TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE

> Warm humid zone This climate zone is best visited in winter, autumn or spring. Summer is very humid and very warm. Winter, with mostly fine days, is warm in the northern part of the zone and mild in the southern part. It is the most comfortable season in the northern part of the zone. In any part of the zone, winter is recommended for those planning a physically active holiday. Winter also has the fewest rainy days. Brisbane, with an average of 24 dry days in July, has this type of climate. humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification prefix D) is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers, and cold (sometimes severely) winters. Precipitation is relatively well-distributed year-round in many areas, while others may see a marked reduction in wintry precipitation and even a wintertime drought. Snowfall, regardless of average seasonal totals, occurs in all areas with a humid continental climate and is in many such places more common than rain during the height of winter. In places with sufficient wintertime precipitation the snow cover is often deep. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and a very occasional tropical system. Humid continental climates tend to be found above 40° N latitude, and within the central and northeastern portions of North America, Europe, and Asia. They are much less commonly found in the Southern Hemisphere due to the larger ocean area at that latitude and thus greater maritime moderation. The Köppen definition of this climate, regarding temperature, is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) (some climatologists prefer to use the freezing mark), and that there be at least four months with mean temperatures at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. > desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Deserts are defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimetres (10 in) per year,[1][2] or as areas where more water is lost by evapotranspiration than falls as precipitation.[3] In the Köppen climate classification system, deserts are classed as BWh (hot desert) or BWk (temperate desert). In the Thornthwaite climate classification system, deserts would be classified as arid megathermal climates. Dry Desert is, as you can tell from the name, hot and dry. Most Hot and Dry Deserts don’t have very many plants. They do have some low down plants though. The only animals they have that can survive have the ability to burrow under ground. This is because they would not be able to live in the hot sun and heat. They only come out in the night when it is a little cooler. A cold desert is a desert that has snow in the winter instead of just dropping a few degrees in temperature like they would in a Hot and Dry Desert. It never gets warm enough for plants to grow. Just maybe a few grasses and mosses. The animals in Cold Deserts also have to burrow but in this case to keep warm, not cool. That is why you might find some of the same animals here as you would in the Hot and Dry Deserts. Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth’s land surface. Most Hot and Dry Deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. Cold Deserts are near the Arctic part of the world. Hot and Dry Deserts temperature ranges from 20 to 25° C. The extreme maximum temperature for Hot Desert ranges from 43.5 to 49° C. Cold Deserts temperature in winter ranges from -2 to 4° C and in the summer 21 to 26° C a year The precipitation in Hot and Dry Deserts and the precipitation in Cold Deserts is different. Hot and Dry Deserts usually have very little rainfall and/or concentrated rainfall in short periods between long rainless periods. This averages out to under 15 cm a year. Cold Deserts usually have lots of snow. They also have rain around spring. This averages out to 15 – 26 cm a year. Hot and Dry Deserts are warm throughout the fall and spring seasons and very hot during the summer. the winters usually have very little if any rainfall. Cold Deserts have quite a bit of snow during winter. The summer and the beginning of the spring are barely warm enough for a few lichens, grasses and mosses to grow. Hot and Dry Deserts vegetation is very rare. Plants are almost all ground-hugging shrubs and short woody trees. All of the leaves are replete (packed with nutrients). Some examples of these kinds of plant are Turpentine Bush, Prickly Pears, and Brittle Bush. For all of these plants to survive they have to have adaptations. Some of the adaptations in this case are the ability to store water for long periods of time and the ability to stand the hot weather. Cold Desert’s plants are scattered. In areas with little shade,about 10 percent of the ground is covered with plants. In some areas of sagebrush it reaches 85 percent. The height of scrub varies from 15 cm to 122 cm. All plants are either deciduous and more or less contain spiny leaves. Hot and Dry Deserts animals include small nocturnal (only active at night) carnivores. There are also insects, arachnids, reptiles, and birds. Some examples of these animals are Borrowers, Mourning Wheatears, and Horned Vipers. Cold Deserts have animals like Antelope, Ground Squirrels, Jack Rabbits, and Kangaroo Rats. >HOT MARITIME DESERT CLIMATE -1

[2] [3] Usually. They are caused by the larger amplitude of the seasonal cycle of land temperature compared to that of nearby oceans. ProcessMonsoons may be considered as large-scale sea breezes. although technically there is also a dry phase. these factors mean that the heat capacity of the layer participating in the seasonal cycle is much larger over the oceans than over land. 2•Strong reflected component from ground and buildings causing glare. Communities. through the action of wind and buoyancy-generated turbulence. with the seasonal signal penetrating perhaps a metre or so. The term was first used in English in British India (now India. negotiating trade-offs between them. due to seasonal heating and the resulting development of a thermal low over a continental landmass.1•Air temperature: Hot season: mean max:34-40 c mean min :24-30 c Cool season: mean max: 20-25 c mean min : 10-18 c Diurnal range: 10-20 c 1•Relative humidity: 50% -90% Great evaporation from the sea 2•Vapor however remains suspended in the air causing very uncomfortable conditions. the specific heat capacity of liquid water is significantly higher than that of most materials that make up land. Many challenges in integrating ecological and social understanding remain. creating an area of low pressure. . or from storm-produced outflows at the surface. (3) information and incentives can change behaviours and are therefore important complement to plans and regulations. the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally-changing pattern. and allocating the risks and burdens if services are degraded or lost. but does not eliminate importance of power relations. Asia The Asian monsoons may be classified into a few sub-systems. bringing the moist nearsurface air over the oceans with it. Similar rainfall is caused by the moist ocean air being lifted upwards by mountains.[15] surface heating. with the consequence that the air over the land warms faster and reaches a higher temperature than the air over the ocean.[16] convergence at the surface. The inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal may be debated. which in turn produces condensation. Korea and parts of Japan. Bangladesh and Pakistan) and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area. Together. How they are governed can be crucial to human well-being and environmental sustainability. This differential warming happens because heat in the ocean is mixed vertically through a "mixed layer" that may be fifty metres deep. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons. This creates a steady wind blowing toward the land. The hot air over the land tends to rise. but with strong diffuse due to hazy sky. (4) monitoring is the least well developed area of governance. divergence aloft. Additionally.[1] but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.[18] However the lifting occurs. and the East Asian Monsoon which affects southern China. This review of policies and projects draws four initial conclusions: (1) multi-stakeholder planning improves the assessment of underappreciated services and users. the air cools due to expansion in lower pressure. >tropical upland Upland watersheds in the tropics provide a range of crucial ecosystem goods and services. 3•Long wave re-radiation from all heated surfaces is not as rapid as pure Hot-Arid regions causing temperature diurnal range being not very high. whereas the land surface conducts heat slowly. such as the South Asian Monsoon which affects the Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions. governments and firms have taken many different approaches to sharing these benefits. HOT MARITIME DESERT CLIMATE -2 Precipitation: 1•Slight and variable throughout the year 15-155 mm/ annum Sky Conditions: 1•Normally clear dark blue and sometimes hazy due to the suspended water particles in the air Solar Radiation: 1•Mostly direct and strong. (2) regulations invariably create winners and losers with outcomes that often depend on pre-existing institutions. >Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by seasonal changes in precipitation.

South Asian Monsoon Southwest Monsoon The southwestern summer monsoons occur from June through September. the Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere still holds its heat.[28] The jet stream in this region splits into the southern subtropical jet and the polar jet. Philippines. About 50% to 60% of the rain received by the state of Tamil Nadu is from the Northeast Monsoon.[27] In Southern Asia. The rain occurs in a concentrated belt that stretches east-west except in East China where it is tilted eastnortheast over Korea and Japan. which causes a low pressure area over the northern and central Indian subcontinent. China. beginning over Indochina and the South China Sea (May). rainy summer monsoon and a cold. Changma in Korea. with the sun fast retreating south. creating dry air streams which produce clear skies over India. Tropical Design Module 2: Climate Elements Basic Concept: "Weather" is the set of atmospheric conditions prevailing at a given place and time. The onset of the summer monsoon is marked by a period of premonsoonal rain over South China and Taiwan in early May. receives rain from this Monsoon. with the latter two resembling frontal rain. the summer monsoon shifts through a series of dry and rainy phases as the rain belt moves northward. This causes the cold wind to sweep down from the Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic Plain towards the vast spans of the Indian Ocean south of the Deccan peninsula. the rain belt moves back to South China. This is known as the Northeast Retreating Monsoon. . While travelling towards the Indian Ocean. a low pressure system develops over South-East Asia and Australasia and winds are directed toward Australia known as a monsoon trough. to the Yangtze River Basin and Japan (June) and finally to North China and Korea (July). Northeast Monsoon Around September. The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent heats up considerably during the hot summers. It is characterised by a warm. When the monsoon ends in August. dry winter monsoon. Korea and Japan. the northern land mass of the Indian subcontinent begins to cool off rapidly. East Asian Monsoon The East Asian monsoon affects large parts of Indo-China. Meanwhile. With this air pressure begins to build over northern India. the dry cold wind picks up some moisture from the Bay of Bengal and pours it over peninsular India and parts of Sri Lanka. which get less rain from the Southwest Monsoon. From May through August. The subtropical flow directs northeasterly winds to blow across southern Asia. The seasonal rain is known as Meiyu in China. and Bai-u in Japan. the northeastern monsoons take place from December to early March when the surface high-pressure system is strongest. Cities like Madras.

There is usually a large diurnal (day . Cloudy and glaring sky. Composite (Tropical Uplands) Warm Humid: High temp during the day. Cold and non-glaring sky. Northern Russia. The movement of air masses and of moisture-bearing clouds is driven by temperature differentials and strongly influenced by the Coriolis force. but the air is dry. 1/3 to 2/3 ratio of monsoon period The general climate (macroclimate) is influenced by the topography. Central America and the Amazon Basin in South America Cool Temperate Example: N. Sparse and often bare ground vegetation.. C. Europe. The diurnal temperature variation is small. can be quite low in winter. and China For the purposes of building design a simple system based on the nature of the thermal problem in the particular location is often used.W. and parts of North America Warm Temperate Example: Mediterranean Countries Cool Temperate Example: N. Very high glare from ground."Climate" can be defined as the integration in time of weather conditions. fairly constant throughout the year. so the evaporative cooling mechanism of the body is not restricted. Low and very low humidity. Tropical Climate: Philippines Temperature – average mean temperature (dbt) 20 – 30 deg C small diurnal temperature change/range 2-5 deg Humidity Levels . large diurnal range.night) temperature variation. the vegetation and the nature of the environment on a regional scale (mesoclimate) or at a local level within the site itself (microclimate). but it is aggravated by very high humidities. a lot of reflected heat/ solar gain Precipitation – high during the year – average of 1000mm/yr . Classification of Climates: Equatorial Example: Those countries lying just above or below the equator. Southeast Asian Countries. characteristics of a certain geographical location. Canada.50% .May to October Sky Conditions – Overcast Sky most of the time.W. Relatively high humidity: Heavy rains especially during monsoon season. Sub-Tropical & Equatorial Climates: A. Greenland. low diurnal change. B. At the global level climates are formed by the differential solar heat input and the uniform heat emission over the earth's surface. Hot Dry (Arid/Maritime Desert) main problem is overheating. Canada. Rich soil which only requires water Composite: Mixture of warm/humid and hot/dry. Warm Humid (Tropical Island) overheating is not as great as in hot-dry areas. Average of 2 m/s Prevailing Wind in the Philippines : Amihan (NE) – November to April Habagat (SW) . Often low or very low precipitation. Lesser ground vegetation Hot Dry: Very high temp during the day. restricting the evaporation potential. and parts of North America Arctic Example: Iceland.100% Relative Humidity Wind Conditions – Slow Wind Flow. Further Classification of Tropical. Little or no cloud. Europe.

instrument – silvered thermometer (in 0F or 0C) . Solar Radiation . instrument – rain gauge measured in inches or centimeters . or it could be measured in hours of sunshine Cloud cover .the period of clear sunshine (when a sharp shadow is cast). DBT (Dry-Bulb Temperature) – measurement of the temperature of the air and as far as possible excludes any radiant temperature. Wind – direction. .monthly total (in mm) E.measured by a pyranometer. such as for designing drainage systems and assessing the level of precipitation. rivers. or through an electronic integrator as irradiance over the hour or day. whether the site is on coast or inland. Sky – either cloud cover. Rainfall data may sometimes be needed. humidity. these are the four constituents of climate most important for the purposes of building design. in a town or in the rural areas.based on visual observation and expressed as a fraction of the sky hemisphere (tenths.Slope of land height in relation to air movement.Orientation . instrument – vane anemometer for high speeds kata thermometer for low speeds C. F. frequency and force of the wind throughout the year. RH (Relative Humidity) – amount of water in the air.usually between 1 to 4 deg C hotter .early morning relative humidity (in %) .than its surrounding area. solar radiation and air movement. measured in the shade. and it has been intensifying throughout this century.monthly mean of daily minima (deg C) .Evaporative cooling .Courtyards . measured by a sunshine recorder which burns a trace on a paper strip.standard deviation of distribution B. instrument – hygrometer (in %) or sling psychrometer measured in 0F or 0C if WBT (wet-bulb temperature) . rainfall and temperature Urban Climate: Almost every city in the world today is hotter . streams and lakes. Precipitation – mainly rainfall but could also be dew. etc.land/sea breeze . Some micro-climate phenomena are: . on an unobstructed horizontal surface and recorded either as the continuously varying irradiance (W/m2). Elements of Climate Needed in Design: A. measured in 1/8 or 1/10 or % of the sky covered. expressed as hours per day or month.Micro-Climate: Many factors contribute to micro-climate. whether the location is above sea level.monthly mean of daily maxima (deg C) . Sunshine duration . Four environmental variables directly affecting thermal comfort are temperature.early afternoon relative humidity (in %) D. for instance. the location of hills. or 'octas' = eights) covered by clouds. This difference between urban and rural temperatures is called the "urban-heat-island" effect". the position of buildings and trees.

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