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Individual spirituality, workplace spirituality and work attitudes
An empirical test of direct and interaction effects
Badrinarayan Shankar Pawar
Indian Institute of Management (Kozhikode), Kerala, India
Abstract
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the direct effects of three workplace spirituality aspects – meaning in work, community at work, and positive organizational purpose – and individual spirituality on three work attitudes – job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. It also seeks to examine the interactive effects of these three workplace spirituality aspects and individual spirituality on these three work attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The paper briefly outlines the existing workplace spirituality research, indicates the required research and places this study in that backdrop. It then outlines theory building for specifying a set of hypotheses. It uses data from a sample of managerial level employees from India to test the hypotheses. Findings – The study results provided considerable support for the hypothesized relationships between workplace spirituality aspects and work attitudes but not for the hypothesized relationships between individual spirituality and work attitudes. The results provided only marginal support for the interactive effect model, which hypothesized that individual spirituality will moderate the effect of workplace spirituality aspects on work attitudes. Research limitations/implications – Research implications of the findings outlined in this paper will encourage research to link various organizational topics such as leadership with workplace spirituality. They also highlight the need to examine more complex models to examine joint effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality on work attitudes. Practical implications – The findings can provide some relevant inputs for leadership actions and organization development efforts aimed at implementing workplace spirituality in organizations. Originality/value – The paper’s value partly comes from the outlined research and practice implications. Keywords Attitudes, Job satisfaction, Leadership, Research, Beliefs, India Paper type Research paper

Spirituality and work attitudes

759
Received December 2008 Revised March 2009 Accepted April 2009

Workplace spirituality: introduction and existing research Recent research (e.g. Duchon and Plowman, 2005; Fry, 2003; Fry et al., 2005; Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2003; Milliman et al., 2003) suggests that workplace spirituality reflects employee experiences such as a sense of meaning, purpose, community, and transcendence at workplace. Workplace spirituality research is in its early stage (Dent et al., 2005; Duchon and Plowman, 2005; Sheep, 2006). Some research has focused on defining and operationalizing workplace spirituality (e.g. Ashmos and Duchon, 2000;
The author is grateful to Professor Louis Fry and Professor Jeff Ferguson for their review of, and comments on, (an) earlier version(s) of this manuscript.

Leadership & Organization Development Journal Vol. 30 No. 8, 2009 pp. 759-777 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0143-7739 DOI 10.1108/01437730911003911

and organization-based self-esteem. 1999). Lund Dean et al. Some research has studied leadership as a mechanism for facilitating workplace spirituality (e. organizational commitment. Fry. sense of community.g. Required research in workplace spirituality and this study Researchers have noted that empirical research on the effects of workplace spirituality on organizational outcomes is both important (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz.. Kolodinsky et al. Milliman et al. Brooke et al. it builds on and extends the existing research of Milliman et al. Further.. 2003. Further. 2003). Rego and Pina e Cunha. (2003) study by including workplace spirituality as an antecedent of work attitudes and extends Milliman et al. It focuses on three employee work attitudes namely.. The employee work attitudes examined in this study are extensively studied work attitudes in organizational studies (Mathieu and Farr. 2008.LODJ 30. 2003. 2005). 2006). job involvement.8 760 Moore and Casper. 2005). 2003. Fry et al. and alignment of values. 2005. 2005). job satisfaction.g. Tischler et al. mapping the area of workplace spirituality research and suggesting guidelines for the research in workplace spirituality and outlining methodologies for studying workplace spirituality (e. 2005). 2008). 2007). In some of the recent research (e. This line of inquiry suggests workplace spirituality as an outcome of leadership or spiritual leadership. Workplace spirituality’s linkages with leadership and organization development The relevance of workplace spirituality topic to the Leadership & Organization Development Journal can be noted from the following. Benefiel. and organizational commitment. Research has also examined outcomes of workplace spirituality such as employee work attitudes. Milliman et al. 2007). The present study addresses this inadequacy. 1991) and have been found to be distinct from each other (e. Thus. (e. organizational productivity (Fry et al.. and work unit performance (Duchon and Plowman.g.. Fry et al.. job involvement. Research has also focused on describing workplace spirituality manifestations in organizations (e. It examines the effect of workplace spirituality on one category of organizational outcomes – employee work attitudes.g.. 2008) has outlined extensive linkages of workplace spirituality with the topics of leadership and organization development. intention to quit. Milliman et al. (2003) study by adding . It builds on Milliman et al.. this study builds on and extends the existing research on the effect of workplace spirituality on employee work attitudes. the topic of workplace spirituality is of relevance to Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 2003. 2003. Fry. Duchon and Plowman. (2003) which found considerable support for the hypothesized relationships between three workplace spirituality dimensions -meaningful work. 2003.and five work attitudes – intrinsic job satisfaction. French and Bell (2001) suggest that spirituality or the aspect of community will have an important place in organization development (OD) efforts. in light of the fragmentary and non-cumulating nature of the existing workplace spirituality research (Tischler et al.g.g. 2003) and inadequately examined (e. 2005. Giacalone and Jurkiewicz.... 1988).g. a recent paper (Pawar. 2005. a specific form of leadership – spiritual leadership – has been linked to the outcomes such as calling and membership. In particular. Referring to such works. which are similar to the meaning and community aspects of workplace spirituality.

group level in terms of sense of community. Moreover.g. and organizational level. The present study’s focus is consistent with the direction adopted and the need for further research suggested in Kolodinsky et al. and organizational identification. (2003). Milliman et al. and organizational level in terms of alignment with organizational values. 137) “as the recognition that employees have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community” is adopted in this paper. Their discussion of study findings suggested the need for further research on organizational spirituality and personal spirituality. and organizational – of Spirituality and work attitudes 761 . 2003. This study. Its research direction is also consistent with Kolodinsky et al. job involvement. (2003) adopted only meaning in work and sense of community and excluded the transcendent or the inner life aspect. 2000. purpose. and positive organizational purpose are the three aspects included in the assessment of workplace spirituality in the present study and they correspond to the three levels – individual. Ashmos and Duchon. Meaning in work. membership. community at work. the present study includes more comprehensive theorization for explicit specification of hypotheses. Milliman et al.individual spirituality and examining two theoretically plausible alternative models – one model specifying simultaneous direct effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality on work attitudes and an alternative model specifying interactive effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality on work attitudes. Theory development: workplace spirituality definition and hypotheses Workplace spirituality definition in this study While there are several definitions of workplace spirituality (Gotsis and Kortezi. They also found only marginal support for interactive effects of personal spirituality and organizational spirituality on these outcomes. (2008). Kolodinsky et al. adopts a multi-dimensional conceptualization and measure of workplace spirituality. and focuses on a sample from India. quite a few of them (e. work group. Some revisions are made in this study in the dimensions of workplace spirituality of Ashmos and Duchon (2000) in light of the relevant literature as outlined below. and connectedness. work group or department level.’s (2008) study. belonging. However. (2008) who recently examined the direct and interactive effects of personal spirituality and organizational spirituality on work attitudes of satisfaction with rewards. focuses on three separate aspects of workplace spirituality rather than on just overall organizational spirituality. in comparison to Kolodinsky et al.. 2008). organizational frustration. (2003) specified workplace spirituality at three levels: individual level in terms of meaning in work. drawing on Ashmos and Duchon (2000) and other literature. individual level in terms of an employees’ interaction with his/her work. p. focuses on three levels of workplace spirituality namely. This study adopts the definition of workplace spirituality by Ashmos and Duchon (2000. From the definition of Ashmos and Duchon (2000). 2003) include the dimensions of meaning in work and community at work though the terms used may take various forms such as calling. It includes the previously indicated common dimensions – meaning and community – of workplace spirituality. (2008) study found considerable support for the relationship between organizational spirituality and these outcomes but only marginal support for the relationship between personal spirituality and these outcomes. Milliman et al. Giacalone and Jurkiewicz. consistent with Milliman et al.

and have a sense of working together”. (1989. energizing. “by discussing the spiritual sides of organizations . Duchon and Plowman. p. (2003) adopted an operationalization of the community aspect that is different from that in Ashmos and Duchon (2000). 2003. etc. 2000. 141). . 1996). the aspects of workplace spirituality are conceptualized as employee perceptions of various aspects of an organization. . . Fry et al. emotional) reaction to a job that results from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired . noted. 139-41). Consistent with Ashmos and Duchon (2000. Similarly. 1). ” (Cranny et al. spirituality-related situational variables (three workplace spirituality dimensions) and spirituality-related individual variable (individual spirituality level) are included as two categories of antecedents of work attitudes in the direct effects model depicted in Figure 1. (1999) who identified an organization’s adoption of a “cause” as one aspect of organizational spirituality. This paper’s view of the organizational level aspect of workplace spirituality in terms of positive organizational purpose is consistent with Milliman et al. 2005). there should be a positive relationship between workplace spirituality dimensions and job satisfaction. Arvey et al. Thus. The aspects of meaning in work and community at work included in this study are consistent with the meaningful work and community aspects of workplace spirituality definition of Ashmos and Duchon (2000) though Milliman et al. in this paper the three aspects of workplace spirituality are as follows. society. . 2005. and organizational commitment (Mathieu and Zajac. p. As workplace spirituality dimensions fulfill employees’ higher order and spiritual needs (Ashmos and Duchon. 187) note that both situational variables and individual variables are associated with job satisfaction. 1992. which is a little different from Milliman et al. pp. The organizational level aspect of workplace spirituality in this study is conceptualized in terms of the presence of positive organizational purpose. Consistent with Ashmos and Duchon (2000. Hypotheses Direct effects model Research on job involvement (Brown. It is also consistent with Mitroff et al. p. the aspect of community at work reflects the extent to which employees feel being a part of their work community where they “can experience personal growth. 2005. Fry. Thus. Direct effects model: effects of workplace spirituality on work attitudes (Figure 1) Workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. The aspect of positive organizational purpose reflects the extent to which employees perceive their organization as having a positive purpose in relation to employees. be valued for themselves as individuals. (2003) who conceptualized alignment with organizational values as the organizational level aspect of workplace spirituality.8 762 workplace spirituality. they should induce a more favorable employee affective response. p. in outlining the features of future organizations. (1994. 17) who.. Job satisfaction “is an affective (that is. the aspect of meaning in work reflects “a sense of what is important. Consistent with Duchon and Plowman (2005). . Consistent with this. and joyful about work”.LODJ 30. 1990) indicates that both situational and individual variables are antecedents of these two work attitudes.. we are talking about the greater moral obligation of every organization to contribute to the solutions of world problems”.

As calling. 2005. Fry. Thus. 2000. (2003) found support for a positive relationship of both meaningful work and community with job satisfaction. Community at work aspect of workplace spirituality reflects the fulfillment of employee needs for being accepted and appreciated (Ashmos and Duchon. Positive organizational purpose can provide employees a sense of serving a noble purpose or making a positive difference to others which constitutes an aspect of “calling” specified in Fry (2003). . Thus. 2003). there should be a positive relationship between meaning in work and job satisfaction. Fry et al. Direct effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality on positive work attitudes The meaningful work dimension of workplace spirituality implies work that provides employees a sense of joy and connects employees to the larger good (Duchon and Plowman. Duchon and Plowman. positive organizational purpose. Consistent with the above posited relationships. 2005). by fulfilling employees’ higher level needs. Duchon and Plowman (2005) note findings from previous research on the positive relationship between employee experience of meaning in work and job satisfaction and Milliman et al. Workplace spirituality dimensions will be positively associated with employees’ job satisfaction and in particular. Fry. there should be a positive relationship between community at work and job satisfaction. should be positively associated with job satisfaction. 2005). it is hypothesized that: H1. 2003.Spirituality and work attitudes 763 Figure 1. or making a difference to others.g. 2005. Thus. fulfils higher order spiritual needs (e..

. job involvement research (e. Meaning in work. 1996) suggests that need fulfillment results in job involvement. Workplace spirituality dimensions will be positively associated with employees’ job involvement and in particular. Meaning in work will be positively associated with job involvement. 2000. p. through their effect on employee need fulfillment. community at work. H2b. Thus. Further. Literature (e.g. 1982). Consistent with this. H2a. 703). Duchon and Plowman. Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment.g. H1b. The findings from Milliman et al.. 2003). workplace spirituality dimensions should be positively related to job involvement. 764 Workplace spirituality and job involvement. 2003) suggests that fulfillment of employees’ spiritual needs of meaning and community is positively associated with employees’ organizational commitment. and task involvement. Steers. Consistent with this. Job involvement is a cognitive or belief state of psychological identification with job (Kanungo. as positive organizational purpose can make organizational goals and hence organizational identification more . Thus.g.LODJ 30. Positive organizational purpose will be positively associated with job involvement. 2005). Fry. the existing research has found support for the positive relationship between membership (community) and organizational commitment (Fry et al. Fry. Further. 1992. Further. Community at work will be positively associated with job satisfaction. 1982). Mayer and Schoorman. Fry. Fry (2003) suggests a positive relationship between spiritual survival. workplace spirituality dimensions. Organizational commitment reflects employees’ psychological identification with and involvement in an organization and manifests in aspects such as employees’ acceptance of organizational goals and values (e.g. 2005. 2008). 2003. workplace spirituality dimensions also provide intrinsic motivation to employees and the work activities become intrinsically motivating resulting in greater engagement in work (e. Meaning in work will be positively associated with job satisfaction. Thus. Consistent with the above discussion. Potential of a job to fulfill employee needs has been specified as an antecedent of job involvement (Kanungo. Brown. 2005. These workplace spirituality aspects focus on fulfilling employees’ spiritual needs (Ashmos and Duchon. Fry et al. which reflects sense of meaning and community. should be positively associated with job involvement. H1c. 1977). 2003. 2005) and between community and affective and normative commitment (Rego and Pina e Cunha. and positive organizational purpose aspects of workplace spirituality in this paper can be subsumed under two broader categories of spiritual dimensions – calling and membership – that constitute “two essential dimensions of spiritual survival” (Fry.. H2c. a positive organizational purpose can provide greater emotional engagement to employees (Milliman et al. 1999) and thus should have a positive relationship with employees’ job involvement. (2003) also indicated a positive relationship of meaningful work and community with job involvement.8 H1a. it is hypothesized that: H2. Positive organizational purpose will be positively associated with job satisfaction. Community at work will be positively associated with job involvement.

it is hypothesized that: H3. which include an organization’s having a “cause” to serve. Benson et al. 2007). Direct effects model: effects of individual spirituality on work attitudes (Figure 1) Individual spirituality and job satisfaction. Workplace spirituality dimensions will be positively associated with employees’ organizational commitment and in particular. it is hypothesized that: H4a. Consistent with these findings. Further. there is likely to be a positive relationship between positive organizational purpose and employees’ organizational commitment. it is hypothesized that: H4b. This suggestion emerging from the findings of Harvey et al. Milliman et al.g. There will be a positive relationship between employees’ individual spirituality and job satisfaction. There will be a positive relationship between employees’ individual spirituality and job involvement. (2006) can be taken as suggesting that sattwa guna (goodness) reflects higher level of individual spirituality than tamas guna (ignorance). de Klerk (2005) conceptualized individual spirituality through one of its dimensions – meaning in life – and posited a positive relationship between it and job involvement. Meaning in work will be positively associated with organizational commitment. 2003). These findings from Harvey et al. it is hypothesized that: H4c. Individual spirituality and organizational commitment. Individual spirituality has been empirically found to be positively associated with life satisfaction (Wolf. As search for connectedness is an aspect of individual spirituality (e. Individual spirituality and job involvement. Thus. (2006)) have higher job involvement than those with tamas guna (referred to as “ignorance”). found that goodness (a name used for sattwa guna in Harvey et al. are likely to be positively associated with employee work attitudes. 2006) is positively related to individual scores on daily spiritual experiences scale (DSES) and ignorance (a name used for tamas guna) is negatively related to DSES. Positive organizational purpose will be positively associated with organizational commitment. Consistent with this. Thus. it is likely that individual spirituality will facilitate development of an attachment or commitment to an organization. Elankumaran (2004) found that employees with sattwa guna (referred to as “goodness” by Harvey et al.. 1998) and more specifically with job satisfaction (Komala and Ganesh. Thus. There will be a positive relationship between employees’ individual spirituality and organizational commitment. Community at work will be positively associated with organizational commitment. H3b.valuable to employees. Harvey et al. (2006) coupled with the above indicated findings from Elankumaran (2004) suggest a positive relationship between individual spirituality and job involvement. H3a.. (1999) suggest that organizational spiritual values. Spirituality and work attitudes 765 . H3c. Further.

Duchon and Plowman (2005) suggest that workplace spirituality implies an employee’s experience of meaning and community at work. pp. The study questionnaire was in English. These study respondents were employed full-time in their work organizations. (2003. Further. in which the self is embedded in something greater than the self. The relationship between employee perceptions of workplace spirituality and employees’ work attitudes will be positively moderated by employee spirituality level. “spiritual development is the process of growing the intrinsic human capacity for self-transcendence. Thus. have a greater urge for them. It is the developmental ‘engine’ that propels the search for connectedness. Such aspects of workplace spirituality are likely to be more valued by employees with high levels of individual spiritual development who.LODJ 30. 205-6) note. it is hypothesized that: H5. as noted previously. This definition suggests that high individual spirituality level will result in a stronger urge for meaning and connectedness. Interactive effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality on positive work attitudes . As a result. This suggests that the relationship between workplace spirituality and work attitudes will be positively moderated by individual spirituality. Methods Sample and procedures Data were collected for the present analysis in year 2007 from 171 working employees from various organizations of which 151 were attending management development programs and 20 were a part of an executive MBA program at an educational institute in India[1]. and contribution”. purpose. the relationship between workplace spirituality aspects and employees’ positive work attitudes is likely to be stronger for employees with high individual spiritual development than for employees with low individual spiritual development.8 766 Interactive effects model: moderation of workplace spirituality-work attitudes relationship by individual spirituality (Figure 2) Benson et al. Only those respondents who Figure 2. meaning. including the sacred.

“My organization is concerned about the society”.78 years. .63 years. I would say that I am very satisfied with my job”. Evidence on the reliability and validity of the scale has also been provided. It also includes measures of awareness of discernment/inspiration and transcendent sense of self (Underwood. p. . Item 16 (“In general. McNeely and Meglino (1994. This item.000 employees. Individual spirituality is measured with daily spiritual experiences scale (DSES). p.indicated that they had no difficulty in understanding the English language in the study questionnaire were included in the sample for analysis. The average age for the sample of these 156 respondents was 36. sense of connectedness with the transcendent. 2)[2] notes that DSES is designed “to measure ordinary or ‘mundane’ spiritual experiences . In this study the scale was scored in a manner that higher scores reflect higher frequency of spiritual experiences. The first item was taken as is and the other three items were derived from two of the items of the Ashmos and Duchon (2000) subscales. 140 were male. 2006. 2). Of the 144 respondents providing gender information. 156 of the 171 respondents were included in the sample for analysis. Job involvement was measured using Kanungo (1982) scale. compassionate love. average total work experience was 13. In the sample. gratitude.63 years. A five-point Likert format with responses ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) was used. and its suitability for use in other cultures has been indicated by Underwood and Teresi (2002).7 per cent of the respondents had education levels of a bachelor’s degree or above. 843) describe Spirituality and work attitudes 767 . mercy. Respondents held mostly managerial positions in various departments in private and public sector organizations of size ranging from less than 100 to over 10.5 per cent of the respondents had the lowest education level of a diploma (typically three years of education beyond high school or matriculation) and 89. and desire for closeness to God. average years with the organization was 9. The scale uses a six-point format for 15 items and response options range from “never or almost never” to “many times a day”. Score on this four-point response format item was transformed to a six point score as suggested by Underwood (2006). was rated on a seven-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Work attitudes. how close do you feel to God?”) uses a four-point format with response options ranging from “not at all” to “as close as possible”. which read. It measures experiences of relationship with and awareness of the divine or the transcendent . 4. . “considering all aspects of my job. and average years in the present position was 2. Thus. The 16-item scale includes constructs such as awe. p. Job satisfaction was measured using a single-item scale of McNeely and Meglino (1994). The third aspect – positive organizational purpose – was measured through four items adapted from the “Work unit community” and “Work unit and meaningful work” subscales from Duchon and Plowman (2005). Underwood (2006. DSES contains 16 items. The meaning and community aspects were measured using the “meaningful work” and “community” scales from Ashmos and Duchon (2000). Five point Likert format with anchor points ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5) was used. Measures Individual spirituality. Workplace spirituality. “My organization has a noble purpose” and “My organization renders important service to the society”. .03 years. The four items used for assessing positive organizational purpose were: “My organization cares about all its employees”.

there is evidence that single item measures are not unreliable and may be more inclusive than multiple item measures of different job facets”. Thus. nine moderated hierarchical regression analyses were done. job involvement. All three dimensions of workplace spirituality are significantly associated with organizational commitment indicating support for hypotheses H3a. Results of interactive/moderating effects model (Figure 2) H5 which specified that the relationship between workplace spirituality and work attitudes will be positively moderated by employees’ individual spirituality was tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis as used in practice (e. the . Results The descriptive statistics. Results of direct effects model (Figure 1) H1. and H3 and the associated nine sub-hypotheses (H1a-H3c) were tested using three separate multiple regressions – one each for job satisfaction. Meaning in work and positive organizational purpose are significantly associated with job involvement. The results in Table II indicate that meaning in work and community at work are significantly associated with job satisfaction. for each of the three work attitudes. H3b. three for each of the three work attitudes as the dependent variable. The findings are presented in Table II.8 768 the suitability of this single item measure by noting that “in the case of job satisfaction.LODJ 30. The results in Table II indicate that none of the three relationships between individual spirituality and job satisfaction. Thus. and organizational commitment (H4a. H4a. thus supporting H1a and H1b. Direct effect of individual spirituality on job satisfaction. 1991). two main effect terms (one dimension of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality) were entered. the following procedure was adopted. in original or modified form.g. Organizational commitment was measured using Mayer and Schoorman’s (1992) subscale of value commitment dimension of organizational commitment which contains a subset of items. H2. Witt. H4b.94. and organizational commitment as the dependent variable that included three workplace spirituality dimensions and individual spirituality as independent variables. and organizational commitment is significant. from organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ). Five-point Likert format with anchor points ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5) was used. thus supporting H2a and H2c. and H4c). and H3c. McFarlin and Sweeney. moderation was tested separately for each dimension of workplace spirituality. Thus. job involvement. For each of the three work attitudes. Direct effect of workplace spirituality on job satisfaction (H1). In each of the nine moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses. the reliability levels were good or very good ranging from 0. H1 and H2 were partially supported while H3 was completely supported (see Table II). inter-scale correlations. and H4c were not supported.79 to 0. In the first step. and reliability levels for scales are reported in Table I. In all. three separate moderated hierarchical regression analyses were done to test moderation of three workplace spirituality dimensions. H4b. For all multiple item scales used in the study. job involvement. In the second step. 1992.

52 0.21 * 0.98 5.42 * * 0.79 3.40 * * 0.82) Notes: Reliability coefficients (alpha) for multi-item measures are in the main diagonal of the table.77 3.23 * * 0.85 3. 0:01 Spirituality and work attitudes 769 Table I.08 0.20 * 0.34 (0.Variables 3.72 1.59 * * 0.79) 0.94) 0.54 0.54 * * 0. reliabilities.35 * * 0.31 3.06 0.04 1.13 0.53 * * 0. and descriptive statistics for all variables .24 * * (0.37 * * (0.96 3.88) 0.64 (0.39 * * 0.48 * * (0.79) 0.53 * * 0. Correlations. * *p .32 * * 0. Effective sample size (n) varies for different computations due to deletion of observations with missing values in different computations. *p .25 0.28 * * 0.44 * * (0. 0:05.85) 0.51 * * Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning in work Community at work Positive organizational purpose Individual spirituality Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Job Involvement 0.61 0.

25 8. Witt.46 0. organizational commitment increases more responsively for employees with high individual spirituality level than for employees with low individual spirituality level. 116) Notes: p .28 * * 0. In particular. McFarlin and Sweeney. 1991).48 * * * 770 Table II.26 * * * 2 0.34 14. Hair et al. 0:01. Discussion The findings of this study indicate that workplace spirituality is positively associated. 1991) and guidelines on testing moderation through hierarchical regression analysis (e. 109) (4. the nature of these interactions was plotted in Figure 3 by evaluating the equation from the second step of the hierarchical moderated regression analyses at high (1 SD above the mean) and low (1 SD below the mean) values of the moderator variable (individual spirituality).49 * 0.35 * * * 0.11 0. significant incremental variance (DR 2 ) was accounted for by the interaction term beyond the main effect terms. 0:07). As indicated in Table III. 0:05. with work attitudes of employees. In only two of these nine regression equations.39 * * * 0.62 * * 0.. job satisfaction increases more responsively for employees with high individual spirituality level than for employees with low individual spirituality level.53 0. 114) (4. significant incremental variance (DR 2 ) accounted for by the interaction term entered in the second block was taken as the support for the hypothesized moderation of the effect of the corresponding workplace spirituality dimension by individual spirituality. 0:001. The results of these two regression analyses are presented in Table III. *p . Thus. to a considerable extent.36 * * * 0.02 0.LODJ 30.02 0. * * p . results from . The interaction plots in Figure 3 indicate that with an increase in community at work aspect of workplace spirituality.g.49 27. The interaction plots in Figure 3 indicate that with an increase in positive organizational purpose aspect of workplace spirituality.g. 0:1. Unstandardized coefficients are reported in interaction term (formed by a multiplicative product of the main effect terms) involving individual spirituality and a dimension of workplace spirituality was added after the main effect terms of the corresponding workplace spirituality dimension and individual spirituality. Witt. pp. 1998. H5 received support only to a marginal extent.13 0.86 * * * 0.g. Consistent with the practice (e.55 0. the effect of positive organizational purpose on job satisfaction is moderated by individual spirituality (p . 0:05) and the effect of community on organizational commitment was moderated by individual spirituality at a slightly lower level of significance (p . * * * p .23 * * * 0. Consistent with the practice of plotting interactions (e. 170-1). Results of regressing work attitudes on workplace spirituality and individual spirituality (4.04 0.8 Independent variables Intercept Meaning in work Community at work Positive organizational purpose Individual spirituality R2 F the column headed B Dependent variables (work attitudes) Organizational Job satisfaction Job involvement commitment B B B 0. 1992.

a total of nine of hierarchical regressions were performed.035 * * 3. In inferring the presence of moderation.04 * 0. And the form of these interactions is plotted in Figure 1. 171).14 * 0.43 2 0. these findings are consistent with Milliman et al.52† 0.27 * 0. For each of the three work attitude independent variables (job satisfaction. only the incremental R 2 (DR 2 ) is assessed (Hair et al.017 * Notes: *p . 0:01.g. some post-facto analysis. At an aggregate level. Unstandardized coefficients are reported in the column headed B. Further.104 * * * 0. In only two of these nine hierarchical regressions. The equations in step 2 are used for plotting interactions (see Figure 3) at high (1 SD above the mean) and low (1 SD below the mean) levels of moderators Table III. (2008) from their study of the effects of personal spirituality and organizational spirituality on work attitudes.72 * * * 2 0. 0:001. p. As the interaction term is formed by the multiplicative product of the main effect terms (e. In order to further understand the independent effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality on each of the three work attitudes. (2003) but go beyond it in that they point out significant effects of workplace spirituality. individual spirituality. Thus. †p . .312† 0. 1998. Hair et al. * *p .32 * * 0. The results of these two hierarchical regression equations are presented above.295† 771 8.19 * 0. three hierarchical regressions equations were performed to assess whether individual spirituality moderates the effect of each of the three workplace spirituality variables (meaning in work. were the interaction terms found to be significant and addition of interaction term resulted in significant DR 2 .. 0:1 (in the above two equations both interaction terms are significant at p .47† 0. for three work attitude independent variables. on work attitudes. p. is not significantly associated with any of the three positive work attitudes included in this study. beyond the effect of individual spirituality.Dependent variables (work attitudes) Job satisfaction Organizational commitment B B Step 1 (Only the main effect terms entered) Intercept Positive organizational purpose Individual spirituality Community R2 Step 2 (Interaction term added to the above model) Intercept Positive organizational purpose Individual spirituality Community Positive organizational purpose £ Community £ Full model R 2 DR 2 due to the interaction term Spirituality and work attitudes 3. there is high multicollinearity in the variables in step 2 above.48† 21. 0:05.. in the presence of workplace spirituality aspects. 171). These findings are consistent with the conclusions derived by Kolodinsky et al. 1998. Results of hierarchical regression analysis for testing moderating effect of individual spirituality the test of nine hypotheses (H1a-H3c) indicate that two of the three workplace spirituality aspects have significant positive association with job satisfaction and job involvement while all three aspects of workplace spirituality have significant positive association with organizational commitment. community at work.04 0. job involvement and organizational commitment).56† 0. * * *p .09 * * 0. 0:07).069† 1. and positive organizational purpose).05 * 21.

0:05). p .6 per cent variance.7 per cent variance in job involvement. 0:05) and organizational commitment (4. workplace spirituality. was performed. when individual spirituality was added in the regression equations after the block of three workplace spirituality aspects. accounted for significant variance beyond that accounted for by individual spirituality in all three work attitudes (20.8 772 Figure 3. 32.6 per cent variance in organizational commitment. Interactive effects of positive organizational purpose and individual spirituality on job satisfaction using hierarchical regression analysis of blocks of variables. it accounted for significant variance in two of the three work attitudes – job satisfaction (3.LODJ 30.1 per cent variance. The nature of interactive effects of workplace spirituality and individual spirituality. When individual spirituality is alone entered in regression equations as the independent variable for work attitudes. all significant . and 44. However. p . On the other hand. it did not make a significant incremental contribution to the variance accounted for in any of the three work attitude dependent variables. when entered as a block after individual spirituality.9 per cent variance in job satisfaction.

the present study’s findings on interactive effects are finer than those of Kolodinsky et al.. (2008). Second.9. This pattern provides a more detailed insight into the direct effects of individual spirituality and workplace spirituality and this insight is beyond the conclusions specified by Kolodinsky et al. 889)”. Harman’s single-factor test. 2003.7. While the present study findings are consistent with those from Kolodinsky et al. Fourth. These findings are associated with the test of the direct effects model (see Figure 1). individual spirituality has marginal association with work attitudes. In contrast. job involvement. Thus. The results of post-facto analysis described in the preceding part of the discussion indicated that the variance accounted for by workplace spirituality in job satisfaction. workplace spirituality has a significant effect on all three work attitudes even beyond the effect of individual spirituality. individual spirituality only marginally moderates the association between workplace spirituality with work attitudes. (2008) examined the interaction of personal spirituality with organizational spirituality rather than with the specific dimensions of workplace spirituality. 33. even the marginal association of individual spirituality with work attitudes does not remain significant after accounting for the effect of workplace spirituality on work attitudes. to a minor extent. seems to positively moderate (i. To address this concern. the association of workplace spirituality with work attitudes remains even after accounting for the effect of individual spirituality on work attitudes. p. strengthen) the relationship between workplace spirituality and work attitudes. Fifth. the results of the examination of the interactive effects model (see Figure 2) indicated that individual spirituality. The procedure is to “include all items from all of the constructs in the study into a factor analysis to determine whether the majority of the variance can be accounted for by one general factor” (Podsakoff et al. 32.4. the findings of the present study focus on interactions of individual spirituality with specific dimensions of workplace spirituality whereas Kolodinsky et al. Third. (2008) in terms of only marginal extent of the support for interactive effects.3 per cent respectively without accounting for the effect of individual spirituality on these work attitudes and 20. 0:001). 890). Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn from the study results and above discussion. which “is one of the most widely used techniques that has been used by researchers to address the issue of common method variance (Podsakoff et al. while individual spirituality has some significant effect on two of the three work attitudes.at p .6 per cent respectively after accounting for the effect of individual spirituality on these work attitudes.5. 2003. was used. First. Thus. Limitations One limitation comes from the potential for common method variance as the measures of both dependent and independent variables in this study were collected from self-report measures from the same source. In particular. (2008) who also found considerable support for the relationship between organizational spirituality and work attitudes but only a marginal support for the relationship between personal spirituality and work attitudes. However. it does not have a significant effect on these work attitudes beyond the effect of workplace spirituality. and 44. and organizational commitment was 23. and 48. p. workplace spirituality has considerable association with the work attitudes.e. items from Spirituality and work attitudes 773 ..

3 per cent of variance in organizational commitment) in employee work attitudes. 2001). the findings from the present study indicate that while individual spirituality has some relationship with work attitudes. Fry et al. emerging from the present study findings.. which is consistent with the existing research (e. they indicate that the future research needs to specify and test more complex models assessing the joint (e. 2003). For example. Third.g. 2005). and prosocial behaviors and work group cohesion (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz.g. researchers have noted linkages of workplace spirituality with several organizational studies topics such as leadership theory (e. Dent et al. interactive) effects of individual spirituality and workplace spirituality on employee work attitudes.8 all study scales were entered into a principal component factor analysis and the unrotated factor structure was examined. Second. 2005). though present study findings from the interactive effects model are marginal. Implications for future research The study findings suggest some directions for future research. the findings indicate that workplace spirituality variables accounted for a large amount of variance (23. 2007).LODJ 30. Fourth.5 per cent of variance in job satisfaction. Thus. can contribute to research activity that links workplace spirituality with various topics of organizational studies. the effect of various leadership styles on workplace spirituality experiences by subordinates could be one research question linking workplace spirituality with the topic of leadership. leadership practice (e.. organization development (French and Bell. Second. the added justification for workplace spirituality research. substantial amount of common method variance is unlikely to be accounting for the study results. First.g. The factor structure revealed no single factor as there were 14 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. Implications for practice The study findings suggest a few implications for practice also. the findings indicate that workplace spirituality has an effect on employee work attitudes even after accounting for the effect of individual spirituality but that individual spirituality does not have a significant effect on work attitudes after 774 . This may suggest the likely positive benefits of enhancing workplace spirituality in organizations. This can provide a relevant input for the leadership actions and OD efforts aimed at implementing workplace spirituality in organizations. 2004. There was not even a general factor accounting for the majority of data variance. 2005. First. Elankumaran. it has no significant effect on work attitudes after accounting for the effect of workplace spirituality on work attitudes.4 per cent of variance in job involvement. This finding from the present study suggests that the future research for examining the effects of individual spirituality on work attitudes may need to specify models that also include workplace spirituality in order to assess whether individual spirituality has an effect on work attitudes beyond the effect of workplace spirituality. Komala and Ganesh. and 48.g. 33. Use of mostly managerial and male sample may constitute another limitation of the study. Duchon and Plowman. the findings of this study indicating the association of workplace spirituality with employee work attitudes can provide an added justification for the future research to examine organizational outcomes that are associated with workplace spirituality. Thus.

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