Passive Vibration Attenuation
Viscoelastic Damping, Shunt Piezoelectric Patches, and Periodic Structures
Mohammad Tawfik
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Structures
Passive Vibration Attenuation 2
Contents
1. Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter .................................................................................... 3
1.1. Periodic Structures ....................................................................................................................... 3
1.2. Literature Survey .......................................................................................................................... 3
1.3. Periodic Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 5
1.4. Periodic Bars ................................................................................................................................ 9
1.4.1. Forward approach for a periodic bar .................................................................................... 9
1.4.2. Reverse approach for a periodic bar ................................................................................... 12
1.4.3. Experimental Work ............................................................................................................. 13
1.5. Periodic Beams ........................................................................................................................... 14
1.5.1. Beams with Periodic Geometry .......................................................................................... 15
1.5.2. Experimental Work ............................................................................................................. 16
1.6. Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates ................................................................................... 21
1.6.1. InputOutput Relations ....................................................................................................... 22
1.6.2. Propagation Surfaces .......................................................................................................... 23
1.6.3. Constant angle curves ......................................................................................................... 25
1.6.4. Plates with Periodic Geometry ........................................................................................... 30
1.6.5. Experimental Work ............................................................................................................. 30
1.7. Effect of Shunted Piezoelectric Patches on Propagation Surfaces ............................................ 30
1.7.1. Propagation Surfaces for Coupled System .......................................................................... 30
1.8. Appendices ................................................................................................................................. 34
1.8.1. Appendix A .......................................................................................................................... 34
1.8.2. Nomenclature ..................................................................................................................... 37
1.9. References and Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 38
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Structures
Passive Vibration Attenuation 3
1. Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter
1.1. Periodic Structures
The first question that anyone may ask is: what is a Periodic Structure? The definition of a periodic
structure, according to Mead [78], is that it is one that consists fundamentally of a number of
identical substructure components that are joined together to form a continuous structure. Periodic
structures are seen in many engineering products, examples of periodic structures may include
satellite solar panels, railway tracks, aircraft fuselage, multistory buildings, etc …
Following the above definition of periodic structure, there must be a distinction between different
substructures that defines the individual unit, that distinction or boundary will introduce a sudden
change in the properties of the structure. Two main types of discontinuities may be identifies,
namely: geometric discontinuity and material discontinuity. Figure 1.1 shown a sketch of the two
different types of discontinuities.
(a) (b)
Figure 1.1. Types of discontinuities (a) Material discontinuity (b) Geometric dicontinuity
Recall what happens to a wave as it travels
through a boundary between two different
media; part of the light wave refracts inside the
water and another part reflects back into the
air. Mechanical waves behave in a similar way!
Now, imagine a rod, as example of 1D
structures. As the wave propagates through the
rod, it faces a discontinuity in the structure. A
part of the wave reflects and another part
propagates into the new part. The reflected
part of the wave will, definitely, interfere with
the incident wave.
Figure 1.2. Sketch of light wave behaviour when
incident on water surface
The interference between the incident and reflected waves will result, in some frequency band, in
destructive interference. In the frequency band where destructive interference occurs, there will be
reduced vibration level. This band is what we call StopBand. Stop bands are the center of interest
for the periodic analysis of structures (see section 1.3)
1.2. Literature Survey
In his paper, reviewing the research performed in the area of wave propagation in periodic
structures, Mead [78] defined a periodic structure as a structure that consists fundamentally of a
number of identical structural components that are joined together to form a continuous structure.
Examples of periodic structures can be seen in satellite solar panels, wings and fuselages of aircraft,
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Literature Survey
Passive Vibration Attenuation 4
petroleum pipelines, and many others. An illustration of a simple periodic bar is presented in
Figure 1.3.
Figure 1.3. An illustration of a simple periodic bar.
Studies of the characteristics of onedimensional periodic structures have been extensively reported
[7994]. These structures are easy to analyze because of the simplicity of the geometry as well as the
nature of coupling between neighbouring cells. Ungar [79] presented a derivation of an expression
that could describe the steady state vibration of an infinite beam uniformly supported on
impedances. That formulation, easily allowed for the analysis of the structures with fluid loadings.
Later, Gupta [80] presented an analysis for periodicallysupported beams that introduced the
concepts of the cell and the associated transfer matrix. He presented the propagation and
attenuation parameters’ plots which form the foundation for further studies of onedimensional
periodic structures. Faulkner and Hong [81] presented a study of monocoupled periodic systems.
They analysed the free vibration of springmass systems as well as pointsupported beams using
analytical and finite element methods. Mead and Yaman [82] presented a study for the response of
onedimensional periodic structures subject to periodic loading. Their study involved the
generalization of the support condition to involve rotational and displacement springs as well as
impedances. The effects of the excitation point as well as the elastic support characteristics on the
pass and stop characteristics of the beam are presented.
Other studies have also shown very promising characteristics of periodic structures for wave
attenuation [8694]. Langley [86] investigated the localization of a wave in a damped one
dimensional periodic structure using an energy approach. Later, Cetinkaya [90], by introducing
random variation in the periodicity of onedimensional biperiodic structure, showed that the
vibration can be localized near to the disturbance source. Using the same concept, Ruzzene and Baz
[92] used shape memory inserts into a onedimensional rod, and by activating or deactivating the
inserts they introduced aperiodicity which in turn localized the vibration near to the disturbance
source. Then, they used a similar concept to actively localize the disturbance waves travelling in a
fluidloaded shell [93]. Thorp et al. [94] applied the same concept to rods provided with shunted
periodic piezoelectric patches which again showed very promising results.
The analysis of periodic plates is of a specific importance as it relates to many practical structures
[95103]. Mead [95] presented a general theory for the wave propagation in multiplycoupled and
twodimensional periodic structures by reducing the number of degrees of freedom of the system
based on the propagation relation existing between the two ends of the structure. Mead and
Parathan [96] used the energy method [95] together with characteristic beam modes to describe the
behaviour of plates. In that paper, they introduced the concept of “Propagation Surfaces” that
reflects the change of the dynamical behaviour of the periodic plate with the change in the direction
and phase of propagating waves. Finally, Mead et al. [97] approached the wave propagation
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Analysis
Passive Vibration Attenuation 5
problem of a periodically stiffened plate using the finite element approach which utilized
hierarchical polynomials. The investigation of the acoustic characteristics of a periodic plate was also
studied by Mead [98]. In that study, he used the methods developed in his previous three papers to
extend the model to predict the structuralacoustic characteristics of a periodically stiffened plate.
Mace [99] presented an analysis of a periodic plate that is supported on periodicallyseparated point
supports. The solution procedure involved the use of the Fourier transform of the equation of
motion and the support conditions. The analysis also extended to the prediction of the acoustic
loading and radiation from the vibrating surface of the plate.
Langley [100,101] introduced analytical techniques for predicting the response of twodimensional
structures under point loading. The response to harmonic point loading [100] was studied and
conclusions were drawn that showed the potential of using periodic twodimensional structures as
filters. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the response of a periodic plate to point
impulsive loading [101].
The analysis of elasticallysupported plates was of great interest to many researchers as it represents
more realistic structures. Warburton and Edney [102] used the RayleighRitz method to analyse an
elasticallysupported periodic plate. Later, Mukherjee and Parathan [103] used the beam functions
of Mead and Parathan [96] to analyze the behaviour of periodic plates with rotational stiffeners.
They concluded that their proposed method is computationally efficient compared to finite element
method.
1.3. Periodic Analysis
Periodic structures can be modeled like any ordinary structure, but in a periodic structure, the study
of the behavior of one cell is enough to determine the stop and pass bands of the complete
structure independent of the number of cells.
Recall the equations of motion for a general body
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
22 21
12 11
F
F
U
U
k k
k k
U
U
m m
m m
Where U is a vector presenting the displacements at a certain
point in the structure, F is a general force vector; m and k are
general mass and stiffness terms depending on the modelling
method. For harmonic excitation, we may write:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2
1
2
1
22
2
22 21
2
21
12
2
12 11
2
11
F
F
U
U
m k m k
m k m k
e e
e e
Figure 1.4. General sketch for a
structure
From which, the dynamic stiffness matrix may be written as follows:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
2
1
22 21
12 11
F
F
U
U
D D
D D
Expanding the two equations, we get:
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Analysis
Passive Vibration Attenuation 6
2 2 22 1 21
1 2 12 1 11
F U D U D
F U D U D
= +
= +
Rearranging terms of the equations gives:
2 22 1 21 2
1
1
12 1 11
1
12 2
U D U D F
F D U D D U
+ =
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷
Collecting right hand displacements and forces on the right hand side of the equations gives:
( )
1
1
12 22 1 11
1
12 22 21 2
1
1
12 1 11
1
12 2
F D D U D D D D F
F D U D D U
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
In matrix form:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
1
1
1
12 22 11
1
12 22 21
1
12 11
1
12
2
2
F
U
D D D D D D
D D D
F
U
Now, assume the input output relation for the given cell are in the form:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
1
1
2
2
F
U
e
F
U
u
Then, we may write:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ + ÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
1
1
1
12 22 11
1
12 22 21
1
12 11
1
12
1
1
F
U
D D D D D D
D D D
F
U
e
u
Giving the input output, transfer, relation as:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
1
1
1
1
22 21
12 11
F
U
e
F
U
T T
T T
u
Where the input output transformation matrix is called the transfer matrix T. From the above
relation, we can clearly see that:
=
22 21
12 11
T T
T T
s Eigenvalue e
u
Note that the transfer matrix is dependent on the excitation frequency, hence, the propagation
factor is dependent on the frequency. Also, it can be proven that the eigenvalues of the transfer
matrix will appear in reciprocal pairs (ì & 1/ì).
Example 1.1: Periodic Spring Mass
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Analysis
Passive Vibration Attenuation 7
Figure 1.5. Sketch of the periodic spring mass system.
Write down the equations of motion for the cell given by 2 half masses and one spring
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
0
f
f
u
u
k k
k k
u
u
m
m
Then, we may get the dynamic stiffness matrix
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2
1
2
1
2
2
f
f
u
u
m k k
k m k
e
e
Rearranging terms
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
f
u
f
u
k
m
k
m k
k
k k
m
e e
e
From which we may write the transfer matrix
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
f
u
e
f
u
k
m
k
k
m k
k k
m
u
e e
e
Below, is the MATLAB code used to generate the results of this example.
m=1; k=1;
mc=[m,0;0,m];
kc=[k,k;k,k];
mg=[m 0 0 0 0 0
0 2*m 0 0 0 0
0 0 2*m 0 0 0
0 0 0 2*m 0 0
0 0 0 0 2*m 0
0 0 0 0 0 m];
kg=[k k 0 0 0 0
k 2*k k 0 0 0
0 k 2*k k 0 0
0 0 k 2*k k 0
0 0 0 k 2*k k
0 0 0 0 k k];
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Analysis
Passive Vibration Attenuation 8
for ii=1:1001
freq(ii)=(ii1)*0.002;
KD=kcfreq(ii)*freq(ii)*mc;
TT=[KD(1,1)/KD(1,2) 1/KD(1,2)
KD(2,2)*KD(1,1)/KD(1,2)KD(2,1) KD(2,2)/KD(1,2)];
Lamda(:,ii)=sort(eig(TT));
Mew(ii)=acosh(0.5*(Lamda(1,ii)+Lamda(2,ii)));
Resp=inv(KD)*[1;0];
xx(ii)=20*log(abs(Resp(2)));
KG=kgfreq(ii)*freq(ii)*mg;
Resp=inv(KG)*[1;0;0;0;0;0];
yy(ii)=20*log(abs(Resp(6)));
end
subplot(4,1,1); plot(freq,Lamda(1,:),freq,Lamda(2,:)); grid
subplot(4,1,2); plot(freq,real(Mew),freq,imag(Mew)); grid
subplot(4,1,3); plot(freq,xx); grid
subplot(4,1,4); plot(freq,yy); grid
Figure 1.6. Variation of the eigenvalues with the
excitation frequency
Figure 1.7. Variation of the real and imaginary
parts of the propagation factor with the excitation
frequency
Figure 1.8. Frequency response of a single cell
Figure 1.9. Frequency response of the six cells
From Figure 1.6 we may notice that the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix appear as complex
conjugate for all frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the cell (Only real part is plotted). Fro
frequencies above the cutoff frequency, the eigenvalues appear in real reciprocal pairs. Figure 1.7
presents plot for the variation of the real and imaginary parts of the propagation factor μ. Note here
that the real part of the propagation factor is equal to zero for all frequency values below the cutoff
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Bars
Passive Vibration Attenuation 9
frequency. Further, we may notice that the imaginary part varies from 0 to π then it stays constant
for the frequency values at which the real part is nonzero. Figure 1.8 is a plot of the frequency
response of the cell. In this plot we may also note that the response of the cell becomes less than
unity (0 dB) for higher frequencies. Finally, Figure 1.9 presents the response of the 6mass spring
system in which we may notice that the response also becomes less than unity for the higher
frequencies similar to that of a single cell.
1.4. Periodic Bars
Onedimensional periodic structures will be our keyway towards better understanding of the
phenomena associated with general periodic structures. Consider a unit cell of the periodic structure
of Figure 1.3 and its free body diagram shown in Figure 1.10, we may define a relation between the
force f
3
and displacement u
3
at the right hand side of the cell and f
1
and u
1
on the left hand side as
follows,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
1
1
3
3
f
u
e
f
u
u
(1)
where u is the propagation factor.
On the other hand, the forcedisplacement relations of each of the parts of the cell could be written
in terms of the dynamic stiffness matrix as follows,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
2
1
1
22
1
12
1
12
1
11
f
f
u
u
D D
D D
, (2)
and
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
2
3
2
2
33
2
23
2
23
2
22
f
f
u
u
D D
D D
(3)
where
r
ij
D is the dynamic stiffness coefficient relating the i’th force to the j’th displacement of the
r’th element that can be determined using any technique such as finite element. Remember that the
dynamic stiffness matrix of an element is a function of the excitation frequency.
Figure 1.10. A free body diagram for a cell of the periodic bar.
1.4.1. Forward approach for a periodic bar
The approach presented in this section for the analysis of the periodic characteristic of a bar is going
to be named the “forward approach”, in contrast with the “reverse approach” that will be presented
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Bars
Passive Vibration Attenuation 10
later. The forward approach starts with a physical input (excitation frequency) and advances to
determine the periodic characteristics of the bar, mainly presented in the propagation factor.
For the first element, we may rearrange the equation (2a) to be in the form,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
2
2
1
1
1
12
1
22
1
12
1
22
1
11 1
12
1
12
1
12
1
11
1
f
u
f
u
D
D
D
D D
D
D D
D
(4)
Similarly, for the second element, equation (3) can take the following form,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
3
3
2
2
2
12
2
22
2
12
2
22
2
11 2
12
2
12
2
12
2
11
1
f
u
f
u
D
D
D
D D
D
D D
D
(5)
Combining equations (1), (3) and (4) gives,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
1
1
1
1
1
12
1
22 1
12 1
12
1
22
1
11
1
12
1
12
1
11
2
12
2
22 2
12 2
12
2
22
2
11
2
12
2
12
2
11
1 1
f
u
e
f
u
D
D
D
D
D D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D D
D D
D
u
(6)
which can be rewritten as,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
1
1
1
1
22 21
12 11
f
u
e
f
u
T T
T T
u
(7)
where, [T] is called the transfer matrix of the cell. The above equation is an Eigenvalue problem,
similar to that obtained previously for the periodic mass spring system, in [T] which can be solved
directly yielding the required Eigenvalues. Recall that the transfer matrix was derived from the
dynamic stiffness matrix which is a function of the excitation frequency. It may be shown that the
eigenvalues (ì’s) of the transfer matrix [T] appear in pairs such that one is the reciprocal of the other
(i.e. ì ì / 1 & ). Suggesting that these eigenvalues are
u
e and
u ÷
e , which we can use to write u as
follows,
0 o
ì
ì u i ArcCosh + =

.

\

+ =
1
(8)
In general, the value obtained for the propagation factor u from equation (8) is a complex value
whose imaginary part 0 defines the phase difference between the input and the output vibration
waves, while the real part o denotes the attenuation in the vibration amplitude between the input
and the output.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Bars
Passive Vibration Attenuation 11
To demonstrate the previous concepts, a test case was considered in which the modulus of elasticity
(E) for both parts of the bar is 71 GPa, density (p) 2700 Kg/m
3
, smaller diameter 4 cm, larger
diameter 2 4 cm, and length of each part 1 m.
The variation of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix function of a unit cell with the excitation
frequency is plotted in Figure 1.11. For the frequency band in which the eigenvalues are presented
by one branch, they appear as a complex conjugate pair. While, for the frequency band in which
they have two distinct branches, the eigenvalues are real.
Figure 1.11. A plot of the variation of the transfer
matrix eigenvalues with the excitation frequency.
Figure 1.12. The variation of the real and imaginary
parts of the propagation factor with the excitation
frequency.
The variation of the propagation parameter can thus be determined through equation (8). The real
and imaginary parts of the propagation parameter are plotted in Figure 1.12. It should be noted at
this point that the real and imaginary parts of the propagation parameter are varying with
frequency. The frequency band in which the real part is zero, the imaginary part varies from 0 to t
and from t to 0. While, through the frequency bands in which the real part is positive, the imaginary
part is constant at the values of t or 0. This note is going to help us understanding the behaviour of
the propagation surfaces of twodimensional plates later.
Another way for obtaining the propagation factor is through dynamic condensation of the dynamic
stiffness matrix after assembling the cell global matrix. The condensation is obtain through the
following procedure; assemble the dynamic stiffness matrix to obtain
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
1
3
2
1
33 23
23 22 12
12 11
0
0
0
f
f
u
u
u
D D
D D D
D D
Then evaluate the internal degrees of freedom in terms of the boundary degrees of freedom using
the second equation
( )
22
3 23 1 12
2
D
u D u D
u
+ ÷
=
Then substitute into the other equations to obtain
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Bars
Passive Vibration Attenuation 12
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
3
1
3
1
22
23
2
33 22 23 12
22 23 12 22
12
2
11
/ /
/ /
f
f
u
u
D D D D D D
D D D D D D
Which may be written as
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
1
3
1
22 12
12 11
f
f
u
u
D D
D D
If the reduced stiffness matrix is then handled in the same manner as explained in the previous
section, the same results presented in Figure 1.11 and Figure 1.12 will be obtained.
1.4.2. Reverse approach for a periodic bar
In this section, the reverse approach will be introduced in order to illustrate the concept of
propagation lines which will be extended to the propagation surfaces for plates. Using the finite
element model presented earlier, we may assemble the global dynamic stiffness matrix of the cell as
follows,
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
1
3
2
1
33 23
23 22 12
12 11
0
0
f
f
f
u
u
u
D D
D D D
D D
(9)
Substituting equation (1) into (9) gives,
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
1
2
1
1
2
1
33 23
23 22 12
12 11
0
0
f
f
f
u
u
u
D e D
e D D D
D D
u
u
(10)
Since the resultant force f
2
at point two is zero, we may add the first and last equations of the above
system and simplify the result to get,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+ +
÷
0
0
2
1
22 23 12
23 12 33 11
u
u
D e D D
e D D D D
u
u
(11)
Separating the mass and stiffness terms in the above equation, we get
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦


.

\

+
+ +
÷
+
+ +
÷ ÷
0
0
2
1
22 23 12
23 12 33 11 2
22 23 12
23 12 33 11
u
u
M e M M
e M M M M
K e K K
e K K K K
u
u
u
u
e
Or
( ) ( )  
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
0
0
2
1 2
u
u
M K u e u (12)
Equation (12) presents an eigenvalue problem of the vibration as a function of the propagation
parameter u. We will call this approach the “reverse approach” as the independent variable of the
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Bars
Passive Vibration Attenuation 13
problem, u , is a quantity that we have no direct access to, in contrast with the “forward approach”
in which the independent variable is the excitation frequency which is a quantity we can physically
control and measure.
To demonstrate the relationship between both approaches, the values of the propagation factor is
constrained to be imaginary values varying from 0 to t. The resulting values of the natural
frequencies of oscillation are shown in Figure 1.13. Few important notes have to be emphasized at
this point. The curves presenting the variation of the excitation frequency are identical to those
presenting the variation of the imaginary part of the propagation factor (Figure 1.12) with the
independent and dependent variable reversed. Also, the gap existing between both curves of
Figure 1.13 corresponds to the frequency band in which the value of the propagation factor has a
real part (Figure 1.12). The characteristic graphs shown in Figure 1.13 are called the propagation
curves.
Figure 1.13. The variation the natural frequency of
oscillation with the propagation factor.
Figure 1.14. the variation of the natural frequency
of oscillation with the real part of the propagation factor
(imaginary part =t)
Now, varying the values of the real part of the propagation factor, for a constant value of the
imaginary part, results in the characteristics shown in Figure 1.14. Similar notes can be taken when
comparing the results of Figure 1.14 with those of Figure 1.12. But it has to be noted that increasing
the value of the real part above the maximum obtained by the “forward approach” results in
obtaining complex pairs for the excitation frequencies indicating going beyond the physical
boundaries. Nevertheless, the graphs of Figure 1.14 fill the gap that exists in Figure 1.13. Thus, we
may call that gap “the attenuation band”, or “stop band”, and the curves, “the attenuation curves”.
1.4.3. Experimental Work
In an extended research of the characteristics of periodic bars, Asiri conducted different experiments
on bars with periodic configurations. His results were assessed by numerical results for the pass and
stop bands obtained from a spectral finite element model. His results emphasized the effectiveness
of the periodic configurations in attenuating the vibration response in the stop bands indicated by
the numerical model for the different configurations. Figure 1.15 presents the geometry of one of
the experiments conducted by Asiri, and Figure 1.16 presents the experimentally obtained frequency
response of the bar together with the numerically obtained attenuation curves. The results shown in
Figure 1.16 show the degree of accuracy by which the attenuation bands may be predicted by the
attenuation curves for the bar.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 14
Figure 1.15. Geometry of one of the experiments conducted by Asiri.
Figure 1.16. Experimental frequency response of the bar with the above mentioned geometry and the corresponding
attenuation curves.
1.5. Periodic Beams
Periodic beams have been of special interest to researchers in the past decades due to their relation
to railroad structures. The fact that the railway is supported at equal distances presents an almost
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 15
ideal case for the study of infinite simply supported beams, further, the effect of the foundation
elasticity, presenting the ground elasticity, was widely introduced to the studies.
1.5.1. Beams with Periodic Geometry
Numerical Model
The spectral finite element model presented earlier for the plate case was simplified to be suitable
for the beam case. The degrees of freedom and generalized forces of the beam cell at the three
nodes are shown in Figure 1.17.
Figure 1.17. A sketch of the forces and displacements of a beam cell.
The equations of motion of the beam elements could be written as follows,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
2
1
1
22
1
21
1
12
1
11
f
f
W
W
D D
D D
(13)
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
2
3
2
2
22
2
21
2
12
2
11
f
f
W
W
D D
D D
(14)
where
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
i
i
i
w
w
W
'
,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
i
i
i
M
F
f , and
r
ij
k is the dynamic stiffness matrix term relating the i
th
displacement vector with the j
th
generalized force vector. The dynamic stiffness matrix can be
assembled for the whole cell
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
1
3
2
1
33 23
23 22 12
12 11
0
0
f
f
f
W
W
W
D D
D D D
D D
Condensing the above system to remove the internal displacement vector (W
2
) and assuming no
internal forces on the cell, i.e. f
2
is zero, we get,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
1
3
1
22 21
12 11
f
f
W
W
D D
D D
where
12
1
22 12 11 11
D D D D D
÷
÷ = ,
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 16
32
1
22 12 12
D D D D
÷
÷ = ,
12
1
22 32 21
D D D D
÷
÷ = ,
and
32
1
22 32 33 22
D D D D D
÷
÷ = .
Rearranging the equations to put them in an input output relation, we get,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
3
1
1
22 21
12 11
f
W
f
W
T T
T T
where
11
1
12 11
D D T
÷
÷ = ,
1
12 12
÷
÷ = D T ,
11
1
12 22 12 21
D D D D T
÷
÷ = ,
and
1
12 22 22
÷
= D D T .
We may assume that,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
1
1
3
3
f
W
e
f
W
u
where u is the propagation factor of the cell.
 
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
1
1
1
1
f
W
e
f
W
T
u
The above equation can be solved as an eigenvalue problem for the eigenvalues e
u
. It can be proven
that the eigenvalues of this problem will appear in pairs each if which is the reciprocal of the other.
1.5.2. Experimental Work
Due to the lack of experimental studies that emphasize the periodic characteristics of structures, it
was decided to study the characteristics of the periodic beam to give a broader and more indepth
understanding of the behaviour of the periodic structures. In the forthcoming sections, the
understanding of the periodic beam and plate structures will be emphasized through the
experimental and numerical results obtained.
At this point, differentiations between two techniques of analysis have to be outlined; the periodic
analysis and the finite element analysis. When periodic analysis is mentioned, it is to point towards
the process of investigating the pass and stop bands through the study of the propagation curves
and surfaces and related characteristics. On the other hand, the “finite element analysis” term will
be used to point towards the use of ordinary finite element techniques that would apply to any
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 17
structure’s geometry rather than to periodic structures in specific. This distinction had to be made as
most of the periodic analysis will be derived from a finite element model.
Experimental Setup
In order to develop more understanding of the of the behaviour of the periodic beams as well as
developing a numerical model to study its characteristics, an experiment was set for a periodic beam
with freefree boundary conditions (Figure 1.18).
Figure 1.18. The setup of the periodic beam experiment.
The beam is aluminium beam which is 40 cm long and 5 cm wide with 1 mm thickness. The
periodicity was introduced onto the beam by bonding 5 cm by 5 cm pieces of the same material on
both surfaces separated by 5 cm (Figure 1.19). The beam is then suspended by a thin wire from one
of its end to simulate freefree boundary conditions. Thus, the beam is set up with four identical cells
each of which has freefree boundary conditions.
Figure 1.19. A sketch for one cell of the periodic beam.
The beam is then excited by a piezostack (model AE0505D16 NEC Tokin, Union City, CA, 94587) at
one end and the measurement was taken by an accelerometer from the other end (Figure 1.20).
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 18
Figure 1.20. The excitation piezostack and the output accelerometer.
Comparison of Results
The experiment described above was set up and measurements were taken from the two ends of
the beam. Figure 1.21 shows the transfer function frequency response of the beam for the plain and
periodic beams. The attenuation factor of the beam, as calculated by the real part of the
propagation factor of the periodic model, is plotted below the frequency response for the sake of
comparison. The results shown emphasize the accuracy of the periodic model used to predict the
behaviour of the beam. Figure 1.22 presents the frequency response obtained by the finite element
model of the described beam. Comparing the results of both figures, we can note clearly the
consistency of results obtained by the three models, experimental, periodic and finite element.
Figure 1.21. The frequency response together with the numerical results of the stop bands for the proposed beam.
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
s
p
e
n
c
e
A
m
p
l
.
(
d
B
)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
F
a
c
t
o
r
Plain Beam
Periodic Beam
Attenuation Factor
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 19
Figure 1.22. Frequency response of the beam using finite element model.
Another experiment was set up for a set of beams with cantilever boundary conditions. The
experiments was set up with two accelerometers and excited by a piezoelectric actutator as shown
in Figure 1.23 and Figure 1.24. Different cases with varying the lengths L1 and L2 were constructed
to examine the effect of the geometry on the attenuation characteristics (Figure 1.25).
Figure 1.23. Sketch of the experimental setup for the cantilever beam.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Periodic Beams
Passive Vibration Attenuation 20
Figure 1.24. A picture of the experimental setup.
Figure 1.25. a sketch for the cell geometry of the experiment for the cantilever beam.
Figure 1.26. Experimental results obtained for case #1 compared to plain beam and attenuation curves obtained by
numerical model.
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Frequency (Hz)
T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
n
F
a
c
t
o
r
(
r
a
d
)
Plain Beam
Periodic Beam
Attenuation Factor
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 21
Figure 1.27. Experimental results obtained for case #2 compared to plain beam and attenuation curves obtained by
numerical model.
Figure 1.28. Experimental results obtained for case #3 compared to plain beam and attenuation curves obtained by
numerical model.
1.6. Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
It is naturally understood that the beam is a special case of the plate structure. The thin beam and
plate structures have similar approximate theories that describe their behaviour. From dynamics
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Frequency (Hz)
T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
n
F
a
c
t
o
r
(
r
a
d
)
Plain Beam
Periodic Beam
Attenuation Factor
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Frequency (Hz)
T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
n
F
a
c
t
o
r
(
r
a
d
)
Plain Beam
Periodic Beam
Attenuation Factor
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 22
point of view, the beam would be characterized by having the bending waves travelling in one
dimension, along the direction of the beam axis. Due to the characteristic of the beam being of short
width relative to the length, its modes of vibration in the shorter direction are associated with very
high frequencies.
On the other hand, the plate is the general case in which the length and width dimensions are of the
same order giving way for bending waves to travel in both directions with similar characteristics.
That specific nature of the plate introduces a lot of complexities to the study. A basic problem that
arises from the 2dimensional effect is the fact that the source of vibration at a certain point on the
plate can not be pointed out due to the fact that reflections from the tips of the structure are
interfering together with the fact that in a periodic structure we are introducing more reflections
that would travel in all directions increasing the degree of complexity.
1.6.1. InputOutput Relations
To establish a system of equations that can be used for the “reverse approach” study of the periodic
behaviour of the plate, relations between the displacements of the different nodes are developed
and implemented similar to those introduced in equation(1). Mead [95] and Mead et al. [97]
introduced relations that could be developed for use with higher order elements.
The inputoutput relations summarized in Figure 1.29 are presented in the following two sets of
equations,
11 8
12 7
6 9
5 10
1 4
1 3
1 2
,
,
,
,
,
,
w e w and
w e w
w e w
w e w
w e w
w e w
w e w
x
x
y
y
y
y x
x
u
u
u
u
u
u u
u
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
11 8
12 7
6 9
5 10
1 4
1 3
1 2
,
,
,
,
,
,
f e f and
f e f
f e f
f e f
f e f
f e f
f e f
x
x
y
y
y
y x
x
u
u
u
u
u
u u
u
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
=
÷ =
+
where
x x
i0 u = and
y y
i0 u = with
x
0 and
y
0 denoting the phase factor in the x and ydirection
respectively.
Figure 1.29. A sketch representing the relations between the input and output displacements.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 23
Note that in the above relations, w
i
stands for the vector of degrees of freedom if the i
th
node; i.e.
{w,w
x
,w
y
,w
xy
,D}. Implementing those relations in the element equations of motion, and assuming
harmonic vibration, we may obtain the following relation,
{ } 0
16
15
14
13
12
11
6
5
1
99 91
19 11
99 91
19 11
2
=
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦




.

\

+
O ÷
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
k k
k k
m m
m m
(15)
1.6.2. Propagation Surfaces
The concept of propagation surfaces was introduced by Mead and Parathan [96] as a graphical
presentation of the change in the dynamic characteristics of the periodic plate with the change in
the wave direction. For a planar wave travelling in a periodically supported plate at an inclination
angle u from the xaxis, the phase difference between two adjacent periods in the x and ydirections
are
y x
0 0 , respectively, and the average wave numbers in the x and ydirections could be given by
b
k
a
k
y
y
x
x
0
0
= = & (16)
where a and b are the plateperiod length in the x and ydirections respectively.
Mead and Parathan [96] used displacement functions to describe the vibration of beams then
extended the model to two dimensions by multiplying two polynomials (the xpolynomial and the y
polynomial). Then, the stiffness and mass matrices were constructed and the natural frequencies
were calculated. A plot of the nondimensional frequency O with the phase difference (i.e. the
propagation surfaces) for a simplysupported periodic plate was then presented. The non
dimensional frequency O is defined as,
4
4 2
t
e p
p
D
a t
= O
(
17)
where t and D
p
are the plate thickness and flexural rigidity respectively.
Using the developed 16node element, the set of 16 matrix equations can be reduced to a set of 9
matrix equations, and can be solved as an eigenvalue problem for the nondimensional frequency O
Such that:
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 24
    0
2
= + O ÷ k m
The propagation surfaces resulting from the solution of the above eigenvalue problem are shown in
Figure 1.30.
In Figure 1.31, which is the same as Figure 1.30 but from a different viewing point, we can clearly see
the bands over which the propagation surfaces reside. These frequency bands are the bands in
which the vibration would propagate from the input to the output nodes in an analogous manner to
the propagation bands identified earlier for the periodic bar. Gaps that exist between the surfaces
over bands of frequencies can also be identified as “attenuation or stop bands”.
Figure 1.30. Propagation surfaces resulting from the solution of the eigenvalue problem of the finite element model.
u
x
u
y
O
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 25
Figure 1.31. The plot of the propagation surfaces from a planar point of view.
1.6.3. Constant angle curves
To simplify the graphical representation of the “reverse approach”, we are going to examine the
propagation surfaces at constant angle. A wave propagation angle of 45
o
is considered. By varying
the imaginary part of the propagation factor from 0 to t, setting the real part to 0 and taking u
y
to
be equal to u
x
, we can obtain the propagation curves for the different bands. Figure 1.32 shows the
resulting curves drawn with the independent variable (u
x
) on the vertical axis.
u
x
u
y
O
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 26
Figure 1.32. The curves of the propagation surfaces at angle 45
o
.
Approaching the problem from the perspective of the attenuation factor (the real part of the
propagation factor), we can draw the “Attenuation Surfaces” or the “Attenuation Curves”. Setting
the imaginary part of the propagation factor to zero, we can obtain the attenuation curves (or the
stop bands). Figure 1.33 presents the attenuation curves for a wave propagating at 45
o
and with the
imaginary part of the propagation factor set equal to zero. While Figure 1.34 presents the
attenuation curves with a wave propagating at 45
o
and with the imaginary part of the propagation
factor set to t.
An interesting feature appears in these graphs, namely, the overlapping of the propagation and
attenuation bands. This property of the bands comes from the fact that the wave is now propagating
in a square plate in contrast with the onedimensional structures considered earlier. In a simply
supported square plate, the 2
nd
and the 3
rd
vibration modes coincide (namely the (1,2) and (2,1)
modes). Nevertheless, the energy flow in both directions is distinct and occurs between two
different set of nodes.
Getting back to the three dimensional surfaces, we can now obtain the “Attenuation Surfaces” for
the plate by setting the values of the imaginary part of the propagation factor to 0 or t. The resulting
surfaces present the attenuation bands associated with the periodic plate of interest. It has to be
noted, again at this point, that the overlapping of the surfaces does not contradict the fact that the
bands are distinct. In other words, within the stop bands, the vibration of certain propagation mode
while the other modes that undergo propagation phases are still propagating vibration.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 27
Figure 1.33. The “attenuation surface” at angel 45
o
with the imaginary part set to zero.
Figure 1.34. The “attenuation surface” at angel 45
o
with the imaginary part set to t.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 28
Figure 1.35. The attenuation surfaces for the plate with the imaginary part set to zero.
u
x
u
y
O
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Propagation Surfaces for Periodic Plates
Passive Vibration Attenuation 29
Figure 1.36. The attenuation surfaces for the first two attenuation bands of the plate with the imaginary part set to t.
u
x
u
y
O
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Effect of Shunted Piezoelectric Patches on Propagation Surfaces
Passive Vibration Attenuation 30
1.6.4. Plates with Periodic Geometry
1.6.5. Experimental Work
1.7. Effect of Shunted Piezoelectric Patches on Propagation Surfaces
1.7.1. Propagation Surfaces for Coupled System
It is interesting to visualize the result of adding an inductor to the shunt circuit. It simply splits the
mode that is targeted into two modes with one surface above and another below the original
propagation surface; just like the case of adding a secondary massspring system to a primary system
as takes place in the classical vibration absorber problem (Figure 1.37).
Figure 1.37. Frequency response for a vibration absorber.
When an inductance is added to the system, a similar result is obtained for the propagation surfaces
as shown in Figure 1.38. It is obvious that the shape of the propagation surfaces exhibits shape
similar to that of the frequency response of a twodegree of freedom springmass system.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Effect of Shunted Piezoelectric Patches on Propagation Surfaces
Passive Vibration Attenuation 31
Figure 1.38. The two surfaces resulting from adding the inductance compared to the original surface.
Drawing the curves with a wave propagating at 45
o
(Figure 1.39), we can visualize the gap introduced
in the band that was originally covered by the first propagation surface. That gap now presents a
stop band.
u
x
u
y
O
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Effect of Shunted Piezoelectric Patches on Propagation Surfaces
Passive Vibration Attenuation 32
Figure 1.39. The propagation curves resulting from introducing the shunted inductance.
Plotting the attenuation curves for this case, we can notice the introduction of an attenuation factor
in that band indicating that the propagating wave is expected to decay. (Figure 1.40 and Figure 1.41).
Figure 1.40. The attenuation curves resulting from introducing the shunted inductance at phase angle t.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Effect of Shunted Piezoelectric Patches on Propagation Surfaces
Passive Vibration Attenuation 33
Figure 1.41. The attenuation curves resulting from the introduction of the shunted inductance at phase angle zero.
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Appendices
Passive Vibration Attenuation 34
1.8. Appendices
1.8.1. Appendix A
When the input output relations of the different nodes are implemented into the equations of
motion of the plate elements, then terms get collected, the 16 equations reduce to 9 equations
given by,
{ } 0
6
5
1
99 91
19 11
99 91
19 11
=
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦




.

\

+
O ÷
g
f
e
d
c
b
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
k k
k k
m m
m m
Where the terms of the above equation are 4x4 matrix each given by the following set of relations
(not that the letters a to g are used instead of the number 10 to 16 for the sake of clarity),
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y x y x y
x x
y y y x y
x x
y
x
y x y x
x
y
y
x
y x y x
x
y
x
y x y
x
y y x
y x y
x
y y x
x
e k e k e k k k
e k e k e k k k
e k e k e k k k
e k e k e k k k
e k e k e k e k e k k k e k k
e k e k e k e k e k k k e k k
k e k e k e k e k e k e k k k
k e k e k e k e k e k e k k k
k e k e k e k e k k e k e k
e k e k k e k e k e k e k k k
g g g g
f f f f
e e e e
d d d d
c c c c
b b b b
a a a a
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u u u u
u u
u u u u u
u u
u
u
u u u u
u
u
u
u
u u u u
u
u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u u u
u
u u u
u
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
÷
+
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + =
4 3 2 1 19
4 3 2 1 18
4 3 2 1 17
4 3 2 1 16
4 47 3 37 2 27 1 17 15
4 48 3 38 2 28 1 18 14
49 46 39 36 29 26 19 16 13
4 45 3 35 2 25 1 15 12
44 43 42 41 34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21 14 13 12 11 11
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Appendices
Passive Vibration Attenuation 35
y
y
y
y
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y
y y
x
y x y y y x
x
e k k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k e k k e k k
e k e k k e k k
k e k e k k k
k e k e k k k
k e k e k e k e k e k e k k k
ag g
af f
ae e
ad d
ac a c
ab a b
a a
aa a a
a a a a
u
u
u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u
u u
u
u u u u u u
u
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ +
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + + + + + =
5 29
5 28
5 27
5 26
7 5 57 25
8 5 58 24
9 6 59 56 23
5 5 55 22
4 3 2 1 54 53 52 51 21
y
y
y
y
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y
y y
x
y x y y y x
x
e k k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k e k k e k k
e k e k k e k k
k e k e k k k
k e k e k k k
k e k e k e k e k e k e k k k
g g
f f
e e
d d
c c
b b
a a
u
u
u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u
u u
u
u u u u u u
u
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ +
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + + + + + =
9 6 39
9 6 38
9 6 37
9 6 36
9 97 6 67 35
9 98 6 68 34
99 96 69 66 33
9 95 6 65 32
94 93 92 91 64 63 62 61 31
bg g
bf f
be e
bd d
bc b c
bb b b
b b
ba b a
b b b b
k e k k
k e k k
k e k k
k e k k
k e k e k k k
k e k e k k k
e k k e k e k k
e k k e k e k k
e k e k e k k e k e k k e k k
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y x
x
y x y
x
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + + + + + =
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+ ÷
÷
+ ÷
÷
+ + ÷
÷
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
8 49
8 48
8 47
8 46
7 8 87 45
8 8 88 44
9 6 89 86 43
5 8 85 42
4 3 2 1 84 83 82 81 41
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Appendices
Passive Vibration Attenuation 36
cg g
cf f
ce e
cd d
cc c c
cb c b
c c
ca c a
c c c c
k e k k
k e k k
k e k k
k e k k
k e k e k k k
k e k e k k k
e k k e k e k k
e k k e k e k k
e k e k e k k e k e k k e k k
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
y y x
x
y y x
x
y y x
x
y x y
x
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + + + + + =
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+ ÷
÷
+ ÷
÷
+ + ÷
÷
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u
7 59
7 58
7 57
7 56
7 7 77 55
8 7 78 54
9 6 79 76 53
5 7 75 52
4 3 2 1 74 73 72 71 51
dg
df
de
dd
dc d
db d
d d
da d
d d d d
k k
k k
k k
k k
k e k k
k e k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k e k e k k k
x
x
y
y
y y x
x
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+
69
68
67
66
7 65
8 64
9 6 63
5 62
4 3 2 1 61
u
u
u
u
u u u
u
eg
ef
ee
ed
ec e
eb e
e e
ea e
e e e e
k k
k k
k k
k k
k e k k
k e k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k e k e k k k
x
x
y
y
y y x
x
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+
79
78
77
76
7 75
8 74
9 6 73
5 72
4 3 2 1 71
u
u
u
u
u u u
u
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter Appendices
Passive Vibration Attenuation 37
fg
ff
fe
fd
fc f
fb f
f f
fa f
f f f f
k k
k k
k k
k k
k e k k
k e k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k e k e k k k
x
x
y
y
y y x
x
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+
89
88
87
86
7 85
8 84
9 6 83
5 82
4 3 2 1 81
u
u
u
u
u u u
u
gg
gf
ge
gd
gc g
gb g
g g
ga g
g g g g
k k
k k
k k
k k
k e k k
k e k k
e k k k
e k k k
e k e k e k k k
x
x
y
y
y y x
x
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
+
99
98
97
96
7 95
8 94
9 6 93
5 92
4 3 2 1 91
u
u
u
u
u u u
u
1.8.2. Nomenclature
A Area
a
i
Undetermined coefficients of the transverse displacement shape function
b
i
Undetermined coefficients of the electric displacement shape function
D Electric displacement
D
P
Plate flexural rigidity
d Piezoelectric coefficient
d
i
Nodal electric displacement
E Young’s modulus of elasticity
Electric field
e Piezoelectric material constant relating stress to electric field
H
w
,H
D
Transverse displacement and electric displacement interpolation functions
respectively
k,k
x
,k
y
Wave number, component of wave number in x and ydirections respectively
k
b
,k
D
,k
bD
Element bending, electric, and displacementelectric coupling stiffness matrices
respectively
m
b
,m
D
Element bending and electric mass matrices respectively
N
w
,N
D
Lateral displacement and electric displacement shape functions respectively
Q Plane stress plane strain constitutive relation
T Kinetic energy
E
Periodic Structures: A Passive Vibration Filter References and Bibliography
Passive Vibration Attenuation 38
U Potential energy
V Volume
W External work
w Transverse displacement
w
b
,w
D
Nodal transverse and electric displacements respectively
o(.) First variation
c Strain
¸
xy
Shear strain
k Curvature
u The propagation factor
p Mass density
o Stress
u Wave propagation angle
u Poisson’s ratio
e Frequency
Dielectric constant
0 Phase angle
Subscripts
D Related to electric degrees of freedom
w Related to transverse deflection
b Related to bending degrees of freedom
x In the xdirection
,x Derivative in the xdirection
y In the ydirection
,y Derivative in the ydirection
Superscript
D At constant electric displacement
At constant electric field
T Matrix transpose
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