LAW & PRESS

What is Law?

Law is nothing but codified Common Sense.

Law
The Law is the organization of the natural rights of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful rights to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all.

Types of Law ‡ Religious/Natural ‡ Man Made ± Common Law ± Specific Law .

Types of Law Common Laws ‡ Constitutional law ‡ Criminal law ‡ Tort law ‡ Property law ‡ Nationality law Specific Laws ‡ Administrative law ‡ Contract law ‡ Labour law ‡ Trust law ‡ Hindu Law ‡ Mohammedan law ‡ Christian Law .

Legal System & Democracy Constitution Legislation (Parliament/State Assemblies) Executive (Ministry/Admini stration/Police) Supreme Court .

Indian Judiciary ‡ Supreme Court ‡ High Court ‡ Lower Courts/ Tribunal .

and the Central Administrative Tribunals.Supreme Court ‡ The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V. and since then has delivered more than 24. a person may. The Appeals to this court are allowed from the High Court. as the matters on its original side. with the permission of the apex court. with the leave of the apex court.000 reported judgments. and matters comprising of more than one state. appeal to this court. A person or body may also file a Writ (PIL) against the violation of Fundamental Rights granted under the Constitution of India. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . guardian of the Constitution and the highest court of appeal. against the orders of the Courts of the Court Martial. In the absence of any certificate from the High Court. and the matters between the Union Government and any one or more states. Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. and is certified as such by the relevant High Court. but also deals with interstate matters. Certain writs are allowed to be instituted in the apex court directly. Supreme court is not only the final court of permissible Appeal. the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court. only after the matter is deemed to be important enough on the point of law or on the subject of the constitution of the nation. According to the Constitution of India. Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India lay down the composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court of India had its inaugural sitting on 28 January 1950. by filing a Special Leave Petition before the court.

it can always move the High Court in an appropriate writ. and is the uppermost court in that state. Article 214 of the Indian Constitution. but also for any other rights under Article 226 of the Constitution. and can be approached in writs not only for violation of fundamental rights under the provisions of Article 32 of the Indian constitution. and under its powers to supervise over all its subordinate courts falling within the physical jurisdiction of the same under Article 227 of the Constitution. The High Courts are also termed as the courts of equity. Chapter V. when apparently there is no effective remedy available to a person in equity. and generally the last court of regular appeals. Every State has a High Court. All the High Courts have different division benches in different parts of the respective states for speedier cheaper and effective dispensing of justice.High Court ‡ ‡ High Courts are instituted as constitutional courts under Part VI. either sit singly or in benches of two or more judges in benches for deciding more important matters. the Judges in the High Court. For the purpose of disposal of its business. ‡ ‡ ‡ . which works under the direct guidance and supervision of the Supreme Court of India. In fact.

Allahabad High Court 1866-06-11 Uttar Pradesh Allahabad Lucknow 95 Andhra Pradesh High Court 1954-07-05 Andhra State Act. 1953 Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad 39 Bombay High Court 1862-08-14 High Courts Act. Panaji. Goa. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Calcutta Port Blair (circuit bench) 63 . Dadra and Nagar Haveli. 1861 Jurisdiction Seat Benches Jud. Aurangabad 60 Calcutta High Court 1862-07-02 High Courts Act. 1861 Maharashtra. Daman and Diu Mumbai Nagpur.Indian High Courts Court name Established Act established High Courts Act. 1861 West Bengal.

Manipur.Indian High Courts Chhattisgarh High Court 2000-01-11 Madhya Pradesh Re-organisation Act. 1970 Gujarat Ahmedabad 42 Himachal Pradesh High Court Jammu and Kashmir High Court 1971 Himachal Pradesh Shimla 09 1943-08-28   etters Patent issued by the Maharaja of Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Srinagar & Jammu[4] 14 . Circuit Bench at Agartala & Shillong 27 Gujarat High Court 1960-05-01 Bombay Reorgansisation Act.P. Assam. 1966 Government of India Act. 2000 Delhi High Court Act. Mizoram New Delhi 36 1948-03-01 Guwahati Kohima. Tripura. Aizwal & Imphal. 1935 Chhattisgarh Bilaspur 08 Delhi High Court[2] Gauhati High Court[3] 1966-10-31 National Capital Territory of Delhi Arunachal Pradesh. 1960 State of H. Nagaland. Act. Meghalaya.

1915 Orissa Cuttack 27 Patna High Court 1916-09-02 Bihar Patna 43 .Indian High Courts Jharkhand High Court Karnataka High Court[5] 2000 Bihar Reorganisation Act. Indore 42 1862-08-15 High Courts Act. Pondicherry Chennai Madurai 47 Orissa High Court 1948-04-03 Orissa High Court Order. Lakshadweep Kochi 40 Madhya Pradesh High Court[7] Madras High Court 1936-01-02 Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur Gwalior. 1935 Kerala. 1956 Government of India Act. 1948 Government of India Act. 1884 Jharkhand Ranchi 12 1884 Karnataka Bangalore Circuit Benches at HubliDharwad & Gulbarga 40 Kerala High Court[6] 1956 States Reorganisation Act. 2000 Mysore High Court Act. 1861 Tamil Nadu.

Chandigarh Chandigarh 53 1949-06-21 Rajasthan Jodhpur Jaipur 40 Sikkim High Court Uttaranchal High Court 1975 Sikkim Gangtok 03 2000 U. In 1966 after the reorganisation of the State of Punjab. 1949 38th Amendment Punjab. In 1947-08-11 a separate High Court of Punjab was created with its seat at Simla under the Indian Independence Act. . ‡Lahore High Court established in 1919-03-21. Reorganisation Act. the High Court was designated as the High Court of Punjab and Haryana. 2000 Uttarakhand Nainital 09 ‡Allahabad High CourtOriginally known established at Agra.Indian High Courts Punjab and Haryana High Court[8] Rajasthan High Court 1947-11-08 High Court (Punjab) Order. The Delhi High Court was established on 1966-10-31 with its seat at Shimla. 1947 Rajasthan High Court Ordinance. Shifted to Allahabad in 1875. Delhi and present Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. Haryana. Jurisdiction covered undivided Punjab and Delhi. 1947 which had jurisdiction over Punjab.P.

Lower Courts/Tribunals ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ District Judges Sessions Judges Appellate Co-Operative Courts Appellate Labour Courts Income Tax Tribunals Central Excise Tribunal Sales Tax Tribunals Accident Claims Tribunals Special Courts Administrative Tribunals Military and other similar Courts .

Judge & Magistrate ‡ Principal Civil Judges (SD & JD) ‡ The Chief Judicial Magistrates and other Judicial Magistrates of First Class ‡ Special Executive Magistrates ‡ Metropolitan Magistrates .

PC) ‡ Law of Evidence 1872 .Indian Criminal Justice ‡ Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) ‡ Criminal Procedure Code 1973 (Cr.

Singapore and Brunei. ‡ After independence. It was also adopted wholesale by the British colonial authorities in Burma. ‡ The code applies to any offence committed by an Indian Citizen anywhere and on any Indian registered ship or aircraft. formerly part of British India. . Malaysia. Sri Lanka. ‡ The draft of the Indian Penal Code was prepared by the First Law Commission. such as to inc aspects of the Criminal Law. and remains the basis of the criminal codes in those countries. Indian Penal Code was inherited by Pakistan (now called Pakistan Penal Code) and Bangladesh. It was chaired by Lord Macaulay passed into law in 1860. Hindi: ) The Indian Penal Code came into force in 1862 (during the British Raj) and is regularly amended.Indian Penal Code ‡ Indian Penal Code (IPC. unfortunately Macaulay did not survive to see his masterpiece enacted into a law.

CONVENIENCE. Sections 143 to 160.OFFENCES BY OR RELATING TO PUBLIC SERVANTS Sections 109 to 120. SAFETY.OFFENCES AFFECTING THE PUBLIC HEALTH.CONTEMPTS OF THE LAWFUL AUTHORITY OF PUBLIC SERVANTS CHAPTER XI . Sections 172 to 190. Sections 193 to 207.OFFENCES AGAINST THE PUBLIC TRANQUILITY CHAPTER IX . DECENCY AND MORALS CHAPTER XV . .OFFENCES RELATING TO WEIGHTS AND MEASURES CHAPTER XIV .A . NAVY AND AIR FORCE CHAPTER VIII . Sections 231 to 263 A.CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY CHAPTER VI .OFFENCES RELATING TO THE ARMY.OFFENCES RELATING TO RELIGION Sections 171 E to 171 I.FALSE EVIDENCE AND OFFENCES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE CHAPTER XII .OFFENCES RELATING TO ELECTIONS CHAPTER X .OFFENCES RELATING TO COIN AND GOVERNMENT STAMPS CHAPTER XIII . Sections 264 to 267. Sections 208 to 216.Offences under IPC CHAPTER V . CHAPTER IX-A . Section 120 B Sections 121 to 130.ABETMENT CHAPTER V . Sections 295 to 298. Sections 216 A to 229. Sections 269 to 294 A. Sections 131 to 140. Sections 161 to 171.OFFENCES AGAINST THE STATE CHAPTER VII .

Sections 323 to 348. CHAPTER XVIII . Sections 511. Sections 500 to 502.OFFENCES RELATING TO MARRIAGE.OF CRUELTY BY HUSBAND OR RELATIVES OF HUSBAND.ATTEMPTS TO COMMIT OFFENCES. INSULT AND ANNOYANCE CHAPTER XXIII .CRIMINAL INTIMIDATION.OFFENCES RELATING TO DOCUMENTS AND TO PROPERTY MARKS CHAPTER XIX . CHAPTER XVII .DEFAMATION CHAPTER XXII . Sections 491. . Sections 504 to 510. Sections 447 to 462. CHAPTER XXI .A . CHAPTER XX .Offences Under Indian Penal Code CHAPTER XVI .CRIMINAL BREACH OF CONTRACTS OF SERVICE CHAPTER XX . Sections 493 to 498.OFFENCES AGAINST PROPERTY Sections 379 to 402. Sections 403 to 440. Sections 352 to 377.OFFENCES AFFECTING THE HUMAN BODY Sections 302 to 318. Sections 498 A. Sections 465 to 489 E.

‡ The offences under any law (mostly the Indian Penal Code) are classified as cognizable and non-cognizable. a non-cognizable offence is one in which police can neither register a First Information Report (FIR) nor can investigate or effect arrest without the express permission or directions from the court.PC. as bailable or non-bailable and by the lowest courts which can try them. ‡ As defined in Cr. These are given and defined in the First Schedule of the Code of Criminal Procedure.Cognizable. . Bailable ‡ A cognizable offence in the criminal justice system of India is one in which the police is empowered to register a FIR. investigate and arrest an accused involved in cognizable crime without a court warrant. 1973.

business or practice of printing Newspapers.Press ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Clipped from the Printing Press A Printing or Published establishment The Art. magazines. or the persons who write them. etc. (WEBSTER¶s New World Dictionary) . criticism. magazine. journalism or journalists ‡ Publicity. in newspaper. news services etc. etc. in general.

publisher. . ‡ Those who engage in the production of foregoing articles. editor. Newspaper in particular. journalist or author. Handbills and Books. such as printer. Such as Newspaper. ‡ The business aspect of a printing establishment. Pamphlets.What is Press? (legal) ‡ The Press as an establishment where printing is done ‡ The Press as a Medium of Publication ‡ The Products of Printing.

‡ In relation to an individual (involving defamation) ‡ In relation to state (involving sedition. incitement to offences) ‡ In relation to court (involving contempt of Court) ‡ In relation to Parliament (affecting privileges of Parliament) ‡ In relation to the public in general (involving public order. criticism etc.. publicity. decency) .Press ‡ The Press as a medium of expression.

1 (1) of Press and Registration of Books Act 1867 ³ Newspaper means any printed periodical work containing public news or comments on public news´ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It must be printed It must be periodically It must contain news or comments on news Such news must be public in nature .What is a Newspaper? S.

for the production or publication of one or more newspaper or for conducting any news agency or syndicate.´ . whether incorporated or not.Newspaper Establishment Section 2 (d) of Working Journalist Act 1955: ³ Newspaper establishment means an establishment under the control of any person or body of persons.

and pamphlet. it would include a pamphlet.´ ‡ Book exclude a newspaper. part of or division of a volume.Book and Pamphlet S 1 (1) of Press and Registration of Book Act 1867: ³Book includes every volume. and every map. in any language. . chart or plan separately printed.

it issues certificates of registration to the newspapers published under valid declaration. popularly known as RNI came into being on July 1. . It scrutinizes and analyzes annual statements sent by the publishers of newspapers every year. on the recommendation of the First Press Commission in 1953 and by amending the Press and Registration of Books Act (PRB Act) 1867.Registrar of Newspapers for India ‡ The Office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India. ‡ The RNI compiles and maintains a register of newspapers containing particulars about all the newspapers published in the country. 1956. The RNI assesses and certifies the essential needs and requirements of newspaper establishments to import printing and composing machinery and allied materials. ‡ RNI include the formulation of a Newsprint Allocation Policy²guidelines and the ability to issue Eligibility Certificates to the newspapers to enable them to import newsprint and to procure indigenous newsprint.

again be classified into two: preceding and following the Emergency rule imposed by Indira Gandhi's government in 1975). began in 1854. also known as the Hicky's Bengal Gazette was established in January 1780. Samachar Sudha Varshan. ‡ It was in 1674 that the first printing apparatus was established in Bombay followed by Madras in 1772. ‡ India's first newspaper. ‡ First Hindi daily. Calcutta General Advertise .History of Press ‡ The printing press preceded the advent of printed news in India by about 250 years. . ‡ it is instructive to examine India's press in two broad analytical sections: the colonial and independent press (which may.

Hicky's Bengal Gazette earned the rulers' wrath due to its criticism of the government. the Oriental Magazine . In November 1780 its circulation was halted by government decree. the Madras Courier and the Indian Gazette . The Statesmen in Calcutta and the Madras Mail and The Hindu. . The Hindu became the beacon of patriotism in the South. the Bengal Journal.History of Press "Newspaper history in India is inextricably tangled with political history. and was imprisoned. in 1780. Soon other newspapers came into existence in Calcutta and Madras: the Calcutta Gazette . While the India Gazette enjoyed governmental patronage including free postal circulation and advertisements. Hicky protested against this arbitrary harassment without avail. the Calcutta General Advertiser also known as Hicky's Bengal Gazette . The Hindu was founded in Madras as a counter to the Madras Mail . The Bengal Gazette and the India Gazette were followed by the Calcutta Gazette which subsequently became the government's "medium for making its general orders" The Bombay Herald. While Statesman voiced the English rulers' voice. along with many other rivals in Madras represented the metropolitan voice of India and its people." ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ James Augustus Hicky was the founder of India's first newspaper.

1867 ± This Act regulates printing presses and newspapers and makes registration with an appointed Authority compulsory for all printing presses. 1951 ± This enactment provides against the printing and publication of incitement to crime and other objectionable matters. on the continuation of a free press. ‡ The Newspaper (Prices and Pages) Act.´ ‡ The Press and Registration of Books Act. . 1956 ± This statute empowers the Central Government to regulate the price of newspapers in relation to the number of pages and size and also to regulate the allocation of space to be allowed for advertising matter.Press Regulations in India ³Our freedom depends in large part. which is the strongest guarantee of a free society. ‡ The Press (Objectionable Matters) Act.

newspaper or other document prejudicial to the Civil Defence.Press Regulations in India ‡ Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act. Press Council Act. Civil Defence Act. This Act aimed at restricting the Freedom Of The Press to a large extent keeping in mind the unrest prevailing in India in lieu of the war against China. a copy of every published book to the National Library at Calcutta and one copy each to three other public libraries specified by the Central Government. prevention of prejudicial reports and prohibition of printing or publishing any matter in any newspaper. 1962 ± This Act came into force during the Emergency proclaimed in 1962.It allows the Government to make rules for the prohibition of printing and publication of any book. the publishers of books and newspapers are required to deliver. 1978 ± Under this Act. the Press Council was reconstituted (after 1976) to maintain and improve the standards of newspaper and news agencies in India. 1968 . Defence of India Act. free of cost. 1955 ± It lays down the minimum standards of service conditions for newspaper employees and journalists. The Act empowered the Central Government to issue rules with regard to prohibition of publication or communication prejudicial to the civil defence/military operations. The Working Journalists and other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . 1954 ± According to this Act.

1969 . 1952 The Copyright Act. 1954 ‡ Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act.Press Regulations in India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Contempt of Courts Act. 1995 The Cinematograph Act. Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act. 1957 Cine Workers and Cinema Theatre Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act. 1971 The Official Secrets Act. 1923. 1981 ‡ Drug and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act.

Broadcast Media (Ministry of I&B) The Broadcasting Code ‡ To ensure the objective presentation of news and fair and unbiased comment ‡ To promote the advancement of education and culture ‡ To raise and maintain high standards of decency and decorum in all programmes ‡ To provide programmes for the young which. religious tolerance and international understanding ‡ To treat controversial public issues in an impartial and dispassionate manner ‡ To respect human rights and dignity . by variety and content. will inculcate the principles of good citizenship ‡ To promote communal harmony.

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