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T23A-0475

Towards the Establishment of the Brian Shiro1, Stuart Koyanagi1, Paul Okubo2, Cecily Wolfe3, William Savage4 AGU Fall Meeting 2006

Hawai`i Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) 1. NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center; 91-270 Fort Weaver Rd; `Ewa Beach; HI 96706 USA; email: brian.shiro@noaa.gov, stuart.koyanagi@noaa.gov
2. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory; PO Box 51; Hawai`i National Park; HI 96718 USA; email: pokubo@usgs.gov
3. University of Hawai`i at Mānoa; 1680 East West Rd; POST 819A; Honolulu, HI 96822 USA; email: cecily@soest.hawaii.edu

for Tsunami, Seismic, and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation 4. USGS National Strong-Motion Project; 345 Middlefield Rd, MS-977; Menlo Park, CA 94025; email: wusavage@usgs.gov

Overview Hazards
Seismic monitoring in Hawai`i is essential to mitigate the risks from earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Several
-160˚ -159˚ -158˚ -157˚ -156˚ -155˚ Improved Capabilities
agencies currently operate seismic stations in Hawai`i to accomplish their respective missions:
The completed HISN will lead to new and improved products and generate interest in a variety of research topics. The
• The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) operates an extensive short period seismic network to KAUA`I
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operational missions of the USGS, PTWC, and NSMP stand to benefit from the improved station coverage and high quality
characterize volcanic and earthquake activity, primarily beneath the island of Hawai`i. data transmission the HISN affords, while ready access to the HISN's archived data will encourage collaborative studies and
• The USGS National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) operates 32 accelerographs state-wide to acquire on-scale 22˚ NI`IHAU 22˚
lead to a better understanding of Hawaii's earthquake, volcanic, and tsunami hazards.
records of strong shaking. 13 stations on the Big Island of Hawai`i transmit data by dial-up telemetry. Lihue

• The NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) operates low gain short period seismic stations coupled with
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O`AHU

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sea level gauges in order to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and provide warnings to the State of Hawai`i. 30

• Consolidated Reporting of Earthquakes and Tsunamis (CREsT) is a cooperative effort between the USGS and
NOAA in order to improve access to quality seismic data in tsunamigenic areas. There are three CREsT stations on 30

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the Big Island of Hawai`i. Honolulu
MOLOKA`I
• The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) operates two Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations 7 6
in Hawai`i. Improved Coverage
• Germany’s global GEOFON network operates one station on Maui. 21˚ MAUI 21˚

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Kahului
While serving to meet the requirements of each agency, much of the current equipment is based on decades-old 20 LĀNA`I Haleakalā
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technology and is of limited use for improving hazard products and addressing contemporary research topics.

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4 KAHO`OLAWE
HAWAI`I
Seismic Networks Today
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Broadband
Strong Motion Kohala

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22˚
Short Period
22˚ More Real Time Data Higher Quality Data

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20˚ 20˚

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100 km Seismicity of Hawai`i: 1861-2006 Mauna
(magnitude ≥4.0) 12 Kea 9
USGS-HVO
Earthquake
CREsT Magnitude
Volcano (active or dormant)
Kona 5
NOAA-PTWC 8.0 Tsunami Travel Time (minutes) Hualālai Hilo

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IRIS 6.0
4.0 Major City
Broadband Strong Motion Short Period
GEOFON 8 Kīlauea
USGS-HVO 0 0 45 USGS-NSMP Alika 1 & 2 Mauna 11
21˚ CREST 3 3 0 21˚ 0 50 100 km landslides Loa
NOAA-PTWC 1 0 11 10

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Significant Earthquakes and Tsunamis
IRIS 2 0 0 1 1868/03/28 7.0 Ka`u

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GEOFON 1 0 0 2 1868/04/02 7.9 Ka`u (tsunami - 46 dead)
USGS-NSMP 0 32 0 3 1871/02/19 6.8 Lana`I 2

Operational:
7 35 56 4 1895/12/08 5.8 O`ahu
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60 5 1929/09/25 6.2 Hualalai
6 1938/01/22 6.8 Maui
19˚ 19˚
• Improved detection, location, and characterization of
7 1948/06/28 5.2 Honolulu
8 1951/08/21 6.9 Kona Lō`ihi -158˚ -157˚  -156˚  -155˚ 
50 9 1973/04/26 6.2 Honomu

seismicity, especially outside of the Big Island of Hawai`i


10 1975/11/29 7.6 Kalapana (tsunami - 2 dead)
11 1983/11/16 6.7 Kao`iki
USGS ShakeMap : HAWAII REGION, HAWAII

12 2006/10/15 6.7 Kiholo Bay
20˚ 40 20˚
Number of Stations

Earthquake catalog compiled by Gerard Fryer.


Bathymetry data compiled by Nathan Becker.
Tsunami warnings issued in 1-2 minutes (rather than 4-5 22˚ 
Sun Oct 15, 2006 17:07:48 GMT M 6.7 N19.88 W155.94 Depth: 38.9km
22˚ 
30 minutes today) Map Version 14 Processed Wed Oct 25, 2006 01:17:30 PM MDT

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• Improved coverage for seismic monitoring of Hawaiian
volcanoes

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16
%g Faster and more accurate estimates of earthquake 21˚  21˚ 
19˚ 0 19˚ 22˚
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22˚ 200 magnitude

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Broadband Strong Motion Short Period
USGS-HVO CREST NOAA-PTWC IRIS GEOFON USGS-NSMP 28
30
20
80

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Rapid source modeling from broadband and strong
motion data

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Network Operators 35
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21˚ 21˚ 30

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6 8 10 12 14 16

Rapidly-generated regional moment tensors 20˚  20˚ 

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4 H 25
37 H

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-160˚ -159˚ -158˚ -157˚ -156˚ -155˚ L H
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38
50
40

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18

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ShakeMaps from continuous strong-motion data
+ 12 new Broadband+Strong Motion (ANSS quality) 20˚
60
20˚
14

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augmented by dial-up data
+ 15 new Strong Motion
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100 10
Horizontal Ground Acceleration (%g)
19˚ 
8
19  19 

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Research:
With 2% Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years

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+ 12 NSMP Strong Motion upgraded to real time Firm Rock - 760 m/sec shear wave velocity H
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4
km
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• Waveform inversion and moment tensor studies of 0 50 100


19˚ km U.S. Geological Survey 1 19˚
2
National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project
0 50 100 Based on: Klein, et al., BSSA ,91, 479-498, 2001. 0

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-160˚ -159˚ -158˚ -157˚ -156˚ -155˚ earthquakes
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HISN Seismic Stations Broadband


Tsunami Inundation Model in Honolulu Seismic Hazard Map for Hawai`i Lava Flow Hazard Zones on Hawai`i • Studies of volcanic tremor using broadband data PERCEIVED
SHAKING Not felt Weak Light Moderate Strong Very strong Severe Violent Extreme


POTENTIAL DAMAGE
none none none V. Light Light Moderate Moderate/Heavy Heavy V. Heavy
Strong Motion Better characterization of velocity structure and Resistant Structures
POTENTIAL DAMAGE
Vulnerable Structures
none none none Light Moderate Moderate/Heavy Heavy V. Heavy V. Heavy
Short Period
22˚ 22˚ attenuation models from studies of surface wave dispersion PEAK ACC.(%g) <.17 .17-1.4 1.4-3.9 3.9-9.2 9.2-18 18-34 34-65 65-124 >124


PEAK VEL.(cm/s) <0.1 0.1-1.1 1.1-3.4 3.4-8.1 8.1-16 16-31 31-60 60-116 >116
100 km
Passive seismic tomography with ambient noise ESTIMATED
INTENSITY I II-III IV V VI VII VIII IX X+
Existing Sta.
• Characterization of ocean-generated microseisms and
New HISN Sta.
Implementation Incoming Power options:
• A/C
Outgoing Transmission options:
• DSL internet relationship with shore wave height Above: ShakeMap for the 2006/10/15 Kiholo Bay
earthquake with Harvard CMT superimposed.

• solar (if not using satellite) • digital radio (yagi antenna)
• satellite internet (1.8 m dish)
Long-term data for array study of Hawaiian plume, lower
Broadband Strong Motion Short Period These products will be greatly improved by the
USGS-HVO 0 0 45
21˚
The original HISN proposal was drafted in January 2005 by the University of Hawai`i, IRIS, and PTWC. NOAA then PTWC Broadband Station Vault mantle, and core-mantle boundary structure
21˚ CREST 3 3 0 HISN.
NOAA-PTWC
IRIS
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2
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0
11
0
requested funding through the President’s Tsunami Supplemental in early 2005. Congress awarded $1 million for the NI
C
AN
O
D ATM SPHER
IC

• Analysis of strong motion data to improve earthquake

AD
EA

MI
NATIONAL OC

NIS
GEOFON 1 1 0
project in late 2005 with $100,000 per year in continuing funds starting in 2007.

TRATION
USGS-NSMP 0 32 0 dirt mound
engineering practice and building codes

CE
U .S

ER
EP

.D
AR O MM
T ME
NT O F C
28”
16 60 56 plastic tarp
Marmot

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culvert lid + -

PTWC is currently finalizing site selection for new sites located on the islands of Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, PVC pipe
Q330 battery
foam disk
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and Hawai`i. Wherever possible, sites in established structures such as bunkers, fallout shelters, and caves are being
concrete

EMPAC barrel 40”

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pursued. Access to AC power and internet/DSL communications are also important factors in site selection. If these foam disk
Number of Stations

are not readily available, solar power can be used. Alternate communication methods include VSAT and digital radio. concrete pavers (for weight)

corrugated culvert

foam wraparound

foam wraparound
Challenges

approx. 54”
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PTWC has begun installing stations and expects to have the entire HISN completed by early 2008. inverted inner barrel

sand-filled cylinder

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Equipment at the new or upgraded HISN stations consists of the following: STS-2
ES-T
Many challenges related to station operation and data handling confront the HISN operating partners and cooperating
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• 12 ANSS-style stations consisting of Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers, Episensor accelerometers, concrete
dirt

rock agencies (see right). Dealing with the increased volume of data will require some modernization in how the agencies ingest,
Quanterra Q330 digitizers, and Marmot field computers with Antelope software
plastic membrane
19˚ 19˚
0 48” process, and share seismic data. Some of the key challenges to this integration include:
• 15 Metrozet accelerometers and NetDas digitizers (some with Geotech S-13 short period seismometers)
Broadband Strong Motion Short Period
USGS-HVO CREST NOAA-PTWC IRIS
Network Operators
GEOFON USGS-NSMP

• continuous digital communications for up to 12 existing NSMP stations on the Island of Hawai’i Island;
Above: With guidance from the USGS and IRIS, PTWC has • sustaining sufficient operating and maintenance
designed a broadband station vault that comforms to ANSS budgets and personnel to maintain field stations Operating Partners:
(NSMP will convert all other stations state-wide to digital accelerographs with dial-up telemetry to improve rapid ShakeMap production.)
design standards. Where existing structures (bunkers, etc.) • NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC)
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are not available, PTWC will build this type of vault.
• support for telemetry links, data networks and • USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
acquisition systems (e.g., Antelope) • USGS National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP)
ANSS formed

Today
Sumatra EQ & Tsunami

Planning
As a result of enhancements to the U.S. Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program in the wake of the December 2004 Indian • standardized data exchange protocol among • Consolidated Reporting of Earthquakes & Tsunamis (CREsT)
Ocean tsunami disaster, PTWC is upgrading and expanding its seismic network using digital real-time telemetry from Appropriations Left: View inside partners (e.g., Earthworm, QDDS) • GEOFON
broadband and strong motion accelerometer stations. Through new cooperative agreements, the enhanced seismic the new • coordinated earthquake reporting for Hawai`i
network has been designed to ensure maximum benefit to all stakeholders. Site Selection & Permitting broadband station (e.g., standardization of automated location and Cooperating Agencies:
near Kekaha, • USGS Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)
magnitude routines)
Although most seismicity occurs under the Island of Hawai`i, occasional earthquakes do happen further up the island • USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)
chain. Therefore, stations will be located on all major islands in order to optimize coverage and provide on-scale
Station Installation Kaua`i. The • preparation of data and metadata for archival • Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)
manmade cave (e.g., IRIS DMC)
recordings for all Hawaiian earthquakes. Combined with other existing stations throughout Hawai`i, the Hawai`i Data Handling & Integration • NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsuami Warning Center (WC/ATWC)
was formerly used
Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) will greatly enhance seismic monitoring capabilities throughout the region. To • University of Hawai`i
for explosives
make data more accessible and useful for both real time and research applications, it will be archived by a national Operation & Maintenance • State of Hawai`i
storage
data center such as the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC).
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