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Refrigeration body, by the application of external work” (or heat).

• “refrigeration is the transfer of energy in the form of heat from a colder to a hotter • a refrigerator is most often a reversed ‘heat engine’:

• common methods of refrigeration include:
1. 2. 3. 4. 3.1 the vapour compression cycle the gas compression cycle absorption cycle thermoelectric cycle Definitions

3.1.1 The coefficient of performance (COP)

• the ‘coefficient of performance’ ( COP ) of a heat pump or refrigerator is analogous
to the thermal efficiency ( ηth ) of a heat engine; both quantities define ‘what you get for what you have to put in’

• for a heat engine we ‘get’ work output W , and we have to ‘put in’ heat Q2 (usually
in the form of a combusting fuel) to do so. Thus, from the figure above: work out W ηth = = heat in Q2

• the useful effect of the refrigerator is the removal of heat from the cold space i.e.
what we ‘get’ is Q1 and we have to ‘put in’ work W (usually from a compressor). Thus, heat removed Q1 COPrefrig = = work required W

• conversely, the useful effect of the heat pump is the addition of heat to a hot
space i.e. we ‘get’ Q2 for ‘putting in’ work input W . Thus, heat supplied Q2 W + Q1 = = = 1 + COPrefrig COPheat pump = work required W W

1.3. 1 ton = 12000 Btu / h = 3.2 Refrigerating effect and capacity • the ‘refrigerating effect’ q ( J / kg ) is the heat removed per unit mass flow of refrigerant. • the ‘ton’ is an imperial unit that is still common.517 kW 3. It is defined as “1 ton of refrigeration equals the heat transfer required to convert 2000lbm of water at 0°C to ice at 0°C in 24 hours”.2 Simple vapour compression refrigeration cycle condensable working fluid: • the simple vapour compressior refrigeration cycle is a reversed Carnot cycle for a • with T − s diagram: • where: 1→2 2→3 3→4 4→1 isentropic (reversible adiabatic) compression isothermal heat rejection (condensation) isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expansion isothermal heat absorption (evaporation) . • the refrigerating capacity Q ( W ) is the rate of heat removal.

A throttle is approximately an isenthalpic device since.e. Practical vapour compression refrigeration cycle make two modifications to it: 3. the heat transfer in the evaporator is reduced i. This is very difficult to achieve in practice. the expander is replaced by a throttling valve. the fluid is fully evaporated leaving the evaporator. because the compression of wet mixtures is very difficult to implement mechanically. from the SFEE (and neglecting the kinetic energy terms): q − w = ∆h =0 =0 2. this cycle is impractical because process 1 → 2 involves the compression of a mixture of liquid and gas until all the liquid has evaporated.• even allowing for nonisentropic compression and expansion. so the compressor handles only a gas • since throttling creates entropy. we • with T − s diagram: • the two modifications to the simple cycle are: 1.3 • in order avoid the practical difficulties of the simple vapour compression cycle. .

compressor work is increased . throttling is inherently irreversible as is ‘real’ compression 3. increasing the heat absorbed in the evaporator.h1 − h4 < h1 − ha • for a given pressure ratio. Thus. the cooling effect is increased. condensation is no longer isothermal 2. 2. 3. the compressor work is larger than for the simple cycle because the compressor delivers a superheated gas • the cycle COP is less than the COP for the equivalent ideal reversed Carnot cycle since: 1.4 Undercooling & superheating • this is a similar concept to the regenerative gas turbine: • with T − s diagram: • note: 1. condensate from the condenser is cooled. vapour is superheated before compression. thus ensuring that no liquid exists in the compressor.

the P − h diagram shows that: q41 + wc = q32 • it follows that the COP of various devices can be determined: COPrefrig = COPheat pump = q41 q41 = wC q23 − q41 q23 q23 q +q −q = = 41 23 41 = COPrefrig + 1 wC q23 − q41 q23 − q41 . the practical vapour compression refrigeration cycle is comprised of two (ideally) isobaric heat transfer processes (condensation & evaporation) and one isenthalpic process (throttling) • from the SFEE.5 P-h diagram condenser q23 and evaporator q41 heat transfer and the compressor work wc are easily read off the charts.3. • the P − h diagram is often used when studying refrigeration cycles because the • the P − h diagram for the practical vapour compression cycle is: • as is shown. and neglecting the kinetic energy terms (note that we have broken the sign convection and made all terms positive in order to simplify the maths): quantity compressor work condenser heat transfer evaporator heat transfer throttling ( h3 = h4 ) q 0 q23 = h2 − h3 q41 = h1 − h4 w wc = h2 − h1 0 0 0 0 • also.

Trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) – ‘Freon 11’ or ‘R11’ Dichlorodifluoromethane (CF2Cl2) – ‘Freon 12’ or ‘R12’ monofluorodichloromethane (CHFCl2) – ‘Freon 21’ or ‘R21’ methylchloride (CH3Cl) triflourotrichloroethane (C2F3Cl3) – ‘Freon 113’ or ‘R113’ Tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3) – ‘Freon 134a’ or ‘R134a’ • in order to protect the ozone layer.3. Safety in charging. For tracing leaks. • the working fluid within the refrigeration cycle is referred to as a ‘refrigerant’. ammonia (NH3) 2. Avoid oil contamination Avoid poisoning. Good None low • examples of common inorganic refrigerants: 1. No freezing Avoid air leaks into the system. sulphur dioxide (SO2) • examples of common organic refrigerants: 1. Convenient handling.6 Refrigerants Refrigerants should have the following properties: property Critical temperature Freezing temperature Saturation pressure Evaporation enthalpy Specific volume Stability Thermal conductivity Solubility Toxicity/ Irritancy Non-Flammable Detectability Ozone depletion Cost desired > condenser temperature Low Above atmospheric High Low Good High Low Low explanation To approach the Carnot cycle and hence achieve high COP Liquid only in evaporator. Reduces mass flow rate. 4. 6. Reduces compressor work and system size. Prevent ozone layer depletion. Both pure substances and mixtures good heat transfer rates Avoid water contamination. Safety if leaks. handling. eg. R134a is a replacement for R12 refrigerant . 5. carbon dioxide (CO2) 3. 2. new domestic refrigerators and airconditioning units use hydroflourocarbons (HFC’s) as a replacement chloroflourocarbons (CFC’s). 3.

• large scale refrigeration plants often feature this cycle because ammonia has a . 3. but does not cause ozone depletion.• looking at the properties of ammonia and R12: Property Critical temp Freezing temp Saturation pressure Evaporation enthalpy Specific volume Stability Thermal conductivity Solubility Toxicity/ Irritancy Non-flammable Detectability Ozone depletion Cost Ammonia yes 132°C yes -78°C yes >1 atm.7 Ammonia (NH3) absorption refrigerator high specific enthalpy of evaporation (therefore reducing plant size) and the pump specific work is relatively small. special detector needed Very bad Expensive Yes Yes • the more environmentally friendly R134a has very similar properties to R12. boils at –33°C @ 1 atm Yes Very high Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Freon 12 yes 112°C yes -158°C yes >1 atm no yes yes Only 1/8 NH3 Attacks Cu and alloys of Cu High Soluble in water Insoluble in oil Toxic Irritates eyes Ignitable Smells No ozone effect Very cheap Non-corrosive Only 1/10 NH3 yes no yes yes yes yes Insoluble Miscable Non-toxic OK no smell.

it can be difficult to keep H2O out of the NH3 loop. expansion and evaporation processes consist of NH3 vapour only. where the H2O may freeze in the evaporator. the liquid solution of NH3+H2O has its pressure raised by the pump 4. cycle requires more components than vapour compression cycle 3. and are in principle the same as these processes in the vapour compression cycle 2. 2. the generator is heated to release NH3. This is clear since: w = − ∫ vdP −v ( P2 − P ) for a liquid 1 • thus. the condensation. the NH3 is absorbed into a solution with H2O in the absorber 3. for a given pressure ratio. but H2O stays in liquid phase because it has a higher boiling temperature 5.• the objective of this cycle is to replace the vapour compressor with a liquid pump. the NH3 proceeds around the cycle and the H2O is throttled back to low pressure and returns to the absorber drawbacks: 1. • the process can be divided up as follows: 1. since the pumping of liquid typically requires much less energy.8 Air cycle refrigeration • air cycle refrigeration is the Joule/Brayton cycle in reverse: . the work required to pump a liquid is much smaller than that required to compress a gas since the specific volume v of the liquid is much smaller (density ρ is greater).

unlike the previous cycles. we must have high ηc and ηt • coefficient of performance: COP ≡ Qin Q41 = Win Wc − Wt CP (T1 − T4 ) • it follows that: COP = CP (T2 − T1 ) − CP (T3 − T4 ) ⎛ T4 ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎝ T1 ⎠ = ⎛ T2 ⎞ T4 ⎛ T3 ⎞ ⎜ − 1⎟ − ⎜ − 1 ⎟ ⎝ T1 ⎠ T1 ⎝ T4 ⎠ • note. • since processes 1→2 and 3→4 are isentropic. in order to achieve reasonable COP . we must have an expansion turbine. not a throttle 3.• and with an ideal compressor and turbine. as discussed earlier. the static temperature is approximately equal to the stagnation temperature if the kinetic energy of the flow is small. phase changes do not occur within this cycle and it features only a gas 2. the T − s diagram is: • note: 1. let: T T2 = rP γ = 3 T1 T4 γ −1 • where rP = p2 / p1 = p3 / p4 • thus: ⎛ T4 ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ T1 ⎠ COP = γ −1 ⎝ ⎛ γ ⎞ T ⎛ γ γ−1 ⎞ ⎜ rP − 1⎟ − 4 ⎜ rP − 1⎟ ⎜ ⎟ T1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ .

86 • a sketch of a typical liquefaction process: .39 1.39 5.30 4.9 • liquefaction uses the gas to be liquefied as the working fluid • the liquefaction process must bring the gas state to below its critical point in order for condensation to occur • critical points of common substances: Substance CO2 O2 N2 H2 Ar TCRIT (K) 304 155 126 33.08 3. the increase in ηth with pressure ratio for the ideal gas turbine cycle shown earlier.3 151 PCRIT (MPa) 7. Liquefaction of gases 3.• and finally: COP = 1 ⎛ γ γ−1 ⎞ ⎜ rP − 1⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ • which shows that the COP reduces with increased pressure ratio cf.

• and its corresponding T − s diagram: .