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VELAMMAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT Of ECE

Subject: Analog & Digital Communication Subject code: CS 2204

Name of the staff: M. K. Srilekha Class: III SEM CSE

UNIT I
PART-A

2009)

1. Lesser distortion. Frequency modulated wave is less susceptible to

interferences from buildings, traffic etc which provides improved signal to noise
ratio (about 25dB) w.r.t. to manmade interference.
2. Waves at higher frequencies can carry more data than the waves at low
frequency.

The ratio of maximum frequency deviation to modulation frequency is called as

modulation index. It is unit less ratio.
m = δ / fm

3) What is need for modulation? (May/Jun

2009)
The transmitter is required to make the signal suitable for condition over the
channel. Message signal is a low frequency signal that can be transmitted over long
distance. With modulation transmission over long distance is achieved.

4) Define frequency modulation. (April/May 2008)

Frequency modulation is defined as the process of changing the frequency of the
carrier in accordance with the modulating signal.

5) Define Modulation index for frequency modulation? (Nov/Dec 2008)

The ratio of maximum frequency deviation to modulation frequency is called as
modulation index. It is unit less ratio.
m = δ / fm

6) Define amplitude modulation? (May/June 2007)

In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with
the amplitude variations of the modulating signal.

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7) For an FM modulator with a modulation index m=1 a modulating signal Vm (t) =
Vm sin (2π1000t) and an un modulated carrier Vc(t) = 10 sin(2π5x105t).Determine
(assume Jo = 0.77, J1 = 0.44, J2 = 0.11, J3 = 0.02 for m= 1)
a) No of significant side frequencies and their amplitudes?
b) Draw the frequency spectrum showing their relative amplitudes.
(May/June 2007)
Solution: a) Here the number of side frequencies = 4
b) Their amplitudes are
Jo=0.77(10),J1 = 0.44(10),J2=0.11(10),J3=0.02(10).

8) Give the significance of modulation. (Nov/Dec 2006)

Modulation is defined as changing the parameters of the carrier signal in
accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. The needs for
modulation are

• Ease of radiation
• Reduction in antenna Height
• Increases range of communication
• Multiplexing is possible
• Improves quality of reception
• Adjustment of bandwidth
• Shifting signal frequency to assigned value.

9) What is meant by envelope of an AM waveform? What is its significance?

(April/May 2005)
The AM wave contains all the frequencies that make up the AM signal and is
used to transport the information through the system. Therefore the shape of the
modulated wave is called the AM envelope. During the demodulation of the AM, the
envelope will be very much useful to detect the waveform. The peak amplitude of the
modulated signal can be represented by EAM and it is given by EAM =Ec+Em =
Ec+Em Sin wmt

10) Distinguish AM and FM. (Nov/Dec 2005)

The transmitter power remains constant in FM whereas it varies in AM. The noise
interference is minimum in FM. In FM increasing the deviation can increase the depth
of modulation to any value. Since guard bands are provided in FM, there is less
possibility of adjacent channel interference. Since space waves are used, the radius of
propagation is limited.

11) What is the principle of ADM? (Nov/Dec 2005)

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Adaptive delta modulation is a delta modulation system where the step size of
Digital to anolog converter is automatically varied depending on the amplitude
characteristics of the analog signal.

12) What is frequency division multiplexing? (AU April/May 2005)

Transmission of multiple signals simultaneously over a single channel can be
achieved by translating each signal to a different position in the frequency spectrum.
Such a multiplexing is called Frequency Multiplexing.

13) Define depth of modulation. What are the degrees of modulation?

(AU April/May 2005)

It is defined as the ratio between message amplitude to that of carrier amplitude.

m=Em/ Ec
Degrees of modulation:

• Under modulation. m<1

• Critical modulation m=1
• Over modulation m>1.

14) Define modulation coefficient and percent modulation. (Apr/May 2004)

The ratio of maximum amplitude of modulating signal to maximum amplitude of
carrier signal is called modulation Index.
Modulation Index, m= Em/Ec.
Value of Em must be less than value of Ec to avoid any distortion in the
modulated signal. Hence maximum value of modulation Index will be equal to 1
when Em=Ec. Minimum value will be zero. If modulation index is higher than 1, then
it is called over modulation. Data is lost in such case. When modulation Index is
expressed in percentage it is also called percentage modulation.
Modulation coefficient: Amount of amplitude change present in an AM
waveform.
m= Em/Ec
m = modulation coefficient (unit less)

Modulation is defined as changing the parameters of the carrier signal in

accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. Demodulation
is the process of separation of message signal from the modulating signal.

16) What is PWM? (AU Apr/MAY 2004)

If the duration (width) of the pulse is altered in accordance with the amplitude of
the modulating signal to accommodate the information signal, that process is called
pulse width modulation (PWM) or pulse duration modulation (PDM).

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17) What are the different types of Multiplexing? (AU Nov/Dec 2004)
Multiplexing techniques allow many users to share a common communication
channel simultaneously. There are two major types of multiplexing techniques.
• Frequency Division Multiplexing.
• Time Division Multiplexing.

UNIT I
PART-B

1) Bandwidth of the input to a pulse code modulator is restricted to 4KHhz.The

signal varies from -3.8V to 3.8V and has the average power of 30 mw.The required
signal to quantization noise power ratio is 20 dB.The modulator produces binary
output. Find

ii. Output of 30 such PCM codes is time multiplexed. What is the

minimum required transmission bandwidth for the multiplexed
signal?

iii. Determine the bandwidth occupied by a sinusoidally frequency

modulated carrier for which the modulation index is 2.4 and the
maximum frequency deviation is 15 KHz.
( Apr/May
2003)

Solution:
No of bits per sample(R) can be calculated from the formula

(SNR)=(3P/(m2))*22R

where m is the amplitude (-3.8 to+3.8) = 7.6V

P is the average power =30Mw.

To find bandwidth:

where Δf is frequency deviation.

fm= Δf/m.
From the above two formulae

Bandwidth of frequency modulated carrier is

B = 2(Δf+fm) Hz.

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2) In a FM system, the frequency deviation is 1 KHz/V.A sinusoidal modulating
voltage of amplitude15V and frequency of 3Hz is applied. Find

I. The maximum frequency deviation.

ii. Modulation index. (Apr/May 2003)

Maximum frequency deviation can be calculated from the formula

a. ∆f = K1 * Vm (Hz)

where ∆f - maximum frequency deviation in Hz

b. K1 – Deviation sensitivity in KHz/V
c. Vm – Modulating signal.

Modulation Index can be calculated from the formula

i. K1* Vm
d. M= -------------- (No unit)
i. fm

where M – Modulation Index (No unit)

e. K1 – Deviation sensitivity in KHz/V
f. Vm – Modulating signal

3) (i) Define FSK with suitable mathematical expression.

(ii) Describe a simple binary FSK transmitter.
(iii) Describe the bandwidth considerations of FSK. (Apr/May 2004)

(i)Refer the Page numbers from 351-355 of the book “Wayne

tomasi,”Electronic comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth
Edition for the FSK definition with suitable mathematical expression.

(ii)Refer the Page numbers from 355-356 of the book “Wayne

tomasi,”Electronic comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth
Edition for binary FSK transmitter.

(iii)Refer the Page numbers from 360-361 of the book “Wayne

tomasi,”Electronic comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth
Edition for the bandwidth consideration of FSK.

4) What are the advantages of producing FM from PM over direct FM?

(April/May 2004)
PM wave can be obtained from FM by differentiating the modulating signal
before applying it to frequency modulator.

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Message signal PM signal

Differentiator FM

Carrier

Refer the Page number: 301 of the book “Wayne Tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Pearson Eduction.2001

5) What is the need for multiplexing? Explain in detail about different multiplexing
schemes?
(Apr/May 2004)
Multiplexing is the set techniques that allow the simultaneous transmission of
multiple signals across the single data line.

a. FDM (Frequency division Multiplexing)

b. TDM (Time division Multiplexing)

Note: Give a brief note on the above-mentioned types.

Refer the Page number: 452 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Pearson Eduction.2001

6) (i) Discuss the generation of PDM system.

(ii)Explain the term Aliasing in signal transmission? What are the corrective
measures used? (Nov/Dec 2004)
Refer the Page number: 452 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition for the PDM system.

Refer the Page numbers from 413-414 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition for Aliasing
concepts.

7) Explain the generation and noise performance of delta modulation.

(Nov/Dec 2004)
Refer the Page numbers from 437-439 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition.

8) What is meant by FDM? Draw the block diagram of FDM system and explain.
(April/May 2004 April/May 2005) (Nov/Dec
2008)

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Refer the Page number: 491 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Pearson Eduction.2001.

9) Determine the bandwidth occupied by a sinusoid ally frequency modulated carrier

for which the modulation index is 2.4 and the maximum frequency deviation is
15KHz. (Apr/May 2003)
Bandwidth of frequency modulated carrier is given by formula
B=2(Δf+fm)Hz
where
Δf is frequency deviation and fm is frequency of carrier
But fm=Δf/m where m is modulation index.

10) In a FM system, the frequency deviation is 1KHZ/V.Asinusoidal modulating

voltage of amplitude 15V and frequency of 3KHz applied. Find maximum frequency
deviation and modulation index. (Apr/May 2003)

For 1V,the frequency deviation(Δf) is 1KHz.

Similarly for 15V, Δf is 15KHz.
From above W.K.T fm is 3KHz.Therefore modulation index is calculated
from formula m=(Δf /fm) =5.

11) With a neat block diagram explain the principle of operation of DPCM. How
does it differ from DM? (Nov/Dec 2005)
Refer the Page numbers from 647-648 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition.

12) (i) Derive an Expression for the amplitude modulated wave and its power
relations.
(May/June 2007) (May/Jun 2009)

(i)Refer the Page number: 127-128 the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic

comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition for the
expression of AM wave.

(ii)Refer the Page number: 169-173 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic

comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition for the TRF

13) (a) (i) Compare AM with FM with special reference to spectrum, power
Requirements, sidebands and bandwidth required.
(April/May 2008)
Refer the Page number: 222-229 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition.

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UNIT II

PART-A

i)What are the advantages of producing FM from PM over direct FM. ii)Derive an
expression to illustrate that when a modulating signal with only one frequency to
frequency modulates a carrier. Also show the resulting FM signal has got infinite
sideband frequencies. (Apr/May2004)

Refer the Page number: 3.19 in the book “J.S. Katre,”Communication Engineering”.

Briefly explain the model of a base band data transmission system.

(Nov/Dec 2004)
Refer the page number 259-260 from the book “Communication Systems”, 4th edition by
Simon Haykin for the base band transmission model.

Explain in detail about a pulse code modulated system. (Apr/May 2005)

Refer the Page numbers from 407-409 from the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition.

Explain about different types of delta modulation schemes. (Apr/My 2005)

Refer the Page numbers from 437-439 from the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition

(i) With a block diagram explain the base band BPAM system
(ii) What is ISI? Explain & Discuss about the possible solutions of this ISI.
(Nov/Dec2005)
Refer page number 4-37 from the book “Communication Engineering 1/e” by J.S.Katre
for ISI remedy to reduce ISI.

UNIT III
PART-A

1) Compare the performance of FSK and PSK based on the power and
bandwidth efficiency.
(Nov/Dec 2009)

Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital

information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. The
simplest FSK is binary FSK (BFSK).
Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by

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changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave).
Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals to represent
digital data. PSK uses a finite number of phases, each assigned a unique pattern
of binary digits.

2) What is TDM? (Apr/May

2003)
In the time division multiplexing common cable /medium is shared by different
channels on the basis of time. Each channel is assigned to fixed time slot. Every
channel transmits in its own time slot. In TDM full bandwidth of the cable/medium is
available to transmitting channel in its time slot

3) What is QPSK? (AU

April/May 2003)
QPSK is Quadrature phase shift keying. In QPSK the phase of the carrier takes on
one of the four equally spaced values Such as ∏/4, 3∏/4, 5∏/4 and 7∏/4. In QPSK
two successive bits are taken together. Such two bits form four distinct symbols.
When the symbol is changed to next symbol the phase of the carrier is changed by
45.Since QPSK transmit two bits at a time its bandwidth requirement is reduced.

4) What is the function of PLL. (Apr/May 2003)

PLL is a closed loop feedback control system in which either the frequency or
phase of the feedback signal is the parameter of interest rather than amplitude of
signal’s voltage or current. The main function of PLL is synchronous detection and
demodulation of radio signals, instrumentation circuits and space telemetry systems.
PLL’s can provide precision frequency selective tuning and filtering without the need
of bulky coils or inductors.

5) Define pulse amplitude modulation. (Apr/May 2003)

Amplitude of the pulse is varied in accordance with the amplitude of modulating
Signal.

6) Why is an FM signal less susceptible to noise than an AM signal?(Apr/May

2004)
The most important advantage of frequency modulation over AM is ability of FM
receiver is to suppress noise.Normally noise introduced in amplitude of modulated
waveform.Hence AM demodulator can not remove the noise without removing some
of the information.But in FM,the information is contained in frequency
variations,allowing the unwanted amplitude variations to be removed with special
circuits called limiters.

7) What is companding with respect to PCM? (Apr/May 2004)

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Companding is the process of compressing and the expanding .The higher
amplitude analog signals are compressed prior to transmission and then expanded in
the receiver. Hence dynamic range of communication system is improved.

2004)

i. DPCM is designed specifically to take advantage of sample to

sample redundancies in typical speech waveforms.
ii. The difference in amplitudes of two successive samples is
transmitted rather than actual sample. Hence the range of sample
difference is less than the range of individual sample.
iii. Fewer bits are required for DPCM than conventional PCM.

9) Define the term slope overload noise. (Nov/Dec

2004)

The slope of analog signal is greater than the delta modulator can maintain and is
called the slope overload. Increasing the clock frequency reduces the probability of
slope overload occurring. Another way to prevent slope overload is to increase the
magnitude of the minimum step size. The granular noise in delta modulation is
analogous to quantization noise in conventional PCM.Granular noise can be reduced
by decreasing the step size.

10) What is pulse duration modulation? State its merits and demerits.
(Apr/May 2005)
Pulse width modulation is sometimes called pulse duration modulation,as the
width of a constant amplitude pulse is varied proportional to the analog signal at the
time the signal is sampled.

11) State the principle of working of a Differential pulse code modulated system.
(Apr/May 2005)
The difference in amplitudes of two successive samples is transmitted rather than
actual sample. Hence the range of sample difference is less than the range of
individual sample. Fewer bits are required for DPCM than conventional PCM

12) What is the principle of ADM. (Nov/Dec

2005)
Adaptive delta modulation is a delta modulation system where the step size of the
DAC is automatically varied, depending on the amplitude characteristics of the
analog input signal. A common algorithm for an adaptive delta modulator is when
three consecutive 1s or 0s occur; the step size of the DAC is increased or decreased
by a factor of 1.5.

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13) Consider an audio signal em(t)=2cos (1000Пt).Find the signal to quantization
noise ratio when the signal is quantized using 8 bit PCM. (Nov/Dec 2005)
Signal to noise ratio(SNR)=10log(v2/(q2/12)) .
Here v=2V,q is quantization level=2n=28.

14) What is companding with respect to PCM? (AU

April/May 2004)
The signal is amplified in low voltage levels and attenuated at high voltage
levels This is called compression. Uniform quantization is used after compression.
This is equivalent to more step size at low voltage levels and small step size at high
voltage levels. That is signal is attenuated at low voltage levels and amplified at
high voltage levels to get original signal. Thus compression at transmitter and
expansion at receiver is called companding.
15) Sketch the PSK waveform for the data 100010011. (AU
April/May 2004)
Draw the PSK waveform for 0 = 360 degree and 1 = 180 degree.

16) Distinguish between TDM & FDM. (AU

Nov/Dec 2004)
In TDM fixed time slot is given to each channel .In FDM fixed frequency slot is
given to each channel. Thus in FDM, bandwidth is shared; where as in TDM time is
shared
Comparison of TDM and FDM

a. TDM involves simple instrumentation; FDM requires an analog sub

carrier modulation, BPF and demodulator for every message channel.
b. TDM synchronization is slightly more demanding than that of suppressed
carrier FDM.
c. TDM is invulnerable to the usual causes of cross talk. In FDM, imperfect
band pass filtering and linear cross modulation give rise to cross talk.

17) State Nyquist’s criterion for zero ISI (Nov/Dec

2004)
Nyquist’s criterion states that for distortion less base band transmission in the
absence of noise: The frequency domain P(f) eliminates intersymbol interference for
sample taken at intervals Tb provided that it satisfies ∑ P(f-nRb)=Tb.Here P(f) refers
to the overall system.

18) What is meant by coherent reception? (Apr/May 2005)

With a coherent, or, synchronous, receiver, the frequencies generated in the
receiver and used for demodulation are synchronized to oscillator frequencies
generated in the transmitter. This is referred to as coherent reception.

19) Why binary ASK is called as on-off keying? (Nov/Dec

2005)

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ASK is similar to standard amplitude modulation except there are only two output
amplitudes possible. Mathematically ASK is given as
keying wave, Vm(t) is modulating signal,A/2 is unmodulated carrier and ωc is analog
carrier radian frequency. Modulated wave vask(t) is either Acos(ωct) or 0.Hence the
carrier is either “ON” or “OFF” which is why amplitude shift keying is sometimes
referred to as on-off keying.

20) What is the need for multiplexing? Mention the different types of
multiplexing techniques.
(Nov/Dec 2005)
Need for multiplexing :
• Practically it is not possible to provide a new separate
communication channel for every connection(such as telephone).
• So a single channel needs to be shared. Here multiplexing
comes in to picture .This is why multiplexing is needed.
The two basic types of multiplexing are Frequency division multiplexing and
Time division multiplexing.

21) State Shannon’s Capacity limit. (Nov/Dec 2006,April/May 2008)

For infinite bandwidth, the ratio of Eb/N0 approaches the limiting value(that is
nearly equal to (0.693).This value is called Shannon limit for an AWGN channel,
assuming a code rate of zero. Expressed in Decibels, its equals to -1.6Db.The
corresponding limiting value of the channel capacity is obtained by letting bandwidth
approach infinity.

22) Define bandwidth efficiency. (Nov/Dec 2006)

Bandwidth efficiency is defined as the ratio of transmission bit rate to the minimum
bandwidth required for a particular modulation scheme.

Bη = Transmission bit rate(bps)

------------------------------- where Bη is bandwidth efficiency.
minimum bandwidth (Hz)

23) Give the logic circuit of a simple clock recovery circuit (May/June 2007)
Refer the Page number: 389 in the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic comm.
Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition for the clock recovery
circuit.

24) State Nyquist sampling Theorem. (April/May

2008)
The Nyquist Sampling theorem establishes the minimum sampling rate(fs) that
can be used for a given PCM system. For a sample to be reproduced accurately in a
PCM receiver, each cycle of the analog input signal must be sampled at least twice.
The minimum sampling rate is equal to twice the highest audio input
frequency.Mathematically,the minimum Nyquist sampling rate is given by

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fs≥fa where
fs- minimum Nyquist sampling rate(Hz)

25) Define companding. (Apr/May 2003)(Nov/Dec 2008)

Companding is the process of compressing and the expanding .The higher
amplitude analog signals are compressed prior to transmission and then expanded in
the receiver. Hence dynamic range of communication system is improved.

26) Define bit error rate. (May/Jun

2009)
Bit error rate is defined as number of error bits present in total number ot bits transmiietd.
If a system has a BER of 105,‫ ־‬This means thera are one bit erroro for every 100000 bits
transmitted.

27) What is the Bandwidth efficiency for QPSK for a bit error rate of 10-7 on
a channel with an SNR of 12 dB?
First find for PSK.
Given S/N as 12 dB and Eb/N0 value for PSK at error rate 10-7 is 11.2 dB,
So 11.2 = 12 – (R/B) dB
(R/B) dB = 0.8 dB
R/B = 1.2
In QPSK we can represent 2 bits in single signal element. So
For QPSK R/B = 2 * 1.2 = 2.4

Binary PSK QPSK

1. Two different phases are 1. Four different phases are used
used to represent two to represent two binary
binary values. values.
2. Each signal element 2. Each signal element
represents only one bit. represents two bits.

29) What is the signaling rate of PCM?

Signaling rate of PCM = r=v fs
v=bits per sample
fs = number of samples per second

Nonlinear encoding is a technique used to increase the performance of PCM

system. In Nonlinear encoding the Quantization levels are not equally spaced. That is
greater number of Quantization levels for signals of low amplitude, and smaller
number of Quantization levels for signals of high amplitude.

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31) Which digital modulation technique gives better error probability?
Binary phase shift keying gives reduced error probability compared to ASK and
FSK.H is given as

Pe =1/2erfc √ E/No

32) What is the characteristic of TDM?

In the time division multiplexing common cable /medium is shared by different
channels on the basis of time. Each channel is assigned to fixed time slot. Every
channel transmits in its own time slot. In TDM full bandwidth of the cable/medium is
available to transmitting channel in its time slot.
TDM is possible when the useful data rate of medium exceed the required of data
rate signal to be transmitted.

33) How the probability of error can be reduced in data transmission?

Error probability of matched filter is given as
Pe =1/2(erfc √ E/No)
Pe will reduce if energy E is increased. Energy can be increased by
increasing amplitude of the signal and increasing bit duration

34) What are the advantages of QPSK?

Advantages of QPSK are
• For the same bit error, the bandwidth required by QPSK is reduced to half
as compared to BPSK
• Because of reduced bandwidth, the information transmission rate of QPSK
is higher
• Variations in offset QPSK amplitude are not much. Hence carrier power
almost remains constant.

35) Define PSK and draw the PSK waveform for the data 10110.
PSK (phase Shift Keying) is a modulation technique achieved by keying the
phase of the carrier between either of two possible values corresponding to the binary
symbol 0 &1 with fixed frequency limits set by the channel.

36) Draw the waveforms for BFSK and BPSK modulation.

In binary Frequency Shift Keying the frequency of the carrier is shifted
according to the binary symbol without affecting the phase of the carrier.

BFSK waveform

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In binary phase shift keying the phase of the carrier is shifted according to
the binary signal.

BPSK waveform

UNIT - III
PART-B

1) (i) Draw the block diagram of BPSK transmitter and receiver. Explain the same
digital modulation scheme with appropriate constellation diagram.
(ii)Determine the maximum bit rate for an FSK signal with mark frequency of 48
KHz, a space frequency of 52 KHz and available bandwidth of 10 KHz.
(Nov/Dec 2009)
Refer the Page number: 120-128 from the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition

2) (i) Draw the block diagram of a PCM communication system. Explain the
function of each block with neat sketch of input and output at each stage.
(ii)A speech signal generated by a voice source is sampled at a rate of 8 KHz and a
uniform quantizer of 256 levels is used to quantize the signal. Determine the output
data rate required if the Nyquist rate of sampling is used. (Nov/Dec 2009)

Refer the Page number: 90-110 from the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Fifth Edition

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3) For binary data transmission obtain the expressions and waveforms for ASK,
FSK and PSK schemes. (April/May
2003)
a. ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) is a modulation technique, which converts
digital data to analog signal. In ASK, the two binary values (0,1) are
represented by two different amplitudes of the carrier signal.
S(t) = Acos2π ft binary 1
i. binary 0

b. ASK waveform is

c. FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) also a modulation technique that converts

digital data to analog signal. In FSK, the two binary values are represented
by two different frequencies near the carrier frequency.
S(t) = Acos2π f1t binary 1
i. Acos2π f2t binary 0

d. PSK (phase Shift Keying) is a modulation technique achieved by keying

the phase of the carrier between either of two possible values
corresponding to the binary symbol 0 &1 with fixed frequency limits set
by the channel.

e. Refer the Page number: 350-351 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic

comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Pearson Eduction.2001

6) (i) Discuss the generation of PDM system. (Nov/Dec 2004)

Refer page number 407 in the book” Electronic Communication Systems,
Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi

(ii) Explain the term Aliasing in signal transmission? What are the corrective
measures used? (Nov/Dec 2004)
Refer page number 413-414 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi

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7) Explain the generation and noise performance of delta modulation. .

(Nov/Dec2004)
Refer page number 437-439 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi

10) (i) State and prove sampling theorem for low pass signals.
(ii)How do you get PPM from PDM? (Nov/Dec 2005)
Refer the page number 236 from the book “Communication Systems”,4th
edition by Simon Haykin for the sampling theorem of low pass signals.
Refer the page number 237-238 from the book “Communication
Systems”,4th edition by Simon Haykin.

11) With a neat block diagram explain the principle of operation of DPCM How
does it differ from DM. (Nov/Dec 2005)
Refer page number 440-441(section 10-14) in the book” Electronic
Communication Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition
by Wayne Tomasi

12) Explain the functioning of a FSK digital transmitter cum receiver operation in
detail with the relevant diagram. (Nov/Dec 2006)
Refer page number 355-357 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi
for the FSK digital transmitter cum receiver.

13) Using a block diagram, explain the functioning of each block present in a PCM
transmitter-receiver set up. (Nov/Dec 2006)
Refer page number 408-409(section 10-3) in the book” Electronic
Communication Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition
by Wayne Tomasi.

14) A PCM system has the following parameters: A maximum analog input
frequency of 4 K HZ, a maximum decoded voltage at the receiver of +2.55V-2,55V,
and a minimum dynamic range of 46 DB determine the following:
1. Minimum sample rate
2. Minimum number of bits used in the PCM code, resolution
and quantization (May/June
2007)
Refer Example10-4 from page number 420 in the book” Electronic
Communication Systems ,Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition
by Wayne Tomasi .

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15) Explain in detail about the Binary phase shift keying and its Bandwidth
consideration. (May/June 2007)

Refer page number 358-360 in the book” Electronic Communication

Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi
for the BPSK and its bandwidth considerations.

16) Explain in detail about a PCM system. (AU April/May 2004, 2005)
Definition for PCM:
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) is a process used to convert analog
signal to digital data. In PCM, the analog signal is first sampled
then quantized then each sample is replaced with n bits binary data
Refer the Page number: 315-317 of the book “Wayne tomasi,”Electronic
comm. Systems: fundamentals through advanced”, Pearson
Eduction.2001.

(ii) Describe error performance of

a) PSK
b) FSK
(iii) With a block diagram explain the binary FSK receiver. (Nov/Dec 2008)
a) Refer page number 415-418 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi
b) Refer page number 420 in the book” Electronic Communication Systems,
Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi

20) Explain digital transmission and digital radio. (May/Jun 2009)

Refer page number 364-365 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi

21) Explain the relationship between

a. The minimum bandwidth required for an FSK system and the bit
rate.
The mark and space frequencies. (May/Jun 2009)
Refer page number 370-373 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi

UNIT IV
PART-A

1) Describe the role of modem in communication networks. (Nov/Dec 2009)

18
A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an
analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a
carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a
signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original
digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals,
from driven diodes to radio.

2) What is meant by full duplex transmission? (Nov/Dec 2006)

a. In the full duplex mode, transmissions are possible in both directions
simultaneously, but they must be between the same two stations. A standard
telephone system is an example of full duplex transmission.

3) What are data modems? Why are they used? (Nov/Dec 2006)
a. The primary purpose of data modem is to interface the digital terminal
equipment to analog communication channel. The data modem is also called
a DCE,a dataset or a mode. At the transmit end ,the modem converts digital
pulses from the serial interface to analog signals and at the receiver end the
modem converts these analog signals to digital pulses.

4) What is a “Checksum”? (May/June 2007)

a. Checksum is an extremely simple methods of error detection. A checksum is
simply the least significant byte of the arithmetic sum of the binary data
being transmitted.

5) What is the primary principle of ISDN? (May/June 2007) (May/Jun 2009)

a. The primary principles of ISDN are:
b. The main feature of ISDN concept is to support a wide range of voice and
non voice applications.
c. New services introduced into ISDN should be compatible with 64Kbps
switched digital connections.
d. An ISDN will contain intelligence for the purpose providing service features,
maintenance and network management functions.
e. A layered protocol structure should be used to specify the access procedure.

6) Explain Hamming code. (April/May 2008)

a. The Hamming code is an error correcting code used for correcting
transmission errors in synchronous data streams .However the Hamming
code will correct only single bit errors. It can not correct multiple bit errors
or burst errors, and it can not identify errors that occur in the Hamming bits
themselves. The combination of the data bits and Hamming bits is called the
Hamming code The only stipulation on the placement of the Hamming bits is
that both the sender and receiver must agree on where they are placed
Therefore the number of Hamming bits is determined by the following
expression.

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i. 2n≥m+n+1 where ‘n’ is the number of Hamming bits and ‘m’ is the
number of bits in each data character.

7) What is meant by error control? What are two type of error in error control?
a. Error control refers to mechanism to detect and correct error that occurs in
the transmission of frame. The two types of errors in error control are
b. Lost frame
c. Damaged frame

a. Baudot code
b. ASCII code
c. EBCDIC code

9) Why modems are used in data communication system?

a. The term MODEM is derived from the words modulator and demodulator. A
MODEM contains a modulator as well as demodulator. The normal digital
signal cannot put purely on the telephone lines. This is due to the face that
the BW of the telephone lines is not sufficient to transfer the digital data
without distortion. Therefore the digital data is first converted to a signal that
is compatible to the telephone lines. The conversion is done by the MODEM.
It is implemented in both transmitting and receiving ends in any system such
as simplex, half duplex and full duplex systems.

ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying)

FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)
PSK (Phase Shift Keying)
DPSK (Differential phase Shift Keying)

11) What are the different types of MODEMS?

a. The classifications of the MODEM are based on the following features.
i. Directional capability: Half duplex and full duplex MODEM
ii. Connection to the telephone line: 2 Wire modem or 4-wire Modem
iii. Transmission mode: Asynchronous modem or synchronous MODEM

12) Write short notes on serial Interfaces.

20
a. In order to ensure proper data flow between LCU and modem a serial
interface is introduced between them. The aim of using this interface is to
communicate the flow of data, control signals and timing information’s
between the DTE and DCE. Some of the serial interface standards are
RS 232
RS 449
RS 530
RS 422 and RS 423

13) What are the different types of ARQ error control schemes?
(AU Apr/May 2004)
a. Stop and Wait ARQ
b. Go Back N ARQ
c. Selective Reject ARQ

UNIT IV
PART B

1) (i) Explain delta modulation with suitable waveforms.

(ii)What are the sources of errors in Delta modulation systems?
(Apr/May 2004)
Refer page number 218-221 in the book”Communication Systems, Fourth
edition by Simon Haykin.

6) (i) With a block diagram, explain the base band BPAM system.
(ii) What is ISI? Explain. Discuss about the possible solutions of this ISI. .
(Nov/Dec
2005)
(i)Refer page number 4-37 from the book “Communication Engineering
1/e” by J.S.Katre for ISI remedy to reduce ISI.

11) Describe the physical, electrical and functional characteristics of the RS.232
serial interface (April/May 2008)

21
Refer page number 906-918 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems, Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne
Tomasi.

12) (i)What is the purpose of data modem? And briefly explain the synchronous
and asynchronous data modems.
(ii) Describe ISDN and explain how it can be effectively used in the
construction of a WAN. (Nov/Dec 2008)
Refer page number 939-945 in the book” Electronic Communication Systems,
Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi.
Refer page number 987-993 in the book” Electronic Communication Systems,
Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi.

13)(i) Briefly explain the difference between forward error correction (FEC) and
automatic request for retransmission (ARQ), approach to error control.
(ii) Explain in detail about the serial and parallel interface. (Nov/Dec 2008)
Refer page number 906-908 in the book” Electronic Communication
Systems,Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi.
Refer page number 924-939 in the book” Electronic Communication Systems,
Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi.

14) Explain the following error correction techniques.

Symbol substitution.
Retransmission
Forward error correction.
Refer page number 905-908 in the book” Electronic Communication Systems,
Fundamentals through advanced, Fifth edition by Wayne Tomasi.

UNIT V
PART-A

What is meant by spread spectrum

Direct sequence spread specrum
Frequency hop spread spectrum.
What is meant by PN sequence.
TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, SDMA.
PART-B
Explain in detail about spread spectrum, Direct sequence spread spectrum,
Frequency hop spread spectrum.
Refer communication systems by Simon Haykins

Explain in detail about various multiple access techniques.

Refer communication systems by Simon Haykins

Explain in detail about speech coding for wireless communication

22
Refer communication systems by Simon Haykins

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