Towards the Establishment of the

Brian Shiro , Stuart Koyanagi , Paul Okubo , Cecily Wolfe , William Savage
1. NOAA Paci c Tsunami Warning Center; 91-270 Fort Weaver Rd; `Ewa Beach; HI 96706 USA; email: brian.shiro@noaa.gov, stuart.koyanagi@noaa.gov 2. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory; PO Box 51; Hawai`i National Park; HI 96718 USA; email: pokubo@usgs.gov 3. University of Hawai`i at Mānoa; 1680 East West Rd; POST 819A; Honolulu, HI 96822 USA; email: cecily@soest.hawaii.edu 4. USGS National Strong-Motion Project; 345 Middle eld Rd, MS-977; Menlo Park, CA 94025; email: wusavage@usgs.gov

T23A-0475
AGU Fall Meeting 2006

Hawai`i Integrated Seismic Network (HISN)
for Tsunami, Seismic, and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation Overview
Seismic monitoring in Hawai`i is essential to mitigate the risks from earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Several agencies currently operate seismic stations in Hawai`i to accomplish their respective missions: • The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) operates an extensive short period seismic network to characterize volcanic and earthquake activity, primarily beneath the island of Hawai`i. • The USGS National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) operates 32 accelerographs state-wide to acquire on-scale records of strong shaking. 13 stations on the Big Island of Hawai`i transmit data by dial-up telemetry. • The NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) operates low gain short period seismic stations coupled with sea level gauges in order to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and provide warnings to the State of Hawai`i. • Consolidated Reporting of Earthquakes and Tsunamis (CREsT) is a cooperative effort between the USGS and NOAA in order to improve access to quality seismic data in tsunamigenic areas. There are three CREsT stations on the Big Island of Hawai`i. • The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) operates two Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations in Hawai`i. • Germany’s global GEOFON network operates one station on Maui. While serving to meet the requirements of each agency, much of the current equipment is based on decades-old technology and is of limited use for improving hazard products and addressing contemporary research topics.
-160˚ -159˚ -158˚ -157˚ -156˚ -155˚

Hazards
-160˚ -159˚ -158˚ -157˚ -156˚ -155˚

Improved Capabilities
22˚

KAUA`I NI`IHAU
40

40

22˚

Lihue
30

The completed HISN will lead to new and improved products and generate interest in a variety of research topics. The operational missions of the USGS, PTWC, and NSMP stand to bene t from the improved station coverage and high quality data transmission the HISN a ords, while ready access to the HISN's archived data will encourage collaborative studies and lead to a better understanding of Hawaii's earthquake, volcanic, and tsunami hazards.

O`AHU

40

30

30

Honolulu
7
21˚
30

MOLOKA`I
6

30

MAUI
20
20

Improved Coverage
21˚

LĀNA`I

Kahului
3

Haleakalā
20

4

KAHO`OLAWE
10

Seismic Networks Today
22˚

HAWAI`I
Kohala

10

Broadband Strong Motion Short Period 100 km USGS-HVO CREsT NOAA-PTWC IRIS GEOFON USGS-NSMP

30

22˚

20˚

Seismicity of Hawai`i: 1861-2006 (magnitude ≥4.0)
Earthquake Magnitude 8.0 6.0 4.0 Volcano (active or dormant) Tsunami Travel Time (minutes) Major City
50
30

12

Mauna Kea

20˚

More Real Time Data

Higher Quality Data

20

9

Kona 5 Hualālai
10

Hilo
11

21˚

USGS-HVO CREST NOAA-PTWC IRIS GEOFON USGS-NSMP 60 50 Number of Stations

Broadband
0 3 1 2 1 0 7

Strong Motion Short Period
0 3 0 0 0 32 35 45 0 11 0 0 0 56

21˚

0

100 km
20

Alika 1 & 2 landslides
10

8

Mauna Loa
2 1

Kīlauea
10

19˚

20˚

40 30 20 10

20˚

Signi cant Earthquakes and Tsunamis 1 1868/03/28 7.0 Ka`u 2 1868/04/02 7.9 Ka`u (tsunami - 46 dead) 3 1871/02/19 6.8 Lana`I 4 1895/12/08 5.8 O`ahu 5 1929/09/25 6.2 Hualalai 6 1938/01/22 6.8 Maui 7 1948/06/28 5.2 Honolulu 8 1951/08/21 6.9 Kona 9 1973/04/26 6.2 Honomu 10 1975/11/29 7.6 Kalapana (tsunami - 2 dead) 11 1983/11/16 6.7 Kao`iki 12 2006/10/15 6.7 Kiholo Bay Earthquake catalog compiled by Gerard Fryer. Bathymetry data compiled by Nathan Becker.

Lō`ihi

19˚

Operational: • Improved detection, location, and characterization of • • • • • •

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-155˚ 

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16

-157˚
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-156˚
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-155˚

%g
22˚
20

19˚

0
USGS-HVO

19˚
Broadband
CREST

22˚

18

200 100

Strong Motion
NOAA-PTWC IRIS

Short Period
GEOFON USGS-NSMP
25
28

80 60 40
21˚

30

Network Operators
21˚
4
20
6

35
37

8

10

12

14 16

30 25 20 18

H

-160˚

-159˚

-158˚

-157˚

-156˚

-155˚
50

37

38

L

H

H

40

+ 12 new Broadband+Strong Motion (ANSS quality) + 15 new Strong Motion + 12 NSMP Strong Motion upgraded to real time
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28

16
20˚

20˚

60

14 12 10 8 6 4

seismicity, especially outside of the Big Island of Hawai`i Tsunami warnings issued in 1-2 minutes (rather than 4-5 minutes today) Improved coverage for seismic monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes Faster and more accurate estimates of earthquake magnitude Rapid source modeling from broadband and strong motion data Rapidly-generated regional moment tensors ShakeMaps from continuous strong-motion data augmented by dial-up data

USGS ShakeMap : HAWAII REGION, HAWAII
22˚ 

Sun Oct 15, 2006 17:07:48 GMT M 6.7 N19.88 W155.94 Depth: 38.9km
Map Version 14 Processed Wed Oct 25, 2006 01:17:30 PM MDT

22˚ 

21˚ 

21˚ 

20˚ 

20˚ 

Horizontal Ground Acceleration (%g) With 2% Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years Firm Rock - 760 m/sec shear wave velocity
19˚
0

km
50 100

U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project Based on: Klein, et al., BSSA ,91, 479-498, 2001.

18

25

80

100
5 50 12 1

H
1 75

19˚

2 0

Research: • Waveform inversion and moment tensor studies of
Lava Flow Hazard Zones on Hawai`i

19˚  19 
0

km
50

19 

100
-157˚ 
Weak
none none

-160˚

-159˚

-158˚

-157˚

-156˚

-155˚

HISN Seismic Stations
22˚

Broadband Strong Motion Short Period 100 km Existing Sta. New HISN Sta.

Tsunami Inundation Model in Honolulu
22˚

Seismic Hazard Map for Hawai`i

• • • •

Implementation
21˚

Incoming Power options: • A/C • solar (if not using satellite)

Outgoing Transmission options: • DSL internet • digital radio (yagi antenna) • satellite internet (1.8 m dish)

21˚

USGS-HVO CREST NOAA-PTWC IRIS GEOFON USGS-NSMP 60 50 Number of Stations

Broadband
0 3 10 2 1 0 16

Strong Motion Short Period
0 3 24 0 1 32 60 45 0 11 0 0 0 56

The original HISN proposal was drafted in January 2005 by the University of Hawai`i, IRIS, and PTWC. NOAA then requested funding through the President’s Tsunami Supplemental in early 2005. Congress awarded $1 million for the project in late 2005 with $100,000 per year in continuing funds starting in 2007. PTWC is currently nalizing site selection for new sites located on the islands of Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, and Hawai`i. Wherever possible, sites in established structures such as bunkers, fallout shelters, and caves are being pursued. Access to AC power and internet/DSL communications are also important factors in site selection. If these are not readily available, solar power can be used. Alternate communication methods include VSAT and digital radio. PTWC has begun installing stations and expects to have the entire HISN completed by early 2008. Equipment at the new or upgraded HISN stations consists of the following: • 12 ANSS-style stations consisting of Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers, Episensor accelerometers, Quanterra Q330 digitizers, and Marmot eld computers with Antelope software • 15 Metrozet accelerometers and NetDas digitizers (some with Geotech S-13 short period seismometers) • continuous digital communications for up to 12 existing NSMP stations on the Island of Hawai’i Island;
ANSS formed Today

PTWC Broadband Station Vault
dirt mound plastic tarp culvert lid PVC pipe foam disk EMPAC barrel foam disk corrugated culvert foam wraparound foam wraparound concrete pavers (for weight) inverted inner barrel sand- lled cylinder Q330 concrete 40”
NATIONAL OC

• •

EA

C NI

O D ATM SPHER AN IC
TRATION NIS MI AD
CE

EP

Marmot

AR

T ME

O NT O F C

MM

28”
+ -

earthquakes Studies of volcanic tremor using broadband data Better characterization of velocity structure and attenuation models from studies of surface wave dispersion Passive seismic tomography with ambient noise Characterization of ocean-generated microseisms and relationship with shore wave height Long-term data for array study of Hawaiian plume, lower mantle, and core-mantle boundary structure Analysis of strong motion data to improve earthquake engineering practice and building codes

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POTENTIAL DAMAGE Resistant Structures

-156˚ 
Very strong
Moderate Moderate/Heavy Light Moderate

-155˚ 
Severe
Moderate/Heavy Heavy

PERCEIVED SHAKING

Not felt
none none

Light
none none

Moderate Strong
V. Light Light

Violent Extreme
Heavy V. Heavy V. Heavy V. Heavy

POTENTIAL DAMAGE Vulnerable Structures

PEAK ACC.(%g) PEAK VEL.(cm/s) ESTIMATED INTENSITY

<.17 <0.1

.17-1.4

1.4-3.9

3.9-9.2 3.4-8.1

9.2-18 8.1-16

18-34 16-31

34-65 31-60

65-124 60-116

>124 >116

I

0.1-1.1 1.1-3.4

II-III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X+

Above: ShakeMap for the 2006/10/15 Kiholo Bay earthquake with Harvard CMT superimposed. These products will be greatly improved by the HISN.

ER

U .S

.D

battery

20˚

40 30 20 10

20˚

Challenges
dirt rock

approx. 54”

ES-T

STS-2

concrete plastic membrane 48”

19˚

0
USGS-HVO

19˚
Broadband
CREST

Strong Motion
NOAA-PTWC IRIS

Short Period
GEOFON USGS-NSMP

Many challenges related to station operation and data handling confront the HISN operating partners and cooperating agencies (see right). Dealing with the increased volume of data will require some modernization in how the agencies ingest, process, and share seismic data. Some of the key challenges to this integration include:

Network Operators

-160˚

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-155˚

(NSMP will convert all other stations state-wide to digital accelerographs with dial-up telemetry to improve rapid ShakeMap production.)
Sumatra EQ & Tsunami

Above: With guidance from the USGS and IRIS, PTWC has designed a broadband station vault that comforms to ANSS design standards. Where existing structures (bunkers, etc.) are not available, PTWC will build this type of vault. Left: View inside the new broadband station near Kekaha, Kaua`i. The manmade cave was formerly used for explosives storage

• sustaining su • • • •

As a result of enhancements to the U.S. Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program in the wake of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, PTWC is upgrading and expanding its seismic network using digital real-time telemetry from broadband and strong motion accelerometer stations. Through new cooperative agreements, the enhanced seismic network has been designed to ensure maximum benefit to all stakeholders. Although most seismicity occurs under the Island of Hawai`i, occasional earthquakes do happen further up the island chain. Therefore, stations will be located on all major islands in order to optimize coverage and provide on-scale recordings for all Hawaiian earthquakes. Combined with other existing stations throughout Hawai`i, the Hawai`i Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) will greatly enhance seismic monitoring capabilities throughout the region. To make data more accessible and useful for both real time and research applications, it will be archived by a national data center such as the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC).

Planning Appropriations

Site Selection & Permitting Station Installation Data Handling & Integration Operation & Maintenance

cient operating and maintenance budgets and personnel to maintain eld stations support for telemetry links, data networks and acquisition systems (e.g., Antelope) standardized data exchange protocol among partners (e.g., Earthworm, QDDS) coordinated earthquake reporting for Hawai`i (e.g., standardization of automated location and magnitude routines) preparation of data and metadata for archival (e.g., IRIS DMC)

Operating Partners: • NOAA Paci c Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) • USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) • USGS National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) • Consolidated Reporting of Earthquakes & Tsunamis (CREsT) • GEOFON Cooperating Agencies: • USGS Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) • USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) • Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) • NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsuami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) • University of Hawai`i • State of Hawai`i

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

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