Dr. William Allan Kritsonis – Mid-Term Exam
Ayn Rand’s - Virtues of Selfishness. Answer all 100 multiple choice test questions. Circle answers. 1. Ayn Rand sets the moral principles of Objectivism as a. the philosophy that holds man's life b. the life proper to an irrational being c. the standard of immoral values

d. none of the above
2. According to Ayn Rand, the incompatibility of altruism with man's nature is synonymous with a. the creative requirements of mans survival b. living in a free society

c. selfishness as a virtue d. All of the above
3. What does Ayn Rand imply when she depict selfishness as a virtue?
a. b. c. d. 4.

That the ultimate moral value, for each human individual, is his or her own well-being It is a serious, rational, principled concern with one's own well-being It is the prerequisite for the attainment of the ultimate moral value All of the above

Ayn Rand rejects altruism - the view that a. self-sacrifice is the moral ideal b. self-sacrifice is ultimately, one's life and happiness c. sacrifice is a moral character trait d. sacrifice is the moral ideal

5. According to Ayn Rand, one must manifest a serious concern for one's own interests a. since a concern with one's own interests is not a character trait b. if one is to lead a healthy, purposeful, fulfilling life c. since action enables one to achieve and guard others well-being d. because man only have a short time to live

Rand opposes labeling people "selfish" because she believes that this use of the word blurs key philosophical distinctions b. it suggests an altruist framework for thinking about ethics c. both answer A and B d. none of the above

7. Which of these is not a branch of philosophy?


a. Paleontology b. Epistemology c. Ontology d. Axiology
8. The branch of philosophy that studies how we came to know what we know is

a. b. c. d.

Axiology Ontology Epistemology Ethics

9. “We are by no means sure that a notion is true until it’s tested with factual evidence”. That

statement reflects a. Epistemology b. Ontology c. Axiology d. Logic 10. Rand believes that the elements of human self-interest are objective. How is this explained?

Human beings have objective biological and psychological needs - human actual interests are recognized in reference to these needs Measly fulfillment is not constitutive of human well-being because one's whims and fancies might be at odds with one's actual needs The character traits of the "selfish" are not compatible with any human being's actual, rational interests In a social world; in order to maximize the value of human interactions, they should develop a firm commitment to the virtues of rationality, justice, value, and benevolence
a. b. c. d.

answers I , II , III answers II, III, IV answers I , II , III , IV answers I , II , IV


Rand writes, "Altruism permits no concept of a self-respecting, self-supporting man — a man who supports his own life by his own effort and neither sacrifices himself nor others” … For her, the truly selfish person is a self-sustaining, neighbor caring human sacrifices himself self-respecting for others c. permits no concept of benevolent co-existence among men d. none of the above
a. b.


Why do Rand opt to use the term, "selfish," to designate the virtuous quality of character

a. b. c. d. e. 13.

Rand hope to challenge us to think through the important moral assumptions that have tainted our ethical expressions Rand believes other understandings of selfishness would amount to an invalid concept it is appropriate to the facts and/or to man's mode of cognition her praise of selfishness communicates instantaneously and provocatively the practical, worldly egoistic orientation of her ethical thought all of the above

Rand – ‘My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute. This describes: a. objectivism as "a philosophy for living on earth," b. reality aimed at defining man's nature and the nature of the world in which he lives c. answer a and b d. none of the above


Objectivism holds that reality exists independent from consciousness. That means that individual persons are not in contact with this reality through sensory perception b. humans can gain objective knowledge from perception through concept formation c. the proper moral purpose of one's life is not the pursuit of one's own happiness or selfinterest d. the only social system consistent with this morality is no respect for individual rights

15. Rand's philosophy is based on three axioms: a. existence , identity, consciousness b. knowledge , proof , axiology c. A is A, objectivism, proof d. existence, consciousness, knowledge

Objectivism maintains that what exists does not exist because one thinks it exists; it basically exists, irrespective of anyone's awareness, knowledge or opinion. a. False b. True c. Neither true nor false


For Rand, "to be conscious is to be conscious of something," so that an objective reality independent of consciousness has to exist first for consciousness to become possible, and there is no possibility of a consciousness that is conscious of nothing outside itself. "

If consciousness here is linked to the mind; then


objectivism holds that the mind can create reality the mind can create reality the mind cannot create reality, but rather, it is a means of discovering reality d. none of the above
a. b. c. 18.

The starting point of Objectivist epistemology presented by Rand is the principle that "Existence is Identity." This statement is a a. b. c. d. metaphysical axiom epistemological axiom philosophical axiom logical axiom


Objectivism rejects philosophical skepticism and states that only by the method of reason can man gain knowledge that is identification of the facts of reality. Objectivism also rejects faith and "feeling" as means of attaining knowledge.

In analyzing the above statement, it could be stated that Rand acknowledged the importance of emotions but maintained that emotion was a consequence of the conscious or subconscious ideas one already holds, not a means of achieving awareness of reality. a. b. c. d.

The analysis is totally incorrect The analysis is correct Partly correct but distorts objectivism It is correct only philosophically

Rand’s objectivist epistemology makes her primarily an advocate of a. Capitalism b. Egoism c. Reason d. Rational self-interest


The Objectivist ethic begins with a meta-ethical question: The question is
a. b. c. d.

Why do human beings need a code of values? Why do human beings need God? Why do human beings need each other? Why do human beings need a government?


According to Rand’s Objectivist epistemology, states of mind, e.g. happiness, are not primary; they are
a. b. c.

the consequence of specific facts of existence not grounded in the facts of reality to guide him against the pursuit of this purpose

d. 23.

a biological faculty evolved from meeting the challenges of life

The Virtue of Selfishness refers to a form of rational egoism. a. False b. True


According to Rand, to live, man should “hold three things as the highest and ruling values of his life”: a. existence , food, ethics b. happiness, values, reason c. reason, purpose, self-esteem d. happiness, self-esteem, reason


Rand wrote: "Man has been called a rational being, but rationality is a matter of choice and the alternative his nature offers him is rational being or suicidal animal. Man has to be man by choice; he has to hold his life as a value by choice; he has to learn to sustain it by choice; he has to discover the values it requires and practice his virtues by choice.”

Based on the abovea. The morality of Objectivism is based on the observation that one's own choices and actions are instrumental in maintaining and enhancing one's life b. Objectivism is happiness c. A set of values accepted by choice is a code of morality d. All of the above
26. There is a difference between rational self-interest as pursuit of one's own life and happiness in

reality. a. True b. False

Rand didn’t hold that all values proper to human life are “intrinsic"- ( being independent of one's choices) False b. True

28. Which of the following statements below are true

Rand did not consider proper values "subjective," to be pursued because one has chosen, to pursue them.


Rand held - valid values are "objective," in the sense of being identified as enhancing one's life. a. b. c. d. I. is true II is true I and II is true Neither I nor II is true


Objectivism holds that morality is a ____________I____________________ because Rand held that "man needs morality for one reason only: he needs it in order to _______II__________.
a. b. c. d.

I. I. I. I.

code of socialist values accepted by choice ….. . code of capitalist values accepted by force ……… code of values accepted by choice ……………… code of irrational values accepted by choice ……..


survive work survive have virtues


Which social system as Rand understood it, fully recognizes individual rights a. firm Socialism b. state and church unity c. unregulated laissez-faire capitalism d. objectivism

31. Rand held that one has some inalienable rights—these are the rights to : a. reason, morality, pursuit of happiness and reality b. life, shelter, property, and freedom

c. food, clothing, shelter and self actualization d. life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness
32. Under laissez-faire Capitalism, the government is restricted to using retaliatory force, to protect

individual rights — this means the only proper function/s of the government are
a. the police, to protect men from criminals b. the military forces, to protect men from foreign invaders

c. the law courts, to protect men's property and contracts from breach d. to settle disputes among men according to objectively defined laws e. all of the above

33. Speaking objectively; If an artist paints a landscape picture and omitted some detail by choice,

he is
a. recreating reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments b. recreating what the artist believes to be ultimately true and important about the nature of


7 c. presenting abstractions concretely, in perceptual form

d. recreating all of the above e. recreating none of the above 34. Art can communicate a moral or ethical ideal. a. True b. False 35. If your professor says, "It is good that gifted intelligent life exists on the Earth," he is saying that: the state of intelligent life existing on the Earth has a certain property value - goodness It is good for me that intelligent life exists on the Earth the state of intelligent life existing on the Earth bears a certain relationship to me in my view as an absolutist, goodness is a property e. all of the above
a. b. c. d. 36. Rand argues that living things face an alternative of existing or not existing but that non-living

things do not. Arguing philosophically, identify a counter argument that could make this false:
a. non-living things can't be destroyed- I once saw a house destroyed by flames b. non-living things can be destroyed; but this is equally true of living things c. it is true that a non-living thing's continued existence never depends on its activities - If

my computer ceases to function properly, this may cause me to destroy it. d. it is not true that positive action is never required to preserve a non-living thing's existence - for instance, a cloud must absorb more water in order to continue to exist

37. Rand bring in the idea of "the life of man qua man" – by this she means a. the sort of life proper to a rational being

b. egoism c. you still should live off of the productive work of others by stealing d. that's not the sort of life suitable to a irrational being

38. Consider the following two premises –
A. Value only exists relative to a person. B. Everyone should only serve his own good.

These could be considered as a. b. c. d. philosophy theories comparable to a mathematical axiom rigid and precise rules of reality and reason controversial disagreeable arguments

8 39. A typical mathematical axiom would be something like a. if A = B, then B = A b. the shortest path between 2 points is a straight line c. both answers a and b

d. none of the above
40. What is the effect of a teacher's view of reality?

a. b. c. d.

It determines what information is important It determines how well students will learn It determines the results of the education All of the above

41. The philosophy of education is
a. the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education

b. the study of the purpose and ideals of education c. the study of the process and nature of education d. children want to learn and simply must be guided
42. What is the purpose of a view of goodness? a. It mocks other educational philosophies

b. It eliminates bad students c. It is a best practice way of doing things d. All of the above
43. How does a school system decide its educational philosophy?

a. By what is popular on television b. By their political, social and religious belief systems c. By the location in their community d. By their purpose and ideals 44. Rand’s views in ‘virtues of selfishness’ could be described as a. b. c. d. empirical assertions scientific peer reviewed

45. Which is the closest Randian view the world? a. A world of reason and God

9 b. A world of things a world of experience c. A world of the mind d. A world of existing 46. Philosophically, what is truth?

a. What we see b. What works c. Subjective choice…..what and how we choose d. Consistency of ideas, reason and revelation 47. How do you teach truth? a. Arouse and stimulate personal response via questioning b. Teach for mastery of content c. Practice problem-solving d. Teach ideas with lectures, discipline and drills
48. Why should schools exist? a. b. c. d. e.

To reveal reason and will To reveal ordering of the world To sharpen up the mind and intellect To discover and expand the society To aid learners in knowing themselves and their place in society

49. What do you think should be taught in schools?

a. External truth b. Wisdom of the ages c. Unregimented topics and laws of physical reality d. Group inquiry into social problems and social sciences

50. What do you think is the role of a teacher? a. Display, impartation of knowledge

b. Aid and consult c. A person to be emulated d. interpret, tell, question, e. Assist in students journey
51. The role of the student is to receive, memorize, actively participate and contribute to their own

rules. a. False


b. True
52. What should schools’ attitude be towards change?

a. Truth is to be preserved b. We are always coming towards perfection c. truth is forever d. Change is very necessary at all times e. Change is an ever present process 53. Philosophy is often described as a. b. c. d. a search for wisdom a set of fundamental principles a guide for action in our daily lives a system of beliefs about how the world works

54. Based on the question above ( Q53); a formal explanation of philosophy would be the study of

a. the universe and the place of humanity within it b. theories of knowledge, truth, existence, and good c. the moral principles of truth, justice, and honor d. the big questions in life, such as the origin of the universe
55. What is the most fundamental nature of education? a. b. c. d.

The heart of education is reason and intuition, The essence of education is growth The real meaning of education is knowledge and skills The hub of education is choice

56. In terms of the best disposition of the learner, the learner is

an experiencing organism a special unique free choosing and responsible creature made up of intellect and emotion an irrational and intuitive being a store for knowledge and skills, which, once acquired, can later be applied and used 57. How should education best supply the needs of man?
a. b. c. d. a. Learners need an ardent encounter with the perpetual problems of life; agonies and joys,

reality of choice, consequences of actions and the inevitability of death.
b. Education must allot for the needs of man when it trains certain essential skills and

knowledge, which all men should possess.


c. One distinctive attribute of man is intelligence. Education should concentrate on developing

the rational needs of students.
d. Since the needs of learners are changeable, education should concentrate on developing the

individual differences in students. e. All of the above
58. What should be the best climate / environment for education? a. Education should possess an setting where the student amend to the world, as it really exists, b. The milieu of education should be life itself, where kids can experience living; not prepare

for it
c. The surroundings of education should be one that support the growth of free, creative

individuality, not modification to group thinking nor the publics’ values
d. Education is not a true model of life, rather, it is an simulated environment where the child

should be developing his intellectual potentialities and preparing for the future
59. What is the best goal of education? a. Growth, reconstruction of experience, is the nature, and should be the open-ended goal, of

b. The goal to which education should lead is to the goal of truth - absolute, universal, and

c. The development of the uniqueness of individual students. d. To provide a framework of knowledge against which new truths can be gathered and

60. What could be a reasonable focus of the school? a. Identify distinguishing characteristics, shaping his mind, and concentrate on developing

b. An education for the ‘whole child,” centering its attention on all the needs and interests of

the child
c. Educate the child to attain the basic knowledge necessary to understand the real world

d. Provide each student with measured assistance in his journey toward self-realization

12 e. All of the above

61. What is supposed to be the atmosphere of the school? a. group thinking in a democratic atmosphere that fosters more cooperation than competition b. one of authentic freedom - student find his own truth and fulfillment through choice making c. students surrounded with good books and foster independence in an air of intellect and

d. mental discipline; innovative techniques, - introduce the student to a perceptual check of his

62. How must suitable learning occur? a. the student freely engages in choosing among alternatives while weighing individual action

and the possible consequences of those actions
b. through the experience of problem-solving projects by which the child is led from practical

issues to abstract principles
c. certain basic readings acquaint students with the world’s permanencies, instilling them in

abstract principles that they will later apply in life
d. occurs when hard effort has been extended to understand and master the approved subject


63. What should the curriculum include?
a. only that which has endure the test of time and combines literature, history, and mathematics

and sciences of the physical world b. curriculum should concentrate on teaching students how to manage change through problem solving
c. in social studies, empirical sciences and vocational technology d. intellectual subject matter and languages, history, mathematics, natural sciences, fine arts,

and philosophy
64. What is a useful and preferred teaching method?

13 a. Projects - whereby the students can be steered through problem-solving practice b. Lectures - readings and discussions for training the intellect c. Demonstrations - for teaching knowledge and skills d. Socratic dialogue - a questioning conversation for finding the self 65. A “framework for thinking about educational issues and practice” best fits which of the

following? a. An epistemology framework of education b. An ontology framework of education c. An axiology framework of education d. A philosophy framework of education 66. Which of the following best affirm the function of philosophy in teacher professionalism? a. b. c. d. It helps make sure that professional teachers will be fair in their dealings with students It is an important part of the knowledge base teachers use to make decisions It is a vital part of teachers’ classroom strategies It makes sure that students who are in cultural minorities will be educated without cultural bias

67. Which of these statements best explain the correlation between theory and philosophy?

a. b. c. d.

Theories explain observations and philosophy explains people’s thoughts and emotions Philosophy analyzes ideas, but theories go beyond philosophy to explain observations and events Theories explain observations but philosophy goes beyond theory to depict how things ought to be Theories are based on principles, and philosophy is used to form the principles

68. A description of the way education, and other professionals ought to practice is called

a. b.

professional theory normative philosophy


c. d.

character education values enlightenment

69. A teacher says - “I am being remunerated to help kids learn. I’m not deserving my salary if don’t

do my very best”. This statement is most closely related to
a. epistemology

b. ontology c. axiology d. logic
70. Consider this assertion- “the physical world is ever changing - ideas are the only reliable type of

reality”. This best describes a. b. c. d. idealism realism pragmatism existentialism

71. Which of the following would advocate the most learner-centered program of study

a. b. c. d.

idealism realism pragmatism existentialism

72. Constructivism is a learning theory. Students make sense by connecting what they hear or read to

what they already know, and they remember the perception they have created for themselves. This view of learning is most strongly grounded in a.
b. c. d.

idealism and perennialism realism and essentialism pragmatism and progressivism existentialism and postmodernism

73. Which factor is most important in critically probing your beliefs ?

a. Epistemology b. Ontology


c. Axiology d. Logic
74. Rand's primary law of morality is that - no one is ever justified in using force against others.

Morality therefore is a. a system of values to direct man's choices and dealings b. what counteracts the rationale and the course of his life c. a code of values that tells a man how he should act to protect others d. a bad judgment that takes on a life-or-death value
75. Aristotle (384-322 BC) stressed the role of habit in behavior. It is thought that virtues are habits

and that the good life is a life of tedious routine. Hence, virtue manifests itself in conduct. If morality is characterize by sense of right and wrong and intellectual honesty then
a. it balances the above argument b. it notes man productive achievements as his noblest activity c. it allows one to act reasonable in accord with virtue that is beautiful d. it is a process, from youth to adult that reforms basic nature to one that can learn realistic

virtues e. all of the above

76. Morality is only the concept of Life that makes the concept of Value possible. An organism’s life

is its measure of value: that which furthers its existence is the good, that which endangers it is the evil. Therefore metaphysically, life is
a. the only phenomenon that is an end in itself b. a value gained and lost by a constant process of action c. useless

d. confusing in Rand’s ideology 77. Self-esteem is a necessary component of a true objectivist. a. False b. True
78. Which of the following is among some of Rand’s most credible argument?


a. One must take some responsibility for one's thoughts, beliefs, values, and actions b. One must pursue meaningful life goals and adhere to moral values that are based on reason c. Man must be rational" and be "man qua man" d. Life is not a value because we choose it
79. The virtues of selfishness have what philosophical worth? a. b. c. d.

Multiple philosophical points of view Deep cognitive processing Comparing falsehood Distinguishing between theory and philosophy

80. Rationality is to objective reality as Fairness is to happiness

a. True b. False
81. Rand’s philosophical paradigms in - Virtues of Selfishness is open-mined and objective.

a. True b. False

82. Rand's complex philosophy embodies these aspects of intellectual life: a. politics, economics, epistemology, ethics, sociology b. history, economics, epistemology, aesthetics, science c. Science, philosophy, sociology, economics, politics

d. all of the above

83. Apart from Rand, one other main contributor to virtues of selfishness is a. Branden, who suggests that a person must possess self-esteem in order to control reality

b. Connie, who suggests that a person must possess reality in order to control reason
c. Brookly, who contrasts the principle of good will toward men in the realm of the Objectivist

model d. Sally who also took strong opposition to the altruist model of ethics


84. Rand defines a compromise as - “adjustment of contradictory claim by mutual conciliation" (p.

68). In other words, this is
a. a position where two people value different things based on their irrational society b. arises when each individual refuse to adjusts their principles to come to one common

agreement c. identifying a commonly upheld principle in Western society and declaring it "evil" d. a position where two people value two different things based on their personal rational judgments
85. In your view "How does one lead a rational life in an irrational society?" a. Use one's rational, moral thinking to judge and evaluate b. Decide what is good, and act opposite to this decision c. Uphold the principles of Western society d. Declare evil and always pronounce moral judgment

86. Rand discusses the custom of moral bankruptcy in Western society. This moral bankruptcy is

perpetuated by
a. slavery

b. culture of black vs. white c. shirking of responsibility d. identifying the bad in every given situation
87. By what principle specifically, are public projects are instituted within a society, such as public

health-care systems, welfare programs, and public parks?
a. Individualism b. bctivism

c. Socialism d. Benevolent ideals
88. The very ideological theory of socialism and the highly harmful effect socialism has had on all

people that have tried to live it as an economic system is Rand main message.

18 a. True- Rand aims to destroy any idea that socialism is a political theory motivated by

b. False- Rand aims to achieve people's well being through property rights c. True- Rand aims to destroy any idea that socialism is based on denying individuals d. False- Rand aims to base benevolent ideals on denying people their individuals' rights 89. Rand describe rights as a moral principle, one based on the philosophy that guide an individual's

actions and which signify proper social relations between persons in a society. In real meaning a. men are to live by upholding one another's freedom of action b. a right is the freedom of action c. individual rights are the means of subordinating society to moral law d. all of the above
90. According to Rand, taxation, the payment to a government in exchange for its services, should

always be involuntary in a free society. a. False b. True
91. In Virtues of Selfishness individualism is a concept of ethics and politics and simultaneously a

concept of ethics and psychology. In the realm of ethics and politics, individualism upholds a. b. c. d. democracy individuals' rights ethical values the pursuit of happiness

92. In Virtues of Selfishness individualism is a concept of ethics and politics and simultaneously a

concept of ethics and psychology. In the realm of ethics and psychology, individualism upholds a. Existence by employing their own self-interests b. independent thinking and judgment, valuing their own intellect above all else c. acknowledging and respecting the rights of others d. all basic means of survival which is proper to the life of a rational being 93. Since all that man needs has to be revealed by his own intellect (mind) and created by his own effort, the two fundamentals of the method of existence proper to a rational being are : thinking and productive work b. benevolence and charity c. reason and morality d. rationality and fundamentalism


To “live for his own sake” means that
a. b. c. d.

the achievement of another’s’ happiness is man's highest purpose the achievement of his own happiness is man's highest purpose the achievement of another’s’ happiness is man's highest moral purpose the achievement of his own’ happiness is man's highest moral purpose


According to Rand - The lack of reason is part of mans self ruin because he lacks a. Confidence b. Knowledge c. Esteem d. Objectivity e. All of the above

96. Self-esteem is a necessary component of a true objectivist. a. Neither true nor false b. False c. True
97. Epistemologically, the Randian view is that man's acumen is able to achieve objectively

convincing knowledge of that which exists. a. False b. True
98. By Rand’s explanations in Virtues of Selfishness a. Rationality, the chief virtue, is the acknowledgment of objective reality, b. commitment to its awareness, and the acceptance of reason is a man's only judge of values

Fairness is the expression of man's rationality in his dealings d. Answer A, B, and C is correct 99. Virtues could be considered as moral ambitiousness b. Caring, friendship c. moral tributes



d. Satisfaction 2 Bonus points 100. a. b. c. d. 101.

Altruism in the broader context refers to Selfishness Happiness Kindness Fairness Based on Rand’s summated views she is likely to be Protestant b. Catholic c. Pentecostal d. none of the above

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