Organisational Behaviour

Chapter I Organisational Behaviour

Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • The importance of the human element in the organisation • Industrial psychology Contents 1.1 Organisation 1.2 Major Classifications of Organisations 1.3 Major Factors Influencing an Organisation 1.4 Organisational Behaviour 1.5 Some Fundamental Concepts in Organisational Behaviour 1.5.1 Every Individual is Different 1.5.2 Every Individual is a Complete Person 1.5.3 All Behaviour has Cause-Effect Relationship 1.5.4 Every Individual has Self-esteem 1.5.5 An Organisation is a Social System 1.5.6 Mutual Interests are Inter-dependent 1.5.7 A Total View of the Organisation 1.6 Why is the Study of Organisational Behaviour Important for Managers? Summing Up Self-assessment

1.1 Organisation An organisation is a human construct, made by people. It is not built by bricks and stones, or by furniture and fixtures, or by plants and machinery alone. It is the people who make or mar an organisation. A group of people travelling in a bus from one place to another, a group of people watching a movie for three hours, a large number of people attending an election campaign speech of a political leader do not form an organisation. They form a crowd or a mob. An organisation requires people with purpose, goals and objectives. Thus, comprehensively we can say that: “An organisation is a group of people working together to achieve the common organisational goal (viz. production of goods or services with the help of the given resources i.e. people, machines and materials).” Some examples of an organisation are: family, school, college, cricket team, foot-ball team, hockey team, university, factory, bank, hospital, hotel, municipal corporation, a state electricity board, a water supply board, telephone exchange, government, army, navy, air force, etc. 1.2 Major Classifications of Organisations The following are the major classifications of organisations: a. Industrial Sector v/s Agricultural Sector


Organisational Behaviour

b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k.

Public Sector v/s Private Sector Joint Sector v/s Co-operative Sector Capital intensive Labour intensive Public Limited Private Limited Manufacturing Sector Service Sector Large Scale Small Scale, etc.

1.3 Major Factors Influencing an Organisation The a. b. c. d. e. following are the factors that influence an organisation: People Size Technology Environment Management

1.4 Organisational Behaviour Every individual has 24 hours a day. Worldwide research has shown that an average person spends about 6 to 8 hours a day in sleep. Out of the remaining 18 hours, more than 8 hours are spent in working and travelling for work. This means that one gets less than 8 hours for one's personal and private life with family and friends. In other words, we spend about 33% of our life sleeping; about 50% of our life working and the rest about 17% of our life for personal pleasures. If we study the daily routine of a person working in an organisation, we find that he spends more than 33% of his life in the organisation, less than 33% of his life sleeping and less than 33% of his life with his family, friends, relatives and for his personal hobbies, etc. With the increasing problems of accommodation, transport and communication in major urban areas in the country, one has to spend at least an hour per day travelling to and fro,the workplace. The entire routine of life has become so mechanical that man seems to have become an extension/accessory to the machine, if not the machine himself. This has resulted in a tremendous amount of stress and strain on the individual, affecting the physical as well as the mental health of the person. The subject of Organisational Behaviour deals with that part of our life, which we spend working, which is also called ‘On-the-job' life. Interestingly, our ‘offthe-job’ life is inter-related and inter-dependent on the ‘on-the-job’ life and vice-versa. Generally, it is observed that those who are comfortable ‘on-thejob' are happy ‘off-the-job' also. Organisational behaviour has been defined by: a. b. Keith Davis: As a study of human behaviour at work. Fred Luthans: As understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour in the organisation.


Organisational Behaviour

c. d.

Stephen Robbins: As a study that investigates the impact, individuals, groups and structure have on human behaviour within the organisation. S. K. Kapur: As a systematic study of actions and reactions, the people working in an organisation in order to improve the overall organisational performance.

1.5 Some Fundamental Concepts in Organisational Behaviour Research studies in organisational behaviour all over the world show that the ‘On-the-job' performance of an individual depends upon the ‘Off-the-job' life. In other words, less than 66% of the life ‘off-the-job’ has a great influence on the more than 33% life ‘on-the-job’, affecting performance. Think over the following statements: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Similar machines behave similarly under similar conditions Different machines behave differently under different conditions Similar machines behave differently under different conditions Different machines behave differently under similar conditions Different people behave differently under different conditions Different people behave differently under similar conditions The same people behave differently under different conditions The same people behave differently under similar conditions.

Thus, it will be observed that in a modern business organisation, managers must understand not only the organisational ‘str ucture', but also the organisational ‘culture'. Obviously, the organisational structure is different from the organisational culture. The organisational structure can be shown by an organisational chart or the ‘Organogram', but organisational culture cannot be shown on paper. It has to be seen, felt and experienced by the people within as well as by the people out. Organisational culture is formed by the organisational behaviour of the people over a long period of time. Human behaviour is universal like the gravitational force. Human behaviour is a highly complex process. A systematic understanding of human behaviour involves the ability to understand the ‘why' of behaviour. In modern business/commercial organisations, it is essential for ever y manager to develop an ability to understand not only the reasons for the past behaviour of his people, but also to predict, change or control the future behaviour to the extent possible. Some of the important fundamental concepts of organisational behaviour are as follows: 1.5.1 Ever y individual is different Every person is different with respect to his/her age, education, knowledge, skills, attitude, physical health, mental health, personality, etc. Therefore, each person should be treated separately while managing people. A uniform management style will not be applicable to all employees.


Organisational Behaviour

1.5.2 Ever y individual is a complete person Every individual is a complete person viz. he comes to work everyday with his head, hands and heart representing knowledge, skills and attitude respectively. The employee has his/her individual knowledge, skills, attitude, opinions, views, likes-dislikes, family background, social background, biases/ prejudices, etc. People spend more than half their lifetime in the organisations for which they work. Naturally, they expect to be happy on-the-job as well as off-the-job. 1.5.3 All behaviour has Cause-effect Relationship Human behaviour has a reason behind it. Every person behaves as per his/ her thought process and believes that the behaviour is correct, because the person has certain beliefs and faith. It is necessary for managers to understand these beliefs and faiths of the people and also the cause-effect relationship behind the behaviour, if they want to be effective in their managerial functions. 1.5.4 Ever y individual has self-esteem People are different from machines and materials. They can think, smile, laugh; they have feelings and emotions. They have self-respect and prestige. They are live entities, unlike machines or tools and equipment. Therefore, they should not be treated like machines or materials. They expect their due respect in day-to-day activities. 1.5.5 An organisation is a social system As Keith Davis remarks, an organisation is a social system. Therefore, the organisational behaviour of people depends upon the social and psychological values and systems. People have social as well as psychological needs. Their organisational behaviour depends upon their social status, social roles, and social groups. As a result within every formal organisation, there exists an informal organisation, which influences the formal organisation to a large extent. 1.5.6 Mutual interests are inter-dependent As organisation needs people, people too need the organisation. The organisation wants to fulfil its objectives of production of goods and services. The employees working in an organisation have their personal goals, for example, individual career goals, family goals, etc. There is interdependence of interests. It is necessar y that these are ‘complementar y' and not ‘contradictory'. 1.5.7 A total view of the organisation When all the above aspects of organisational behaviour are taken into consideration, we can have a total view of the organisation.This includes: the organisational structure, the management-employee relationships, the interpersonal and the inter-group relationships, the total personality of the employee, and the organisation as a total system. This helps managers


Organisational Behaviour

understand human behaviour in the organisation. In turn, this results in the necessary co-ordination between the three major factors viz., organisation, management and employees. Thus, understanding organisational behaviour of people is an extremely important matter for future managers. 1.6 Why is the study of Organisational Behaviour important for managers? With the growing number of organisations, rapidly changing technologies and increasing complexity of organisational structures, the importance of people in the organisations cannot be over-emphasised. At the beginning of the industrial revolution, people were considered ‘commodities' that could be ‘hired' and ‘fired' but, during the last 100 years, things have changed very fast. Both, the employers and the employees have realised that the relationship between them is not that of ‘Master-Servant', but like ‘Partners in progress'. Therefore, understanding people has become important, if not more important, as understanding machines and materials. People are called ‘Human Resources' because they are not commodities, but have become resources. Managements have become aware that they have to treat their employees as human beings and not as machines or materials. Therefore, understanding the ‘Organisational Behaviour’ of their employees has become extremely important for the managers of tomorrow. In the modern world, organisations are becoming increasingly complex with rapidly changing technology. As a result, organisations are demanding more and more from their employees. People are living resources with feelings, emotions and responses unlike machines or commodities. They cannot be treated like machines or materials but need psychological treatment. Hence, the study of organisational behaviour is of utmost importance today.

Summing Up In this chapter we have discussed what constitutes an organisation, the major classifications of organisations and factors influencing an organisation. Despite the advancement in technology, the importance of people in an organisation cannot be undermined. Hence the study of organisational behaviour is very important to managers in order to understand people and manage them. Self-assessment a. Fill in the blanks 1. 2. 3. 4. _____________ are a major factor influencing an organisation. Every person behaves as per his/her _____________ . The interests of employees and the organisation are _____________ People are called ____________ because they are not commodities.


Organisational Behaviour

b. State whether the following are true or false 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Organisational culture is written and described on paper. An organisation has a common goal. An organisation is a kind of social system. The same people behave differently under similar conditions. Understanding organisational behaviour of people is an extremely important matter for future managers. Organisational behaviour deals with the part of our life that is called ‘on-the-job-life'. Each person should be treated the same way while managing people.


1.3. Geography.1. etc. These various approaches to the study of Organisational Behaviour have given rise to different Models.1 The Inter-disciplinary Approach 2.1 The Autocratic Model 2.3 The Supportive Model 2.3 The Inter-relationship between Personal Life and Work Life 2.1. 2 Models of Organisational Behaviour 2.2 Work Life Summing Up Self-assessment 2. 7/MITSOT .2. Mathematics.2 The Custodial Model 2. Economics. Anthropology.2 The Human Resources Approach 2.3.1. Sociology.1 Approaches to Organisational Behaviour Organisational behaviour of people can be studied from various angles.2. for example. Philosophy. An organisation consists of dif ferent factors viz.1 The Inter-disciplinar y Approach This approach is based on the fact that human behaviour is a result of the interaction and interdependence among the different aspects of human life. Some of the important approaches and models are briefly described below: 2. These angles are called the Approaches to Organisational Behaviour.5 The SOBC Model 2. size. Histor y. Different experts have studied the subject of organisational behaviour from different angles. Law. Psychology. it is necessary to understand the interactions between the various aspects of human life.1 Personal Life 2.1.4 The Collegial Model 2.Approaches and Models of Organisational Behaviour Chapter II Approaches and Models of Organisational Behaviour Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • Different approaches to Organisational Behaviour • Various models of Organisational Behaviour Contents 2. the str ucture. technology and the people. In order to study the organisational behaviour of people.2.1 Approaches to Organisational Behaviour 2.4 The Contingency Approach 2.2.3 The Systems Approach 2.2. Ergonomics.

1.1 The Autocratic Model This model is based on the assumption that authority is central to results. Each sub-system can affect the whole system. Therefore. and job security is the main employee orientation. managerial orientation. an organisation is a social system with many different sub-systems. Each situation demands special thinking and decision-making followed by an action. People work for want of money. this approach depends heavily upon the experience of managers. 2. since they believe that their survival and growth depend upon the organisation. We cannot prescribe one best way for universal application.2 Models of Organisational Behaviour 2. Thus. Employees obey their superiors for their authority because their job security plays an important role in terms of the negative motivation. A number of variables affect organisational efficiency. People behave as they do mainly because of their basic needs for existence.Organisational Behaviour 2. survival and growth.2 The Custodial Model This model is based on the assumption that organisational behaviour depends upon economic resources. The systems approach also helps in the ‘synergy' effect. 2. Involvement and participation of people yields better results. job security is the main employee orientation. Employees have creativity that needs to be explored.1. Every major system consists of sub-systems and sub-sub-systems.2 The Human Resources Approach This approach is based on the assumption that people are resources and not commodities that can be bought and sold like other resources. Not many situations repeat and as a result every situation is unique. 2. The growth and development of the organisation depends upon the training and development of the people working for the same.1. every decision and action is situation oriented. The 8/MITSOT .3 The Systems Approach This approach is based on the assumption that like a human body. A systematic study can help the cost-benefit analysis. People must accept the authority of their superiors and obey their instructions.4 The Contingency Approach This approach is based on the assumption that every organisation and every situation is different.2. 2. In other words. for example machines and materials. Employees need guidance and counselling for their growth ‘on-the-job' as well as ‘off-the-job'. Obedience of the subordinates can be due to two reasons: respect for knowledge and authority of their superiors or fear of punishment in case of disobedience. The management should suppor t rather than control people. the systems approach considers the organisation as a large system. Obedience is the main employee orientation. While money is the main managerial orientation.2.

that may be overt or covert. Therefore. The main need of the employees is self-actualisation. Thus. as teamwork is the main managerial orientation. they must be encouraged to participate in decisionmaking.3 The Supportive Model This model is based on the assumption that management means leadership. 2.2.5 The SOBC Model This model is based on the assumption that. the managers in future have to understand the organisational behaviour of their employees in terms of the SOBC model since it is based on the very practical philosophy of human behaviour that ‘ever y human behaviour is caused and follows the cause-effect relationship’.4 The Collegial Model This model is based on the assumption that generally employees are selfdisciplined and exhibit responsible behaviour. The basic needs of the employees are self-esteem and recognition.2. If this need is satisfied. It is in terms of a response in terms of a particular behaviour.2. They show an initiative and drive for performance through their involvement and participation in the organisational activities. they show enthusiastic performance. social. What we see is the consequence of the behaviour shown by the organism due to a stimulus. They have cognitive mediators with physiological existence. 2. environmental. The management must build teams. Employees are performance oriented and need support for their initiative and drive for per formance. Consequences are expressed as the results. 2. physical. This model can be diagrammatically shown as follows: Stimulus (Cause) > Organism (Individual) > Behaviour (Actions) > Consequences (Results) The Stimulus is the cause that may be overt or covert. etc. Behaviour is expressed in terms of actions that may be overt or covert. all behaviour is caused. The Organism can be an individual or a group. technological. This encourages involvement and par ticipation from the subordinates. status and recognition for their performance. 9/MITSOT . The management plays the role of supportive leadership. positive or negative and can have effects on environmental dynamics and their application. psychological. The management knows better about the welfare of its people and takes the role of guardian and custodian of the people and their wealth. The employees need support.Approaches and Models of Organisational Behaviour basic need of the employees is job security for which they offer passive cooperation to their superiors.

for example. perceptions. Thus. attitude.Organisational Behaviour Parameter Basis Managerial orientation Employee orientation Employee psychology Employee needs Performance results Level of morale Autocratic Power Authority Obedience Custodial Economic resources Money Job security Supportive Leadership Support Performance Collegial Partnership Teamwork Responsibility Dependence Dependence on boss on the organisation Survival and subsistence Minimum Compliance Participation Self-discipline Maintenance Self-esteem and recognition Selfactualisation Passive Efficient and Effective co-operation above average and efficient Satisfaction Motivation Commitment Table 2. etc. challenges in the job. interests. personal motivation. own personality. career prospects. authority-responsibility relationship. job description. beliefs. educational background. working conditions. etc.2 Work Life The work life of an employee consists of various factors. the organisational structure. procedures.1 Personal Life The personal life of an employee consists of various factors. the organisational culture. inter-personal communication and relationships with superiors.3 The Inter-relationship between Personal Life and Work Life A large amount of research in the organisational behaviour of employees at all levels in different organisations all over the world has revealed that an employee's personal life and work life are inter-related and interdependent. Therefore. policies. 2. subordinates. for example. knowledge. social interactions.3. skills.3. hobbies. friend-circle. in the light of the various approaches and models described above. it is extremely important and necessary for managers to understand the various aspects of organisational behaviour. values. relatives. 2. health. communication. family background. aptitude. it will be seen that the organisational behaviour of an employee is a result of a constant and continuous 10/MITSOT .1 Summary of Models of Organisational Behaviour 2. it is obser ved that the employee's ‘on-the-job' performance depends upon his ‘off-the-job' life. In other words. colleagues.

Fill in the blanks The human resources approach is based on the assumption that people are __________. __________ is central to results. the management plays the role of supportive ______ __. Self-assessment a. State whether the following are true or false An Autocratic organisation is based on power and a supportive type organisation is based on economic resources. 3. 1. 3. those who are happy ‘on-the-job' are happy ‘off-the-job'. Generally speaking. The human resources approach assumes that people are resources not commodities whereas the systems approach assumes that the organisation is a social system with many different subsystems. In the supportive model. The systems approach helps in the synergy effect. The SOBC model is based on the assumption that every behaviour is _________. although the converse may not hold true. Summing Up In this chapter we have discussed the inter-disciplinary approaches to the study of Organisational Behaviour. Behaviour is expressed in terms of action. The interrelationship between personal life and work life cannot be overlooked. 1. b. 4.Approaches and Models of Organisational Behaviour interaction between personal life and work life. 11/MITSOT . 2. 2. not ________________. 4. There are also several models of Organisational Behaviour. The basic needs of an employee are self-esteem and recognition as per the autocratic model of organisation. Hence it is extremely important for managers to understand the various aspects of organisational behaviour in the light of various approaches and models discussed in this chapter. The autocratic model is based on the theory that.

grouped and co-ordinated for the successful achievement of the organisational goals. The organisations.4 Major Elements of Organisational Design 3. the organisational culture.” It is easier to design an organisation at the conceptual or embryonic stage. 12/MITSOT . Committee Organisation.2 Dimensions of Organisational Design 3. Thus. Functional Organisation. An organisation.7 What is Organisational Culture? 3.1 Organisational Design 3. Therefore.6 What is Organisational Structure? 3. Line and Staff Organisation.10 Factors Affecting Organisational Culture 3. It is observed that almost all organisations.Organisational Behaviour Chapter III Organisational Design and Culture Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • Various designs of an organisation Contents 3. Organisational structure and organisational culture are different.3 Determinants of Organisational Design 3. that have taken care of designing their structures properly during the initial stages. but at the same time interrelated and interdependent. which are large today. An organisation just born and is very young c.11 Assessing Organisational Culture 3. Organisational Designing is the basis for organisational structure viz. etc. in its conceptual or embryonic stage b.9 Characteristics of Organisational Culture 3.8 Projection of the Organisational Culture 3. Line Organisation. Matrix Organisation.1 Organisational Design Organisations can be broadly classified on the basis of their age: a.12 Changing Organisational Culture Summing Up Self-assessment 3. are facing comparatively less problems of organisational behaviour as compared to the others. in words of Stephen Robbins. organisational designing is of vital importance in shaping organisational behaviour and in turn.5 Factors Influencing Organisational Redesigning 3. Organisational Design may be defined as: “A process of determining as to how tasks are divided. more than 25 years old. An organisation. were started as very small organisations many years ago.

as the organisation grows older. the activities and bring them under certain departments that can be directly managed by the departmental heads so that the organisation can be managed efficiently and effectively. sectionalisation. e. Ownership (Public/Private/Joint/Co-operative) Size (Small/Medium/Large. However. modernisation. 3. capital investment. changes in: the products/services. automation. number of people. evaluation of alternatives) Environment (internal v/s external) 3. quantity and quality.Organisational Design and Culture than at a later stage. etc.4 Major Elements of Organisational Design a. b. it becomes increasingly difficult to design or redesign the organisation structure.2 Dimensions of Organisational Design Basically. 2. 3. departmentalisation. Obviously. objectives. Departmentalisation As the organisation grows it becomes necessary to divide the work group. c. d. modern organisations review the design/structure once every five years and redesign and readjust the organisation to cope with changing situations. It creates a feeling of autonomy and job satisfaction among employees. market demands and consumer preferences. b. The horizontal dimension relating to decentralisation. systems and sub-systems.3 Determinants of Organisational Design The major determinants of organisational design are as follows: a. computerisation) Strategy (goals. Division of labour based on work specialisation helps to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. It permits utilisation of specialisation and expertise of people. short term/long term. there are two dimensions of organisational design: a. divisionalisation. The vertical dimension relating to the hierarchy of the managerial levels of superiors and subordinates. sales turnover) Technology (old or new. Departmentalisation may be defined as ‘a process of dividing the various activities into dif ferent depar tments for proper administration of the organisation.' A few advantages of proper departmentalisation are as follows: 1. for example. methods and procedures. 13/MITSOT . b. Work Specialisation This is based on Taylor's concept of Scientific Management. Both Fayol and Taylor have suggested ‘division of labour' among employees as per their knowledge and skills.

Organisational Behaviour 3. In this process. people. 4. 5. Therefore. It becomes necessary to 14/MITSOT . It helps the training. Each department consists of one head and some subordinates who have to work as a team and achieve the departmental goal with the given resources viz. organise. In both these situations. Generally. development and job rotations of managers c. centralisation may be defined as ‘a systematic and consistent reservation of authority and decision making at a central point in the organisation. d. organisational behaviour becomes a more complex subject. This requires the manager to plan. Chain of Command Organisational communication is an extremely important factor for the success or failure of an organisation. if the number is too small. supervision and control becomes difficult. communicate. It facilitates performance appraisals by managers. It helps fix the authority-responsibility relationship of the managers. Thus. the quantity and quality of the finished product/service and the resources available to complete the task in a given time limit. centralised authority and decision-making can manage it but. the span of control may be defined as ‘the number of subordinates that can be efficiently and effectively managed by the superior for the optimum performance of the work team’. supervision and control become too strict and critical. control and co-ordinate all his activities as well as those of his subordinates. as it grows into a large-scale organisation. organisational communication requires a chain of commands to flow downwards/upwards/lateral. direct. One manager has to look after a number of functions. In the absence of a proper chain of commands for organisational communication to flow. each department consists of different numbers of people depending upon the nature of work. supervise. On the other hand. the performance of the team may not be satisfactory. it has to decentralise activities in order to cope with the changing demands of the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. the span of management should be optimum for an optimum performance. lead. Thus. machines and materials. activities are decentralised and the organisation is divided into different divisions or departments to perform certain specialised tasks that ultimately contribute to the organisational goals. If the number of people to be supervised is too large. Centralisation v/s Decentralisation As long as the organisation is small it can be managed by a small group of managers. In such an organisation there is centralisation of authority and decision-making as a result of which a few managers have the authority to take decisions and give instructions to their subordinates. motivate. Span of Control In large-scale organisations.' As long as the organisation is small.

Organisational culture relates to the perception. attitudes. Organisational structures can be created and changed overnight. It shows the positions of the people. government officers. directing. which is called as Organisation Char t. morale and motivation. organising. etc. suppliers. the treatment given to outsiders viz. 15/MITSOT . their span of control. Organisation structure can be any one of the following: a. Organisational structure is mechanistic and can be shown on paper. the organisational culture is to be experienced by actually working in the organisation.6.1 Difference between Organisational Structure and Organisational Culture Organisational culture is dif ferent from organisational str ucture. values. c. e. But. interpersonal communication. decentralisation may be defined as ‘a process of dividing organisational activities into dif ferent autonomous divisions/depar tments/sections. contractors.6 What is Organisational Structure? An organisation can be depicted by a line diagram. physically and functionally ' 3. The organisation char t shows the organisational structure. b. d. their status/designations.Organisational Design and Culture decentralise many functions like planning.5 Factors influencing Organisational Redesigning Changes • • • • • • • • • • In the knowledge requirements In the technology and the consequent skill requirement In the knowledge of human behaviour From centralised to de-centralised structures From vertical and tall to horizontal and flat organisations In emphasis from command control to consensus self-control From instability and uncertainty to mechanistic systems From generalisation to specialisation in management From product orientation to function orientation From mechanistic approach to human behaviour approach 3. the sense of belonging among employees. authority-responsibility relationships. interpersonal relationships. staffing. etc. etc. but organisational culture cannot be changed overnight. Thus. cooperation and co-ordination among employees at different levels. Line Organisational structure Functional Organisational structure Line and Staff Organisational structure Committee Organisational structure Matrix Organisational structure 3. controlling. It has to be built up over a period of time. customers.

Organisational culture has been defined by: a. d. Generally organisational culture flows from the top to the bottom. beliefs. It plays an extremely impor tant role in organisational image building. perceptions. Schneider and Snyder: As a process of manifestation of the perceptions. Individual culture is a result of the impact of parents + family + education + work experience + friends + society.7 What is Organisational Culture? What is culture? It is observed that during the 21st century. b. etc. traditional culture v/s modern culture. goodwill and reputation. c. rural culture v/s urban culture. customs that are shared by the groups and resulting into the individual and group behaviour of the people working in the organisation over a period of time. large scale culture v/s small scale culture. It is not developed overnight. etc. agrarian culture v/s industrial culture. world culture has been changing very fast as a result of the fast changing national and regional cultures. values and attitudes of the employees form the core of organisational culture. traditions. values and attitudes of the members of the organisation. Forehand and Gilmer: As a set of characteristics that differentiate one organisation from another and are relatively enduring over a period of time and influence the behaviour of the people in the organisation. Some of the indicators of organisational culture are as follows: Lack of knowledge Lack of skills Negative attitudes Resentful service Lack of accountability Red tapism Bureaucracy Lack of discipline Lack of cleanliness/housekeeping Poor Quantity and Quality More bureaucratic culture 16/MITSOT . It takes a long time to develop. manufacturing sector culture v/s service sector culture. We find Eastern culture v/s Western culture. The perceptions. Taguiri and Litwin: As a relatively enduring quality of the internal environment that is experienced by its members. Group culture is the sum total of the individual cultures. 3. there is public sector culture v/s private sector culture. It has to be felt and experienced by the people over a period of time. Edgar Schiene: As the sum total of the knowledge.Organisational Behaviour Thus. that influences their behaviour and can be described in terms of a set of values. attitudes. culture is an abstract concept that varies from organisation to organisation and from time to time. It also helps to improve the morale and motivation and the sense of belonging among employees. values. Similarly.

values. m. g. l. b. ceremonies. festivals.9 The a. f. following are the factors that may affect organisational culture: Organisational context Organisational structure Organisational processes Physical environment Values. rewards. j. Characteristics of Organisational Culture following are the characteristics of Organisational Culture: Pragmatic policies Strategic planning Decentralisation and Delegation Individual autonomy Participation in decision-making Risk tolerance Integration with the organisational goals Management support Innovation and creativity Self-esteem and identity Control systems Communication systems Conflict management Reward system 3. organisational culture is projected at three levels as follows: a. etc. d.10 Factors Affecting Organisational Culture The a. c. c.Organisational Design and Culture Adequate knowledge of the job Adequate skills for the job Positive attitudes Cheerful service Less bureaucratic culture Accountability Responsibility Better discipline Better cleanliness and housekeeping Efficiency and Effectiveness Better Quantity and Quality 3. h. norms and systems 17/MITSOT . philosophy. k. b. c. 3. b.8 Projection of the Organisational Culture According to Edgar Schiene. d. appreciation. role models. Code of Uniform. rituals. i. n. Level III: Common assumptions of the management about the employees. e. Level II: Shared values and beliefs among the employees in the organisation. Level I: Company Logo. e. Trade Mark.

c. A lot of research has gone into the assessment of organisational climate though. may be managed by a centralised authority. 7. like character building. According to Rensis Likert. it is difficult to measure it in any units as in Physics. Some employees may be comfortably happy working in the organisational climate. 4. which takes a long time. Delegate to improve autonomy Change from autocratic to participative style of management. Leadership style Morale and Motivation Organisational communication Interaction-Influence process Decision making Goal setting Control 3. but as it grows bigger in size and scale it has to decentralise authority for the efficient functioning of the organisation. 5. Therefore. like fast food! It is a longterm process. while some others may not be so happy. if small. b. Some of the changes that can bring about a change in organisational culture are as follows: a. 3. which depends upon the beliefs. the dimensions. g. j. but culture can only be experienced.12 Changing Organisational Culture Organisational culture is not a matter of minutes. The structure can be seen on paper. Develop a positive attitude towards the organisational goals Summing Up In this chapter we have discussed organisational design.11 Assessing Organisational Culture Organisational culture and climate are abstract areas of experience. changing organisational culture requires sustained efforts by all. 6. Chemistry. It is a subjective concept.Organisational Behaviour 3. An organisation. Treat employees as individuals Respect individual identity and self-esteem Improve organisational communication Give training and development inputs at all levels Review systems and procedures Improve leadership and team building Give rewards and incentives in due recognition and appreciation. f. It demands conviction. i. commitment and competence. 18/MITSOT . e. h. the determinants and the major elements of organisational design. d. 2. Biology or Mathematics. perceptions and values nurtured by the concerned employees. organisational climate can be assessed on the basis of the following 7-point scale: 1. Every organisation has a culture which is different from its structure.

Organisation culture is different from organisation structure. 3. 1. State whether the following are true or false Departmentalisation helps fix the authority-responsibility relationship of managers.Organisational Design and Culture There are several factors working at several levels which project the culture of an organisation. Self-assessment a. An organisation can be depicted by a line diagram which is called the ________________________. We have also discussed how to assess and change the culture of an organisation. 19/MITSOT . Fill in the blanks Generally organisation culture flows from ___________ to _____________. b. 2. 2. Organisation culture is not a subjective concept. 1.

1 Perception 4.1 Terminal Values 4. tiger. your co-passengers on a journey.2 The process of perception 4.5 Developing perceptual skills 4. Why does this happen? The answer lies in the ‘Perception' of people. objects or situations. During the further 15 to 20 formative years in primary school. etc. Watching a clear sky with white clouds. 20/MITSOT . After completion of formal education.7 What is Value? 4.9 Manifestations of Values 4. Some interpersonal interactions are satisfactory and produce positive results.10.10 Types of Values 4. every individual lives with his/her parents or the family for the first five years of his/her life. One has perceptions about one's own parents.11 Classifications of Values (Allport and Associates) (TASRPE) Summing Up Self-assessment 4.10. secondary school. Contents 4. teachers.2 Instrumental Values 4.Organisational Behaviour Chapter IV Perception and Values Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • What is perception and the importance of perception. under-graduation and post-graduation. there are many people with whom one interacts and creates perceptions. It will also give an idea of social perception. colleagues and subordinates. while some may see shapes of birds.3 Internal factors affecting perception 4.4 External factors affecting perception 4. etc. elephant. while some others are not satisfactory and produce negative results with stress and tensions for either of the parties or for both of them. some of us see the shapes of animals like horse. outsiders.1 Perception Generally. friends. Every person has to interact with other individuals in his/her life on-the-job as well as off-the job. your superiors/colleagues/subordinates are some of the examples of the effects of your perception. The first impressions of your teachers.8 Sources of Values 4. one starts with a career either in employment or self-employment during which one has to deal with many people including superiors.6 Perception and personality 4. which are the cognitive years of life.

contrast effect. first impression.g. perceptual errors. implicit personality. taste. continuity. d. expectations.). figure ground principle. impression management.Perception and Values Thus. motion. ‘the way you look at people/objects/situations in the world. proximity. halo effect.g. perceptual defence. characteristics of the perceiver/perceived. h.g. etc. relevancy principle. organise and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. contrast. etc. perception may be defined as: a. Registration: The individual registers the stimulus and its gravity. attribution. similarity. 4. closure. constancy. motivation. g. 21/MITSOT b. size. checking and reacting to the sensory stimuli or data so as to form a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. repetition. negative or neutral. defence. appearance. Response : The individual gives the response in terms of a reaction. Perceptual selection : The individual selects the data e. familiarity.' c. touch. sight. covert feelings emotions. stereotyping. etc. which can be positive. intensity.g. the process of perception takes the following stages: a. Confrontation with the Stimulus: The individual comes face to face with another individual/group/situation/problem. b. etc. projection. c. Evaluation and feedback : The individual evaluates the strengths and weaknesses in a situation and gives a quick feedback to the sensory and motor mechanisms for the next step.' ‘an active psychological process by which individuals receive. e. self-fulfilling prophecy. Perceptual grouping : It is a process through which certain aspects of thedata are screened/filtered e. f. Depending upon the mutual interaction between the stimulus and the individual. Pollyanna-Nietze effect. status. interpreting. Perceptual organisation : It is a process through which the incoming information is organised and patterned in a systematic manner e. attitudes.g. organising.' ‘a process of receiving. novelty. i. the reaction of the individual to thestimuli can be: behaviour. context.2 The process of perception Generally. etc. etc. e. role of the central nervous system. smell. Interpretation: The individual tries to understand the real meaning of the situation and to interpret it for the effects. hearing. Observation : The individual uses his/her sensory tools to observe the stimuli (e. selecting. .

The higher the learning. which has an effect on perception. Expectations : This is the greatest factor that affects one's perception. colleagues and subordinates. 22/MITSOT . the perception is favourable. it is distorted and not so favourable. c. Good values result in good perception. Interests : The individual's interest in people/situations affects perception either favourably or otherwise. teachers. Learning : Learning is a continuous process. status. e. d. his perception is likely to be more positive than of one who is less learned. Moreover. If expectations are fulfilled. Therefore. If otherwise. situations or the people in whom the individual is interested create a positive perception.Satisfaction or dissatisfaction of these needs also af fects the perception of the individual. f. while bad values result in bad perception. Thus. Generally. people having a good educational background are more likely to have a more logical /rational perception as compared to those without such background.mates and friends play an important role. viz. Every individual has certain social needs in terms of a sense of belonging to a group. Family background: A good family background cultivates good perception. because a learned person can look at the world from an enlightened point of view. people see what they expect to see. Psychological needs: Every individual has certain psychological needs in terms of self-esteem. Generally. people keep on modifying their perceptions of the world through the process of learning. superiors. the better is the perception. objects. recognition. good and bad are relative terms and it all depends upon the b. Educational background: Educational background plays an important role in forming perceptions of people. Values : Perception and value always go hand-in-hand. All interactions at all these three levels affect perception through experience.3 Internal factors affecting perception The following are some of the internal factors that may affect perception: a. Generally. ego. class. In this regard. g. i. Every employee has to interact with 3 different levels. A bad family background breeds bad perception.Organisational Behaviour 4. Individuals with fairly satisfied social needs have better perceptions than those with dissatisfied social needs. etc. appreciation. parents. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction of these needs affects the perception of the individual. brothers and sisters play an impor tant role in forming perceptions in the early stages of life of every individual. Work experience : Work experience refers to the ‘on-the-job' life in the organisation. h. Social needs : Man is a social animal. Of course.

a judge. Familiarity : Familiarity with the other person/object/situation helps positive perception. prime minister. For example. j. a very loud noise of an explosion. people with high status are perceived with respect/ reverence and therefore listened to. a doctor. Generally. On the contrary. attract attention and affect perception. a full page advertisement. are better placed due to their high status. a manager. an object coming at a very high speed towards you. This means that those individuals who are more familiar with each other have better perceptions about each other than those who are not. it is negative or distorted. f. etc. Intensity : The intensity of an individual/object/situation relates to the force with which it approaches you e. Size: The size of the stimulus (person or object) affects perception. Personality and perception are mutually interdependent. a strong odour. fat and lean. a known person is given preference for appointments. etc. c. very fair woman with a very dark man. how you talk/walk and whether your body language sends positive signals or negative signals. for example. the intensity of the stimulus determines the attention and the perception of the individual. values and attitude. etc. dark shirt and white pant. d. people with good personalities have good perception and vice. black and white. Attract attention and affect perception. how you are dressed. people without any substantial status in society are not perceived favourably. Contrast: A contrast between the person/object and the background affects perception. Status in the organisation/society affects the perception of the individual. g. an accident on the road.versa. Otherwise. bold and normal v/s italic and underlined. a very fat person arriving at a party or a very thin and lean patient in a hospital. a very bright light glaring at you. for example. A president. a Nobel laureate etc. a governor. a good friend in a large group is noticed first.g. External factors affecting perception 4. Appearance : ‘Your face is your fortune'. Status : Generally. 23/MITSOT b. Motion: A moving person/object is noticed rather than a stationary one. Your first impression depends upon your appearance viz. a minister. an advocate. bigger machines. an actor/actress. e. larger pictures. Many times a handsome man or a beautiful woman with a smile are given preference over others due to positive perception.4 The following are some of the external factors that may affect perception: a.. a person speaking loudly with emotionally charged words. Appearance matters in developing a perception. In other words. a black spot on a white paper. Personality : Personality is the total result of an individual's perception. a socialworker. tall husband and short wife.Perception and Values individual's background as per the above factors. .

headline news of riots. monotony brings boredom and overconfidence that result in the lowering of efficiency. c. a trapeze. job content improve the perception of the job thereby improving efficiency. b. are more attractive than the non-flashing ones. an elephant riding a bicycle in the circus. d. c. a dog obeying the master's instructions. monkeys doing acrobatics at the command of their master. arson and killings. flashing neon signs. The messages that are repeated frequently are perceived better than those that are given only once. it is difficult to have a very logical and rational perception in day-to-day work life.5 Inspite of a lot of research and training inputs in the field of perception. repetitive failure of a particular product in the market. constant rejection of jobs for quality. Repetition : This principle states that a stimulus that is repeated gets more attention than the one that appears only once. but can perceive grey areas. b. repeated absence of an employee. repetitive failures in one subject. Developing perceptual skills i. h. f. e. d. 4. for example. Novelty : An unusual sight is always noticed and perceived more quickly than a usual/routine matter. a parrot picking an envelope for the astrologer. successive victories at Wimbledon. Secure people perceive others as warm individuals and not as indifferent.Organisational Behaviour More particularly. A change in the job design. The objects that are moving or changing attract more than those which are stationary. Self-accepting people perceive themselves as accepted and liked by others. Self-accepting people have faith in their individuality and perceive things favourably. Sometimes. etc. Thoughtful people do not make extreme judgements about others. 24/MITSOT . etc. g. Make accurate self-perception Enhance self-esteem Be empathetic Avoid perceptual errors Encourage free communication Have positive attitude Practice good impression management 4. a tiger walking in the middle of the street in a city. a clown in a circus doing acrobatics. frequent failures of a particular machine. for example. others tend to distrust others. Some of the suggestions for developing perceptual skills may be mentioned as follows: a. consistent losses in business. a cobra dancing on a tune of the flute.6 Perception and Personality The following are some of the rules of perception and personality: a. for example. a person/object moving at a very high speed is noticed quickly in perception. frequent job changes.

situation to situation. Some of the expressions of an individual's values can be one or more of the following forms: a. they are manifested through the behaviour of the individual and the groups.) 4. That is why understanding the meaning of ‘Value' is important for the study of Organisational Behaviour. friends. Workplace (superiors. c. i. customers. Values represent the basic conviction that a specific mode of conduct is acceptable or otherwise. h. policies. etc. Freedom Pleasure Mutual respect Honesty Obedience Equality Peace Co-operation Harmony 25/MITSOT . teachers. b.9 Manifestations of Values Values are not constant. economics. Family (parents. etc. subordinates. they keep on changing from person to person. philosophies. time to time. Society(schools. religious organisations. Values may not be always written down or expressed. etc. d. b. Values can be expressed by words. 4.Perception and Values e. f. colleagues. actions and behaviour. good and bad. an object or a situation which enables distinguishing between the right and the wrong.) d.' Values provide the standards of competence and morality Transcend specific objects/situations/persons Are relatively permanent and resistant to change Are most central to the personality of an individual Shape and determine behaviour in a group/society 4. g.7 What is Value? Values are a dominant force that shape and determine the individual personality and behaviour. Self-accepting people also accept others easily as compared with the non self-accepting ones. Individual values may be different from group values. But. Values have a great influence on the perceptions. ideologies. attitudes and motivational patterns of people. c. brothers and sisters) b. ‘The wor th of a person.) c. Thus. e. suppliers. a Value may be defined as: a. d. class-mates. Government (politics. place to place.8 Sources of Values Values of individuals/groups come from different sources: a. Individual values contribute to the group values. Human values are manifested in various ways. f. e.

co-operation. application. af fection. help. Capability c. quality. size.11 Classifications of Values (Allport and Associates) (TASRPE) The following are the classifications of values: a. propor tions. a. l. The following are some examples of instrumental values. etc. Honesty h. cost-benefit. Theoretical Values: discovering the truth through a critical approach and reasoning. A sense of accomplishment c. e. Religious Values: religion. values can be broadly classified as follows: 4.10. Social recognition h. A secure life d. The following are some examples of terminal values: a. c. love. shape. Health and Safety e. money. Cleanliness and Housekeeping d. 26/MITSOT . A happy retired life e. k. through which the ultimate goals are achieved. Freedom and independence f. b. d. Economic Values: exchange. faith. influence. through which ultimate goals in life are sought to be achieved. A world of peace j. Political Values: power. control. Truth and non-violence 4. Co-operation g.1 Terminal Values Terminal values are those. Logic and Rationality j. Social Values: ser vice. etc. f. balance of trade. etc. Courage f.2 Instrumental Values Instrumental values are those.Organisational Behaviour j.10. Democracy Discipline Mutual trust 4. Aesthetic Values: form. traditions. Politeness and Courtesy 4. Self-actualisation i. Pardon i. etc. A comfortable life b. culture. harmony. Ambition b. human relations. leadership. usefulness. Self-esteem g.10 Types of Values According to Rokeach. colour. custom.

Status. 1. ___________ of the stimulus determines the perception of the individual. 4. The messages that are given only once are perceived better than the messages that are repeated frequently.Perception and Values Summing Up This chapter helps you to understand the impor tance and definition of perception. 4. affecting perception. Fill in the blanks The way one looks at people/ objects/ situations in the world is called _____________ _____________ is the total result of an individual's perception. 3. internal and external. 2. Self-assessment a. Values of individuals/groups come from different sources. cultural background affect internal factors. We have seen that values are not constant. Learning is a ______________process. 2.e. and they are a dominant force that shape and determine the individual personality. Values are constant. educational. It also talks about social perception. 5. 3.. 5. Individual values are different from group values. i. There are several factors. Satisfaction of social needs affects the perception of the individual. Financial. _____________ values are the means through which ultimate goals are achieved. 27/MITSOT . b. every person has to interact with other individuals in his life. 1. appearance and familiarity are some of the external factors affecting perception. State whether the following are true or false The reaction of the individual cannot be neutral. values and attitude.

objects or situations. Attitudes are formed through experience. perceptions and values’. It is based on the individual' s own experience and interpretations of the same leading to opinions and behaviours. Both their bodies and minds are flexible for moulding. It is an individual's characteristic way of responding favourably or unfavourably to people. say upto 5 years of age have no attitude of their own.4 Functions of Attitude 5. They are like ‘pots on the potter's wheel’.1 What is Attitude? 5.9 Attitude at a Glance Summing Up Self-assessment 5. group. object or situation’. Attitude predisposes people to respond to people. Attitude is the result of the individual's beliefs. Attitude can be described as the way people feel about something. objects. ‘Attitude is the combination of one's beliefs.8 Significance of Attitude in Organisational Behaviour 5. b. they start developing attitude.1.1 Definitions of Attitude a.7 Manifestations of Attitude 5. ‘Attitude is the basic foundation of human behaviour’. An individual's behaviour is a function of his/her attitude. environment in certain ways. It is a pre-disposition of the individual to evaluate people. after they start going to the school. d.1 What is Attitude? ‘Attitude is the frame of mind’. objects or situations’. objects or situations.3 Components of Attitude 5.6 Characteristics of Attitude 5.1. ‘Attitude is a learned pre-disposition to respond consistently in a favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given individual. perceptions and values. ‘Attitude is a frame of mind that influences individual behaviour’.Organisational Behaviour Chapter V Attitude in Organisational Behaviour Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • What attitude is and how does it affect the organisation. It is observed that small children. e. as you desire. 28/MITSOT .1 Definitions of Attitude 5. events. 5.5 Factors affecting Attitude 5. But. c.2 Theories of Attitude 5. Contents 5. ‘Attitude is the mental posture in response to people.

Attitude has 4 functions: knowledge.3 Components of Attitude Some of the components of attitude are: a. Social judgement can mediate for a change in attitude. ego and value expression. e. Inconsistent cognition is unpleasant. A change in an individual's attitude is possible through learning and de-learning.g. Cognitive Consistency Theories These theories are concerned with inconsistencies. Incongruity leads to changes in attitudes.Attitude in Organisational Behaviour 5. Individuals try to reduce the unpleasantness. 5. knowledge and evaluation about an object. which arise between the related beliefs. The focus is on evaluation of the source with associative or dissociative assertion. A change in attitude happens when there is an imbalance in the system. Congruity Theor y (Osgood and Tannenbaum): This theory is based on the fact that congruity is a stable state. Balance Theory (Heider and Newcomb): This theory is based on the individual's desire to keep the cognitive elements in harmony. Changes in theef fective components produce changes in the cognitive components. Functional Theory (Katz and Kelman): This theory is based on the assumption that attitudes and efforts are related to the motivation of the individual. while imbalance results in stress and pressures. Social Judgement Theory (Sheriff and Hoveland): This theory is basedon the assumption that attitudes can produce distortions.2 Theories of Attitude The concept can be explained with the help of various theories based on the basic insights of the process of formation of attitudes. c. There is a constant effort to bring about a balance between the two. These theories can be broadly classified as follows: a. d. Working conditions and social relationships also affect attitudes. utility. Interpersonal persuasive communication plays an important role in changing attitudes. b. Cognitive Dissonance Theor y (Leon Festinger): This theor y is based on the study of various types of attitudes. cognitive element and environmental element)and the individual's attempts to change either of the two. Affective Cognitive Consistency Theory (Rosenberg): This theory is based on the interrelationship between Values and Attitudes. It highlights the disagreement between two cognitions (e. These theories are further sub-classified as follows: a. Cognitive component This component of attitude represents the opinions and beliefs of the 29/MITSOT . Balanced cognitions are more stable and pleasurable than the imbalanced ones Balance means harmony. f.

6 Characteristics of Attitude The following are some of the characteristics of attitude: a. c.5 Factors affecting Attitude The following are some of the functions that may affect attitude: a. b. b. 5. b.7 Manifestations of Attitudes a. This is based on the pre-disposition to act.4 Functions of Attitude Basically. e. Job involvement : This measures the degree to which the individual identifies with the job and considers performance level as important. Valence (the degree of favourableness or unfavourableness to the object) Multiplicity (different perceptions and values create different attitudes) Need relationship (basic/security/social/psychological/selfactualisation) Centrality (represents the importance of the object and resistance to change) 5.Organisational Behaviour individual. attitude has the following functions a. c. b. Family background Early socialisation Educational background Work experiences Group affiliation Personal experiences 5. c. d. Job satisfaction : Generally. It determines and controls the actual reactions and behaviour of the individual. This is based on the real or assumed knowledge about the object and is generally governed by a rational process of thinking and action. negative or neutral towards the object. This is based on non-rational commitments and can be positive. This helps in decisionmaking. an individual employee who has a positive attitude has a high level of job satisfaction. Knowledge function Adaptive function Ego-defensive function Value-expressive function 5. b. d. interpersonal communication and group relationships. f. Behavioural component This component of attitude represents the intention to behave in a particular way. c. 30/MITSOT . Af fective component This component of attitude represents the emotional segment of the individual. d.

education and work experience. e. that determines the organisational behaviour of the people. d. f. the study and understanding of the concept of attitude is the most important part of organisational behaviour. Attitude is a very important concept in human psychology. strong feelings (affective component) and behaviour (action component). o. Attitude is reinforced by beliefs (cognitive component). j. f.8 Significance of Attitudes in Organisational Behaviour The study of Organisational Behaviour is based on the principles of human psychology. Determines goals Reconciles contradictions Organises facts Affects Employer-Employee relations Affects Health/Safety/Welfare Determines loyalty and integrity Facilitates communication Affects organisational change Creates/avoids conflicts Affects inter-personal relationships Influences morale and motivation Facilitates learning Affects job satisfaction Affects job performance Determines organisational culture Affects organisational efficiency and effectiveness Affects the quality of life 5. managerial. b. i. c. q. b. d. c. n. lower employee turnover and a positive attitude. g. This results in a high level of commitment and loyalty to the organisation.9 Attitude at a Glance a. since it is the attitude of the people at all levels in the organisation viz. m. This is also a manifestation of positive attitude. Organisational Commitment : This measures the identification of individual goals with those of the organisation. 5. Attitude is often based on limited knowledge/information/experience. k. Attitude is an inseparable part of human nature and is normally dormant. Attitude becomes apparent through speech or behaviour in response to an individual. object or situation. super visor y and workers/ operators/ clerical staff. Attitude is acquired through early socialisation. In other words. etc. e. c. l. This concept is studied from many different angles. Attitude can be rational or irrational irrespective of the individual's intelligence.Attitude in Organisational Behaviour High level of job involvement is related to fewer absences. because it affects the following: a. p. 31/MITSOT . h.

clerical staff. 4. 2. it can be changed by the same process and reversed (de-learning). Organisational commitment is a manifestation of _________ . 5. _______________ component of attitude represents the emotional segment of the individual. In organisational behaviour. Attitude is rationalised and justified by the individual by (often subconsciously) selective illustrations and experiences. 4. Group affiliation does not affect attitude. 32/MITSOT . Attitude appears logical to the individual holding it.. 2. knowledge and evaluation. Attitude is learned over a period of time. k. object or situation favourably or unfavourably. Attitude can be rational or irrational irrespective of the individual's intelligence. An individual employee who has a positive attitude has a high level of job satisfaction. Therefore. 3. Attitude can be described as the way people ____________ about something. i. Attitude based on rational consideration of facts is comparatively easier to change rather than the one based on strong emotional bias and opinions. j. and personal experiences. work. managerial. State whether the following are true or false 1. Attitude has a bearing on the individual's thinking or behaviour. h. The factors that affect attitude are family. 3.Organisational Behaviour g. _______________ is based on the individual's desire to keep the cognitive elements in harmony. this concept is studied at all levels since it concerns people at all levels in the organisation. There are several components to attitude. etc. Self-assessment a. Cognitive consistency theories are concerned with the inconsistencies which arise between beliefs. viz. Summing Up Attitude is an individual's characteristic way of responding to a person. supervisory. b. l. Congruity is an unstable state. education. Fill in the blanks 1. but illogical/ inconsistent to a neutral observer. Valence is one of the characteristics of attitude. Opinion and emotion based attitude is more intense in expression and attachment.

Internal awareness of the self as a force c. Personality is a combination of many factors and qualities in an individual. But. Thus.2 Major determinants of Personality 6.4 Types of Personality 6. all good personalities are attractive. Why? Because. actions and reactions of an individual to other individuals. d.5 Personality and Organisational Behaviour Summing Up Self-assessment 6. 33/MITSOT .’ c.’ ‘A Personality is to some extent like all other people.' ‘The total existence of a person -the assemblage of the qualities. cultural and social factors. Each of these factors has certain sub-factors.Personality Chapter VI Personality Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • What personality is and its relevance in the organisation Contents 6. we use the word ‘Personality' for attractive men or women. Organisation of measurable traits (inner and outer) 6.physical. which contribute to the shaping and moulding of the personality. attractiveness is necessary. with a distinctive individuality. groups or situations.1 What is Personality? 6. There is no doubt that attractiveness is an important factor of a personality. Appearance and behaviour b. the concept of personality includes: a. Thus. attractive people cannot be said to have good personalities. personality is a result of many factors like biological. Stephen Robbins: ‘A sum total of the effect. mental and moral that set one apart from another. but not the only sufficient condition for being a good personality. situational. b. Personality may be defined as: a.' Gordon Allport: ‘The dynamic organisation within an individual whose psychological systems determine the unique adjustments with the environment.3 Personality Traits (Cattel's Traits Test) 6. In other words.1 What is Personality ? Many times. like some other people and like no other people.2 Major Determinants of Personality Thus.

customs d. facial. Family factors The following are some of the family factors that deter mine personality: a. Physical characteristics and rate of maturing: Physical appearance is extremely important. b. Heredity: Determined at conception. can be manipulated by ESB for reducing stress and increasing creativity. warm. Independence and aggression c. d. molecular structure of genes located in the chromosomes. muscle composition. Every individual-situation interaction is different 34/MITSOT . money f. Competition and co-operation d. work. b. sex. organisations. Basic discipline e. non-caring. temperament. Beliefs. caring and stimulating atmosphere c. reflexes. non-stimulating atmosphere d. SBP: Planning on the left and Managing on the right (Henry Mintzberg). energy levels.Organisational Behaviour Thus. Situational factors The following are some of the situational factors that determine personality: a. biological rhythm. the personality of any individual can be analysed on the basis of the following factors: a. Every individual is different c. the left and the right hemispheres control specific characteristics. physical stature. Social status c. family. Traditions. Cultural factors The following are some of the cultural factors that determine personality: a. Towards self. c. Loving. ESB: Pleasurable v/s Painful areas. values and attitudes e. Every individual is a complete person b. Every situation is different d. Early formative years b. Social culture b. Social factors The following are some of the social factors that determine personality: a. Biological factors The following are some of the biological factors that determine personality: a. Brain: Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB) and Split Brain Psychology (SBP). society. attractiveness. e. Family atmosphere b. Cold. children exposed to social situations mature faster than those who are not. perceptions.

n. h. g. i. l. f. b. A Chronic sense of time urgency Impatience High achievement orientation Strong competitive drive High ambition level Aggressive behaviour Quick in responses Quick decision making and actions Fast speech and walk Low level of tolerance B Easy going Passive Lack of achievement orientation Lack of competitive drive Lack of ambition Submissive behaviour Slow decision making and actions 35/MITSOT . j. d. g. e.4 Types of Personality A Personality can be broadly classified as Type A or Type B on the basis of the following characteristics: Type a. j. c. Type a. following are some of the common personality traits: Reserved v/s Outgoing Less intelligent v/s More intelligent Emotionally unstable v/s Emotionally stable Dominant v/s Submissive Serious v/s Happy-go-lucky Expedient v/s Conscientious Bold v/s Timid Tough v/s Sensitive Trusting v/s Suspicious Practical v/s Imaginative Shrewd v/s Forthright Self assured v/s Apprehensive Experimenting v/s Conservative Self-sufficient v/s Group dependent Controlled v/s Uncontrolled Tense v/s Relaxed 6. o. c. e. f. h. Different situation > Different demands > Different behaviour > Personality 6. c. b. d. d. e.3 Personality Traits (Cattel's Traits Test) The a. f. k. m.Personality e. p. i. g. b.

leadership.5 Personality and Organisational Behaviour The personality of the employee and organisational behaviour are inter-related and inter-dependent. aggressive. like change. deferential to superiors. etc. active. performance. luck/chance/ coincidence Affected attributes: motivation. excitement. Introversion v/s Extroversion Introverts: turn inwards. etc. tough-minded. unsocial. rigid. exploitative to subordinates. organisational behaviour of the employee depends upon the attitude and the personality of the individual. quick-tempered. twist and turn facts to influence others. Cer tain factors that need consideration to understand organisational behaviour of employees may be mentioned as follows: a. lack of tact/sensitivity/adaptability. Machiavellianism (Niccolo Machiavelli) Tendency to manipulate others for own goals. job satisfaction. Locus of Control Internal Locus of Control: Degree of belief that the individual is the master of his/her own fate and can control and shape future events. are quiet. love quiet atmosphere. d.Organisational Behaviour h. care-free. As attitude is at the core of the personality. Authoritarianism Love authority. 36/MITSOT . ends justify the means. emotional distance. lively. which is controlled by external forces. manipulation to their advantage. Slow speech and walk High level of tolerance Restrained in responses 6. authority. enjoy parties. for example. reflective. are sociable. External Locus of Control: Degree of belief that they are pawns in the hands of their fate. Need Patterns Achievement: Affiliation: Autonomy: Dominance: Need to achieve goals Need for co-operation with others Need for freedom to make decisions Desire to exercise authority c. j. resistant to change. intellectual. stressmanagement. tell jokes. try to gain control. e. judgmental. pragmatic. b. introspective. are impulsive. like to interact with others. i. Extroverts: turn outward. etc.

We have seen in this chapter that the personality of an employee and organisational behaviour are inter-related. importance. There are several factors that need to be considered to understand the individual's behaviour in an organisation which are adequately dealt with in this chapter. Self-assessment a. Summing Up Personality is often confused with good looks. Tolerance for ambiguity The degree of tolerance to uncertainty. social. i. ability to change without undue stress. Striking contradictions in public and private and ability to play multiple/contradictory roles. 4. j. normality leads to effective management. but in this chapter we have seen that it is only one of the attributes of an individual's personality. h. Self-monitoring Ability to adjust with external factors. and capable of working in a turbulent environment. Personality is a combination of many factors and qualities in an individual. ______________ leads to workaholism. g. balance between work and home results in a rational manager. family. cultural. 3. 2. __________________ is the ability to adjust with external factors. subsequent actions for moderate risks. etc. Aggressive behaviour is one of the characteristics of the___________ personality. Risk-taking Time taken for decision-making. The personality of an individual is determined by biological. etc. indicator of: capability. Work-ethics orientation Extremity leads to workaholism. logical and rational decision-making. 1. job satisfaction. success. Self-esteem The degree of liking/disliking the self. and situational factors. 37/MITSOT . Fill in the blanks ____________ is one of the social factors.Personality f.

38/MITSOT . Customs is one of the cultural factors that determine personality. Individuals with Type B personality are restrained in responses. 2. State whether the following are true or false 1. The concept of personality does not include internal awareness of the self.Organisational Behaviour b. 3. 4. Attractiveness is an important factor of a personality.

while others are not? Why is it that in some organisations.5 7. they are not happy? Why is it that there are many people in this world. the former organisation is efficient and effective. people seem to be happy.6 7. running a business. people do not work with interest and satisfaction? In the ultimate analysis. The following definitions will make the concept clearer: a. Contents 7.2 7.7 7. who have a lot of money to enjoy material happiness.10 7. but are still very happy and contented with their lives? Why is it that in one organisation. why is it that there are many people. It is more important to understand as to ‘Why do people work?' than ‘Why people do not work?' The morale of the people is an extremely important factor in the success or failure of organisations. while in another. be it waging a war against the enemy.4 7. manufacturing a product or providing a service to society.' 39/MITSOT . while the latter one is not. Oxford Dictionar y: ‘Morale is the prevailing mood and spirit conducive to willing and dependable performance. but who are still not satisfied and happy? On the contrary.1 Morale Why is it that some organisations are successful.9 7.Morale and Motivation Chapter VII Morale and Motivation Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • How morale can affect productivity in an organisation. who do not possess a lot of money.13 7.8 7.3 7. while in spite of all the facilities in some others.11 7.14 Morale Some Indicators of Morale Major Determinants of Morale (Alexander Leighton) Some Suggestions to Improve Morale Morale and Productivity Motivation Importance of Motivation Mechanism of Motivation Motivation and Frustration The Basic Theories of Motivation Abraham Maslow's Theory Frederick Herzberg's 2-Factor Theory David McClelland's Theory Douglas McGregor's Theory Summing Up Self-assessment 7. satisfied and contented with their work. people work sincerely and feel happy in doing so.12 7.1 7.

employee welfare facilities. Confidence of the individual members in organisational efficiency e. willingness and confidence of an individual or a group to accomplish a task. following are the suggestions that may help in improving morale. which varies from person to person. Sound organisation structure Proper manpower planning Systematic and scientific recruitment and selection procedure Appropriate training and development programmes Systematic and scientific performance appraisal system Efficient and effective organisational communication system Sympathetic employee counselling 40/MITSOT . g. cleanliness and housekeeping.) 7. g. the following are the major determinants of morale. Confidence of the individual members in their fellow workers d.' Dale Yoder: ‘Morale is the degree of zeal. a. c. enthusiasm.Organisational Behaviour b. 7. Working conditions (e. Edward Flippo: ‘Morale is the mental condition or attitude of an individual or a group which determines their willingness to co-operate or otherwise. j. f. time to time and situation to situation. b. e. wage/salary. job security. Confidence of the individual members in leadership c. i.4 Some suggestions to improve Morale The a. d.' Morale is a dynamic concept. c. f. etc. which describes the level of favourable or unfavourable attitude of the employees towards all aspects of their work. h. following are some of the indicators of morale: Absenteeism/Indiscipline Grievances Lack of communication Poor listening Lack of confidence Aggression/frustration Lack of mutual trust/faith Lack of co-operation High accident frequency rate Low efficiency/effectiveness (Note: The above list is not exclusive/exhaustive and may vary from place to place) 7.g. Morale is a group phenomenon. d. c. work environment. b. future prospects.3 Major determinants of Morale (Alexander Leighton) According to Alexander Leighton.2 Some Indicators of Morale The a. Confidence of the individual members in the organisational goals b. e.

7 Importance of Motivation a. This means that productivity should always rise as the morale improves.’ Performance = (Ability X Motivation) 7.’ March and Simon as ‘a function of needs and drives that makes a person take action to achieve the desired goals. Generally. k. l. Michael Julius as ‘a process of stimulating the self or subordinates to get into the desired course of action. 41/MITSOT . c. To a large extent. 7. e. b. Although it is true that “Money makes the mare go’’ in modern business organisations. people work not only for money. d. Money is only a means to satisfy wants. The manager has to communicate and lead and also motivate his subordinates to work. Individual motivation is very important for group motivation. but not willing. b. the success of the manager's leadership abilities depends upon his ability to motivate his people to work. which in turn. Motivation is a force or an impulse which makes a man move physically and mentally to achieve certain goals. If and when the employees are able. j. leads to high productivity.’ Dubin as ‘a force or impulse that moves a person to start and continue an action to accomplish a certain goal. Happiness and job satisfaction are functions of not only money but also needs and drives. it is observed that high motivation leads to high job satisfaction and in turn to higher efficiency. Motivation involves: the influence of the leader.6 Motivation In any organisation.Morale and Motivation h. money is not the only motivating factor and has its own limitations. Motivation has been defined by: a. Proper grievance handling procedure Rational wage and salary structure Proper delegation of authority Assurance of job security Fair and just reward/punishment system 7. c. Morale and productivity are inter-related and interdependent. the ability of the follower and the perception of both about each other. Motivation is something beyond that. but also for job satisfaction and happiness. it is necessary to motivate them. Individual motivation plays an important role in group motivation. i. high morale leads to high job satisfaction. Employees' performance is a result of their abilities and willingness . Motivation is the force that moves a person physically and mentally to achieve goals.5 Morale and productivity Generally.

Compromise : The individual realises the fact that he has to adjust with the situation and give up some of the benefits in the short run in order to achieve some long-term benefits. there is an urge to satisfy the need. 7. Motives are expressed as needs. which results in the drive. anxiety. . d.9 Motivation and frustration Every individual carries a set of inner motives and drives which influence behaviour. Aggression: A reaction to a situation wherein one's motives are blocked. the defence mechanism is triggered into action. in actual practice. the drive continues to work until the need is satisfied and the 'goal' is achieved.Organisational Behaviour f. causing oneself to turn against the barriers in terms of verbal or physical injury to the object. Withdrawal : Leaving the field in which frustration. with a ‘give and take' attitude.adjusting reaction. The behaviour is repeated again and again even though all the cues indicate that the response is not appropriate to the situation. drives or impulses within the individual. These rewards can be monetary or nonmonetary incentives. an individual is motivated to work to achieve certain goals in order to satisfy some of his needs. tangible or non-tangible. 42/MITSOT . person or group causing the barrier. Ultimately. In organisational behaviour. This can be seen in terms of a change in needs or goals. either physically or psychologically. This leads to ‘Fr ustration'. But. wants. Need > (Deprivation) Drive > (Direction) Barrier Blockade (Overt/Covert) > Goal (Achievement) 7. Whenever a person is frustrated. Therefore a feeling of deprivation of a need is the starting point of motivation. Managers should be able to provide an environment in which appropriate goals and incentives are available to subordinates to satisfy their needs. Individuals differ not only in their ‘ability to perform'. but also in their ‘will to perform'. Goals are sometimes referred to as the rewards hoped for. maintaining a persistent non. or conflict is experienced. Fixation : An unreasonable stubbornness. c. b.a need which is not satisfied. It involves (influence of the leader + ability of the followers + role perception of both). Generally. Then. it is not that simple and the individual almost always meets with some barriers in achieving his goals. This follows a ‘Need-->Drive->Goal' cycle. Every individual has/should have some goals to achieve. frustration is manifested in one or more of the following behaviours: a.8 Mechanism of Motivation All motivation in life starts with a need.

job security. Douglas McGregor. Peter Drucker. not only by money alone.g.Morale and Motivation 7. quality. d. c. His studies show the hierarchy of needs as follows: a. shelter. e. sense of belonging to a group.: food. the method of doing jobs and the system of financial compensation for work.10 The Basic Theories of Motivation Basically. who proved that the output of employees does not depend only on extrinsic factors like working conditions alone.g. can be organised on five different levels. near Chicago (US). Basic/physiological needs (e. friendship. who believed that people are motivated to work. Self-actualisation and fulfilment (e. which motivate them to work. an American psychologist found that work motivation of human beings arises from the hierarchy of needs. but also on the intrinsic factors of satisfaction of their social and psychological needs.) Psychological needs (e. Traditional theor y This theory is based on Scientific Management by F W Taylor who advocated that it is the manager's prerogative to decide the quantity. family security. work itself is the motivation) Maslow has classified these human needs into five levels. sex. ego. the needs of human beings. The lower order needs are primarily satisfied externally by economic 43/MITSOT . responsibility. appreciation.g. Human Relations Theor y This theory is based on the research studies of Elton Mayo and Associates at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Co. According to him.e. self-esteem. air. clothing. etc. The Human Resources Theory This theory is based on the studies conducted by 20th century management experts including Abraham Maslow. b.g.) Social needs (e. b. while the next three levels i. etc. affection. achievement and meaningful work. He regards these needs as proponent in the sense that as one need is satisfied. the next need level comes into play.) Security needs (e. protection from hazards. 7. Frederick Herzberg. c. etc. recognition. the social. the physiological needs and the security/safety needs can be considered as lower order needs. achievement. David McClelland. The first two levels i. acceptance. attention. etc. but also by the satisfaction of their higher order needs for authority. According to Abraham Maslow. etc). a person is motivated due to his desire to satisfy his various needs.e. the theories of motivation can be classified as follows: a. water.11 Abraham Maslow's Theor y Abraham Maslow (1908-1970). status. autonomy. psychological and self-actualisation needs can be considered as higher order needs.g.

His findings are based on his survey of more than 200 managers in 11 different industries in the Pittsburg area.1 Abrahan Maslow's Theory Maslow's theory has received wide recognition due to its intuitive logic and ease of understanding. skills. attitudes. Subsequent research in this field shows that differences in castes. but are inter-related. traditions. etc. mainly because of the inter-dependent and overlapping nature of the various needs. it still influences the behaviour of the individual. religions. inter-dependent and overlapping. it is obser ved that even if a need is completely satisfied. perquisites. this model does not take into account the individual differences in the intensity of the various needs. The various needs identified by Maslow are not exclusive of each other. creeds. etc. knowledge. each higher level need emerging before the lower level need disappears. bonus. 7. languages.. play a very major role in determining the priority of the needs of people in different countries. etc. education. while the higher order needs are satisfied internally through social and psychological rewards like acceptance by the group or job satisfaction. cultures. customs. There are no watertight compartments between the needs. This phenomenon can be shown as follows: Figure 7. that particular need ceases to be a primar y motivator.12 Frederick Herzberg's 2-Factor Theor y Frederick Herzberg has extended the work of Maslow and developed a different model as a result of his research in work motivation. Thus. 44/MITSOT .Organisational Behaviour rewards like wages. environment. and the next higher order need begins to dominate. allowances. When the peak of a need is passed. However.

He has further extended the applicability of Maslow's theor y to actual organisational situations. Their presence highly motivates the person. drawing the attention of the managements that they should pay attention to the ‘Motivating Factors' also along with the ‘Maintenance Factors'. Possibility of growth f. the Motivational Factors are directly related with the job itself and therefore are ‘content-oriented'. but also for the intrinsic motivational factors. Company policy and administration f. Both. Recognition c. Maslow refers only to the needs or motives. On the contrary. Motivating Factors (Intrinsic/Satisfiers) a. Status b. Inter-personal relationships b. there are some differences: a. There are two sets of factors in motivating a person: Motivating Factors as ‘Satisfiers' and Maintenance Factors as ‘Dissatisfiers': a. Therefore. Herzberg has made a very valuable contribution in the field of work motivation and job satisfaction. But. Quality of supervision g. while Herzberg deals with the goals or incentives. all needs and their satisfaction do not motivate employees. Salary c. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is sequentially ordered in terms of importance. Their presence prevents dissatisfaction and maintains a certain minimum level of motivation. Any reduction in these factors can affect motivation and reduce the performance level of the person concerned. 45/MITSOT . Maslow and Herzberg have contributed some of the fundamental principles of work-motivation of people. Job security d. give due recognition and responsibilities. This can be considered a further modification of Maslow's theory. Advancement d.Morale and Motivation According to Herzberg. Maintenance Factors (Extrinsic/Dissatisfiers) a. Their presence does not significantly motivate the person. managements should try to review organisation structures. People do not work only for the extrinsic maintenance factors alone. b. Work itself According to Herzberg. Working conditions e. while Herzberg's model does not have any sequential preference. Responsibility e. the Maintenance Factors are ‘context-oriented'. Achievement g. in modern business organisations. Personal life b. but their absence does not cause dissatisfaction. make job contents more meaningful and challenging. but their absence can cause dissatisfaction. provide a sense of achievement.

a Professor of Industrial Administration at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). but also by assumptions and generalisations of the managements about their employees. 2) a. there are three types of needs that motivate a person as follows: 1) a. until it is relatively unsatisfied. b. This can be done on the basis of either of the two sets of assumptions as Theory X and Theory Y as follows: 1) Theor y X a. generalisations and hypotheses by the management relating to human behaviour in organisations. while Herzberg thinks that only intrinsic factors of the higher order need serve as motivators. e. b. prefer to be directed and want. d. described organisations as psychological entities that can be effectively managed by their assumptions about motivation. Most people lack ambition. According to Douglas McGregor.14 Douglas McGregor's Theor y Douglas McGregor. e. 7. d.Organisational Behaviour c. b. human nature and behaviour. job security. e. c. motivation implies certain assumptions.13 David McClelland's Theor y According to David McClelland. above all. Need for Achievement (nAch) High desire for achievement Moderate risks Pre-occupation with the task Satisfaction of accomplishment Need for immediate feedback Need for Affiliation (nAff) A desire to belong to a group A desire to interact with others A desire to be liked by others A desire to make routine jobs more bearable A desire to live and work together Need for Power (nPow) A desire to control others A desire to manipulate others Political orientation Leadership to influence others High nPow with negative orientation v/s Low nPow with positive orientation 7. 3) a. if he can. c. b. 46/MITSOT . Maslow believes that any need can be a motivator. He found that people are not motivated by unsatisfied needs and drives alone. An average human being has inherent dislike for work and will avoid it. c. dislike responsibility. d.

b. High morale. controlled and threatened with punishment to get better results from them. An in-depth study of the several theories of motivation will give ample insight on how to keep your employees motivated. _____________ are sometimes referred to as the rewards hoped for. 47/MITSOT . The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. Summing Up The morale of the work force is very crucial in an organisation.Morale and Motivation c. not only to accept. Motivation is the force that moves a person physically and mentally to achieve goals. the organisation should make sure that their staff is motivated. The individual's behaviour in an organisation is an indicator of the morale of the organisation. f. It determines the success or failure of an organisation. we have seen. but also to seek responsibility. not narrowly. 4. The ______________ of people is an extremely important factor in the success or failure of organisations. e. under proper conditions. c. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing out efforts towards organisational goals. To keep morale high. ingenuity and creativity in the solutions of organisational problems. motivational factors are directly related with the job itself and therefore are __________. According to Herzberg. Morale is a ______________ phenomenon. The degree of commitment to objectives is proportional to the rewards associated with the achievement. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. the intellectual potentialities of a human being are only partially utilised. Under conditions of modern industrial life. 3. b. is widely. distributed among the population. Maslow has classified human needs into ____________ levels. which in turn leads to high productivity. The average human being learns. leads to high job satisfaction. Self-assessment a. Most people must be directed coerced. 5. 2. Man exercises self-direction and self-control in the service of the objectives to which he is committed. which describes the level of favourable or unfavourable attitude of employees towards all aspects of their work. Theor y Y a. d. Fill in the blanks 1.

Morale varies from person to person. Working conditions do not determine Morale.Organisational Behaviour b. 3. time to time and situation to situation. According to Douglas McGregor. 2. State whether the following are true or false 1. The various needs identified by Maslow are exlusive of each other. the degree of commitment to the objectives is propor tional to the rewards associated with the achievement. 5. 4. 48/MITSOT . Herzberg deals with goals or incentives.

2.11 Functions of a group 8.Morale and Motivation Chapter VIII Group Dynamics Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • How a group functions in the organisation Contents 8. Initially.5 What is a group? 8.9. So. over a period of time.7 Advantages of groups 8.1 A Needs Approach 8.2 Approaches to inter-personal relationships 8.9. peers and colleagues and subordinates.10 Characteristics of a group 8. intergroup relationships are a result of inter-group communication. we must first understand the meanings of inter-personal relationships.8 Disadvantages of groups 8.9.1 Inter-personal Relationships 8.9.2. but. Whenever we work in any organisation.2 Storming 8. people have to come together to accomplish organisational goals.4 Performing 8. Inter-personal relationships are a result of inter-personal communication. Organisational goals and objectives cannot be achieved unless and until all 49/MITSOT .6 Why do people join groups? 8.9. in order to understand the subject of Group Dynamics.3 Basis of inter-personal relationships 8.12 What is Group Dynamics? 8.9 Stages of group development 8. Groups are a result of inter-personal relationships.3 Norming 8.4 The factors influencing inter-personal relationships 8.1 Inter-personal Relationships In any organisation. groups and the relevant aspects of work groups. However.2 An Exchange Approach 8.1 Forming 8.13 Important factors of Group Dynamics Summing Up Self-assessment 8.5 Adjourning 8. they become less formal and work with more familiarity with each other. This gives rise to work groups and work teams and these interactions are called ‘Group Dynamics'. the inter-relationships are formal. we have to deal with different people at dif ferent levels: seniors.

a dominant person gets along well with a submissive person wherein both the individuals feel that the relationship is mutually rewarding. values. cognitive dissonance. disapproval. reliability v/s dishonesty. criticism. some needs are already satisfied and work as only maintenance factors. etc. rudeness. etc. security. perception. sincerity. if there is no co-operation among the employees. Inter-personal relationships can be basically studied from two approaches: 8. 8. greed.1 A Needs Approach This approach is based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. repetitive exposure. honesty. punishment. Personal qualities: Like physical attraction. c. 8.2 Approaches to inter-personal relationships It is interesting to observe that certain individuals are attracted to certain individuals and not others. It is also not possible to do so. e. anxiety. Life is ‘give and take’ in organisational behaviour. There is also a Complementary Needs theory. 8.2. personal appearance. social and psychological. while some other needs are not and work as the really motivating factors (Frederick Herzberg's 2-factor theory of needs). hostility. An individual may be attracted to another. Familiarity : Of closeness.g.4 Factors influencing inter-personal Relationships There are various factors that affect inter-personal relationships among employees as briefly described on the next page. In other words. 8. loyalty. if the needs are satisfied e. Proximity : As in physical togetherness.Organisational Behaviour the people working in the organisation understand and appreciate the same.g. This requires good inter-personal relationships. etc. etc. information. status. Emotional identity : Which is positive feelings v/s negative feelings > relationship > behaviour > evaluation > judgement b. people subconsciously think of the exchange value of relationships and continue with the same as long as rewards outweigh the costs.2. frequency of interaction. there is an exchange relationship. while the costs can be in the form of: conflict. reward-cost relationship. etc Similarity : In beliefs. interests. 3 Basis of Inter-personal Relationships a. frustration. money. goods. d. 50/MITSOT . Sometimes. The rewards can be in the form of: love. This means that individuals consider the cost involved v/s the rewards in return for maintaining a relationship. services etc. which states that needs are mutually complementar y e. which are the basis of cooperation for the achievement of organisational goals.2 An Exchange Approach This approach is based on the observation that there is a Rewards v/s Costs relationship.

The behaviour is reciprocal with that of others. thoughts. Satisfaction of mutual needs becomes the basis of mutual attraction.Morale and Motivation a. it is not possible to establish inter-personal relationships. Role of rewards Inter-personal relationships depend upon the rewards that accompany behaviour. Reciprocity Generally. Naturally. But. in business organisations. the child obser ves the way parents interact and behave with others within the family as well as outside the family. recognition. Norms and Rules An informal relationship does not have many strict norms or rules of behaviour. help. which is sometimes a barrier. Self-identity Every person is different and has an individual identity of his/her own. b. Selfidentity includes ‘I' and ‘Me'. feelings. co-operation. games and other material things. It is the basis of self-esteem. etc. they can be in the form of appreciation. it is observed that people have a tendency to treat others as they are treated. Communication is a vehicle to convey ideas. views. etc. Adults are attracted mainly due to physical and mental characteristics. ‘Reaction is equal and opposite to action' . without proper communication. toys. Teenagers are attracted towards each other due to hobbies. Role of parents Generally. Probably that is why it is called informal. etc. emotions. The rewards are not necessarily in the form of money. apology. every person spends the first few years with one's parents. sentiments. e. similarity of cultures. g. games. During this period. c. d. Inter-personal communication is the core of inter-personal relationships. one's behaviour is very highly influenced by one's own parents during the formative years of life. there are certain norms and rules of behaviour that are important in the inter- 51/MITSOT . Children are attracted due to colours. etc. opinions. f. studies. Basis of attraction People are attracted towards each other due to various reasons. Self-identity plays an important role in developing inter-personal relationship with others. Interpersonal relationships are strengthened or weakened according to these rewards that exist between individuals. Self-esteem leads to self-respect. Communication The communication ability between individuals is an extremely important factor that decides the nature of inter-personal relationships between them. customs. traditions.

Group decisions are delayed. It helps to detect clues for the other person's behaviour or expectations. we find that there are other reasons too for people joining groups.’ Raymond Cattell: ‘A collection of individuals in which existence of all is necessary for the satisfaction of individual needs. appreciation. property security. h. b. b. recognition. acceptance. c.5 What is a Group? A group can be defined as: a.8 Disadvantages of groups The a. People join groups for the satisfaction of their psychological needs e. Some of them may be mentioned as follows: a. status.: job security. 8. etc. b.g. b.’ Krech and Crutchfield: ‘Two or more individuals forming a social unit with specific roles and explicit psychological relationships among themselves. Social intelligence Social intelligence means the intelligence required to behave properly in social groups.’ Otto Klineberg: ‘Two or more individuals who interact and influence each other for a certain time. d. sense of belonging. attention. e. Robert Bales: ‘A number of persons engaged in interaction with each other with face-to-face communication. friendship. Groups have hazy responsibilities.: affection. c.6 Why do people join groups? Man is a social animal and he likes to be associated with Groups.Organisational Behaviour personal relationship. ego.g. Groups can experience domination by a few members.: self-esteem. But. 8. Groups facilitate problem solving. c. family security. People join groups for the satisfaction of their security needs e. c. d. Groups exert pressures on members to conform to group norms. d. etc. 8. 52/MITSOT following are the disadvantages of a group: Group activities are more time consuming. following are the advantages of a group: Groups give better knowledge and information . on deeper scrutiny. Groups have the benefit of collective wisdom. . They reduce uncertainty and improve predictability of behaviour.g.’ 8. Group decisions are better accepted by the members of the group.7 Advantages of groups The a. People join groups for the satisfaction of their social needs e. Group decisions have a better legitimacy. etc. e.

members develop a closer relationship. Norms and values are shared among members. After the task is over.10 Characteristics of a group The a.5 Adjourning Normally ‘Performing' is the last stage in many groups which continue to function. 8. any group goes through the following stages to form and work: 8.4 Performing After the forming stage. the group gets ready to perform. e. d. job.3 Norming Once the above two stages are over.1 Forming In the initial stages of group formation. There is interaction with each other. 8.9. 8. interpersonal communication. the nature of the task to be accomplished. property. etc. etc. c. 8.9. number of people involved. structure. objectives and tasks. the temporary groups are dissolved. requirement of special skills. family. there is resistance by some members to the formation of the group mainly due to lack of inter-personal communication. etc. In case of any deviation of behaviour by any member. b. There is a better group cohesiveness with a sense of group identity. There are common goals. there is a feeling of uncertainty about the purpose. following are the characteristics of a group : Two or more individuals come together to work. capability about themselves.11 Functions of a group The following are the functions of a group: a. It becomes fully functional and actually performs tasks.9. There is a sense of belonging.9 Stages of group development Groups in an organisation are not formed overnight. leadership.2 Storming A little later. there is an effort towards correction of behaviour. There are common expectations.Morale and Motivation 8. the complexity of the job. Satisfaction of security needs of the members: self. 8. Generally. organisational culture. 8.9. etc.9. But sometimes some groups are formed temporarily for particular tasks or projects that are time bound. belongings. They take time depending upon the organisational structure. 53/MITSOT .

affiliation. Very strict rules and regulations do not permit group dynamics to flourish. Liberal policies may facilitate group dynamics. objectives. etc. organised and conducted for the achievement of common goals.' ‘Implies common thinking. c. Satisfaction of social needs of the members: love. strict policies restrict the same. rewards. Satisfaction of psychological needs of members: ego. 8. b. d. but. d. A healthy and co-operative organisational culture helps group dynamics. As a result. Organisational policies/strategies Organisational policies and strategies play an important role in developing group dynamics in favour of or against the organisation.Organisational Behaviour b. Satisfaction of achievement-needs of members: sense of goals.' ‘A process through which members interact with each other for the accomplishment of common goals.13 Important factors of Group dynamics a. Group dynamics may be defined as: a. affection. c. consensus decisions and consistent actions for common goals. job satisfaction. Rules and Regulations Administrative rules and regulations are the manifestations of organisational policies and procedures. 54/MITSOT . e. Organisational culture Organisational climate is a result of the organisational culture. but also their morale and motivation. sense of belonging. etc. etc. But cut-throat competition among employees and mutual distrust between superiors and subordinates can mar group dynamics.12 What is Group Dynamics? Group dynamics is a series of interactions between people working in the organisation. ‘The interaction between members of the group in a social situation. flexible ones help. e. Satisfaction of cognitive needs of the members: sense ofidentity/ recognition/values/beliefs. Physical working conditions The working conditions of employees have an effect not only on the health and safety of the employees. this also affects group dynamics. But. self-esteem. c. appreciation.' 8.' ‘A process of change to adopt new ideas/ knowledge/ methods/ systems for development. d. b.' ‘The way in which a group is formed.

55/MITSOT . Adequate quantity and quality of resources help group dynamics to work in favour of efficiency. self-identity. etc. there is inter-personal communication which leads inter-personal relationships. Management attitude Management attitude towards group dynamics can var y from ‘Dictatorial to Democratic'. When people come together. such as the role of parents. people are not interested in working in groups. equipment and materials are the main resources for employees to work and produce results. g. they lead to interpersonal conflicts. Authority-responsibility relationship Authority should be commensurate with responsibility and both of them should be balanced for successful effects of group dynamics. This is a chain of actions and reactions. If they are not cordial enough. In case of inequilibrium groups cannot be effective.Morale and Motivation e. Summing Up In the very first chapter we understood that an organisation is made up of people and not bricks. Several factors influence inter-personal relationships. which affect group dynamics negatively. leads to high job satisfaction leading to higher organisational efficiency. j. machines. The growth and development of group dynamics depends upon the attitude and style of management. tools. Limitations to resources People. Organisational communication Organisational communication is an extremely important factor for the success of group dynamics in an organisation. f. group dynamics suffers. basis of attraction. Inter-personal conflicts Inter-personal relationships are very important in group dynamics. They lead to inter-group relationships. h. Otherwise. reciprocity. In cases otherwise. Open communication channels facilitate group dynamics to the favour of organisational efficiency. Motivation of the members High morale leads to high motivation which in turn. A too autocratic style of management may not allow group dynamics to function and a too democratic style of management may not help group dynamics bring organisational benefits. which affect group dynamics. i.

1. 4. the rewards can be in the form of love. Group decisions are quick. Group activities are ____________ consuming. etc. Abraham Maslow's theory is based on a reward vs. State whether the following are true or false Inter-personal relationships are a result of inter-personal communication. Organisational policies and strategies play an important role in developing group dynamics in favour or against the organisation. 56/MITSOT . High morale leads to high _____________. 5. 2. cost relationship. b. Self-esteem leads to self-respect.Organisational Behaviour The inter-personal relationship between individuals leads to the formation of groups which has its own advantages and disadvantages. 1. Self-assessment a. ____________ policies may facilitate group dynamics in an organisation. People join groups for the satisfaction of their social __________________. 3. 3. 2. Group dynamics is a series of interaction between people working in the organisation. In the exchange approach theory. 4. 5. status. Fill in the blanks Management's attitude towards group dynamics can vary from dictatorial to _____________. money.

1 Conflict An organisation is a group of people working together to achieve common organisational goals systematically and scientifically with the help of given resources viz. people.7 A functional Conflict (wanted/constructive) 9.8 A dysfunctional Conflict (unwanted/destructive) 9. Therefore. ideas etc. If the concerned individuals themselves through mutual discussions can resolve these differences. Whenever two or more people with different family backgrounds. Conflict has been defined as: a. educational backgrounds and cultural differences interact with each other. But. machines and materials. perceptions. Therefore.Conflict Management Chapter IX Conflict Management Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • Conflicts • How to resolve conflicts Contents 9.’ 57/MITSOT . Chung and Meggison: ‘A struggle between incompatible needs / wishes/ideas / interests of people. opinions.9 Managing conflicts 9. many times these differences between individuals and groups cannot be resolved by themselves so easily and take the shape of a conflict which needs to be intervened in by superiors for its resolution.1 Conflict 9. In other words.4 Types of Conflicts 9. whenever two or more people come together in connection with some work. any disagreement between two or more people is the first step of the process of a conflict. there is bound to be some difference of opinions. and practically all aspects of organisational behaviour. values. the stage is set for potential conflict.5 The traditional view of a Conflict 9. it is necessary to understand certain fundamental concepts about conflicts. without intervention by superiors and within a reasonable time frame. a conflict situation is a result of differences in ideas.10 Johari Window 9. views. beliefs.3 Factors involved in a Conflict 9.2 Sources of a Conflict 9. Generally.6 The modern view of a Conflict 9. attitudes. it is always desirable.11 Conflict resolution outcomes Summing Up Self-assessment 9. views. etc.

g. stress.4 Types of conflicts a.3 Factors involved in a conflict a. anxiety. group goals v/s organisational goals) Values (e. organisational view of employees and vice-versa) Emotions (e.g. b. which leads to stress.’ c. sincere and honest v/s insincere and dishonest) 9. individual values and group values. emotions v/s tasks) Behaviour (e. c. There is a goal conflict or a role conflict. e. anxiety. IQ v/s EQ of the employees.2 Sources of conflict A conflict can arise due to various reasons.g. e. difference between: individual goals and group goals. inter-departmental co-operation and co-ordination. differences in opinions/ perceptions.) Conflicting behaviour (e. personal values v/s group values) Cognition (e. leader v/s followers. Generally.Organisational Behaviour b. performance appraisal.g. Antecedent conditions (e. perception.g.’ Stephen Robbins: ‘A process in which an effort is purposefully made by an individual/group to block the efforts made by another individual group which results in frustrating the accomplishments of the other's goals and furthering interests. b.g.) Affective states (e. lack of communication. educational backgrounds. Inter-personal conflict This type of conflict is seen when two or more individuals having different family backgrounds. 9. hostility.g. strain. awareness etc. Goals (e. A situation in which there is a difference of opinions/ ideas/views/interests /efforts of two or more individuals/groups creating tensions for either or both. traditions v/s systems.g. b. ranging from passive resistance to overt aggression) 9. strain. etc. as a result of deliberate interference and emotional hostility with another's goal achievement. c. beliefs. etc. d. individual goals v/s group goals. resources. Kilman and Thomas: ‘A condition of objective incompatibility between values/goals.) Cognitive states (e. values. etc. attitudes. old methods v/s new methods. a conflict arises due to incongruity in: a. d.g. short term planning v/s long term planning. work backgrounds interact with 58/MITSOT . Intra-personal conflict This type of conflict is manifested when an individual is confronted with a personal problem and the individual is in a dilemma regarding a decision on or a solution to the problem. tension etc.g. recruitment v/s promotions.

c. It supports and organisational goals and improves the performance of groups. traditional view of a conflict can be briefly summarised as follows: Conflict is bad. b. Scapegoats are unavoidable as a result of a conflict. d. In this situation. application of systematic and scientific problem solving techniques and consensus decision making in organisations. boat-rockers and prima-donnas. the group faces a situation in which group members are not clear about group goals and values. c. 9. etc. This results in stress and tension in the group. d.7 A functional conflict (wanted/constructive) A functional conflict is the one that is based on logical and objective thinking. 9. b. views. values. A conflict at an optimum level can be good for growth. negative and must be avoided at any cost. Therefore.6 The modern view of a conflict The a. e.5 The traditional view of a conflict The a. but must be managed properly.Conflict Management each other and when there is a difference between their ideas. 9. Many times there are differences within the group about the goals or the means to achieve them. A conflict is caused by trouble-makers. values. 59/MITSOT . e. A functional conflict is constructive. progress and development. Intra-group conflict This type of conflict occurs within a group and is concerned with the group. attitudes etc. two rival groups within a trade union. opinions. innovation and the progress of the organisation in the long run. A conflict can be resolved by formal authority/command. d. c. beliefs. bringing the defence-mechanism into action and pseudo solutions. Inter-group conflict This type of conflict is commonly seen between two or more groups whenever there is a difference between goals. This results in stress and tension between the concerned groups leading to lack of understanding and cooperation in organisational activities. affecting cohesiveness and co-operation in the group. such a conflict can help communicate decisions accordingly to all concerned and bring about creativity. etc. perceptions. A conflict can be resolved by delay in decision-making. views. modern view of a conflict can be briefly summarised as follows: A conflict is a natural and inevitable phenomenon of life. A conflict is an inevitable part of change. A conflict need not be avoided or encouraged. This is common between the management and union. wherein there is disagreement between groups. innovation and organisational development. A conflict depends upon the physical and structural factors of the system.

It improves perceptions and attitudes of the concerned people. It provides for a system of checks and balances within the organisation. rational and objective thinking by members . It obscures organisational goals and hinders the performances of groups. team building. e. there cannot be a standard formula for resolving all conflicts in business organisations. i. e. Therefore. d. A dysfunctional conflict is destructive. lack of systematic and scientific problem solving techniques and diversity in decision making by the members of the group. It creates stress and strain on individuals/groups. But how can this be achieved? As every individual is different. h. It discourages creativity and innovation. It hampers systematic and scientific problem solving. i.Organisational Behaviour Some of the major features of a functional conflict may be summarised as follows: a. having accepted the fact that in modern organisations conflicts between people are inevitable. b. c. Decision-making is replaced by infighting. It helps in systematic and scientific problem solving. It helps in identifying problems and settling differences through discussions. g. organisations too change from time to time. It adversely affects overall organisational performance. care should be taken that (i) the number of conflicts are kept at a minimum (ii) conflicts are kept at a functional and rational level and (iii) conflicts do not hinder overall organisational efficiency and effectiveness. It implies illogical and subjective thinking. every organisation too is different. c. g. The manager concerned would 60/MITSOT . f. f. jeopardising growth and development. It reduces co-operation between members of the group. It implies logical. j. 9. It focuses on short-term goals at the cost of long-term goals. d. The goals of the team are not clear to all concerned. It creates a lack of mutual trust among the members of the group. As people change from time to time. It promotes creativity and innovation of individuals/ groups. Some of the more important features of a dysfunctional conflict may be summarised as follows: a. h. b.9 Managing a conflict Thus. It encourages group cohesiveness and better team-work. It clarifies the goals to all concerned. such conflicts are harmful to organisational leadership. It helps to improve the morale and motivation of people. Every situation is different. emotional outbursts. 9. growth and development in the long run. Therefore. It improves the overall organisational performance.8 A dysfunctional conflict (unwanted/destructive) A dysfunctional conflict is one that is based on illogical and subjective thinking. j.

Compromise Life is ‘Give and Take'. Each party to the conflict gives up something of value. strengthening of the resources can help resolve the conflict. it is the goals that may cause a conflict. Creating a shared goal that cannot be attained without the co-operation of each of the conflicting parties. h. A face-to-face meeting of the conflicting parties to identify problems and resolving them through open discussions may help resolve the conflict. In case the conflict is caused due to a scarcity of resources (e. which involves playing down dif ferences and emphasising common interests between the conflicting parties. Using behavioural change techniques to alter attitudes and behaviour can help resolve the conflicts. f. materials. In such cases. it is a compromise (Win-Win situation). e. However. Problem solving This is an art. Smoothening This is the second step. This involves withdrawal from/suppressing of the conflict. In other words. b. 61/MITSOT . Some of the suggestions for achieving this goal may be summarised as follows: a. c. Authoritative command Sometimes some conflicts cannot be resolved by any of the above methods/ techniques. g. etc). science and technique. people. a large number of studies in this area have revealed certain basic principles of conflict management.Conflict Management have to apply a contingency approach while resolving a conflict between two or more individuals/groups. to achieve something else and thus helps to resolve the conflict amicably. Altering human variables Perceptions. d.g. Avoidance This is the first and perhaps the best way to avoid a conflict. values and attitudes can be changed by training and development programmes for employees. Super-ordinate goals Sometimes. Strengthening of resources This is the third step. the management has to use its formal authority to resolve conflicts. machines.

creating coordinators.g. Therefore. etc.personal conflict. there are certain structural defects in the organisational structure itself that cause conflicts frequently. potential. etc. communication. Such individuals make good friends and good leaders. the individual is known to the self as well as to others. talents. The model can be graphically presented as follows: a. bad habits. inabilities/incapacities. personality.Organisational Behaviour k. job evaluation. the greater is the individual's contact with the real world. forceful. aptitudes. b. job rotation. Altering structural variables Sometimes. Sometimes. 9. The larger this area.10 Johari Window This model was developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham after whom it is called Johari Window. bad mannerisms/etiquette. e. job re-design. Their social interactions are without any bias or prejudice.g. The model is based on the assumption that every individual has 4 quadrants of his/her personality and all the quadrants need to be considered during interaction. This model facilitates the understanding of inter-personal relationships and conflicts in organisational contexts. These can be also some of the strengths of the individual e. interaction is marked with openness and compatibility with little chance of an inter. The individual's blind spots can be certain weaknesses e. It is a highly popular framework for analysing the dynamics of inter-personal behaviour and resolving inter-personal conflicts. Blind Self In this area. an individual irritates others unintentionally due to certain blind spots in perception.g. This shows the extent to which two or more persons can give and take. the individual is blind to certain traits/qualities in the self which are known to others but not to the self. work together and enjoy common experiences. In such a case. The individual's usual tendency is to feel good when he realises 62/MITSOT . changing the formal organisational structure and interaction patterns may help the resolution of the conflict. Open Self In this area.

c. motivation. This gives rise to the potential for an inter-personal conflict. Undiscovered self In this area. Understanding conflicting situations and resolving them is very crucial for the management of any organisation. emotions. Win-Win: Both the parties aim at solving the problem. Hidden self In this area.11 Conflict resolution outcomes The resolution of any interpersonal conflict situation can be described as follows: There can be 4 possibilities of conflict resolution outcome: a. ideas etc. rather than beating others. are neither known to the individual himself nor to the others. The hidden self corresponds to the closed drawers containing personal secrets relating to the individual's fears. affection. b. certain feelings. Lose-Lose: Both the par ties lose. depending upon various factors. but not to others. which are known to the Individual. This part of the individual's personality is undiscovered and therefore provides for a potential inter-personal conflict. The true feelings and attitude towards others remain a secret for others. etc. there are bound to be differences in opinions. d. Then secondly. others who interact with him should learn and understand. the individual should try and find out the undiscovered part of his personality. Thus.Conflict Management his blindness about the strengths. phobias. but not to others. troubles. views. because they don't want to compromise. depending upon various factors. hatred. etc. anger. Firstly. Win-Lose: One party wins and the other loses. An interaction in this area is highly explosive. The individual always tries to hide them for fear of being exposed and rejected by others. emotions and motivations are known to the individual. 9. Many a times these differences are not resolved amicably by employees and the management has to step in. but he feels bad when he is told by others about his weaknesses and he resists to accept the same. c. feelings. d. complexes. Lose-Win: One party loses and the other wins. love. The Johari Window developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham is a very popular framework for analysing the dynamics of inter-personal behaviour and resolving inter-personal conflicts. 63/MITSOT . Summing Up Whenever two or more people come together in connection with some work. there is potential inter-personal conflict.

The Johari Window is used for analysing the dynamics of ______________. A conflict is a ___________ and __________ phenomenon of life. 2. 3. 64/MITSOT .Organisational Behaviour Self-assessment a. rational and objective thinking is called functional conflict. Logical. State whether the following are true or false Withdrawal is the best way to avoid a conflict. 3. Fill in the blanks Conflict is a condition of ____________ incompatibility between values and goals. b. 2. Modern view of a conflict is bad and negative. 1. 1.

17 Functions of leadership 10.’ 65/MITSOT .14 Autocratic leadership 10. Thus.8 The Two-Dimensional Model 10.5 The Traits Theory 10.10 The Situational theories 10. In other words. the success or failure of an organisation depends largely upon leadership.22 Characteristics of effective teams 10.16 Laissez-faire leadership 10.4 Theories of leadership 10.15 Democratic leadership 10.11 The Contingency theories 10.2 Importance of leadership in business organisations 10. leadership may be defined as: a.1 Leadership Every organisation needs management and management needs leadership.3 Evolution of leadership 10. There are many examples of organisations. which have failed for want of effective leadership and there are many more examples of organisations which have gone from losses to profits due to effective leadership.18 What is team-building? 10.19 The main objectives of team building 10.24 Building effective teams Summing Up Self-assessment 10.13 The Life Cycle Theory 10.12 The Path-Goal theory of leadership 10.6 Some traits of effective leadership 10.Leadership Chapter X Leadership Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • Various types of leadership • Team-building Contents 10.9 Rensis Likert's 4-Systems approach 10.23 Values of a team 10. Keith Davis: ‘The ability of a person to persuade others to seek achievement of group goals efficiently and effectively.7 The Behavioural Theories 10.1 Leadership 10.20 The pre-requisites for developing effective teams 10.21 The process of team building 10.

f. guide and inspire them towards the organisational goals. This requires leadership qualities in the manager. helps to build work teams . leadership also has evolved through stages. c. e. Some of the major factors of impor tance of leadership in business organisations may be summarised as follows: a. Some of the major landmarks in the evolution of leadership may be summarised as follows: a. A good manager must be a good leader since he has to get work done from his people. c. Some of the major features of this stage of leadership are as follows: a. e. helps to create confidence among members. d. 10.’ 10. b. While dealing with his subordinates. Stogdill: ‘The process of influencing and helping others to work enthusiastically towards task related objectives.Organisational Behaviour b. d. Dictatorial style of working Autocratic and centralised decision making Force to obey instructions of the superior Fear of job insecurity Unwilling acceptance by followers b. c. motivates group members. The Mechanistic stage This is the second stage of evolution of leadership based on organisational structures. M. helps to improve organisational efficiency. Leadership qualities in the manager play a very important role in achieving goals. b. The Coercive stage This is the first stage of evolution of leadership based on authority and power of the leader. technology and scientific management.’ Robert Tannenbaum: ‘The art and science of influencing and motivating a group of people in a given situation towards common organisational goals. It It It It It It helps to build up the group.2 Importance of leadership in business organisations An organisation requires management to achieve organisational objectives including economic performance. Some of the major features of this stage of leadership are as follows: a. inculcates discipline. b.3 Evolution of leadership A large number of research studies all over the world have shown that like organisation and management. 66/MITSOT Increasing complexity of organisational structures Rapid changes in technology . R. he has to communicate.

d. e. Likert. appreciation. Vroom.5 The Traits Theor y In the early stages of organisational development. b. The major theories of leadership may be enlisted as follows: a. b. recognition. e. d.4 Theories of leadership During the last century. It banks upon the personal qualities of the leader It draws on the influence of the charisma of the leader There is an emotional bond between the leader and the followers There is loyalty by the followers Inter-personal relationships among members of the group are better 67/MITSOT .g. Based on Hawthorne experiments by Elton Mayo and Associates Psychological factors play a vital role in organisational behaviour Extrinsic factors of motivation e. Traits Theory (by Ordway Tead and Chester Bernard) Behavioural Theories (by Stogdill. c. Katz and Kahn) Contingency Theories (Fiedler's theory. b. e. The Psychological stage This is the third stage of evolution of leadership based on the psychological factors in human behaviour. Path-Goal theory. It is a traditional theory It is based on the belief that ‘Leaders are born and not made' It is based on the assumption that physiological and psychological traits of leaders determine the success or failure of leadership a. Some of the major features of this approach are as follows: a. motivation. Some of the major features of this stage of leadership are as follows: a.Leadership c. c. c. Strengths a. Emergence of scientific management Efficiency as a function of working conditions Influence of material factors on behaviour c. e. etc. This theory is based on the assumption that leadership depends upon the traits of successful leaders. Rewards are more effective than punishment Participation ensures more commitment to the task 10. different management experts have developed various theories of leadership. d. b. c. Life-Cycle theory. it was believed that ‘Leaders are born'. d.Yetton theory) Leader-Member Exchange Theory Managerial Grid 10.

l. h. Initiating Structure Dimension: The degree to which the leader considers goal attainment vis-à-vis feelings of the people. i. Knowledge of the job/task Intelligence Self-respect Self-confidence Courage Logical thinking Rational/scientific judgement Decision-making Communication ability (oral and written) Creativity Initiative and drive Problem-solving ability High morale and motivation Positive attitude Authority and responsibility Flexibility in approach Conviction and commitment Impressive personality 10. m. o. p. b.6 Some traits of effective leadership a. k. which is based on human behavioural studies of different people in organisations. It believes that the success or failure of leadership depends not only upon the traits of the leader. the tasks and the feelings of the people. the leader and the followers. There is consideration for the behaviour of both.Organisational Behaviour b. 10. e. d. c. b. Strengths a. a. q. r. b. g. c. b.7 The Behavioural Theories This is the second approach to leadership. There is better planning and delegation of authority.8 The Two-Dimensional Model (Ohio State University) a. The traits are not exhaustive/universal There is a lack of consideration to the variety of internal situations There is a lack of consideration to other external variables There is a lack of scope for development of followers There is a possibility of exploitation of followers 10. Weaknesses a. but also upon the behaviour of the leaders and the followers in an organisational context. f. c. n. e. There is better team-building and group performance. There is consideration to both. d. j. Consideration Dimension: The degree to which the leader considers the feelings of the people vis-à-vis the task. d. There is better organising and utilisation of resources. 68/MITSOT . e.

10. e. c. f. there are 4 systems in which leaders operate. b. b. b. c. Goal setting is done in consultation with members Decision-making also by consultation with members Organisational communication is better Job involvement.Leadership b. f.9 Rensis Likert's 4-Systems approach According to Rensis Likert. e. c. d. f. rewards and punishment are fair Delegation of authority is with moderate control Good performance and productivity System 4: Participative Leadership a. b. e. d. These four systems can be briefly summarised as follows: System 1: Exploitative Autocratic Leadership a. e. Interpersonal relationships vary from time to time and task to task. d. e. Gap in perceptions of the leader and the followers may affect group performance. Organisational Behaviour is also a function of psychological factors. Group Dynamics play an important role. Goal setting and decision making are done by total participation by members Organisational communication is fairly wide-spread Participation results in involvement and co-operation There is extensive delegation of authority Fair control with positive discipline Performance is excellent 69/MITSOT . d. b. d. Inter-personal conflicts may affect group performance. f. The goal setting is centralised The decision making is also centralised The control on behaviour is too strict There is limited downward communication There is fear of punishment for disobedience There is lack of mutual trust System 2: Benevolent Autocratic Leadership a. Weaknesses a. c. c. Goal setting and decision-making mostly centralised Fair amount of downward communication There is punishment along with occasional rewards The control systems are mostly centralised Condescending mutual trust exists Better morale and motivation System 3: Consultative Leadership a.

b. Leader clarifies the path to the subordinates to achieve goals. Strengths a. Some of the major features of this approach are as follows: a. c. Leader position power: The degree to which the leader has the formal authority in his position in the organisation. Some of the major features of this approach are as follows: a. Task-structure relationship: The degree to which job descriptions are clear to all concerned members. performance and job satisfaction. Demands re-organisation of resources whenever the situation changes. b. Scope for training and development of new leaders. d. a. Leadership is a result of a particular situation. b. Leader’s behaviour is acceptable to subordinates so far as it is a source of inspiration and satisfaction.12 The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership (by Martin Evans and Robert House) a.11 The Contingency Theories (by Fred Fiedler) This approach is similar to the ‘Situational' approach in the sense that a contingency is an emergency situation which demands special qualities in the group and its leadership. A Leader in one situation may not be a leader in another situation. 10. b. Weaknesses a. there cannot be a universal prescription for leadership. Leadership is unstable and continues as long as the situation continues. Therefore.10 The Situational Theories This is a more practical oriented approach based on the assumption that situations vary from time to time and that every situation is different and demands different treatment by leaders. Leader-member relationship: The degree of acceptance of the leader by the members of the team. c. Leadership is a function of variables in a situation. Frequent changes in the situation af fect leadership and group performance. Team-building is temporary and needs change as the situation changes. c. 10. Leader’s behaviour has an impact on subordinates' motivation. b. a. Directive Leadership The leader gives directions to the subordinates who know exactly what is expected of him. Situational leaders are more effective. Planning is shor t term and ignores the long term ef fects on the organisation.Organisational Behaviour 10. 70/MITSOT . e. b. c.

d.13 The Life Cycle Theor y (by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard) This approach is based on research studies conducted by Hersey and Blanchard on leadership during the latter half of the 20th century. Supportive Leadership The leader is friendly. Task orientation and Relation orientation work together.1. ability and willingness to take responsibility. One of the most popular and widely practised theories.Leadership b. Some of the major features of this approach are as follows: a. b. approachable. Maturity. Figure 10. suppor tive. This theor y believes that the success of leadership depends upon the maturity level of the work group. c. Achievement Leadership The leader sets up challenging goals and shows confidence in his subordinates' ability to achieve goals. d. concerned with the subordinates' needs. Close similarity to the situational or contingency approach. c. The Hersey-Blanchard approach to leadership 71/MITSOT . Leadership style depends upon the maturity level of the work group. 10. Participative Leadership The leader asks for suggestions from subordinates before the decision-making. e.

decision maker. It provides for a strong centralised authority. c. May offer more complex problems of conflict management jeopardising organisational efficiency. negative motivation. c. It provides for better discipline.15 Democratic Leadership This leadership is based on the assumption that participation during the planning stage and in decision-making is the key to the success of leadership. d. Demerits a. It provides for better job satisfaction for mediocre subordinates.. afraid of exposure. It improves overall productivity due to better communication and co ordination in the group. e.14 Autocratic Leadership This leadership is based on the belief that authority is the basis for successful leadership. Generally this kind of leadership is disliked by subordinates because of an urge for participative decision-making . c. e. criticism for mistakes. Possible lack of motivation leading to frustration among subordinates. e. Strict Autocrat: strict discipline. b. It helps better organisational stability by reducing employee turnover. b. It encourages participation by members in decision making. appreciative. etc.Organisational Behaviour 10. c. Benevolent Autocrat: understanding employees. etc. Merits a. Decision-making is decentralised and allows sharing of responsibility. positive motivation. Some of the sub-classifications of autocratic leadership are as follows: a. indecisive.. In this case decision-making is centralised in the leader and the subordinates have to follow instructions. Incompetent Autocrat: lack of knowledge. penalties for disobedience. It permits quick decision-making. 72/MITSOT . lack of self-confidence. It encourages participation and thereby motivates followers. Appreciation of ideas and suggestions of members ensures motivation. 10. b. d. Lack of succession planning and development of the future leadership. b. It provides for better job security for subordinates. d. Merits a. Excessive dependence upon such leadership can cause loss of individual identity in an organisation.

Sometimes. by subordinates. There is a lack of guidance and direction by the leader . d. In other words. there are three basic functions of leadership summarised as follows: 73/MITSOT . d. There is lack of accountability. some employees may prefer an open tyranny of an autocrat. c. programmes and procedures. It helps team-work. in turn. 10. in modern business organisations. Merits a. discipline and control and responsibility for the quantity and quality of the output. c. c. There is no day to day interference by the leader. e. Consensus decision-making always takes time which. e. 10. Other functions like: decision making. f. It allows self-motivation and training. rather than covert tyranny of the group. g. Learning takes place by trial and error. b.16 Laissez-faire Leadership This leadership is based on the assumption that the leader is supposed to give only information and guidance to members of the group. There is a tendency to avoid responsibility. Demerits a. It allows sharing of responsibility. etc. it would be clear that organisational leadership has evolved through the 20th century and has attracted the attention of social scientists and human psychologists as well.Leadership Demerits a. There is poor discipline and control. f. irrespective of the fact that they belong to the manufacturing sector or to the ser vice sector. Group performance is more by accident rather by design. due to a lack of a thorough understanding of problems. Participation does not become meaningful in large and complex organisations. b. In case of emergencies. Similarly. delays the achievement of results. It helps inter-personal relationships among members. All the research and the resultant theories of leadership have given rise to three basic leadership styles as described above. are taken care of by the subordinates. Group members enjoy the freedom of decision making. decision making is difficult. Therefore.17 Functions of leadership From the above discussion. participation may be used to manipulate subordinates. the leader has a very minor role to play. b.

b. Australian Airlines. b. c.18 What is Team-building Twenty-five years ago. e. when the tasks require multiple skills. c. Setting standards Building team spirit Motivating the group Ensuring communication Training the group Maintaining discipline. etc. 74/MITSOT . Attending to personal problems Understanding individuals Utilising individual abilities Appreciating good performance Motivation towards higher contribution 10. John Deere. Shenandoah Life Insurance Co. Hewlett and Packard. judgement and varied experience. introduced teams in production shops it made news! It is because nobody was doing it. d. d. becomes news. Florida Power and Light.. etc. Toyota. Texas Instruments. Chrysler. Emerson Electric.Organisational Behaviour Task needs a. Apple Computers. Johnson & Johnson. e. Today it is just the opposite. Shiseido. Motorola. to name a few. d. which does not use teams. when companies like Volvo. The organisation. c. As organisations restructure themselves to compete more effectively. Dayton Hudson. How do we explain the current popularity of teams? Evidence shows that teams outper form individuals. e. Federal Express. f. they have turned to team building for better utilisation of the employee's talents. 3 M. b. Individual needs a. AT&T. General Foods. Pick up any business periodical today and you will find how teams have become an essential part of business organisations like: General Electric. Defining the task Making a plan Allocating work and resources Controlling quantity and quality Checking performance Group needs a. Teams are found to be more flexible and responsive to changes than individuals and the traditional departments of permanent work-groups.

Leadership An organisation. Thus. responsive and creative than traditional departments or any other forms of permanent work groups in an organisation. To utilise employee's talents collectively. To bring people together to work. According to Pauline Barrett: A team is NOT a. The other objectives are as follows: a. b. A collection of individuals who happen to have the same job in the same department. Therefore. 10. b. an individual manager cannot possibly achieve anything all alone by himself/ herself. To improve inter-personal relationships. Therefore. A collection of individuals who happen to have the same line manager. b. defining individual as well as group goals. especially when the task requires multidisciplinary knowledge. This calls for not only successful leadership in guidance and motivation. This is possible only if the manager succeeds in team building. a process of bringing together members of a work group. e. the main objective of leading a group of people in an organisation is to build effective teams. multiple skills. Success stories of modern business organisations show that work teams outperform individuals. To achieve organisational goals more efficiently and effectively. Identifying organisational goals clearly Providing necessary resources Undertaking actual task assignments Designing rewards/incentives for the results Providing whole-hearted support 75/MITSOT . He has to work with the people and get things done for the desired results. b. judgement and varied experience.20 The Pre-requisites for developing effective teams The following are the pre-requisites for developing effective teams: a. d. A collection of individuals who happen to have the same work place. It is also found that work teams are more flexible. c. but also an ability for team building of the subordinates. 10. e. d. To set goals and priorities more realistically. by definition. c. but a Manager must possess leadership qualities to manage his people and tasks in order to achieve desired results. and achieving the desired output. is a group of people who come together to achieve common goals. c. team building may be defined as: a. Team building utilises the employees' talents more efficiently and effectively. a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or a set of performance goals for which they hold themselves responsible.19 The main objectives of team building A leader may not possess managerial qualities. in modern business organisations.

There is a climate of mutual trust and support. Ensure provision of all resources. There is participation in decision-making. Encourage mutual respect. It improves inter-personal communication. b. There is a commitment to high performance standards. f.23 Values of a team The a. It encourages better creativity and innovation. The organisational communication channels are open. f. It expands job skills. Encourage commitment to hard work. f. 10. There is commitment of full contribution to the goals. j. e. It increases employee job satisfaction. g. following are the steps in the process of team building: Identification of the problem Collection of data Analysis of the data Planning action Implementation of decisions Evaluation and feedback 10. Individual differences are handled tactfully. Develop good inter-personal relationships. It ensures commitment to goals. f. c. There is a commitment to implementation of decisions. d. c.Organisational Behaviour 10. h. Procedures are consistent with the goals and tasks. following are the characteristics of effective teams: Goals and values are clear to all. Keep organisational communication channels always open. g. b. following are the values of a team: It helps members to understand goals clearly. d. It creates organisational flexibility. 76/MITSOT . d. Create a cordial and co-operative climate for sporting criticism. e. g. 10. There is a willingness to share data/information. e. Select the right number and the right type of people on the team. i. j. It helps to improve organisational efficiency. i. It improves employee motivation. j. h. Clarify objectives to all concerned.21 The process of team building The a. Develop a good leader for the team. b.22 Characteristics of effective teams The a. i. h. Prioritise problems and tasks. Set rational and realistic goals. c. k. c. d. b. e.24 Building effective teams a. It generates a better sense of belonging.

State whether the following are true or false A team is a collection of individuals who happen to have the same work place. 77/MITSOT . 2. The success and fortune of an organisation depends largely on leadership. The Traits Theory was developed by ___________ and ____________. Employees need to be motivated from time to time. There are several theories of leadership developed by management experts. 1. Self-assessment a. 1. The chapter also discusses the objectives. Leader-member relationship is a part of the Contingency Theory. Fill in the blanks The Dictatorial style of working is a feature of the ___________ stage of leadership. A good manager must be a good leader. 2. Strong centralised authority is one of the merits of _____________ leadership. b. and pre-requisites for teambuilding. Implementation of decisions is a process of team building. 3.Leadership Summing Up Every organisation needs management and management calls for leadership. 3.

Some people exhibit stress. etc. while some people keep it ‘bottled up' and do not reveal it.1 What is Stress? 11.2 What are the basic causes of stress? 11.Organisational Behaviour Chapter XI Stress Management Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand: • What is Stress? Its causes.3 Organisational stressors 11. which they cannot fulfil and which lead to a breakdown.1 What is Stress? Stress means different things to different people. while at the other end it is a life-destroyer.5 Psychological consequences of Stress 11. The word stress seems to have originated from the French word ‘destresse' which means ‘to be placed under narrowness or oppression'. stress represents those challenges.4 Physiological consequences of stress 11.7 Coping with stress 11. Doctors talk about stress in terms of psychological mechanisms. stress is a life-saver. ‘an individual's reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment’ 78/MITSOT .1 Individual strategies 11.1 Individual stressors 11.6 Stress management 11. consequences. which excite us and keep us on our toes. and if not prevented. sources • Stress Management • How to cope with stress ? Contents 11. Thus. at one end. At the other end of the scale. engineers in terms of load bearing. At one end of the scale. Stress can be prevented. stress represents those conditions under which individuals have demands made upon them.2 Organisational strategies Summing Up Self-assessment 11. psychologists in terms of behavioural changes. respectively. Stress may be defined as: a. Thus. In its middle english form.7. has to be managed properly. Stress is a natural and an inevitable part of life.7.3. It is accompanied by anxiety.3.3. Stress is not simply anxiety.3 Sources of Stress 11. leaving us with the two words: ‘stress' and ‘distress' which mean something ambivalent and unpleasant. it was therefore ‘distress' and over the centuries the ‘di' was lost through slurring.2 Group stressors 11.

potential stress becomes an actual stress. a. Stress can be manifested in different ways: sleeplessness. lack of concentration. When they are coupled with uncertainty of the outcome. e. psychological and other behavioural problems. 11. b. there are people who seem to have the ability to adjust. people who are chronically overstressed. cope with and to stay in control of their workload and also to handle job frustrations without becoming worn-out. apprehensions. head-aches. They may become irritable. loss of interest. h. External demands / Expectations What are the demands? Are they real or virtual? What are the sources of the demands? Can we control them? If yes. having ways of taking the rough with the smooth. c. b. which is often a motivator since it helps the individual to achieve peak performance. a. lack of energy.Stress Management b. loss of self-confidence. On the contrary. c. b. ‘an adaptive response to an external situation that results into physiological. These people have an ability to handle stress. where competing demands and pressures cannot be escaped. etc. backaches. Stress is said to be positive when the situation offers an opportunity to gain something. and renewing their energy and resources so that work life brings pleasure. loss of memory. anxiety. miserable and self-absorbed. d. psychological and behavioural deviations' Stress can manifest itself in both a positive and a negative way. satisfaction and reward to them as well as to others. are no fun to work with. f. a. Eustress is positive stress. keeping a sense of humour. loss of appetite.2 What are the basic causes of stress? Stress is always associated with ‘demands' and ‘constraints'. d. high blood pressure. Distress is negative stress when it is associated with a host of physiological. For many professions. Thus. stress is intrinsic to the job itself. how' and to what extent? What are the strengths and weaknesses in the demands? What are the opportunities and threats in the demands? What would happen if the demands are not met? Personal capacities How do we react to the demands? Is it necessary to modify our reactions to the demands? Can we differentiate between the real and virtual demands? Can our reactions/responses benefit us in the long run? 79/MITSOT . indecisiveness. g. Demands can be called strong expectations and expectations can be called mild demands. tension. irritable or depressed.

Unrealistic task demands: Job design. excessive demands v/s limited personal capacity. unrealistic goals/ targets. shortage of essential staff. In order to be successful in managing day-today stress. it is necessary to understand the major sources of stress. At times.Organisational Behaviour When the demand is way below the capacity. But. lack of proper training. Many times too much of stress can have serious consequences for the individual. poor self-image. feeling under-valued feeling unable to say ‘No' to any demand and not working productively. organisational stress comes from some common sources. Lack of authority: inability to take decisions. informal groups/grapevine. non-cooperative peers/colleagues. lack of adequate working capital. we may feel over-stretched. training. lack of delegation. sense of belonging. 11. Individual stressors Group stressors Organisational stressors 11. job evaluation.3 Organisational stressors a. too much interference. Poor interpersonal relationships : very strong/unsympathetic/ dominating boss.3. social support. etc. job analysis. etc. 11. feeling of powerlessness. Poor leadership: lack of self-confidence. etc. lack of communication facilities. inter-group conflicts. c. It can develop into a living nightmare of running faster and faster to stay at the same place. Role conflicts: lack of role clarity. b. lack of appreciation. b.3 Sources of stress There are many sources of individual stress. c.1 Individual stressors a.2 Group stressors a. intra-personal/inter-personal role conflicts. ethical dilemmas. b. b. lack of infrastructural facilities. Intra-organisational factors: improper organisational structure. 80/MITSOT . the sheer volume of work can be overwhelming. etc. vision. Some of them are ‘on-the-job' while some others are ‘off-the-job'.3. etc. hostile subordinates. decision-making. etc.3. team building Perfectionism: unrealistically high expectations. inflexible superiors. d. role overloading. Group dynamics: lack of group cohesiveness. insistence on working with zero defects. 11. rumours. When the demand is way above the capacity. which can be broadly classified as follows: a. we may feel under-stimulated. etc. The sources of personal stress may vary from person to person and time to time. Managing stress is to balance between external demands and your personal capacity to cope with them.

Lack of organisational communication: lack of proper systems. etc. b. i. lack of planning. training. frequent changes in policy. review and revision. poor promotional value of the job. lack of proper job evaluation. g. f. b) a. d. ventilation. etc. which happens automatically. h. priorities. f. b. etc. They gear up the body to respond to challenges. too many meetings. i. 11. Short-term ef fects Speeding up of reflexes Improved performance Increased muscle function Lower load for the digestion system Stomach troubles Cooling of muscles Increased breathing rate Reduced sensitivity to minor injuries Reduction in allergic reactions Reduced sexual desire/activity Long-term effects Loss of weight High/Low Blood pressure Delayed blood clotting Cardiovascular disorders Arteriosclerosis Exhaustion 81/MITSOT . e. d. etc. d. etc. social status of the job.Stress Management c. c. too rigid rules and regulations. clarity of goals. either by standing firmly on the ground and hitting back hard or by prompt and strategic withdrawal. This is called the ‘Fight' or ‘Flight' response. Some of the common physiological consequences of stress may be briefly summarised as follows: a) a. g. etc. Unnecessar y/outdated procedures: too much and unnecessary paper work. grapevine/rumours Unscientific per formance appraisal system: lack of scientific systems. j. f. proper control.4 Physiological consequences of stress The body's reactions to stress-demands are useful. adequate data. The human body has evolved over thousands of years to meet external threats and challenges. frequent emergencies. rationality. e. Uncertainty and insecurity : lack of job security. Unsatisfactor y working conditions: inordinately long working hours. illumination. excessive noise/heat. lack of natural sunlight. e. too many records and returns. Unclear job descriptions: lack of proper job analysis. c. h. Poor career prospects: organisational status of the job. too much bureaucracy. interference with natural circadian rhythm. unpredictable changes.

Organisational Behaviour

g. h. i. j. k. l.

Heart attack Diabetes Damage to the kidneys Lower resistance of the immune system Depression in sensory perceptions/responses Impotency/Sterility

11.5 Psychological consequences of stress It is observed that the physiological effects of stress have a co-relation with the psychological effects and vice-versa. Some of the common psychological consequences of stress may be briefly summarised as follows: a) Cognitive effects a. Decrease in concentration resulting in diminishing powers of observation, b. Increase in distractibility resulting in loss of the thread of the thinking process, c. Deterioration of memory in the short, as well as long term reducing the span of the memory for recalling and recognition of even familiar things, d. Reduction in the response speed, e. Increase in error rate resulting in snap and hurried decisions and errors in manipulative and cognitive tasks, f. Deterioration in planning and organising, disabling the mind to assess accurately existing and future conditions, g. Increase in delusions and thought disorders resulting into reduced, powers of objectivity, reality testing and a confused thought process. b) Emotional effects a. b. c. d. e. Increase in tension, reducing the ability to relax by switching off worries and anxiety, Increase in Hypochondria: imaginary complaints and lack of feeling of well-being and good health, Changes in personality traits: indifferent attitude, untidy and slipshod, over-anxiety, over-sensitivity, hostility, defensiveness, etc. Moral and emotional behaviour: sexual behaviour, emotional outbursts, lower spirits, a sense of powerlessness, etc. Fall in self-esteem: a feeling of incompetence, worthlessness, lack of status in groups or the society at large, etc.

c) Behavioural effects a. b. Increase in problems of speech: stuttering, stammering, hesitancy, etc. Diminishing interest and enthusiasm: abandoning short-term goals and life objectives, dropping of hobbies, disposing of cherished possessions, drop in energy levels, etc. Increase in absenteeism: real or imaginary illnesses, false excuses, etc. Increase in drug abuse: alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, etc. Disturbance in sleep patterns: either lack of sleep or disturbed sleep.

c. d. e.


Stress Management

f. g. h. i. j.

Cynicism: an increasing tendency to be over-critical and sarcastic about superiors, colleagues, clients, customers, events, etc. Ignorance of new developments: new people, new systems, new methods, new products, new technology are ignored. Superficial problem-solving: temporar y and stop-gap solutions are offered, lack of detailed thinking, lack of follow-up, a ‘giving-up' tendency. Lack of self -confidence: decrease in confidence level, avoiding responsibilities or passing the buck, etc. Unexpected and bizarre behavioural patterns: odd mannerisms, unpredictable and uncharacteristic behaviour, use of meaningless phrases, threats of suicide.

Physiological and psychological effects of stress go hand-in-hand and are complementary. They vary from organisation to organisation, situation to situation, time to time and person to person. It is found that some people collapse at the first signs of stress, while others have a great strength to cope with a very high level of stress and do not show any symptoms. We can learn from such people, the secrets of their success in coping with stress and avoiding a breakdown in their personalities. 11.6 Stress management It is not possible to eliminate stress completely from our day-to-day working life. But, it is, possible (and also necessary) that we learn to manage stress and its effects on our body and mind. In this process, we have to cope with stress and to keep the physiological and psychological effects at minimum levels to avoid their ill effects on our performance. This process is called Stress Management, which consists of mainly 3 stages: a. Mobilisation Mobilisation is a simple decision to do something. There is always a better way of doing things. Studies show that more than 60% of the people who find their jobs stressful have no stress management programme of any kind, because they fail to recognise this fact of life. We must understand this basic rule to cope, with stress and mobilise ourselves with changed ways of looking at life. b. Knowledge Knowledge of the problem and the sources of stress is the key to stress management. It is said that ‘a problem well-defined is half-solved'. We must ask ourselves: What is the real problem? What are the stressors? What is the main source of stress? Are those unmanageable? What must be done about them? What is preventing me from doing something about the excessive stress? c. Action This is the final stage in stress management. If things which are preventing us from doing them, are within our control, we have to decide whether the


Organisational Behaviour

action should be immediate or in future. If things are beyond our control, we may have to ignore or adapt to the stressors. Of course, our action depends upon the intensity and the source of the stressors. 11.7 Coping with stress Stress can be managed mainly by the following strategies: 11.7.1 Individual strategies a. Time management Most of us are poor in time management with the resultant feeling of work overload, skipping schedules and the attendant tension. The truth is that, if we can manage our time efficiently and effectively, we can accomplish twice as much as we can otherwise. Some of the basic principles of time management are: a. Preparing a list of the daily activities to be attended to, b. Prioritising the activities as per their importance and urgency, c. Re-scheduling activities as per priorities, d. Following up the schedule of activities for early completion, e. Checking up activities and taking corrective actions (if necessary). It is observed that effective time management results in: better physical health, better mental health, relaxed feeling in action, higher motivation and enthusiasm, higher efficiency, better job satisfaction, etc. b. Physical exercise It is rightly said that ‘there is a sound mind in a sound body '. Physical exercise at any age is a must. It helps people to cope with stress. It is for this reason that people of all ages are seen taking a morning walk, jogging, swimming, playing outdoor games like badminton, tennis, etc. c. Relaxation There are many ways of relaxation at the end of a hectic day of work and stress. We can relax through meditation, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, etc. Whatever the method, the main objective is that one must be deeply relaxed, where the person feels totally relaxed from body sensations. At least 15 to 20 minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a pronounced a sense of peace of mind. This practice causes significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, sleep, concentration, memory, etc. d. Social support Man is a social animal. After the basic needs and security needs are satisfied, an individual needs social support with a sense of belonging. It is observed that social support plays an important role in relieving stress of the individual, because the person gets friends, colleagues, listeners, and confidence builders who help in networking and thus relieving harmful stress. This also helps to control the ill effects of stress, by virtue of giving vent to one's feelings,


Recruitment/Selection/Placement Certain jobs are more stressful than others in an organisation. job enrichment. b. with a least stressful environment for all. job descriptions. grapevine. job analysis. c. so that they can be better prepared to take up stressful jobs. Organisational Communication This consists of various factors like: oral and written communication. All these factors contribute to the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. 11. The organisational structure should be simple to understand and easy to follow. Individuals differ in their response to stress situations. job rotation. it is advisable that Yoga and Meditation should be followed under expert guidance for the maximum benefits for reduction stress. help to reduce work stress. Individuals with comparatively less experience with an external locus of control tend to be more stress prone. There are many different aspects of Yoga. networking. On the contrary. fears and frustrations to others. Too many levels of hierarchy and too much bureaucracy in dayto-day working can cause avoidable stress for all employees at all levels. etc. who can understand and possibly try help him/her out. job evaluation. Yoga Yoga is said to be the most effective way to relieve stress. e. 85/MITSOT . job specifications. etc. communication. when equally open for all employees. work-study. It is necessary to give some kind of induction training to new employees in order to orient them to the new organisational culture. downward.2 Organisational Strategies a. These factors should be borne in mind while recruiting people. Yoga has been used in many countries for centuries. which in turn af fect the employees in their work related stress. However.Stress Management emotions. upward and lateral communication. which are said to be ver y useful to manage work-stress. are some of the modern tools and techniques for attracting and retaining good employees in an organisation. interpersonal and inter-group communication. Job related activities Job re-design. job enlargement. d. Organisational communication with downward and upward channels.7. Organisational Structure Organisational structure should be properly designed in order to have appropriate authority-responsibility relationships among employees. people with more experience with an internal locus of control may adapt better to high stress jobs with a better performance. It helps to have smooth organisational communication for faster decision making.

which can be caused by apprehensions about changes if any.Organisational Behaviour e. in others headache. b. This helps to reduce the number of stressed employees and others may be relieved to some extent. c. so that they are updated in their knowledge. loss of memory. f. By this process. scientific and periodic performance appraisal system in force for all employees. Both these are skilled and sensitive jobs and need qualified and competent staff to do the job of counselling successfully. Stress can manifest in many ways. etc. Employee Counselling Employee counselling can be classified in two parts: on-the-job counselling and off-the-job counselling. The causes of stress are physical and often psychological. 86/MITSOT . Mediocre/below average performers should be given a clear idea for their need for improvement within a stipulated time limit. Summing Up In a highly complex and demanding world today. For some it causes sleeplessness. The objectives of employee counselling can be three-fold: a. but also in terms of improvement in overall organisational productivity. high blood pressure. There are individual and organisational strategies. g. Extraordinary performers should be rewarded extraordinarily. at least from unnecessary and avoidable stress. most people are highly stressed. to improve overall organisational efficiency to reduce employee stress. Training and Development Appropriate training and development programmes should be organised for employees at all levels from time to time. This automatically reduces the possibilities of stressful situations. Average performers should be given counselling and necessary training inputs for improvement. and to improve employee efficiency Employee counselling. Performance Appraisal There should be a systematic. It is very important to know how one can cope with stress. It also leads to irritability and low self-esteem. can yield very good results not only in terms of reducing employee stress. loss of appetite. both the management and the employees know as to how well they are doing and how well they should do. This helps both the management and the employees to reduce the gap between job requirements on the one hand and capabilities of the employees on the other. if properly done. A careful study of these strategies can sufficiently arm you to manage stress in your personal and professional life. skills and attitudes towards their jobs and the organisation.

and if not prevented. Stress is always associated with ______________ and _______________. 5. 1. 3. Increase in absenteeism. Employee counselling should be given priority in every organisation. 2. Yoga is said to be the most effective way to relieve ______________. 3. Stress can manifest itself in a _______________ and a ___________ way. 87/MITSOT .Stress Management Self-assessment a. 4. 1. Sources of _________ stress may vary from individual to individual and time to time. has to be managed properly. real or imaginary illness. 2. 4. To manage stress it is not necessary to understand the problems. 5. b. Performance appraisal of an employee should be done once every two years. State whether the following are true or false Stress can be prevented. Fill in the blanks ___________________ is positive stress. false excuses are psychological consequences of stress.

you begin to ponder the basic difference between them. “I don't know”. replies Kulkarni with an obvious note of irritation in his voice. to the point where you can now predict the exact lines Joshi and Kulkarni will utter. while Kulkarni so bold and daring? What makes them see the world through such different eyes? You continue thinking about questions as the meeting drags on and on. Mr.Organisational Behaviour Annexure I Case Study I It's Thursday afternoon. “We'll never get anything if we simply wait. and you are at a staff meeting held to discuss the development of a new product. As usual. says Joshi. 88/MITSOT . You have to take chances sometimes.” The discussion continues.” “Oh.. and on…. two officers in the product development division have totally opposite views on the issue. As you sit listening to their statements. so the conversation is quite intense. Joshi and Mr. You have withnessed this same scene over again. Why is Joshi so conservative and cautious. and market research on product acceptance is pretty high. with Joshi urging caution and Kulkarni pushing for boldness. come on Joshi”. you know. It will require a major investment in terms of equipment and production facilities. Kulkarni. “it's a big chunk of money.

But just for a couple of days”. you think as you look up from your desk. You know this is the peak of our busy season!” “Well. he says cheerfully. We are way behind on that Satara project. “O.Annexure Annexure II Case Study 2 “Oh no”. “I can't possibly spare them now. I need your help. Then all at once. Gandhi and Dalvi to join our group for a couple of weeks?'’ You are shocked. finally. “Hello Vijay”. says “thanks”. This is more like it. After he leaves. “how is my favourite engineer today?” For a couple of minutes. “If you can't spare all three. You certainly haven't seen the limit yet ! 89/MITSOT . settle for a little” tactics. At these words. and beats a hasty retreat.” he says. Ajay. Ajay greets you with a big smile. “It's Ajay Godbole. Ajay smiles.K. he comes to the point. “Look Vijay. you sit quietly for a moment. “Oh no. what a request. it hits you : he has done it again ! When will you ever learn ? Ajay sets you up beautifully with him “ask for a lot. “I guess we can spare him. Here comes trouble”. you and Ajay exchange small talk and then. how about Gandhi for just a couple of days?” You experience great relief.” you mumble without much enthusiasm. How about sending Deshpande. (Just how many ways does he know of getting what he wants). Unaware of your thoughts.’’ you reply.

A major one occurred during your first staff meeting. But are you going to like it over a long haul? Can you adjust to this different work culture. one that is well known in the Mumbai-Pune industrial area.D. it has turned out just as you expected. at one point. after an uncomfortable pause. 90/MITSOT . it is submitted to the Chairman and Managing Director. you realise that there have been some real surprises. This is called sending your proposal through the proper channels. In some ways. then we forward such a proposal for approval to the Deputy General Manager. the Divisional Manager set you straight. In short. Just six weeks ago. After his approval it is sent to the General Manager and the G. further sends it to the Executive Director. the meeting ground to a halt and everyone stared at you in disbelief. Several issues were discussed and. Your salary is high. you accepted a position with a large public sector company. In this new company. you have to explain the situation in detail and the reasons for your decision. we don't do things that way around here. This is a new pattern for you and will certainly require some adjustment. Finally. But looking back over your first month. Joshi. You have to submit the same before a committee and if it is accepted by the members of the committee. To your surprise.and as you ease into your company bus on the national highway and head for home. and the company's brand new headquarters are very pleasant. it is processed further to take the approval of highest authority. First we discuss the matter in the staff meeting and prepare a proposal which is agreed collectively.’’ In other companies where you have worked. “listen. you had sufficient freedom and authority to take decisions and implement these as early as you wished.Organisational Behaviour Annexure III Case Study 3 Today marks the end of your first month in a new job.M. accepts the proposal. When the E.Decisions are taken only in this manner. You are still pondering over such questions as you turn into the driveway of your home. you have discovered that working for a Public Sector Company really is different. you find yourself thinking about your new position. you described a decision you had reached on handling a special problem. too.

has a Western India Divisional office at Mumbai and a branch at Pune. Rajesh. The team worked overtime and the very next day that is Wednesday afternoon. I know the President would want to know this during our meeting on Friday. the branch manager. a team of seven members started working on the assigned task. We need it all within two days.’’ Shweta on the other hand informed Mr. “find out how many people work in our Pune branch. Ashish promptly passed on the message to Rahul. Pune branch that the President wants personnel records of all the branch employees to be sent to the Divisional office at the earliest. an Electronic company having its multi-locational branches and headquarters at Delhi. he only wanted Ashish to let him know the total number of employees in Pune. Pai. 2. the data arrived at the Divisional office in two large boxes sent by special courier. Mr. Immediately.Annexure Annexure IV Case Study 4 Remcon Limited. Is it a case of distortion in communication ? Give a suitable name to the case. The original query was turned into a huge project involving many people. told Ashish. 1. and I want to be prepared”. Pai was astonished to see the arrival of this consignment. Read the case and discuss the implications. On Tuesday morning Mr. the Secretary. Within half an hour. Rahul called the Pune branch and told Shweta the Secretar y there. which is around three hundred fifty six. “our president has asked for a complete list of all the people who work in our in Pune branch. 3. the Divisional Manager. 91/MITSOT .

Salunke on the other hand pressed Mr. he would be willing to join back immediately and didn't want to lose his permanent job. 1. A few weeks later the HR Manager.Organisational Behaviour Annexure V Case Study 5 In Pune. The grapevine report also stated that Gaikwad was earning some extra money on this electrical project. Gaikwad said that his wife had called him that evening and told him that at the local supermarket. which was higher than his present regular earning. Mr. If under the contract of employment. Mr. Mr. and this was to be mailed to Mr. 3. he dictated a “Notice of hearing concerning dismissal action” to his secretar y. 2. and the penalty for such an act could lead to his dismissal. Can you trace any evidence in this case that both the management and employees make use of the grapevine for their own benefit? Discuss. Gaikwad called Mr. Gaikwad has actually taken leave to work for another construction project at Satara. Salunke investigated the case in person and ensuring that the grapevine information was correct. Gaikwad to tell him how he knew about his dismissal notice. Salunke up at his residence and told him that he had heard of the notice of dismissal being sent to him. a maintenance employee. this was not acceptable. If you were in Mr. His act of taking leave for personal reasons and working for another organisation for any hidden purpose was contrar y to the contract of employment with the Horizon Construction Company. Gaikwad by Registered Post to his local residence. What action should Salunke take in this case ? Discuss. Mr. Mr. Gaikwad of the Horizon Construction Company had applied for three months leave of absence for personal reasons. The same night. as it was in accordance with the Company as well as Union policy. Salunke’s place. Mr. The request was granted. 92/MITSOT . would you be able to suppress such grapevine leaks. and he actually did the additional job to get some extra money which he needed. he was not aware of the legal implications. Salunke heard through grapevine that Mr. the mother of their friend's son had told her about this dismissal order.

Rahul does an adequate job and is very conscientious. He does well whatever has been assigned to him. Despite having the burden of his own family and ailing parents. Rakesh and Rajni report to him. He is so far allowed to have his own way as long as he meets the minimal standard of performance. The previous boss also felt that Rakesh never seemed to be satisfied and was always interested more in fringe benefits.” Money motivates him and he is always ready to change his job for a rise in his income. but all attempts to get him to do more have failed. He has good interpersonal relationships and is liked by others.Annexure Annexure VI Case Study 6 After successful completion of management education. Nikhil has been selected by a company and made in-charge of a department where Rahul. In his present job he will happily work for even sixty hours a week if he is compensated well with money. Anil. His former employer remarked that while he performed excellently in his job. He sincerely believes that the job is simply a means of financing his family's basic needs and nothing more than that. he was arrogant. Rakesh has a forceful and driving personality. He maintains a high degree of loyalty to his organisation. adamant and argumentative and so was happy to get rid of him. He is unable to maintain good interpersonal relationships. The key of the success of his department is dependent upon the motivation of his subordinates and Nikhil needs to ensure that his subordinates are highly motivated. He. He has a higher than average record of absenteeism. He does not tend to do anything independently. 93/MITSOT . Unlike Rahul he responds well to the company's rules etc. Anil is in many respects the opposite of Rahul. He enjoys family life enormously and his wife and their only son are central to his life. He is of the opinion that what the company can offer him does not inspire him at all. Overall. His greatest drawback is that he lacks initiative. as he is shy and not very assertive when dealing with people outside the department. Rahul is the type of employee who is rather hard to figure out. he has prepared a brief summary profile on each of these four subordinates. Rakesh is very assertive and known for his ‘‘job-hopping tendencies. He has personal charm and his nature is friendly and sociable. Otherwise he really works hard for the company and expects that the company should fulfil his desire for money. on his part has decided to proceed systematically and as a first step. he once left his job suddenly only due to a dispute that he was not given a salary rise as per his desire. but is neither creative nor dependable on his own. He constantly needs the assurance and support of his seniors to confirm that his actions are correct.

she disposes with innovative and creative ideas.Organisational Behaviour Rajani is creative. Rajani lacks a sense of humour and has sharp up-swings and down-swings to her moods. She consistently and constantly craves attention and demands praise from others. As long as others praise her. She is highly self-centred and strives for instant gratification of her needs and desires. What long-term plans can you suggest to Nikhil for motivating all these four subordinates? 4. 1. 3. On the other hand she is excessively emotional. In accordance with the above profiles of the four employees. Suggest a suitable name to the case. She bears an exaggerated sense of self-importance and tends to live in a dream world. She talks only about herself. artistic and a genius. 2. how should Nikhil proceed further in his task and keep his subordinates highly motivated. Her moody temperament heavily af fects her day-to-day performance. She likes to grab all the credits for every success and in case of any failure she tries to push the responsibility on to other colleagues. 94/MITSOT . It is difficult for other people to get along with Rajani especially when she is not made the focus of their attention. Explain all the four employees’ motivation in terms of various models of motivation.

Explain classification of values. 4. 5. Describe various approaches to organisational behaviour. 4. 2. 5. 5. 3. 4. How can changes be implemented in the organisational culture? Chapter IV Perception and Values 1. 2. Distinctly dif ferentiate between various models of organisational behaviour. 3. Define perception and explain its process. Define organisational design and explain its dimensions. Chapter V Attitude 1. 3. What are the factors that affect perception? What do you understand by the perceptual skill? Explain. What are the major factors that influence an organisation? What do you understand by an organisation? What are the different classifications of an organisation? Why is the study of organisational behaviour important to all managers? Chapter II Approaches and Models of Organisational Behaviour 1. 3. 95/MITSOT . Chapter III Organisational Design and Culture 1. 2. 2. Define attitude and explain its characteristics. Explain the factors that affect organisational culture. Describe the interrelationship between ‘Personal Life' and ‘Work Life'. Define Organisational behaviour and explain it's fundamental concepts. Explain the different factors that affect organisational redesigning. Define values and explain their sources. 4. 5. What is organisational culture? Explain its characteristics. 2. What are the different models of organisational behaviour? Diagrammatically explain the SOBC model of organisational behaviour. What do you understand by organisational structure? Explain the different types of organisational structures.Study Questions Study Questions Chapter I Organisational Behaviour 1. Explain various components of attitude.

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs. Chapter VII Morale and Motivation 1. 5. 4. 2. 3. 5. Define conflict and explain its sources. 4. What do you understand by ‘locus of control’? Explain its attributes. Explain with a diagram. 5. What do you understand by Interpersonal Relationships? Explain. 3. What are the various factors that are involved in a conflict? Explain. What are the various approaches to interpersonal relationships? Explain factors that influence interpersonal relationships. What are the various indicators of morale in an organisation? What suggestions do you have to improve morale? What is motivation? Describe its mechanism. 3. What are the various theories of attitude? Explain various factors that affect attitude. What are the various types of conflict? 3. Explain the significance of attitude in organisational behaviour. Chapter VIII Group Dynamics 1. Define personality and explain its determinants. 5. 2. What are the various stages of group development? Explain different factors of group dynamics. Describe the Johari Window and explain how it resolves interpersonal behaviour. 2. What do you understand by the two-factor theor y? Explain with comparison to Maslow's theory. 4. 4. 2. What are the various need patterns? What do you understand by the personality test? Describe at least two tests. 5. Chapter IX Conflict Management 1.Organisational Behaviour 3. Chapter VI Personality 1. What are the various types of personality? Explain. Explain various methods of managing conflict. 96/MITSOT . 4.

3. 2. 3. Explain the various functions of leadership. What is team building and what are its objectives? Chapter XI Stress Management 1. Define Leadership and explain its importance in a business organisation. 4. Describe the Heresy Blanchard model of leadership with the help of a diagram. Describe the psychological effects of stress. 2. What is stress? Explain various sources of stress. 5. 4. Explain the physiological effects of stress. State various theories of leadership and explain any two of them.Study Questions Chapter X Leadership 1. What are the individual strategies in managing stress? 97/MITSOT .

1. leadership b. 1. false true true true true true false Chapter II Approaches and Models of Organisational Behaviour a. people 2. 2. true 3. 1. resources. 7. true 3. thought process 3. 1. authority 3. 4. 6. 1. bottom 2. 5. False 98/MITSOT . commodities 2. interdependent 4. 3. true 2. True Chapter III Organisational Design and Culture a. false 4.Organisational Behaviour Answers to Self-assessment Chapter I Organisational Behaviour a. caused 4. true 2. organisation chart b. human resources b. top. 1.

Instrumental b. false 99/MITSOT . false 4. true 4. Intensity 5. 1. false Chapter VI Personality a. true 2. 1. Extremity b. 1. feel 2. balance theory 3. true 5. type A 3. true 3. attitude 4. 1. false 3. Affective b. true 5. 1. true 2. personality 3.Answers to Self-assessment Chapter IV Perception and values a. continuous 4. A custom 2. false 2. false 3. 1. perception 2. Self-monitoring 4. true 4. false Chapter V Attitude a.

True 100/MITSOT . 1. true 4. 1. time 5. inter-personal behaviour b. false 3. 1. inevitable 3. democratic 2. 1. Liberal B. false 3. true 4. motivation 3. group 3. objective 2. true Chapter VIII Morale and Motivation a. 1. morale 2. true 5. Goals 4. five 5. false 5. false 3. content-oriented b. natural. needs 4. 1. false Chapter IX Conflict Management a. true 2. true 2. true 2.Organisational Behaviour Chapter VII a.

coercive 2. stress 4. personal b. true 5. 1. positive. Eustress 2. true 3. negative 5. 1. 1. constraints 3. demands. Chester Bernard 3. true 2. false 2. Ordway Tead. autocratic b.Answers to Self-assessment Chapter X Leadership a. true Chapter XI Stress Management a. 1. true 3. false 101/MITSOT . false 4.

4.Stephen Robbins Organisational Behaviour . 2.Hellriegel and Slocum 102/MITSOT . Ashwathapa Organisational Behaviour .K. 3.Keith Davis Organisational Behaviour .Organisational Behaviour Further Reading 1. 5. Organisational Behaviour .Fred Luthans Organisational Behaviour .

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