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# 7.

## If f (x) and g (x) are primitive polynomials then

74921KA1 OCTOBER 2008
prove that f(x)g (x) is a primitive polynomial.
Paper I - ALGEBRA - I 8. Prove that K is a normal extension of F if and
only if K is the splitting field of some polynomial over
F.
(For those who joined in July 2003 and after)
PART B - (3 x 20 = 60 marks)
Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks
Answer any THREE questions.
PART A - (4 x 10 = 40 marks)
9. State and prove Sylow theorem (first part).
Answer any FOUR questions.
10. Prove that J [i] is a Euclidean ring.
1. If G is a finite group, prove that the number of
elements conjugate to a in G is the index of the 11. Prove that every integral domain can be imbedded
normalizer of a in G. in a field.

## 12. If L is a finite extension of K and if K is a finite

2. If 0 (G) = p2 where p is a prime number th~n
extension of F then prove that L is a finite extension of .")
prove that G is abelian. F.
3. Prove that a finite integral domain is a field. ')
13. If F is of characteristic 0 and if a, b are algebraic
4. Let R be a commutative ring with unit element over F, then prove that there exists an element
whose only ideals are (0) and R itself. Then prove that CEF(a,b) such that F(a,b)=F(C).
R is a field.
14. If p is a prime number and plO (G) then prove
5. If R is a commutative ring with unit element and that G has an element of order p.
M is an ideal of R, then prove that M is a maximal
ideal of R if and only if RIM is a field.
6. State and prove Gauss' lemma.
2 74921KA1
7493/KA2 OCTOBER 2008

## (For those who joined in July 2003 and after)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

PART A - (4 x 10 = 40 marks)

## 2. Suppose {sn} is monotonic. Then prove that {sn}

converges if and only if it is bounded.

## 3. Prove that a mapping f of a metric space X into a

metric space Y is continuous on X of and only if r1 (V)
is open in X for every open set V in Y.
4. State and prove mean value theorem.

calculus.

## 6. If ai' bi (i = l to n) are complex numbers prove

n ,2
n 2 n 2
that IIai
i=l
bi ~ Ilail
i=l
Ilbil
i=l
.
7493/KA2 OCTOBER 2008

## (For those who joined in July 2003 and after)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

## 2. Suppose {sn} is monotonic. Then prove that {sn}

converges if and only if it is bounded.

## 3. Prove that a mapping f of a metric space X into a

metric space Y is continuous on X of and only if r1 (V)
is open in X for every open set V in Y.
4. State and prove mean value theorem.

calculus.

## 6. If ai' bi (i = 1 to n) are complex numbers prove

n 2
that ILai bi ~ ~]ai 12 ~]bJ .
i=l i=l i=l
7. The cross ratio (Zl' Zz, Z3' Z4) is real if and only if 13. State and prove weierstrass theorem on Analytic
function.
the four points lie on a circle or on a straight line.
14. Prove that a set is compact if and only if it is
8. If f (z) is analytic and non-constant in a region complete and totally bounded.
Q, then prove that its absolute value If (z ~ has no
maximum in Q.

PART B - (3 x 20 = 60 marks)
Answer any THREE questions.

## 9. Prove that ~~ 1+1-

( n)
r =e .
10. Let fbe a continuous mapping of a compact metric
,. space X into a compact metric space Y. Then prove that f
is uniformly continuous on X.

## 12. Assume that a increases monotonically and

a' E R on [a, b] let f be a founded real function on [a, b].
Then prove that fE R (a) if and only if fa' E R. In that
b b

## case prove also that ffd a = ff

a a
(x) a' (x) dx .

2 7493!KA2 3 7493!KA2
7494/KA3 OCTOBER 2008

## (For those who joined in July 2003 and after)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

## SECTION A - (4 x 10 =40 marks)

Answer any FOUR questions.

## 1. If Y is a subspace and X, A is a subset of Y and A

denote the closure of 'A' in X, prove that the closure ofA
in Yequals AnY.

## 2. . Let f : A ~ X xY be given by the equation,

((a) = ({.,(a), f2(a». Then fis continuous if and only if
(.
the functions {.,:A ~ X and f2 :A ~ Y .

## 3. If Y is a subspace of X, prove that Y is compact if

and only if every covering of Y by sets open in X
contains a finite sub collections covering Y.

## 4. Every metrizable space is normal.

5. IfXo is a thick subset ofa measure space(X,S,p), SECTION B - (3 x 20 = 60 marks)
if So =S nXo and if, for E in S, Po(E nXo) = peE) then Answer any THREE questions.
(Xo,So,Po) is a measure space. 9. The product of finitely many compact spaces is
compact.
6. If p' is an outer measure on a hereditary O'-ring
- . 10. Every well-ordered set X is normal in the order
H and of S is the class of all p -measurable sets, then
topology. - Explain.
S is a O'-ring. If A e H and if {En} is a disjoint
ao 11. State and prove that Tietze extension theorem.
sequence ofI sets in S with UEn =E , then
/1=1 12. Let T be the one to one transformation of the
entire real line onto itself, defined by T(x) =a x + p ,
ao
where a and p are real numbers and a:t:-0 . If, for every
p.(AnE)= LP\AnEn)
n=1 subset E of x, T(E) denotes the set of all points of the
form T(x) with x is E, i.e T(E) = {ax + p: x e E}, then
7. If f is an integrable function such that ffdp =0 j./(T(E» = lalp.(E) and p.(T(E» = lalp.(E) The set T(E)
F
is a Borel set or a lebsgue measurable set iff E is a Borel
for every measurable set F, then f = 0 a.e. set or a lebsgue -measurable set, respectively.

## la. State and prove that Radon-Nikodym theorem.

8. If S and T are rings of subsets of X and Y
. respectively" then the class R of all finite, disjoint 14. If p is a O'-finite measure on a ring R, then there is
unions of rectangles of the form A xB , where A e S a unique measure 1I on the O'-ring S(R) such that, for E
and BeT is a ring. in R, liCE) = p(E), the measure 1I is O'-fmite.

2 7494/KA8 3 74941KA8
7495/KA4 OCTOBER 2008

## Paper IV - NUMERICAL METHODS AND

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

## (For those who joined in July 2003 and after)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

SECTION A - (4 x 10 = 40 marks)

## 1. Apply the fourth order Runge-Kutta method to

find an approximate value of y when x = .2, given that
y'=x+y,y (0)=1.

:r

0

## 3. Use Gauss seidel method to solve the equation

27x + 6y - z = 85
6x + 15y - 2z = 72
x + y + 54z = 110
4. Prove Existence and uniqueness for the linear SECTION B - (3 x 20 = 60 marks)
system y' = f (x, y)
Answer any THREE questions.
9. A necessary and sufficient condition that a surface
5. Suppose S is either a rectangle Ix -xol~,
be an integral surface of a partial differential equation
IY-Yol~b, (a, b>O) or a strip, Ix-xol~a,lyl<oo (00)0) is that at each point its tangent element should touch
and that f is a real valued function defmed on s such the elementary cone of the equation. Prove.
that of/oy exists, is continuous on sand 10. Find the largest eigen value of the matrix
25 1 2
1 3 0 and the corresponding eigen vector.
[~ (X,Y)]::;k((x,y)ins) for some k>O. Then f [ 2 0 -4 1
satisfies the lipschitz condition on s with lipschitz
constant. 11. Derive Bessel equation of order zero.
12. Find the positive root of 3x - -Jl + sin x = 0 by
6. Explain cauchy's problem for first-order equation.
(a) iterative method
7. If tA r/Jn are n functions of L (y) = 0 on the
. (b) Regularfalsi method
interval I and Xo is any point in I prove that
13. Justification of power series method. Discuss.

## 14. Solve the equation dy =1- y with the intial

dx
w. (~ 9\.)(x) exp [- :[a, (t)dt W. (~ ~.) (xo).
~
condition x = 0, y = 0 using Euler's algorithm and
tabulate the solutions at x = .1, .2, .3,.4 get the
8. Find the solution of the equation,
solutions by Euler's improved method and Euler's
z =1/2 (P2+q2)+(p_X)(q-y) which passes through modified method. Also compare with the exact solution.
x-eo-ordinates.

2 74951KA4 3 74951KA4
13. (a) Obtain the confidence interval for the

## difference between the means of two independent

74961KA5 OCTOBER 2008

## normal distributions. Paper V - MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS

(b) State and prove Rao-Blackwell theorem.
(For those who joined in July 2003 and after)
14. (a) State and prove Rao-Cramer inequality.
Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks
(b) State and prove Neyman-Pearson theorem.
SECTION A - (4 x 10 = 40 marks)

## Answer any FOUR questions.

1. Define moment generating function of X. If the
moment generating function of X is
2

! (2k)'
M(t)=e2,-oo<t<oo, prove that E(X2k)=- 2 k k!.'

E(x2k-l) = 0, k = 1,2,3,......
2. State and prove Baye's formula.
3. Derive the moment generating function of Gamma
distribution and hence fmd its mean and variance.

## 4. If Y1,Y2, Y3 are the order statistics of a random

sample of size 3 from a distribution having the
I, 0<x <1
probability density function {(x) = ,
{ 0, elsewhere }
find the probability density function of the sample range
Z 1 = Y3 - Y1.
4 7496/KA5
5. State and prove the central limit theorem. 10. (a) State and prove law of large numbers.

6. State and prove factorization theorem for (b) Show that the number of changes X in an
sufficient statistic for a parameter. interval of length w has a poisson distribution with
parameter AW.
7. Define consistent statistic. Show that an unbiased
statistic Yn for the parameter e is a consistent statistic
11. (a) Derive the probability density function of a
for e if the variance (T~
n of Yn approaches zero as the normal distribution.
sample size become infinite.
(b) If F is an F-distribution with parameter
8. Explain non-central X2 distribution and non-
central F distribution.
VI and vz, prove that ~F has an F-distribution with

parameters Vz and VI .
SECTION B - (3 x 20 = 60 marks)
12. (a) If X I and X z are stochastically independent
Answer any THREE questions.
with normal distributions n (ul' (Tn ' n (uz, (Tn
9. (a) State and prove Chebyshev's inequality. . respectively, fmd the probability density function of
Using this inequality, determine the lower bound for
Y = Xl - Xz by using moment generating function
'Pr(-2<X<8)if E(X)=3, E(X2)=13.
technique.

(b) If f(XI,X2) is the joint probability density (b) If Yn is a random variable and C is a
function of Xl and X2, M(tl,tz) is the moment
constant independent of n, show that Yn converges
generating function of the distribution, show that
stochastically to the constant C if and only if, for every
X I and X z are stochastically independent if and only if
£ > 0 , n-7~
lim pr( IYn - C I < E) = 1.
M(tl,t2) = M(tl'O) M(O,tz).
2 74961KA5 3 74961KA5
(6 pages)
74971KA6 OCTOBER 2008 3. Suppose that you want to invest \$4000 now and
\$2000 at the start of years 2 to 4. The interest rate
Paper VI - OPERATIONS RESEARCH offered by first bank is 8% compounded annually, and
the bonus percentages over the next 4 years are 1.8, 1.7,
(For those who joined in July 2003 and after) 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. The annual interest rate
offered by second bank is 0.2% lower than that of first
Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks
bank but its bonus is higher by 0.5%. Maximize the
accumulated capital at the end of 4 years.
SECTION A - (4 x 10 = 40 marks)
4. Solve the following game by liner programming.
Answer any FOUR questions.
BI B2 B3
1. By the Two-phase method solve the following 3
Al -1 -3
linear programming problem:
Az 1-2 4 -1
Maximize z = 4XI +X2
2
A31-5 -6

Subject to 3XI + X2 = 3
5. Discuss (MlMl1): (GD/oo/oo).
4XI + 3X2 ~6
Xl +2X2:::;4
6. Solve the following problem using Lagrangean
XUX2 ~O. method.

## 2. Explain the rules to draw network diagram of a . . . 2 2 2

Mlmmlze Z = Xl +X2 +X3
project. Also give the algorithm to find critkal path of a
project. Subject to 4XI +X~ +2X3 -14 = O.

2 74971KA6
7. Explain separable programming for solving a non 10. Give Dijkstra's Algorithm. The following network
linear programming problem. gives the routes and their lengths in miles between city
l(node 1) and four other cities (nodes 2 to 5). Determine
8. Consider the following Markov chain with two
,2 .8 the shortest routes between city 1 and each of the
states P = with aCo) = (.7.3). Determine remaining four cities.
( .6 .4J
aCI), a(4) anda(8) . 11. Develop the dynamic programming recurSIve
equation for the work force size model. A construction
SECTION B - (3 x 20 = 60 marks) contractor estimates the size of the work force needed ,.
Answer any THREE questions. over the next 5 weeks to be 5, 7, 8, 4 and 6 workers
respectively. Excess labour kept on the force will cost \$
9. Consider the following Linear 300 per worker per week, and new hiring in any week
will incur a fixed cost of \$400 plus \$200 per worker per
Programming problem:
week. How should the labour force be maintained
Maximize z =5XI + 2X2 + 3X3 throughout the period.

Subject to Xl +5X2 +2X3 = 30 12. Discuss the cutting plane algorithm for ILP. Using
Xl -5X2 -6X3 :::;40 this solve the following ILP :
XI,X2,X3 ~O.
Maximize z = TXI + lOx2
What is the optimal solution of this problem?
Write the dual of the problem. Also give the optimal Subject to -Xl +3X2:::;6

solution of the dual from the solution of the primal. TXI +X2 :::;35

## XVX2 ~O and integer.

3 7497/KA6 4 7497/KA6
[P.T.O.]
13. (a) Discuss (MIMIC):(GD/oo/oo). Maximize z = 4XI + 6X2 - 2x; - 2XIX2- 2x~

(b) A small post office has two open windows. Subject to Xl + 2X2 ~2
Customers arrive according to a Poisson distribution at XI,X2 ~O.

## the rate of 1 every 3 minutes. However, only 80% of

them seek service at the windows. The service time per
customer is exponential, with a mean of 5 minutes. All
arriving customers form one line and access available
windows on a FCFS basis.

## (i) What is the probability that an arriving

customer will wait in line?

## (ii) What is the probability that both

windows are idle?

waiting line?

## 14. Explain Quadratic programming for nonlinear

programming problem. Using this solve the following
problem:

5 74971KA6 6 74971KA6
7498/KAA OCTOBER 2008

FUNCTIONAL. ANALYSIS

## (For those who joined in July 2003 and after)

Time : Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

## SECTION A - (4 x 10 =40 marks)

Answer any FOUR questions.
All questions carry equal marks.

## 2. Define a normed linear space and prove that

addition and scalar multiplication are jointly
continuous.

## 3. If N is a normed linear space, then prove that the

closed unit sphere S* in N* is a compact Hausdor&;
space in the weak* topology.

## 4. If M and N are closed linear subspaces of a Hilbert

space H such that M .1 N, then the linear subspace
M +N is also closed. .
5. Prove that the following: 12. State and prove spectral theorem.
(a) If T is an operator on H for which 13. A closed convex subset C of a Hilbert space H
(T%,~) = 0, 'V x, then T = o.
contains a unique vector of smallest norm.
(b) An operator Ton H is self-adjoint ~(T%, x)
is real for all x. 14. Prove that the mapping x ~ X-I of G into G is
continuous and is therefore a homeomorphism of G onto
6. If r is an element of A with the property that itself.
l-xr is regular for every x, then prove that r is in R.

## 7. If ft and hare multiplicative functionals on A

with the same null space M, then prove that ft =h.

## 8. Provethat u(x) is non-empty.

SECTION B - (3 x 20 =60 marks)
Answer any THREE questions.
All questions carry equal marks.

## 9. If Nand N' are normed linear spaces, then the set

./3(N, N') of all continuous linear transformations of N
into N' is itself a normed linear space with respect to
the pointwise linear operations and the norm defined by
IT I =suPUT(x)I:~x ~~I}.

## 10. State and prove closed graph theorem.

11. State and prove open mapping theorem.
2 7498IKAA 3 7498/KAA
7499/KAB OCTOBER 2008

## Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

SECTION A - (4 x 10 = 40 marks)

## 1., Prove that a simple graph with n vertices and

k components can have atmost (n - k )(n - k + 1)/2 edges.

spanning tree.

## 4. Prove that the ring sum of two cutsets in a graph

is either a third cutset or an edge disjoint union of
cutsets.

## 5. Prove that a connected planar graph with n

vertices and e edges has e - n + 2 regions.

## 6. Prove that every tree with two or more vertices is

2"-chromatic.
7. Define covering and covering number of a graph. 13. Prove that the vertices of every planar graph can
Give an example. State any five properties of covering. be properly colored with five colors.

8. State and prove path-length theorem. 14. (a) Explain the method of sequential search.

SECTION B - (3 x 20 =60 marks) (b) Explain the greedy algorithm for shortest
paths in a weighted graph.
Answer any THREE questions.

## 9. Prove that a connected graph G is an Euler graph

if and only if all vertices of G are of even degree.

n-1
10. (a) If n ~ 3 is odd, prove that K n has ~
edge-disjoint Hamiltonian circuits.
(b) Prove that every tree has either one or two
centers.
(',

## 11. (a) Prove that every circuit has an even number

., of edges in common with any cut-set.

an example.

## (b) Explain the method for finding all minimal

dominating sets in a graph.

2 7499/KAB 3 7499/KAB
14. Define the gamma and beta functions and prove 7500/KAC OCTOBER 2008
the following:
ADVANCED CALCULUS AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
(a) logr{x) is convex on (0,00).
(For those who joined in July 2003 and after)
(b) P( x,y ) = r{x)ny) .
r(x + y) Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks
(c) r{x +1) = xr(x). SECTION A - (4 x 10 =40 marks)
Answer any FOUR questions.

## 1. If F is a bounded function in a closed rectangle R

and continuous at all points of R except these in a set E
of zero area, show that Jff
R
exists.

## 2. If L is a linear transformation from Ria into Rm

represented by the matrix [aij] show that there exists a.
constant B such that IL(p)l:s B Ip I for allp.
,.
3. Evaluate
D
If(x -dxdy
y + 1)2 where D is the region

## 4. State Green's theorem. Use it to evaluate

f(x - y2)dx + x3dy , where C is the circle X2 + y2
e
=1.
4 7500/KAC
5. Define a I-fonn. When it is exact? Closed? If w is 10. (a) Let L be a smooth surface or P, a point lying
exact in n with w = df and r be any smooth curve in n
on L. Show that the normal to L at P is orthogonal to
starting at PI and ending at P2 , show that
any smooth curve which lies on L and passes throughp.
r
Jw = F(P2)-F(PI).
(b) Find the centre of gravity of a uniform wire
6. State and prove Bernstein's theorem. which is bent in the shape of a semicircle.

## 7. Prove in detail that the unifonn limit of a

11. Let D be a closed convex region in the plane and
sequence of continuous functions defined on a common
domain with complex values, is continuous. w = A(x, y)dx+B(x, y)dy with A and B of class C' in
J). Show that
8. For n = 0, 1, 2, ... and x is real show that
Isin nx I~ n Isin x I and that the above inequality is false
for rational values of n. fAdx +Bdy
aD = How
D fA:
=D - oA)dXdY.
Oy
SECTION B - (3 x 20 =60 marks)
12. If each term of {f,.} is a real-valued function
Answer any THREE questions.
" All questions carry equal marks. having a finite derivative at each point of an open
Jr/2 ihterval (a, b) for at least one point Xo in (a, b) the
9. (a) show
If F(x) = flog (sin2 ()+X2 COS2()d() sequence {f"(xo)} converges and there exists a function
0 '. ,
1r g such that f:t '4 g uniformly on (a, b), show that
that F'(x) = x+l. (a) there exists a function f such that f,. ~ f uniformly
GO

## (b) on (a, b) (b) for each x int(a, b), ('(x) = g(x).

Show that JX-I sinxdx is not absolutely
I
13. State and prove Abel's limit theorem on Power
convergent.
senes.
2 7500/KAC 3 7500/KAC
7501/KAD OCTOBER 2008

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

## (For those who joined in July 2003 and after)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

## SECTION A- (4 x 10 =40 marks)

Answer any FOUR questions.
All questions carry equal marks.

n (n + 1)
1+2+3+...+n= .
2

## 2. One of ten keys opens the door. If we try the keys

one after another, what is the probability that the door.
is opened on the first attempt? On the second attempt?
On the tenth attempt? ..

L=~ib2ili~1}.

## 4. Prove that there is always a Hamiltonian path in a

directed complete graph.
11. Prove that an undirected graph possesses an
5. Show that the language L = ~ K bK K ~ 1 } is not a
I
gulerian path if and only if it is connected and has
finite state language. either zero or two vertices of odd degree.

6. Write the algorithm for determining the largest of 12. (a) Show that the language L = {nnl n is a string
n numbers.
of O's and l's}.
7. Find the particular solution of (b) Explain the finite state machines.
ar - 5ar-l + 6ar-2 =1.
13. Obtain the necessary and sufficient condition for a
8. For any a, b, c, d in a lattice (A, :5;)if a 5,b and connected graph to be Eulerian.
c 5,d . Prove that (a) a v c 5,b v d and (b). a 1\C5,b 1\d .
14. (a) For every a in A, prove that
SECTION B - (3 x 20 =60 marks) (i) ava=a and
Answer any THREE questions. (ii) al\a=a.
All questions carry equal marks.
(b) For any a and b in a Boolean algebra prove
9. It is known that at the university 60 percent of the that (i) a v b = a 1\ b and (ii) a 1\ b = a vb.
\
l professors play tennis, 50 percent of them play bridge,
70 percent jog, 20 percent play tennis and bridge,
30 percent play tennis and jog and 40 percent play
bridge and jog. If some one claimed that 20 percent of
the professors jog and play bridge and tennis would you
believe this claim? Why?

## 10. Construct a grammar for the language

L=~ibjli,j~l, i~j}.

2 7501/KAD 3 7501/KAD