 1994). Kusadasi Chamber of Trade’s proposal was short listed as a potential Chamber in the partnership with nine other cities in Turkey. property turnover rates are high. This implies that the home culture of domestic visitors may remain dormant during the trip due to similarity of the environment.. Kusadasi Chamber of Commerce was matched with Valencia Chamber of Trade. The following section details the broad objectives of the project and then introduces the research instrument utilised in this study. but also for cruise passengers and day trippers. Consistent with Heung and Qua (1998) in this study shopping is defined as the expenditure on goods purchased in Kusadasi by visitors either for consumption or for export but not including expenditure on food. Laing (1987) suggests that domestic visitors are more able to become involved with the host population and gain local information from them because of the lack of any language barriers. Carr’s (2002) recent research demonstrated that the distance travelled had an influence on tourist behaviour and identified differences between domestic and international young tourists’ holiday behaviour. Kusadasi Commercial Action Plan Coupled with Turkey’s growing emphasis on international tourism during the 1980s. which is being conducted jointly by Kusadasi Local Government. this project will be implemented in the following 6-month period. Representative teams of these two Chambers and stakeholders with an interest in Kusadasi met several times in order to develop a methodology for the formulation and application of the action plan for the pilot project. P2: Domestic and international visitors will differ in their shopping item preferences. Therefore. While it is not simple. Representatives of Eurochmabres visited the pre-selected chambers and carried out detailed interviews with the candidate Chambers. Hence. While there is not adequate quantifiable information as to where the town stands in terms of its life cycle. the Kusadasi Commercial Action Plan1 has been initiated through the 1 The Turkey Chamber Development Programme has been developed under the European Union’s ‘‘Civil Society Development Programme’’. surplus bed capacity. It is argued in the literature that what a customer perceives can differ from objective reality (Reisinger & Waryszak. Authorities are aware that the decline will accelerate unless corrective and preventive measures are initiated. the town’s visitor profile has changed (e. Once developed. a motorway connects the town to other major cities. 2002). In response to current stagnation. Kusadasi Chamber of Commerce and the Valencia Chamber of Commerce. measuring customer perception of service is important as the customer evaluation of service and future behaviour (e. more visitors from East-European countries) and a noticeable decline in tourism income continues.. An international airport is an hour’s drive away. The preceding discussion leads to the propositions that: P1: Domestic visitors and international visitors will differ in their evaluation of services/products provided in shops. environmental quality enhancement or the repositioning of the destination within an overall market (Agarwal. 2002). drink or grocery items. His research revealed that the domestic visitors were more active and less hedonistic than their international counterparts who tended towards passive/hedonistic behaviour. and to strengthen Turkish Chambers’ role as key players in local development. It should be noted that this paper was based on a database of a continuing restructuring project. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 753 visitors could. Two objectives of this research were to identify similarities and differences in (a) service evaluation of domestic and international visitors and (b) in their shopping item preferences. they may expect the same level of service and treatment that they were accustomed to in their hometown. and the relative familiarity of their vacation surroundings. Hence. 2002).ARTICLE IN PRESS A. differences between domestic and international visitors behaviour may be explained by their differing degree of assumption of a tourist culture. compared to foreign holiday makers. drawing international tourists in high volumes.g.g. The present tourism development stage of Kusadasi exhibits many. namely Kusadasi Commercial Action Plan (KCAP). the town boasts of a diverse natural. Located in southwest of Turkey. Spain. historical and cultural richness and enjoys an accessible location. not on reality itself (Reisinger & Waryszak. Recently. it is apparent that the image of the town has deteriorated significantly due to lack of planned development (Cavus. 3.

Respondents were required to assess Kusadasi’s performance on the following 12 critical areas. Kusadasi Chamber of Commerce. personal attention. cleanliness. consisting of six major sections. The majority of international visitors were package tourists (82%) and 18% were on non-organised tours. age. The selection of subjects was made by the method of convenience sampling subject to availability of domestic and international tourists in Kusadasi at the time the survey was conducted. recreation facilities. traffic. 4. for working on a relatively lengthy questionnaire (Bowen. Valencia Chamber of Commerce and other private and voluntary organizations in Kusadasi. 2000). and historical places. Association of Kusadasi Retailers and Kusadasi Chamber of Trade. Ninety percent of the international visitors engaged in shopping during their stay in Kusadasi. Dutch. The second section sought to understand visitors’ travel motives and places that domestic and international visitors visited during their stay in Kusadasi.ARTICLE IN PRESS 754 A. ease of communication. 729 usable questionnaires returned. expected and actual shopping expenses and total holiday expenses. The mean age for international visitors was 34. entertainment. whose main motivations are enjoyment and relaxation. Orams & Page. commercial offers. followed by Yugoslavia (18%). While this is a convenience sample. A series of chi-square tests were 4. income. The first section sought demographic and visit related information about visitors. Questions included in the fifth section sought the kind of services/facilities that were used by visitors during their stay. namely shop assistants respect for customers. These included nationality.2. travel party-size. Of the total 139 domestic visitors returned usable questionnaires and 590 of the questionnaires completed by international visitors were suitable for the analysis. variety of products on offer. England (11%). signposting.7%). Procedure Different locations of the town were selected for the distribution of survey and trained interviewers administered surveys to conveniently selected visitors. Bulgaria (5. gender. followed by summer houses (24%). The first stage of the project involves a collection of actionable information about international and domestic visitors and their perceptions of services provided in Kusadasi.1. The majority of Turkish visitors were male (65%). It was difficult to recruit tourists. which represents a response rate of 21 percent. their average length of stay was 7 days and the majority (55%) stayed in hotels. appearance of shops. ability to provide customers with information (knowledge of products). Visitors were sampled during late August and early September. lodging type. Data analysis The majority of the international visitors were male (60%) and 40 percent were female. was developed and translated into four other languages (English. and a value of four assigned to a response that rated very poor. The answers were rated on a four-point scale. A value of one was assigned to a response rated very good. Seventy percent of Turkish visitors stated that they shopped in Kusadasi during their stay and 85 percent would consider Kusadasi in the future as a holiday destination. architectural appearance. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 participation of Local Government. Eighty five percent of the international visitors stated that they would consider coming to Kusadasi in the future. 70 percent were repeat visitors. duration of stay. culinary offers. 4. The relatively low return rate of usable questionnaire could be due to the length of the questionnaire and limited time that many visitors had for filling-in the form. In the final section. Belgium (8. mode of trip. quality of services and safety of shopping. The research instrument The literature on destination image and shopping and a series of consultation with experts from Valencia Chamber of Commerce. Ireland (6. The greater part of the international visitors was first-time visitors to Kusadasi (79%) and 21 percent were repeat visitors. previous visit. voluntary and private organisations in Kusadasi provided the basis for developing a questionnaire for this project. Out of 3500. their interior and exterior design. with a range of 11–77 years. It should be noted that only the analysis of . visitors’ perceptions of shopping experience and their shopping item preferences will be discussed here. The next section examined visitors shopping intention and items that they have bought. Yugoslavian and Romanian).5%). Of all Turkish visitors. The majority of international visitors were from Holland (21%). A single-page questionnaire. respondents were required to indicate whether they considered extending their stay and whether they would like to come to Kusadasi in the future. The administration of survey lasted approximately a month and 3500 questionnaires were distributed. and representatives of public. Research methodology 4.3. beaches.1%) and Germany (4. cleanliness. prices charged for goods. Hotels were the main accommodation type preferred by international tourists (86%) and the majority stayed over 2 weeks (37%). safety. ranging from very good to very poor. Association of Kusadasi Retailers. 2001. it does comprise a wide variety of sociodemographic backgrounds of respondents.6%). occupation. image. Visitors’ perceptions in relation to 12 key areas of service at shops were examined.

000 4159.23 Mann–Whitney U 3454.15 2.000 2902. respectfulness. p ¼ 0:000) and length of stay (w2 ¼ 20:960.500 Sig. shop appearance. a series of chi-square tests. and perception of safety suggest that Yugoslavians evaluated these attributes favourably.62 1. variety of products on offer.023 0. respect for customers.06 2. Figures in Table 1 show that Dutch visitors were however unhappy with staff knowledge of products.01 1.4. domestic visitors were unhappy with the communication ability of shop assistants.000 3790. and respect for customers.000 0. A comparison between ratings of Turkish and Dutch visitors suggested that these two visitor groups significantly differed in their evaluation of six areas (Table 2).66 1.87 1.92 2. there were no significant differences between the mean scores of Turkish and Dutch visitors. Mann–Whitney U-test was employed to identify differences between Turkish and Yugoslavian. Comparison of mean scores between the two groups suggests that Turkish visitors were more negative about these areas than visitors from Yugoslavia. The two groups of visitors evaluated product quality and cleanliness almost identically.81 1. and between domestic and Yugoslavian visitors’ perception of services provided in shops. These are service quality.014 . staff knowledge.000 3156. The ratings of domestic visitors showed that nine out of 12 areas were negatively perceived. The areas that appear to have been assessed significantly differently were personal attention.05 significance level.76 1.000 4395. p ¼ 0:103). The two-tailed probability test was used to find out if any differences between domestic and international shoppers occurred.07 1. including staff knowledge.500 3773. cleanliness. To understand whether there were differences between domestic and Dutch. Similar to Yugoslavians. Mann–Whitney U-test was used. Similar to Dutch visitors. The independent group test was chosen to determine whether there were changes in visitors’ perceptions of services.53 2. Mean scores for other intangible elements of service. Firstly. p ¼ 0:604) and age (w2 ¼ 124:801.000 0. (2 tailed) 0. and between Turkish and Dutch visitors.88 1.13 2.ARTICLE IN PRESS A.02 2.416 0.000 0. staff knowledge.94 2. exhibition and design. prices.500 3208.81 1. Differences in service evaluation Yugoslavian tourists perceived the personal attention provided by shop assistants as good (Table 1). service quality.050 0. service quality. Domestic and international visitors evaluated level of prices significantly differently. staff knowledge.000 0. There were however significant differences between domestic and international visitors in terms of their previous visit frequency to Kusadasi (w2 ¼ 124:846.500 3656. namely personal attention.57 1.89 2. respect for customers. To assess any nature of differences between domestic and these international visitors’ shopping item preferences. product variety and safety of shopping. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 755 carried out in order to assess the nature of any differences between international and domestic visitors.011 0.77 1.000 0. Dutch visitors reported that personal attention to customers given by shop assistants was satisfactory.000 0. The mean scores further suggest that Dutch visitors’ evaluation of ease of communication was negative.97 1. and if the scores between the two groups were statistically significant. Of 12 service areas assessed. The finding that domestic visitors were discontented with prices charged for goods should not be surprising.26 2.97 1. p ¼ 0:000). Considering the growing number of Dutch and Yugoslavian visitors to Kusadasi. shop appearance.500 3711.95 Turkish 1. were carried out. safety of shopping and ease of communication. Yugoslavian and domestic visitors were analysed. product variety. ten showed significant differences between Turkish and Yugoslavian visitors (Table 2). 4. These visitors also found product quality and prices relatively reasonable. shop appearance. exhibition and design.448 0. the majority of products on offer in Kusadasi are likely to be available in places where domestic tourists come from and it is probable that higher prices asked for may have led to a negative Table 1 Comparison of mean perception scores between domestic and Yugoslavian visitors Yugoslavian Personal attention Service quality Product quality Staff knowledge Shop appearance Cleanliness of shops Exhibition/design Product/service variety Prices Respect Safe shopping Ease of communication 1. exhibition style and shop interiors. On the remaining six areas. Several explanations may be suggested. shopping safety.500 3084. There were no differences between the two samples in terms of their gender (w2 ¼ 2:733.000 2879. with 0. in this study perceptions of Dutch.

13 2.746 0. this merits further analysis. Shop assistants’ display of affective characteristics.92 2.000 4617.003 0.000 3760.93 2.822 0.89 2. This may have resulted from an apparent overbearing or ignorant attitude of shop assistants. 1999). The shop assistant’s ability in adjusting his/her behaviour depending upon the visitor is thus critical. Turkish visitors may be more price-sensitive than their international counterparts.55 1. (2 tailed) 0.02 2. Retailers should stress to shop assistants the importance of both not being overbearing to and negligent of shoppers.000 0. The negative evaluation of communication implies that shop assistants should show more.00 1. Shop assistants’ verbal and non-verbal behaviour during the shopping. As with tourists from other countries. The important of shop assistants’ product knowledge on customer evaluation of service quality can hardly be debated. Knowledgeable shop assistants can help visitors efficiently accomplish their purchasing task by providing information.11 Turkish 1. An acceptance of domestic visitors as being as important as international tourists as customer is likely to improve Turkish visitors’ perceptions of shop assistants’ likeability and believability.94 2. but they may want shop assistants to be readily available when needed. Secondly. an awareness of so-called double pricing (i.80 1. It might be that Turkish visitors held negative perception because shop assistants do not have the high level of product knowledge expected by domestic visitors. The communication should not just be taken as the verbal ability of shop assistants.09 1.000 4776.005 0.500 3811.e.000 0. 1999).90 2.53 2. domestic visitors also reported communication with shop assistants as unsatisfactory.654 0. a high price for tourists and a lower price for locals) exercised frequently in tourist attracting regions may have contributed to the negative evaluation.26 2.012 0.94 2.000 0.15 2. responsiveness and enthusiasm.500 4618. was the product knowledge of shop assistants.500 3906.000 Sig.000 3670. Similarly. This may have resulted from the fact that domestic consumer confidence in the retail sector in touristic towns is . Note that neither Dutch nor Yugoslavian shoppers evaluated this attribute negatively (Tables 1 and 2).372 evaluation of the prices. on which domestic visitors differed from Yugoslavians and Dutch visitors.00 2. While visitors may enjoy having a sense of unlimited time and freedom in which to look around and browse.500 4875. such as friendliness.612 0. Another area.or English-speaking shop assistants. because perceptions of distrust and dissatisfaction increase with the absence of eye contact. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 Table 2 Comparison of mean perception scores between domestic and Dutch visitors Dutch Personal attention Service quality Product quality Staff knowledge Shop appearance Cleanliness of shops Exhibition/design Product/service variety Prices Respect Safe shopping Ease of communication 1. as communication involves more than speaking. The use of Turkish during the service encounter may have enabled the asking of more specific questions to which shop assistants may not know the answer.01 1. attention to domestic visitors and try to make frequent and appropriate eye-contact with them. Service encounters in shopping typically involve the delivery of the requested service/product and some sort of interpersonal communication between the shopper and shop assistants. Dutch visitors found the respect shown as unsatisfactory. It is also possible that the travel budget of domestic visitors may be smaller than that of international tourists and this may have caused negative evaluation.06 2.07 1. Obviously there is a fine line between being readily available and being overbearing (Jones. The personal attention that domestic visitors obtained from shop assistants was not found to be very satisfactory (Tables 1 and 2) and domestic visitors evaluated salespersons’ respectfulness negatively. and this may have resulted from an absence or limited number of Dutch. domestic visitors may want the freedom to look around.93 2. Thirdly. will positively influence shoppers’ overall evaluation of shopping experience and perceptions of service quality (Jones. Shopping safety was another area negatively evaluated by domestic visitors. they may also wish for attentive and caring shop assistants.11 1.ARTICLE IN PRESS 756 A..23 Mann–Whitney U 3687.500 2980.996 0.63 1. Dutch visitors were unhappy with a lack of ease of communication with shop assistants. such as words of greeting and courtesy will affect shoppers’ perceptions of employee friendliness and consequently enhance the perceived quality of the service interaction. Considering that both shop assistants and domestic visitors speak the same language.000 4518. if not equal.000 4845. Interestingly however.

081 Jewelery 46 (37) 28 (26) 16 (11) 23. Their lack of attention to domestic visitors may have caused negative evaluation. finding a good deal. It is likely that shoppers’ motives will have a large influence on the type of shopping environment that is sought.179 Leather products 16 (12) 43 (40) 11 (7) 48. . Despite its significance.000 757 traditionally low and they perceive shop assistants as financially exploitative. and price reductions from shop assistants that they were accustomed to in their own region. displays and design and product variety. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Turks on holiday on their own soil are over demanding. 1999). Neither domestic nor international visitors can have fun and an entertaining experience in a shop that has a dreary environment or in a shop that is organized so poorly that merchandise is not easily located (Jones. 1999). 4. Domestic visitors may view shopping experience as utilitarian. Based on Kusadasi Chamber of Commerce database. p ¼ 0:081).559 Turkish Carpets 2 (1) 4 (3) 11 (7) 5. Shop assistants may modify their speech and language verbally and non-verbally to accommodate international visitors. This may suggest that the retail sector has to improve its shop environment to make the shopper feel more comfortable. but also from browsing a wide range of interesting products (Jones. acquiring something new. They expressed that they were made to feel as ‘‘inferior’’ to their foreign counterparts.164 0. Their style geared for international visitors may not match what domestic visitors want from a shop assistant. Dutch visitors were found to buy more imitated products (brand look alike) than their Yugoslavian and Turkish counterparts (Table 3). For example. It may be that the shop assistants were more hospitable towards international tourists.427 0. conducted to understand whether visitors differed in shopping items they bought during their stay in Kusadasi. Differences in items bought The results of chi-square tests. tourists’ shopping experience has seldom been researched extensively in the tourism and travel literature. respectfulness. They may however be relatively under accommodating and show no or little effort to change or move towards domestic visitors verbally and non-verbally.182 0. In contrast. Domestic visitors were not only negative about service-related attributes but also about shop-related attributes. Visitors may receive intrinsic satisfaction not only from the act of purchasing.035 0. Conclusion and implications Shopping is recognised as an important tourist activity and it ranks among the significant hardcurrency earners. Remarks obtained from domestic visitors during the implementation of this study seem to substantiate this.5. 1999).872 0. The difference between domestic and international visitors may be explained by Turkish tourists’ traditionally high service expectations. showed that international and domestic visitors differed significantly (Table 3). whereas international visitors take it as an entertaining experience. It may be the case that Turkish visitors expected the high level of individual attention. while at the same time providing opportunities for entertaining shopping experiences (Jones. p ¼ 0:000). Interestingly domestic visitors bought more carpets than their international counterparts (w2 ¼ 5:035. patronising the same holiday village or resort with international visitors. Dutch visitors also evaluated product variety and exhibition negatively. this paper examined whether there were differences between domestic and international visitors’ shopping item preferences and their perceptions of services provided in shops. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 Table 3 Items bought by domestic and international visitors (% of tourists in brackets) Souvenir Dutch Yugoslavian Turkish w2 p 66 (53) 65 (61) 53 (38) 13. 5.782 0.445 0. A strategy could entail a store design that allows for quick and efficient purchase trips for those seeking a utilitarian shopping experience. picky customers. who are not easily satisfied. Stocking a variety of items may help domestic visitors have fun by looking at a wide assortment of products.595 0.002 Imitation products 38 (30) 9 (8) 11 (7) 31. including shop appearance. Dutch and Yugoslavian visitors purchased jewellery more than domestic visitors (w2 ¼ 23:595. frequently report dissatisfaction with so-called discriminative attitude of service personnel. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Turkish visitors.ARTICLE IN PRESS A.000 Footwear 17 (13) 21 (20) 17 (12) 3. visitors from Yugoslavia were found to prefer purchasing ready-made garments and leather products. The layout of the shop should be spacious enough so visitors do not feel crowded by other shoppers or the merchandise.000 Ready made garments 28 (22) 47 (44) 52 (37) 12.000 Purses 12 (9) 7 (6) 10 (7) 1.

while suggestions are made to account for the differences found. nor the nature of the information they sought. Interestingly. Becker. S. C. 25–55. The interaction between the shop assistants and shoppers. F. 235–255. Such considerations were not examined in the research. & B. McClure (Eds. .D. In S. R. such suggestions are speculative and rarely supported by the evidence derived from the study. Equally. 1994).. Bloch. The shopping mall as consumer habitat. Murrmann. Outlook for travel and tourism basics for building strategies.). Research on tourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction: Overcoming the limitations of positivist and quantitative approach. Proceedings of the travel industry association of America’s twenty-first annual outlook forum (pp. 71. The traveller may become less critical. which is mostly determined during service provider–customer interactions. International Journal of Hospitality Management. Unpublished Ph. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. Customers’ expectations for and assessment of service performance might be inseparable from the prevailing societal norms. The paper reports no control for the frequency of. thesis. 23.. 70. competence.. staff knowledge of products. Chi-square tests identified significant differences between domestic and international tourists’ preferences of shopping items. Restructuring seaside tourism the resort lifecycle. Thus. 1999. 1999). 29(1). Cavus. and may even find some of them amusing. According to Jafari (1987). & Chan. (2002). K. Mok. the tourist sheds the culture of his/her home environment and assumes a tourist culture. Mann– Whitney U-tests demonstrated significant differences between domestic visitors and their international counterparts’ evaluation of services provided in shops.. A.. The intangibility of services in shopping experience increases the value of the human element involved in the service delivery process and effort should be spent in identifying employee behaviours that generate favourable responses from different groups of visitors. M. 5–18). the home of ordinary life culture assumes a backdrop or residual position. 23–42. ease of communication. more tolerant to mistakes. 30–31. 321–325. for example. (2002). The importance of cross-cultural expectations in the measurement of service quality perceptions in the hotel industry. Its elements greatly impact on customers’ evaluations of service consumption experience. S. 6. W. The reverse however could also be true. Go. prices. understanding the needs of travellers from different cultures. S. A comparative analysis of the behaviour of domestic and international young tourists. Visitors from Yugoslavia however found services/products provided in shops as satisfactory. D. personal attention. S. K. F. P. or the types of shops patronised. shop assistants’ friendliness. Differences in visitors’ cultural background may explain why domestic and international visitors experience varying degrees of satisfaction from the same service experience. No attempt was made to understand what motivated respondents’ shopping. is a critical part of the product delivery (Reisinger & Waryszak. Carr. Annals of Tourism Research. A pancultural study of restaurant service expectations in the United States and Hong Kong.. caring. attentiveness. 16(2). & Cheung. (1994). DC: Travel Industry Association of America. (2002). This may be an important factor. A. Turistik merkezlerin tasima kapasiteleri ile yasam evreleri arasindaki iliskiler ve Kusadasi orneginde degerlendirme. N. Hence. Bowen. In other words. 23(3). (1995). & Cheung. the tourist departs from his relatively constant ordinary world and temporarily exists in a non-ordinary world at the destination. values and cultural influences that govern their social interactions when visiting a destination (Becker. (1999). D. (2001). Cook. Murrmann. S. 1994). However. It must be noted that travellers’ origin country culture may not be rigid and unchanging and that travellers may display different behaviour when they travel domestically and abroad.ARTICLE IN PRESS 758 A. Limitations and future research The ability to generate satisfactory shopping experiences would represent a competitive advantage for destinations. the findings presented in this study are both tentative and incomplete. Murrmann. Washington. shop assistants’ respectfulness and shop appearance. Ridgway. & Dawson. respectfulness and knowledge of a product are among the vital determinants of sales effectiveness and of service quality (Reisinger & Waryszak. Journal of Retailing. and responding to these needs properly is a prerequisite for management success.. The shop assistants must be trained to better manage service quality. Turkish visitors were negative for nine of the 12 attributes. Tourism Management. Yuksel / Tourism Management 25 (2004) 751–759 The results provide strong support for the propositions of the study that domestic and international visitors differed in their evaluation of services and shopping item preferences. H. Armstrong. expertise. Journal of Vacation Marketing. while Dutch visitors evaluated only five areas negatively. Once the individual has arrived at the destination. G. The areas that most significantly differed between domestic and international visitors were service quality. W. Mattila. M. N. In consequence. 181–190. but nonetheless are prima facie evidence of significant differences between national groupings. (1997). Cook. referred to as the service encounter.. D. C. a congruence between types of store patronised and product purchased with self-image. Dokuz Eylul University. the findings of this study are subject to significant caveats. References Agarwal. The literature suggests that other variables may be important. Murrmann.

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