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# Pr e

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David A. Santos dsantos@ccp.edu

August 26, 2005VERSION

Pr Pr Pr eca Pr eca lc ul e Pr eca lcul us l e u I Pr ca ul I Pre cal culu s I Pr eca lcul us I Pre cal culu s I Pr eca lcul us cu ec lcu us Pr ca P l s Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I a r l Pr eca lcul us P ec lcu us I Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Prec Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec alc a ec lcu us r lu I re al ulu P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu s c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s u r l Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I ec lcu us re a l c l u I Pr c P a s u l Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Prec Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec alc al lc u ec r u l I al ulu s I Pr eca cul us I P reca alcu lus cu l e r u lu s I Pre cal culu s I Pr eca lcul lus sI P c P ec lcu us r ca ul s Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P a r l re Pr eca lcul us P ec lcu us I c Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec alc a ec lcu us r lu I re al ulu P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu s c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s re al ulu lc lus I r I Pre cal ulu I Pr eca cul s Pr ca cul s P ec lcu us Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec a ec lcu us r l Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu al a cu lus I P ec lc r us lu lu I P ec l c a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s re lu I a ul l r I Pre cal culu s I Pr eca lcul us Pr ca cul s P ec lcu us Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I ec lcu us re a l c l u I Pr c P a s u l Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Prec Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec alc a ec lcu us r lu I re al ulu P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu s c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s u r l Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus ec lcu us re a l c l u I Pr c P a s u l Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec ec lcu us re a l c l u I al r Pr ec alcu lus I Pre calc ulu s I Pre ecal cul u c P al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu s c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s u r l Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I P al lc r l re Pr eca ul us P ec cu us I c Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec alc a ec lcu us r lu I re al ulu P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu s c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s u r l Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I a r l Pr eca lcul us P ec lcu us Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec a ec lcu us r lu I re a l P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc ulus s re lu I a ul l r I Pre cal culu s I Pr eca lcul us Pr ca cul s I P ec lcu us ec lcu us re a l c l u I Pr c P a s u l Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus I Prec Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I P Prec alc a ec lcu us r lu I re al ulu P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre calc culu s lu I re alc ulu I Pre cal ul s sI P c cu us P r ca ul s Pr eca lcul us I P rec alcu lus Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus I a ec lcu us r lu I P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus I Pre c lu I P a u s I P reca lcu lus I P rec alc u r l Pr eca lcul us I I P rec alcu lus a ec lcu us r lu P ec l c al s cu lus I P rec alc ulus lu I a u s I P reca lcu lus r l Pr eca lcul us I ec lcu us P al cu lus I P rec lu I a s I P re c a l c u r l Pr eca lcul us ec lcu us al cu lus lu s

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Contents

Preface To the Student 1 Numbers and Notation 1.1 The Real Line . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . 1.2 Intervals . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . 1.3 Sets on the Plane . . . . Homework . . . . . . . 1.4 Neighbourhood of a point Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . iii iv 1 1 5 6 7 4 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 15 16 5 17 18 20 20 22 23 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 6 31 3.5 Reﬂexions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Behaviour of the Graphs of Functions Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 46 47 50 51 57 57 59 59 61 61 67 68 71 71 74 75 77 77 79 79 80 84 84 84 85 89 89 91 91 93 93 94 96 96 97 97 99 100 101

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2 Distance and Curves on the Plane 2.1 Distance on the Real Line . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Distance on the Real Plane . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Semicircles . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Linear Absolute Value Curves . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 Distance of a Point to a Line . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 Parabolas . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Hyperbolas . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Functions I: Assignment Rules 3.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . 3.2 Piecewise Functions . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . 3.3 Translations . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . 3.4 Distortions . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Functions II: Domains and Images 4.1 Natural Domain of an Assignment Rule Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Algebra of Functions . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Injections and Surjections . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polynomial Functions 5.1 Power Functions . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Afﬁne Functions . . . . . . . . 5.3 Quadratic Functions . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Roots . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Rufﬁni’s Factor Theorem Homework . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Graphs of Polynomials . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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33 33 37 38 A Complex Numbers 40 A.1 Arithmetic of Complex Numbers . . . . . . . 41 A.2 Equations involving Complex Numbers . . . 43 Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 45 B Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

Rational Functions and Algebraic Functions 6.1 Inverse Power Functions . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Rational Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Algebraic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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iii

Preface

There are very few good Calculus books, written in English, available to the American reader. Only [Har], [Kla], [Apo], [Olm], and [Spi] come to mind. The situation in Precalculus is even worse, perhaps because Precalculus is a peculiar American animal: it is a review course of all that which should have been learned in High School but was not. A distinctive American slang is thus called to describe the situation with available Precalculus textbooks: they stink! I have decided to write these notes with the purpose to, at least locally, for my own students, I could ameliorate this situation and provide a semi-rigorous introduction to precalculus. These notes are in constant state of revision. I would greatly appreciate comments, additions, exercises, ﬁgures, etc., in order to help me enhance them. I would also like to begin translating them into Spanish. Any help would be appreciated. David A. Santos

Legal Notice

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If I consider that you are asking the same questions too many times. 1 My doctoral adviser used to say “I said A. Questions of Understanding: I don’t get it! Admitting that you do not understand something is an act requiring utmost courage. etc. for example. I have missed out a minus sign or wrote P where it should have been Q. Again. are given in class. I wrote B. • Ask questions during the lecture.. the ideas linking a topic with another. rather than ill-digest multiple examples. Don’t be absent! • I encourage you to form study groups and to discuss the assignments. 1. No one likes to carry an error till line XLV because the audience failed to point out an error on line I. The motivation or informal ideas of looking at a certain topic. I meant C and it should have been D! iv . The best way to ask a question is something like: “How did you get from the second step to the third step?” or “What does it mean to complete the square?” Asseverations like “I don’t understand” do not help me answer your queries. • Try to understand a single example well. ask. • Start working on the distributed homework ahead of time. as well as gain conﬁdence by providing your insights and interpretations of a topic. Do it when there is still time to correct it! 2. take a fresh look at the notes of the lecture topic. but the approach presented here is at times unorthodox and ﬁnding alternative sources might be difﬁcult. Discuss among yourselves and help each other but don’t be parasites! Plagiarising your classmates’ answers will only lead you to disaster! • Once the lecture of a particular topic has been given. it is likely that many others in the audience also don’t. The order of the notes may not necessarily be the order followed in the class. seek help! I am here to help you! Tutoring can sometimes help. the worked-out examples. Here are more recommendations: • Read a section before class discussion. I will allow you time in the lecture to do so. Questions of Correction: Is that a minus sign there? If you think that. in particular. On the same vein. There are two main types of questions that you are likely to ask. and you will proﬁt from the comments of your classmates.To the Student These notes are provided for your beneﬁt as an attempt to organise the salient points of the course. and are to be used mostly to refer to central deﬁnitions and theorems. read the deﬁnitions. Don’t wait till the end of the class to point out an error. If at any stage you stumble in Algebra. but bear in mind that whoever tutors you may not be familiar with my conventions. and here you will not ﬁnd exercises. as they vary depending on class response and the topic lectured. it may be that you need extra help. The number of examples is minimal. other books may help. • Class provides the informal discussion.1 then by all means. These algebraic prerequisites would be difﬁcult to codify here. in which case we will settle what to do outside the lecture. if you feel you can explain a point to an inquiring classmate. They are a very terse account of the main ideas of the course. I am here to help! On the same vein. But if you don’t. Hence these notes are not a substitute to lectures: you must always attend to lectures. There is a certain algebraic ﬂuency that is necessary for a course at this level.

and a compass. The questions on assignments and exams will be posed in such a way that it will be of no advantage to have a graphing calculator. when graphing. As a guide. some needle thread. with one topic leading to another. Clearly outline your ideas.To the Student • Don’t fall behind! The sequence of topics is closely interrelated. However. you will need to provide algebraic/analytic/geometric support of your arguments. v • The use of calculators is allowed. outline major steps and write in complete sentences. • You will need square-grid paper. . When writing solutions. a ruler (preferably a T-square). you may try to emulate the style presented in the scant examples furnished in these notes. especially in the occasional lengthy calculations. • Presentation is critical.

. The inﬁnite closed interval {x ∈ R : x ≤ a}. b] ]a. .}. b[ [a.vi Notation ∈ ∈ ∀ ∃ ∅ P =⇒ Q P⇔Q N Z Q R C An ]a. The Real Numbers. The closed interval {x ∈ R : a ≤ x ≤ b}. . 3. an )|ak ∈ A}. There exists (Existential Quantiﬁer). The set of n-tuples {(a1 . Does not belong to. The open ﬁnite interval {x ∈ R : a < x < b}. 2. 3. The Natural Numbers {0. The semi-closed interval {x ∈ R : a ≤ x < b}. The Complex Numbers. −2. . . 2. 1. −1. The sum a1 + a2 + · · · + an−1 + an . . . a] k=1 ∑ ak n Belongs to. P implies Q. The Rational Numbers. . The inﬁnite open interval {x ∈ R : x > a}. a2 . Empty set. For all (Universal Quantiﬁer). b[ ]a. . The semi-open interval {x ∈ R : a < x ≤ b}. The Integers {. . P if and only if Q. . b] [a. . . −3. +∞[ ] − ∞. 1.}. . 0.

3 Deﬁnition A prime number is a natural number p > 1 whose only divisors are 1 and p. 7. 1.}2 by the symbol N. 5. .e.” If a does not belong to the set A. 17. for example. will be denoted by ∅. . pk be a list of primes. This integer is greater than 1 and so by Fact 4 it must have a prime divisor p. . We follow common European usage and include 0 among the natural numbers. Construct the integer n = p1 p2 · · · pk + 1. Observe that this is not true for subtraction and division. 11. .Chapter 1 Numbers and Notation This chapter introduces essential notation and terminology that will be used throughout these notes. The natural numbers allow us to count things. whose proof of the fact we now present. . That we have an inexhaustible source of primes has been known since Euclid. We have the following fact. 13. we stay within the natural numbers. We then say that the natural numbers enjoy closure within multiplication and addition. read “a is an element of A. 31. and they have the property that addition and multiplication is closed within them: that is. 29. p2 . . that is empty set. 2. that the set of primes is inﬁnite. 1 .1 The Real Line 1 Deﬁnition We will mean by a set a collection of well deﬁned members or elements. If a belongs to the set A. We have shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes.. since. 1. 6 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes. The ﬁrst few primes are 2. . we write a ∈ A. . 3. We denote the set of natural numbers {0. 19. ..” The set that has no elements. 5 Example The prime factorisation of 2002 is 2 · 7 · 11 · 13. . i. read “a is not an element of A. p2 . 4 Fact Any natural number greater than 1 can be factorised uniquely (except for the order of the factors) as a product of prime numbers. then we write a ∈ A. . .u 1 2 There is no agreement relating the choice. Observe that p must be different from any of p1 . Some use ⊂ to denote strict containment. 23. for which proof we refer the reader to any number theory book. Proof: Let p1 . but we will not need such subtleties in these notes. A subset is a sub-collection of a set. if we add or multiply two natural numbers. We denote that B is a subset of A by the notation B ⊆ A or sometimes B ⊂ A.1 2 Deﬁnition Let A be a set. . pk since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the pi . neither 2 − 7 nor 2 ÷ 7 are natural numbers.

for some relatively prime positive integers. . u r< 2 r+s is also a rational number and satisﬁes 2 The last theorem implies that however close two rational numbers might be. 1 7 Example Write the inﬁnitely repeating decimal 0.45454545 . that 2 is irrational8 . and then subtract these tails. The closure of multiplication and addition is retained by this extension and now we also have closure under subtraction. “and the different branches of Arithmetic–Ambition. .454545 . 0. of course. . Enter now in the picture the rational numbers. 6 “Reeling and Writhing.g. . . 8 Theorem Between any two different rational numbers there is another rational number. a Q for quotients. . and hence was assassinated by being drowned from a ship.123123123 . Proof: If r. 2 = . s are rational numbers with r < s. cancelling them out.” √ 7 Pythagoras lived approximately from 582 to 500 BC. 1. for any a ∈ Z. 0. √ √ a 2 were rational.5 So observe that 10x = 3. whereas the dextral side √ has an odd number of prime factors. . Notice that every integer is a rational number.” for we will demonstrate shortly that there are numbers which are not rational.}3 Chapter 1 of integers. −3. Z for the German word Z¨ hlen. ! The set of irrational numbers is R \ Q. meaning number.4 They are a the numbers of the form with a ∈ Z. the ancient Greeks thought that all numbers were the ratio of two integers. It can be shewn that b the rational numbers are precisely those numbers whose decimal representation either is ﬁnite (e. .345454545 . with the divisor distinct from zero. A legend says that the fact that 2 was irrational was secret carefully guarded by the Pythagoreans. . . 1000x = 345. 9 Theorem The number Proof: If √ 2 is irrational. This entails b a2 = 2b2 . we have gained the notion of positivity.). b a Observe that every rational number is a solution to the equation (with x as the unknown) bx − a = 0. a 0. Distraction. 2. The sinistral side has an even number of prime factors (including repetitions).345 = 0. as the quotient of two natural numbers. and hence 2 is irrational. . Solution: The trick is to obtain multiples of x = 0. b 4 3 . It is surprising. . to begin with. . b ∈ Z. −1. ”the Mock Turtle replied. . multiplication. .2 By appending the opposite (additive inverse) of every member of N to N we obtain the set Z = {. Up until the Pythagoreans7 .123 = 0. =⇒ 1000x − 10x = 342 =⇒ x = 342 19 = . commonly called fractions. the division of two integers. and Derision. or division. since = a. the strictly negative or zero. This is a contradiction to Fact 4 (unique factorisation). Ugliﬁcation. and hence introduces an ordering in the rational numbers by deﬁning a ≤ b if and only if b − a is positive. a 8 An irrational number is thus one that cannot be written as the quotient of two integers with b = 0. then their average r+s < s. . that is. −2.123) or is periodic (e. 6 These closure properties give us the following theorem. we can always ﬁt another rational number in between them. b = 0. which we denote by the symbol Q. One of them betrayed this secret.345454545 .. that we cannot “ﬁll up the space between two rational numbers with just rational numbers. u Appending the irrational numbers to the rational numbers we obtain the real numbers R. Also. . subtraction. that is.g. however. It was then discovered that the length of the hypothenuse of a √ right triangle having √ legs of unit length—which is 2 in modern notation—could not be represented as the ratio of two both integers. This last property allows us to divide the integers into the strictly positive. so that they have the same inﬁnite tail. 5 That this cancellation is meaningful depends on the concept of convergence. of which we may talk more later. 3. then we would have. 990 55 Upon reaching Q we have formed a system of numbers having closure for the four arithmetical operations of addition..

each real number can be viewed as a point on a straight line. there is a rational number r with √ < r < √ . which gives (x3 − 1)2 = 2. A further example is 5. then x3 = 2 + 1. Geometrically. n n n n n n n n 3 m is a rational number between x and y. as in ﬁgure 1.1. and it is easy to prove that 2r is an irrational number. The ﬁrst inequality is clear. Consider the rational number r = . u n 11 Corollary Between any two real numbers there is an irrational number.The Real Line Generalising Theorem 8 we have the following. Are there real numbers which are not algebraic? It wasn’t till the XIXth century when it was discovered that there were irrational numbers which were not algebraic. there is no largest rational number in the set {x ∈ Q : x2 < 2} √ √ since 2 is irrational and for any good rational approximation to 2 we can always ﬁnd a better one. A number u is an upper bound for a set of numbers A if for all a ∈ A we have a ≤ u. Observe that the rational numbers are not complete. 3 Solution: Work backwards: if x = √ √ 2 + 1. For the second inequality observe n n that. Let x. The real numbers have the following property. there must be a m 1 . This means that m > nx ≥ m − 1. which is a solution to the equation 5 n n−1 x − 3 = 0. We make the convention that we orient the real line with 0 as the origin. a number l is a lower bound for a set of numbers B if for all b ∈ B we have l ≤ b. These irrational numbers are called transcendental numbers. b a Let a < b be two real numbers. m m We claim that x < < y. 13 Axiom (Completeness of R) Any set of real numbers which is bounded above has a supremum. Any set of real numbers which is bounded below has a inﬁmum. Proof: 12 Example Prove that 3 √ 2 + 1 is algebraic. where m is the least natural number positive integer n such that n > y−x n with m > nx. since by choice x < . By Theorem 10. their inﬁnities are in a way “different” because they cannot be put into a one-to-one correspondence. In fact. Similarly. Any number which is a solution of an equation of the form a0 x + a1 x + · · · + an = 0 is called an algebraic number. The smallest such upper bound is called the supremum of the set A. in the XIXth century George Cantor proved that even though N and R are both inﬁnite sets. u √ √ 3 Observe that 2 is a solution to the equation x2 − 2 = 0. the positive numbers increasing towards the right from 0 and the negative numbers decreasing towards the left of 0. 10 Theorem Between any two real numbers there is a rational number. y be real numbers with x < y. For example. It was later shewn that numbers like π and e are transcendental. The largest such lower bound is called the inﬁmum of the set B. But 2 2 √ √ then a < 2r < b. Since there are inﬁnitely many positive integers. which is x6 − 2x3 − 1 = 0. again Proof: nx ≥ m − 1 and y − x > Thus m 1 1 m 1 1 m 1 =⇒ x > − and y > x + =⇒ y > − + = . which we enunciate as an axiom. .

3) (1.7) (1. b be positive real numbers. (+∞) + (+∞) = +∞ (−∞) + (−∞) = −∞ x + (+∞) = +∞ x + (−∞) = −∞ x(+∞) = +∞ if x > 0 x(+∞) = −∞ if x < 0 x(−∞) = −∞ if x > 0 x(−∞) = +∞ if x < 0 x =0 ±∞ ±∞ . which is smaller than any real number.2) (1. 0(±∞). from where the desired inequality follows. .1: The Real Line. √ √ ( a − b)2 ≥ 0.8) (1. for all real numbers x we have x2 ≥ 0. equality also follows if and only if a = b. and the object −∞. which is larger than any real number. Letting x ∈ R.4 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chapter 1 −∞ +∞ Figure 1. This simple fact gives us the following remarkable inequalities. Clearly. that is.6) (1.1) (1. and use the term strictly positive for a quantity > 0. Proof: Since the square of any real number is positive. (1. √ a − 2 ab + b ≥ 0.9) Observe that we leave the following undeﬁned: The square of every real number x is positive9 . u 9 We use the word positive to indicate a quantity ≥ 0. Then √ a+b ab ≤ 2 with equality if and only if a = b. Similarly with negative (≤ 0) and strictly negative (< 0). Expanding. 14 Theorem (Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality) Let a.5) (1.4) (1. we make the following conventions. We append the object +∞. ±∞ (+∞) + (−∞).

the sum of two irrationals giving an irrational number. The addition and multiplication of complex numbers a + bi and c + di. 22 Problem Describe explicitly the set {x ∈ Z : −13 ≤ x ≤ 15. xy ≤ 2 Thus their maximum product is 625. . where a. 20 Problem Write the inﬁnitely repeating decimal 0. a negative number—and considering the numbers of the form a + bi. 23 Problem (Inclusion-Exclusion) Let X be a ﬁnite set and let card (X) denote the number of elements of X. 2 whence the desired result follows upon rearrangement. Proof: By the Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality 1 1 · ≤ a b 1 a 1 +b . 21 Problem Compute (123456789)2 − (123456791)(123456787) mentally. .The Real Line 15 Corollary (Harmonic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality) Let a. if at all possible. we obtain the complex numbers C. the sum of two irrationals giving a rational number. By the Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality x+y √ = 25. 19 Problem Describe explicitly the set {x ∈ Z : x < 0.123123123 . as the quotient of two positive integers. Let x. Clearly. Then 1 a 5 √ 2 ≤ ab 1 +b with equality if and only if a = b. with a and b real numbers. the sum of two rationals giving an irrational number. In summary we have N ⊆ Z ⊆ Q ⊆ R ⊆ C. c. equality also follows if and only if a = b. x is divisible by 3} by listing its elements. is deﬁned thus (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i. the product of two irrationals giving an irrational number. the product of a rational and an irrational giving a rational number. (a + bi)(c + di) = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i. Prove that if A and B are ﬁnite sets then card (A ∪ B) = card (A) + card (B) − card (A ∩ B). b. the product of a rational and an irrational giving an irrational number. u 16 Example The sum of two positive real numbers is 50. y be these positive real numbers with x + y = 50. 18 Problem Describe the following sets explicitly by either providing a list of their elements or an interval. Homework 17 Problem Give examples. since xy ≤ 252 = 625. 1000 < x2 < 2003} by listing its elements. d are real numbers. {x ∈ R : x3 = 8} 3 {x ∈ R : |x| = 8} {x ∈ R : |x| < 4} {x ∈ Z : |x| < 4} {x ∈ R : |x| = −8} {x ∈ R : |x| < 1} {x ∈ Z : |x| < 1} {x ∈ Z : x2002 < 0} . Find their maximum product. √ Introducing the object i = −1—whose square satisﬁes i2 = −1. b be strictly positive real numbers. of the following. the product of two irrationals giving a rational number.123 = 0.

” The symbol ≈ means approximately. . c. Deduce now the arithmetic-mean-geometric-mean inequality for three positive real numbers. prove that a = b = c = d. β ≥ 0. b[ [a. Since there are inﬁnitely many decimals between two different real numbers. 3 and 4 but not necessarily in that order. then α +β +γ 3 αβ γ ≤ . How many among the 40 neither smoke nor chew? 25 Problem Prove that if a. and the symbol =⇒ . γ ≥ 0. +∞[ ] − ∞. 10 Interval Notation [a. 3 1.1: Intervals. b. We will often use the symbol ⇐⇒ for “if and only if”. “Hugging” is thus equivalent to including the endpoint. 28 smoke and 16 chew tobacco. In other words. “implies. and “repulsing” is equivalent to excluding the endpoint. prove that if α ≥ 0. are real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 = ab + bc + cd + da. b. b] ] − ∞. +∞[ [a. but in ]a. b. b] ]a. and if s < x < t. b[ ]a. Table 1. It is also known that 10 both smoke and chew. b] the brackets are “arms” “hugging” a and b. c are positive real numbers then (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ 8abc. then x ∈ I. b[ ] − ∞. Observe that we indicate that the endpoints are included by means of shading the dots at the endpoints and that the endpoints are excluded by not shading the dots at the endpoints. 10 It may seem like a silly analogy. intervals are those subsets of real numbers with the property that every number between two elements is also contained in the set. and d are 1. that is. 2. What is the largest possible value of ab + bc + cd + da? 28 Problem Prove that if r ≥ s ≥ t then r2 − s2 + t 2 ≥ (r − s + t)2 29 Problem Prove that Chapter 1 a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca) and that 2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 − 2ab − 2bc − 2ca = (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 .2 Intervals 30 Deﬁnition An interval I is a subset of the real numbers with the following property: if s ∈ I and t ∈ I. From time to time. we will also use the set theoretic notation below. +∞[ Set Notation {x ∈ R : a ≤ x ≤ b}11 {x ∈ R : a < x < b} {x ∈ R : a ≤ x < b} {x ∈ R : a < x ≤ b} {x ∈ R : x > a} {x ∈ R : x ≥ a} {x ∈ R : x < b} {x ∈ R : x ≤ b} R a a a a a a −∞ −∞ −∞ Graphical Representation b b b b +∞ +∞ b b +∞ Table 1. intervals with distinct endpoints contain inﬁnitely many members. 27 Problem The values of a. b[ the “arms” are repulsed.6 24 Problem Of 40 people. but think that in [a. c. b] ]a.1 shews the various types of intervals. d. 26 Problem If a.

D = [4. B = [ . 1 + 2 ] . 2]. Find C ∩ D. and D \C. . 5. A \ B = [ 1 − 3. is the set A ∪ B = {x : (x ∈ A) or (x ∈ B)}. 3.” See ﬁgure 1. √ √ √ π 34 Example Let A = [1− 3. 2. 9}. 5. B \ A = 1 + 2 . π ≈ 3. Find A ∪ B. is A \ B = {x : (x ∈ A) and (x ∈ B)}. e. A ∪ B = [ 1 − 3. This is read “A intersection B. 1[. 37 Problem Let C =] − 5. 6}. 2].4. −10[ A ∩ B = {1.Intervals 31 Deﬁnition The union of two sets A and B. then A ∩ B = [−10. 5. Then A ∪ B = {1.2: A ∪ B Figure 1.414. 2 2 35 Deﬁnition (Quantiﬁers) The symbol ∀ is read “for all” (the universal quantiﬁer).4: A \ B 32 Example Let A = {1. 6}. +∞[. 2. C \ D. d. Thus 2 √ √ √ √ π π A ∩ B = [ . B =] − ∞. A ∩ B. +∞[. and B = {1. and the symbol ∃ is read “there exists” (the existential quantiﬁer). o. π . Homework 36 Problem Let A = {a. u}. 7. f } and B = {a.142. 7. 1[. The difference of two sets A and B. The intersection of two sets A and B. 1+ 2]. C ∪ D.” See ﬁgure 1. π [.732. B \ A =] − ∞. 9}. 2 √ π 1 + 2 ≈ 2. Find C ∩ D. 5[. A \ B = [1. c. 38 Problem Let C =] − 5. [ . A ∪ B =] − ∞. 9}. 3[.3. b. This is read “A union B.3: A ∩ B Figure 1. This is read “A set minus B. 2]. 4. 4. and D \C. e. 6. A \ B and B \ A. 4.” See ﬁgure 1. C \ D. 7 A B A B A B Figure 1. D =] − 1. By approximating the endpoints. ≈ 1. 33 Example If A = [−10. π [ . is A ∩ B = {x : (x ∈ A) and (x ∈ B)}. To three decimal places 1− 3 ≈ −0. B \ A = {7. A \ B = {2. 5}. i. 3. 3.571. C ∪ D. 3.2.

. (−1. An . Notice that these sets are all different. −2} and B = {−1. y) of real numbers. (−1. −1). 2)}. −2 + √ √ 3[. y) of real numbers. A2 = {(−1. 2 − 1]. Figure 1. y) ∈ R2 : 1 < x < 3. and y is the ordinate. These two lines are the axes.3 Sets on the Plane 40 Deﬁnition Let A1 . (2. D C 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 −1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 4 3 2 1 −1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 4 3 2 1 −1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 G F B E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Figure 1. −2)}. 2). 2} then A × B = {(−1. . . (−2. (−2. . (2. ! In the particular case when all the A k are equal to a set A.7: Example 47. (2. 2). and D \C. We represent the elements of R2 graphically as follows. −2). √ 42 Example (−1. −1). Intersect perpendicularly two copies of the real number line. Figure 1. . even though some elements are shared. C \ D. an ) : ak ∈ Ak }. √ √ 43 Example (−1.5. −1). The horizontal axis is called the x-axis and the vertical axis is called the y-axis. (−1. the set of all ordered n-tuples whose elements belong to the given sets. Find C ∩ D. . 2) ∈ Z2 but (−1. (2. (−1. −1). −1).is the set of all ordered pairs (x. B × A = {(−1. It is therefore sufﬁcient to have two numbers x and y to completely characterise the position of a point P = (x. 2))}. Here x is the abscissa12 . which measures the vertical distance of our point to the origin. C ∪ D. Their point of intersection—which we label O = (0. (−2. 2) ∈ R × Z. (−2. . 41 Example If A = {−1. 2) ∈ Z × R but (−1. 44 Deﬁnition R2 = R × R—the real Cartesian Plane—. we write A1 × A2 × · · · × An = An .8: Example 48. A2 . −2)}.8 39 Problem Let C = [−1. −1). that is.5: Example 45. 45 Example Sketch the region R = {(x. 12 2 < y < 4}. D = [−0. 0)— is the origin. be sets. a2 . From the Latin linea abscissa or line cut-off. This manner of dividing the plane and labelling its points is called the Cartesian coordinate system. which measures the horizontal distance of our point to the origin. . . −2). −1). The Cartesian Product of these n sets is deﬁned and denoted by A1 × A2 × · · · × An = {(a1 . −1). Chapter 1 1.6: Example 46 A Figure 1. The points x and y are the coordinates of P. y) on the plane R2 . B2 = {(−1. . 2) ∈ Z2 . To each point P on the plane we associate an ordered pair P = (x.

y) ∈ R2 : x ≤ 3.B = (2.7. 1. A × B ×C ⊆ C3 .5 − 21 − 3 − 8 = 52. It is not static. The boundary lines are solid. Find the area.1. |y| ≥ 4} R3 = {(x.Neighbourhood of a point 9 Solution: The region is a square. to indicate that it continues to inﬁnity. but. let us consider the concept of “nearness. Notice that this sequence approaches 0 through values > 0. 3] × [−3. y) ∈ R : x ≤ 2} 2 51 Problem Let A = [−10. (0. Prove that there is no equilateral triangle all whose coordinates are lattice points. −9). 46 Example The region R = [1. this distance could be “far. 3) ∈ C × B ×C. y) ∈ R2 : y ≥ −3} R1 = {(x. 5. 0. Solution: Enclose quadrilateral ABCD in right △AED. The area [ABCD] of quadrilateral ABCD is thus given by [ABCD] = [AED] − [AEFB] − [FBCG] − [GCD] 1 1 (AE)(DE) − (FE)(FB + AE)− = 2 2 1 1 − (GF)(GC + FB) − (DG)(GC) 2 2 1 1 1 1 (13)(13) − (3)(13 + 1) − (2)(2 + 1) − (8)(2) = 2 2 2 2 = 84.” What does it mean for one point to be “near” another point? We could argue that 1 is near to 0. (0. 4). R2 = {(x.” “Nearness” is dynamic: it involves the ability of getting closer to a point with any desired degree of accuracy. y) ∈ R2 : |x| ≤ 3. B = (0. even this distance could be “far. y) ∈ R2 : x ≤ 3. B = {5.5 is closer to 0 than 1 is. 0. a point with integral coordinates. 0). |y| ≤ 4} R6 = {(x. 0. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 1. (0.. to indicate their inclusion. Answer the following true or false. 5. 5 ∈ A. C = (0. that is. . y) ∈ R2 : |x| ≤ 2.4 Neighbourhood of a point Before stating the main deﬁnition of this section. 11} and C =] − ∞. for some purposes. 47 Example The region R = {(x. 6. 53 Problem A lattice point is a point (x..8.” We could certainly see that 0. and D = (−8. . 3) ∈ A × B ×C. +∞[ is the inﬁnite half strip on the plane sketched in ﬁgure 1. y ≤ 4} 52 Problem True or false: (R \ {0})2 = R2 \ {(0. excluding its boundary. y) ∈ R2 : |x| ≤ 3. 3). 3) ∈ A × B ×C. 6 ∈ C. The upper boundary line is toothed.001. 2). R5 = {(x. FBCG. 5]. for some purposes.” Mentioning a speciﬁc number “near” 0. in square units.6. and right △GCD.5. The points in the sequence 0. A × B ×C ⊆ C × B ×C. y ≥ 4} R4 = {(x. 48 Example A quadrilateral has vertices at A = (5. but then again. where we have dashed the boundary lines in order to represent their exclusion. −5. like 1 or 0. y) ∈ Z2 .0001. This arbitrary precision is what will be the gist of our concept of “nearness. and draw lines parallel to the y-axis in order to form trapezoids AEFB.01. as in ﬁgure 1. Homework 49 Problem Sketch the following regions on the plane. get closer and closer to 0 with an arbitrary precision.5 fails in what we desire for “nearness” because mentioning a speciﬁc point immediately gives a “static” quality to “nearness”: once you mention a speciﬁc point. of quadrilateral ABCD. 6[. 50 Problem Find the area of △ABC where A = (−1. −1). 0)}. 4) and C = (1.5. |y| ≤ 2} is the 4 × 4 square sketched in ﬁgure 1. you could mention inﬁnitely many more points which are closer than the point you mentioned.

Their product is 2 · √ = 1. −41. ] − 5. c = d. 3 1 + . [5. d = a. i. A \ B = {b. approaches 0 from both above and below. −35. f . b = c. Notice that the deﬁnition of neighbourhood does not rule out the possibility that a may be an endpoint of the the interval. 0)} consists of the plane minus the origin. −2 + 3[. o. 0.. −44} 20 If x = 0. R2 \ {(0. −43. Therefore the number of people that neither smoke nor chew is 40 − 34 = 6. +∞[ √ √ √ √ 39 [−0. we may formulate our ﬁrst deﬁnition. 55 Deﬁnition A neighbourhood of a point a is an interval containing a. 54 Deﬁnition The notation x → a. +∞ Answers √ √ 17 √ this is impossible. c. Our interests will be mostly on arbitrarily small neighbourhoods of a point. √ √ √ take Their product is 1 · 2 = 2. Then 37 ] − 1. 6) √ √ √ √ take one irrational number to be 2 and the other to be 3.9. o. . −2. +∞[. 5 . read “x tends to a. (vi) ] − 1. √ b + c ≥ 2 bc. .. −39. 25 The result quickly follows upon multiplying the three inequalities 50 4. meaning that there are 34 people that either smoke or chew (or possibly both).10 Again. . Their sum is 2 2 which is also irrational. since the tails cancel out. 2 1 − .” means that x is very close.5[. but they “approach” 0 from the left. √ a + b ≥ 2 ab. −33. ] − 5. the sequence 1 + . (ii) {−2. 2 1 − . −3. 38 ∅. Their product is 0 · 2 = 0. 4[. (iii) ∅. −0. Their sum is 0. to a. e}. the points in the sequence 1 − . with an arbitrary degree of precision. then 1000x = 0. Schematically we have a diagram like ﬁgure 1. we obtain a = b. Then we want x2 − (x − 2)(x + 2) = x2 − (x2 − 4) = 4. 2}. (R \ {0})2 consists of the plane minus the axes. ] − 5. 5[.123123123 . . −38.5 square units. d. 2 − 1] 26 Transposing. c. −6. 1 1 1 1 (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − d)2 + (d − a)2 = 0.. This results in 41 123 = . 3}. 3) take one number to 1) √ √ to be 2 and the other − 2. [−1. −40. u}. 9. After this long preamble. 12. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Factoring. 3. −42. which proves the assertion. [−1. We write x → a+ (read “x tends to a from the right”) to mean that x approaches a through values larger than a and we write x → a− (read “x tends to a from the left”) we mean that x approaches a through values smaller than a. −36. 16 . 4) take the rational number √ be 1 and the irrational to be 2. 3[∪[4. 4 1 − . −34. 2 2 18 (i) {2}. 2 2 2 2 As the sum of positive quantities is zero only when the quantities themselves are zero. −37. B \ A = {i. Here x can approach a through values smaller or larger than a.. a2 − ab + b2 − bc + c2 − dc + d 2 − da = 0. Their product is 2 · 3 = 6. −1]. a+ −∞ | a a− Figure 1. 22 {−12. (viii) ∅ 19 {−32. ] − 5. 27 25 36 A ∪ B = {a. or a2 b2 b2 c2 c2 d2 d2 a2 − ab + + − bc + + − dc + + − da + = 0. 6.9: A neighbourhood of a. which is rational. 51 TFTFTTF 52 False. d. √ c + a ≥ 2 ca. 0. 2) take both numbers to be 2. (iv) ] − 4. 3[. e. 7) take one irrational number to √ √ 1 1 be 2 and the other to be √ . f }. A ∩ B = {a. 1. 15} 24 Let A denote the set of smokers and B the set of chewers. x= 999 333 21 Put x = 123456789. Once again. +∞[ card (A ∪ B) = card (A) + card (B) − card (A ∩ B) = 28 + 16 − 10 = 34. (vii) {0}. −9. [4. 8 − 1 . [−2 + 3. 5)√ the rational number to be 0 and the irrational to be 2. b. Chapter 1 are arbitrarily close to 0. (v) {−3.123123123 .5. −1. u} . 2. +∞[. 2 − 1]. 1[. 4 1 − . giving 1000x − x = 123.

|x| = The absolute value of a real number is thus the distance of that real number to 0. and by means of this distance formula. 2. and hence |x − y| is the distance between x and y on the real line.t are all real numbers. −|x| ≤ x ≤ |x|.2) (2.1) (2.5) (2. the linking of certain equations with certain curves on the plane. that of relating a graph to a formula.6) .4) (2. The absolute value of x—denoted by |x|—is deﬁned by −x x if x < 0.3) (2. |x − y| = |y − x| √ x2 = |x| |x|2 = |x2 | = x2 |x| ≤ t ⇐⇒ −t ≤ x ≤ t |x| ≥ t ⇐⇒ x ≤ −t or x ≥ t 57 Example Write without absolute value signs: √ | 3 − 2|. Thus the main object of these notes. √ √ √ || 7 − 5| − | 3 − 2|| Solution: We have 11 (t ≥ 0) (t ≥ 0) (2. Below are some properties of the absolute value.Chapter 2 Distance and Curves on the Plane The main objective of this chapter is to introduce the distance formula for two points on the plane. is partially answered. y.1 Distance on the Real Line 56 Deﬁnition Let x ∈ R. √ √ | 7 − 5|. Here x. if x ≥ 0.

Thus |1 − |1 + x|| = |1 − (−1 − x)| = |2 + x|.1.7) Proof: From 2. +∞[ x+2 x+1 −x + 3 x − 3 3x x+6 |x + 2| + |x + 1| − |x − 3| = −x − 6 Thus on ] − ∞. But since x < −2. giving the 3 spurious solution x = −1. x = −2 and x = 3. by addition. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ || 7 − 5| − | 3 − 2|| = | 7 − 5 − (2 − 3)| = | 7 + 3 − 5 − 2|. 60 Theorem (Triangle Inequality) Let (a. we have | 7 − 5| = 7 − 5. Thus we have R =] − ∞. and so x = . We decompose R into (overlapping) intervals with endpoints at the places where each of the expressions in absolute values vanish. this solution is spurious. Solution: The vanishing points for the terms are x = −1. we have | 3 − 2| = 2 − 3.38 > 5 + 2 and hence √ √ √ √ √ √ | 7 + 3 − 5 − 2| = 7 + 3 − 5 − 2. On [3. the solution set is −11. (2. Chapter 2 Solution: If x < −2 then 1 + x < −1 and hence |1 + x| = −(1 + x) = −1 − x. Since 5 7 ∈ [−2.12 √ √ √ since 2 > 1. √ √ √ √ √ √ since 7 > 5. 3 We will now prove some fundamental inequalities satisﬁed by absolute values. −1] [−1. But 7 + 3 > 4. −2] we need −x − 6 = 5 from where x = −11. −1] we need x − 2 = 5 meaning that x = 7. 59 Example Find all real solutions to |x + 1| + |x + 2| − |x − 3| = 5. u −|a| ≤ a ≤ |a| −|b| ≤ b ≤ |b| −(|a| + |b|) ≤ a + b ≤ (|a| + |b|).74 > 3. We conclude that |1 − |1 + x|| = −2 − x. −1] ∪ [−1. 3] −x − 2 −x − 1 −x + 3 x+2 −x − 1 −x + 3 x−2 x+2 x+1 [3. b) ∈ R2 . On [−1. We examine the sign diagram x∈ |x + 2| = |x + 1| = |x − 3| = ] − ∞. 3] we need 3x = 5. −1]. +∞[ we need x + 6 = 5. On [−2. . Upon assembling all this. 5 . x + 2 < 0 and so |2 + x| = −2 − x. 3] ∪ [3. by virtue of the above calculations. +∞[. Then |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b|. −2] ∪ [−2. to we obtain whence the theorem follows. −2] [−2. √ √ √ √ √ √ The question we must now answer is whether 7 + 3 > 5 + 2. 58 Example If x < −2 prove that |1 − |1 + x|| = −2 − x.

which we denote by the symbol R2 .2 Distance on the Real Plane We now turn our attention to the plane. to |x2 − 3x| = 2.Distance on the Real Plane 61 Corollary Let (a. as in ﬁgure 2. 68 Problem Find the solution set to the equation |2x|+|x−1|−3|x+ 2| = 1. 2 78 Problem Prove that min(a. u Homework 62 Problem Write without absolute values: | √ 3− √ |2 − 15| | 71 Problem If x < 0 prove that x − (x − 1)2 = 1 − 2x. if any. if any. 64 Problem Find all the real solutions to |5x − 2| = |2x + 1|. if any. B = (x2 . 75 Problem Find the real solutions. 67 Problem Find the solution set to the equation |x| + |x − 1| = 1. then |x + 3| − |x − 4| is constant. (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1 )2 .8) Proof: We have |a| = |a − b + b| ≤ |a − b| + |b|. to x2 − 2|x| + 1 = 0. Then 13 ||a| − |b|| ≤ |a − b| . The stated inequality follows from this. y2 ) on the Cartesian plane. (2. b) ∈ R2 . if any. as in the ﬁgure. to x2 − |x| − 6 = 0. 69 Problem Find the solution set to the equation |2x|+|x−1|−3|x+ 2| = −7. 73 Problem Find the real solutions. y1 ).1. to x2 = |5x − 6|. we can ﬁnd their Euclidean distance AB with the aid of the Pythagorean Theorem. b) = a + b + |a − b| . For AB2 = AC2 + BC2 . gives |b| − |a| ≤ |a − b|. translates into AB = This motivates the following deﬁnition. 70 Problem Find the solution set to the equation |2x|+|x−1|−3|x+ 2| = 7. Consider two points A = (x1 . 65 Problem Find all real solutions to |x − 2| + |x − 3| = 1. |b| = |b − a + a| ≤ |b − a| + |a| = |a − b| + |a|. 77 Problem Prove that max(a. Dropping perpendicular lines to C. Similarly. 66 Problem Find the set of solutions to the equation |x| + |x − 1| = 2. 72 Problem Find the real solutions. 63 Problem Write without absolute values if x > 2: |x − |1 − 2x||. 74 Problem Find the real solutions. b) = 2. 2 a + b − |a − b| . . giving |a| − |b| ≤ |a − b|. 76 Problem Prove that if x ≤ −3.

y). 4) and C = (1. . 3) = d (x. y1 ). (−3. 81 Example The point (x. 3) = d (x. Solution: Let (x. −x). 1) =⇒ (x + 1)2 + (y − 3)2 = (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 . (1. y).14 Chapter 2 79 Deﬁnition Let (x1 . 2) and (−3. (2. d (x. (x2 . B = (2. 4) =⇒ (x + 1)2 + (y − 3)2 = (x − 2)2 + (y − 4)2 . 1) is at distance Solution: √ 11 from the point (1. y). y2 ) = (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 .1: Distance between two points.32. The Euclidean distance between them is given by d (x1 . 4x − 4y = −8. d (x. 2 2 ⇐⇒ (x − 1)2 + (1 + x)2 (x − 1)2 + (1 + x)2 2x2 + 2 = = = = 82 Example Find the point equidistant from A = (−1. y2 ) be points on the Cartesian plane. y1 ). y) be the point sought. Then d (x. Solution: d (−1. √ √ 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6. 3). y). or 6x + 2y = 10. 1). −8) = (−1 − (−3))2 + (2 − 8)2 = B |y2 − y1 | A |x2 − x1 | C Figure 2. (x2 . √ 11 √ 11 11 11.9) 80 Example Find the Euclidean distance between (−1. (2. −x) ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ √ √ 3 2 3 2 This yields x = − or x = . 2). (−1. (−1. 2x + 1 − 6y + 9 = −2x + 1 − 2y + 1. This gives the two systems of linear equations 2x + 1 − 6y + 9 = −4x + 4 − 8y + 16. 1). (1. Find the possible values of x. 8).

94 Problem A ﬂy starts at the origin and goes 1 unit up. at a rate of b > 0 units per second. b) with respect to: (i) the x-axis. 2 2 . −1) and wants to travel to the point (2. ( . (x2 . (1. a) and (b. 84 Example Find the coordinates of the point (x. (iii) the origin. −3) . 87 Problem Find the distance between the points (a2 +a. Thus 1+x 2+y . 96 Problem Find the coordinates of the point symmetric to (−a. y1 ). b). 4). −5). y). ﬁnd the distance between the points (a. 93 Problem Find the coordinates of the point which is three-quarters of the way from (2. 6). 91 Problem Find the coordinates of the point symmetric to (a. 0). b + a). at a rate of a > 0 units per second and simultaneously. 2 x1 + x2 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 T2 with vertices at (x1 . Solution: The point (−1. Which route should the bug take in order to minimise its time? The answer is not a straight line from (−1. Homework 85 Problem Find d (−2. Starting at time t = 0. the car at point B travels upwards at constant speed. 4) is the midpoint of the line segment joining (1. 1 ≤ k ≤ n. 1/4 unit down. then k=1 ∑ n a2 + b2 ≥ k k k=1 ∑ ak n 2 + k=1 ∑ bk n 2 . −11). By considering the similar triangles T1 with vertices at (x1 . ad inﬁnitum. 1). In what coordinates does it end up? 95 Problem Find the coordinates of the point which is a quarter of the way from (a. except in quadrant II. 4). y2 ) is x1 + x2 y1 + y2 . ). 92 Problem Find the coordinates of the point which is a quarter of the way from (2. 1)! 90 Problem Find the point equidistant from (−1. b) with respect to the point (b. whence x = −3 and y = 6. y1 ). we motivate the following deﬁnition. b2 +b) and (b + a. b). 1/8 unit left. 0). then (a + c)2 + (b + d)2 ≤ a2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 . 98 Problem Prove the following generalisation of Minkowski’s Inequality. (x2 . 2) with respect to the point (−1. −11). 0) and (0. b1 b2 bn . b].Distance on the Real Plane 3 11 This system solves to (x. 3) to (14. Equality occurs if and only if a1 a an = 2 = ··· = . In each quadrant. y1 ). it moves with unit speed. b) to (b.. 1/2 unit right. 0) and an identical car is located at point (x. How many units apart are these cars after t > 0 seconds? 89 Problem A bug starts at the point (−1. 2 2 2 83 Deﬁnition The midpoint of the line segment joining the points (x1 . 86 Problem If a and b are real numbers. ( . y1 ). a). 4 4 15 a+b Given an interval [a. 97 Problem (Minkowski’s Inequality) Prove that if (a. the car at point A travels downwards at constant speed. and on the axes. (x2 . 1/16 unit up. y) = ( . −1) to (2. If (ak . ). y1 ). 1/2). its midpoint is . a). (4. (c. bk ) ∈ (R \ {0})2 . y) = (−3. 2) and (x. y2 ). (ii) the y-axis. where it moves with half the speed. 3) to (14. 2 2 = (−1. The point sought is therefore (x. 88 Problem A car is located at point A = (−x. etc. Equality occurs if and only if ad = bc. d) ∈ R2 . y) that is symmetric to the point (1.

Shew that exactly one of S2 . 2) and (−1. Thus (−7. We will see that the equation of a circle on the plane is a consequence of the distance formula 2. (x0 . 8) is the upper-most. Here is a way to draw a circle on sand: using a string. y0 ) has equation (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = R2 . Sn . a2 . . S3 . This motivates the following. Observe that the points (−1 ± 6. Also. . y0 ) (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = R = R . is an integer.3 Circles We now study our ﬁrst curve on the plane: the circle. y) belongs to circle of radius R and centre (x0 . 102 Example Rewrite the equation of the following circle in canonical form. (5. −4) is the lower-most. whose radius is the length of the string. y0 ) ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ giving the desired result. 100 Theorem A circle on the plane with radius R and centre (x0 . k 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < an < 17. graph this circle d (x. y).10 is a circle. Proof: The point (x.9. y0 ) and radius R. The circle is shewn in ﬁgure 2. . . . the graph any equation of the form 2. . . 2. .2: A circle with centre (x0 . (−1. (2.16 99 Problem (AIME 1991) Let P = {a1 . 2) and radius 6 is (x + 1)2 + (y − 2)2 = 36. y0 ) Figure 2. (x0 .3. . Tighten up the string now and trace the path followed by the other extreme of the string. and (−1. You now have a circle. tie it to what you wish to be the centre of the circle. u 101 Example The equation of the circle with centre (−1. . 2) is the left-most point on the circle. and use it to ﬁnd the centre and the radius of the circle: x2 + y2 − 12x − 4y − 9 = 0. . Notice then that every point on the circumference is at a ﬁxed distance from the centre. where the minimum runs over all such partitions P. y0 ). = R2 R .10) called the canonical equation for a circle of radius R and centre (x0 . and ﬁnd which one it is. 2 ± 6) are on the circle. Conversely. an } be a collection of points with Consider P Chapter 2 Sn = min ∑ n k=1 (2k − 1)2 + a2 . 2) is the right-most.

(−4. Find the equation of this circle and graph it. −1). Solution: The centre of the circle lies on the midpoint of the diameter. To ﬁnd the radius. we observe that (4. −1). and (6. 9) are on the circle. 2 2 = (1. Solution: The centre (h. The centre of the circle is thus (h. 2). = 2 2 + y− 1 = . 2 Homework .3: Example 101. say. −5). to (0. The equation of the circle is ﬁnally (x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = 25. 3). thus the centre is equation of the circle is (x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = R2 . 2) and the radius is 7. Figure 2. 1) and (1. The (h − 1)2 + (k − 1)2 = (h − 1)2 + (k − 2)2 . k) = ( . −5).4 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −1 −2 −3 x2 − 12x + 36 + y2 − 4y + 4 = 9 + 36 + 4 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Figure 2. 1). ). (6. (4. 4). 2). k) of the circle is the point equidistant to the given points. −5) and (4. Observe that the points (−2. The points (−1. 103 Example A diameter of a circle has endpoints (−2. 3 −1 + 2 3 2 2 √ 2 . 104 Example Find the equation of the circle passing through (1. −1). (0. thus (4 − 1)2 + (3 + 1)2 = R2 =⇒ R = 5. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2.Circles Solution: We complete squares: 17 or (x − 6)2 + (y − 2)2 = 49. (13. 1): 1 2 The equation sought is ﬁnally x− 1 2 2 2 −2 + 4 −5 + 3 .4: Example 102. (1. 3) lies on the circle. (6. The centre is at (6. and (1. The radius 2 2 2 2 of the circle is the distance from its centre to any point on the circle. which can be found by solving (h − 1)2 + (k − 1)2 = h2 + (k − 1)2 . −6) all lie on the circle. 3). and the second equation gives k = . 2). 3 1 3 1 The ﬁrst equation gives h = .

2). Hence x2 + y2 = 1.4 Semicircles Solving for y in (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = R2 . 106 Problem A diameter AB of a circle has endpoints A = (1. 115 Example Sketch y = − 4 − x2 Solution: Squaring. This is the equation of a circle with centre at (−1. y) ∈ R2 |(x − 2)2 + y2 ≤ 1}. y2 = 4 − x2 . Prove. 0) and radius 2. 0) and (−a. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2. 111 Problem Find the canonical equation of the circle passing through (−1. y) ∈ R2 |x2 + y2 ≤ 9}. Why must we impose a2 > 4b? 109 Problem Let R1 = {(x. Also. 3). 108 Problem Rewrite the following circle equations in canonical form and ﬁnd their centres C and their radius R. R5 \ R1 R1 \ R6 R2 ∪ R3 ∪ R6 Chapter 2 x2 + 4x + y2 − 2y = 20. Draw the circles. ! The equation of the upper semicircle in example 115 is y = 4 − x2 . Sketch the following regions. y) ∈ R2 ||x| ≥ 2. Shew that the intersection of this circle with the x-axis are the roots of the equation x2 + ax + b = 0. 2) and radius 3. The original equation describes the lower semicircle (since y ≤ 2). x2 + 4x + y2 − 2y = 5. x2 + 2x + 1 + (y − 2)2 = 9 =⇒ (x + 1)2 + (y − 2)2 = 9. 2) and B = (3. b). Construct a circle with diameter at the points (1. we obtain y = y0 ± R2 − (x − x0 )2 . moreover. 15 + 4y2 − 12y = 0 4x2 + 4x + √ 2 √ 3x2 + 2x 3 + 5 + 3y2 − 6y 3 = 0 110 Problem Find the equation of the circle passing through (−1. ﬁnd at least four points belonging to each circle. R6 = {(x.6. 114 Example Sketch the curve y = 2 − 8 − x2 − 2x Solution: We have y − 2 = − 8 − x2 − 2x. 0) and radius 1. 2. 2) and centre at (1. R3 = {(x. 1). This is the equation of a circle with centre at (0.7. y2 = 1 − x2 . R4 = {(x. Hence x2 + y2 = 4. 1) and passing through (1. The original equation describes the upper semicircle (since y ≥ 0). |y| ≤ 3}. c be real numbers with a2 > 4b. −2). and (0. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2. |y| ≥ 2}. 2) and (−2. The original equation describes the lower semicircle (since y ≤ 0). by completing squares. Hence. y) ∈ R2 |x2 + (y + 1)2 ≤ 1}. Squaring. (y − 2)2 = 8 − x2 − 2x. 113 Example Sketch the curve y = 1 − x2 Solution: Squaring. Find the equation of this circle.18 105 Problem Prove that the points (4. x2 + y2 − 2y = 35. 112 Problem Let a.5. that these two points are diametrically opposite. b. 4). −2) and radius 5. −6) lie on the circle with centre at (1. R5 = {(x. y) ∈ R2 ||x| ≤ 3. This is the equation of a circle with centre at (0. R2 = {(x. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2. 2x2 − 8x + 2y2 = 16. The choice of the + sign gives the upper half of the circle (the upper semicircle) and the − sign gives the lower semicircle. y) ∈ R2 |(x + 2)2 + y2 ≤ 1}. 2). 107 Problem Find the equation of the circle with centre at (−1. R1 \ (R2 ∪ R3 ∪ R4 ). . (1.

118 Example Find the equation of the semicircle depicted in ﬁgure 2. we obtain x = x0 ± R2 − (y − y0 )2 . y y 3 2 1 x −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 1 2 3 x Figure 2. The original equation describes thus the left semicircle (since x ≤ 1).9: Example 117 Figure 2.11: Example 118.6: Example 114 Figure 2. 0) and radius 2. This is the equation of a circle with centre at (1. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2. Figure 2.8: Example 116 117 Example Sketch the curve x = 1 − Solution: We have x = 1− 8 − 2y − y2 8 − 2y − y2 =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ x − 1 = − 8 − 2y − y2 (x − 1)2 = 8 − 2y − y2 (x − 1)2 + y2 + 2y = 8 (x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9.10: Example 118. ! The equation of the left semicircle in example 116 is x = − 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 4 − y2 . 19 The choice of the + sign gives the right half of the circle and the − sign gives the left semicircle. This is the equation of a circle with centre at (0. .10. 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 Figure 2.9.7: Example 115 Figure 2. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2. 116 Example Sketch the curve x = 4 − y2 Solution: Squaring. The original equation describes the right semicircle (since x ≥ 0). −1) and radius 3.5: Example 113 Figure 2. Hence x2 + y2 = 4.Semicircles Solving for x in (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = R2 . x2 = 4 − y2 .8.

where a. x2 − x1 Figure 2.20 Solution: Complete the semicircle to a full circle.14: Theorem 121. any equation of the form y = ax + b. A vertical line on the plane is a set of the form {(x. Conversely. b are ﬁxed real numbers has as a line as a graph. a horizontal line on the plane is a set of the form {(x.5 Lines 120 Deﬁnition Let a and b be real number constants. y) ∈ R2 : y = b}. we solve for x and take the minus sign on the square root: (x + 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9 =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ The equation sought is thus x = −2 − 9 − (y + 1)2 . as in ﬁgure 2. (x2 . Figure 2. (x + 2)2 = 9 − (y + 1)2 x + 2 = − 9 − (y + 1)2 x = −2 − 9 − (y + 1)2 .11. y2 ) (x. where m and k are real number constants. y1 ) x − x1 Figure 2.13: A horizontal line.12: A vertical line. Chapter 2 Homework 119 Problem Sketch the following curves. y) y − y1 (x1 . y) ∈ R2 : x = a}. Similarly. y= 16 − x2 x = − 12 − 4y − y2 x = −5 − 12 + 4y − y2 x = − 16 − y2 2. y2 − y1 . The equation of the circle is (x + 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9. Since this is a left semi-circle. 121 Theorem The equation of any non-vertical line on the plane can be written in the form y = mx + k.

that is. y1 ). ax2 + b). Figure 2. Q. Since x2 − x1 y = m(0) + k. 10) and (6. Consider now a line non-parallel to any of the axes. y1 ) and (x2 .15: Example 123. Q = d Q. R are arbitrary. 123 Example By Theorem 121. ax1 + b). y2 ). this means that any three points on the graph of the equation y = ax + b are collinear. This means that the points P. Q = (x2 . which ﬁnishes the proof of the theorem. the line makes a 45◦ angle with the x-axis. Find its equation and draw it. (x2 . (x2 − x1 )2 + (ax2 − ax1 )2 = |x2 − x1 | 1 + a2 = (x2 − x1 ) 1 + a2 . See ﬁgure 2. and let P = (x1 . y2 − y1 x2 − x1 x − x1 y2 − y1 x2 − x1 + y1 . . and R = (x3 . −5). We will shew that d P. Q + d Q. upon rearrangement. Q + d Q. y). (x1 . and bisects quadrants I and III. 21 Conversely. then it is of the form y = b. k = −x1 x2 − x1 y2 − y1 x2 − x1 + y1 . y1 ) and (x2 . R . Q = from where d P.Lines Proof: If the line is parallel to the x-axis. R = d P. R = d P.15 124 Example A line passes through (−3. (x3 − x2 )2 + (ax3 − ax2 )2 = |x3 − x2 | 1 + a2 = (x3 − x2 ) 1 + a2 . where b is a constant and so we may take m = 0 and k = b. the quantity k is the y-intercept of the line joining (x1 . y2 ). and let (x. u 122 Deﬁnition The quantity m = y2 − y1 in Theorem 121 is the slope or gradient of the line joining (x1 . Then d P. and so this graph is a line. consider real numbers x1 < x2 < x3 . as in ﬁgure 2. and R lie on a straight line. if it is horizontal. R follows. gives y= and so we may take m= y2 − y1 . Since the points P. By similar triangles we have y − y1 y2 − y1 = .16: Example 124. (x3 − x1 )2 + (ax3 − ax1 )2 = |x3 − x1 | 1 + a2 = (x3 − x1 ) 1 + a2 . the equation y = x represents a line with slope 1 and passing through the origin. y2 ) be three given points on the line. ax3 + b) be on the graph of the equation y = ax + b. R = d P.14. Since y = x. Q. x2 − x1 x − x1 which. Figure 2.

3).22 Chapter 2 Solution: The equation is of the form y = mx + k. whence k = 5.16. 0). we substitute either point.17: Problem 126. 1) and (5. Therefore u − (−1) −1 − (−2) = 4−1 1 − (−3) which simpliﬁes to the equation u+1 1 = .18: Problem 127. say the ﬁrst. −a) lies on the line −2x + 3y = 30. 5)). 3 3 3 5 ﬁrst locate the y-intercept (at (0. b) ∈ R2 . Since the slope is − . 3). 5) and (3. −1) and (−3. 3 4 1 y Solving for u we obtain u = − . 130 Problem Find the equation of the straight line joining (3. 3 Connect now the points (0. (1. u). b) and (b. (5. To ﬁnd m we compute the ratio m= 10 − (−5) 5 =− . Figure 2. (3. (0. 128 Problem What is the slope of the line x y + = 1? a b 129 Problem If the point (a. −1). The graph appears in ﬁgure 2. 0)) and three to the right (to (3. any choice of pairs of points used to compute the gradient must yield the same quantity. To draw the graph. a). Solution: Since the points lie on the same line. To do so. ﬁnd the value of a. 3 5 5 5 into y = − x + k obtaining 10 = − (−3) + k.17 below can be written in the form y = mx + b for suitable real numbers m and b. bounded by horizontal and vertical segments with vertices at (0. 0). 4 l3 l1 3 2 1 x l4 l2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 2. 127 Problem (AHSME 1994) Consider the L-shaped region in the plane. 1) and (−5. determine which line has the largest value of m and which line has the largest value of b. (3. We must ﬁnd the slope and the y-intercept. Find the equation of the straight line joining (a. 125 Example Three points (4. Find the gradient of the line that passes through the origin and divides this area exactly in half. The equation sought is thus y = − x + 5. −2) lie on the same line. l3 . 0)). −3 − 6 3 5 Thus the equation is of the form y = − x + k and we must now determine k. l2 . 1). Find u. and l4 in ﬁgure 2. 0). Homework 126 Problem Assuming that the equations for the lines l1 . move ﬁve units down (to (0. . 131 Problem Let (a.

We now compute the y-intercept. R2 = {(x. 0) and parallel to the line joining (−1. m) and the line y = m1 x meets this same vertical line at (1. . −1 − 2 The line we seek is of the form y = −2x + k. . 138 Theorem Let y = mx + k be a line non-parallel to the axes. 1 Upon simplifying we gather that mm1 = −1. Now. If the line y = m1 x + k1 is perpendicular to y = mx + k then 1 m1 = − . Since we may translate lines without affecting the angle between them. 133 Problem The points (1. 137 Example Find the equation of the line passing through (4. 2. y) ∈ R2 |y ≤ 1 − x}. −4). By the Pythagorean Theorem (m − m1 )2 = (1 + m2 ) + (1 + m2 ). we assume without loss of generality that both y = mx + k and y = m1 x + k1 pass through the origin. a2 ) and (b. y) ∈ R2 |y ≥ x + 2}. Sketch the following regions.19: Theorem 138.6 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines 136 Deﬁnition Two lines are parallel if they have the same slope. m) (1. 4) lie on a line with gradient m. Find m.19). m). Solution: First we compute the slope of the line joining (−1. R1 = {(x. The equation sought is ﬁnally y = −2x + 8. m1 ) y = m1 x Figure 2. 0).Parallel and Perpendicular Lines 132 Problem Find the equation of the line that passes through (a. Find the equation of this vertical line. −4): m= 2 − (−4) = −2. using the fact that the line must pass through (4. This entails solving 0 = −2(4) + k. whence k = 8. which proves the assertion. m1 ) (see ﬁgure 2. 134 Problem Consider the following regions on the plane. 0). u y = mx • • (1. (1. m Proof: Refer to ﬁgure 2. y) ∈ R2 |y ≤ 1 + x}. R1 \ R2 R2 \ R1 R1 ∩ R2 ∩ R3 R2 \ (R1 ∪ R2 ) 23 135 Problem A vertical line divides the triangle with vertices (0. the line y = mx meets the vertical line x = 1 at (1. giving thus k = k1 = 0. 1) and (9. b2 ). R3 = {(x. 2) and (2. (2. 2) and (2.19. 1) in the plane into two regions of equal area.

We ﬁnd the y-intercept by solving 0 = + k. 3 The line sought is thus L2/3 : 4 6 or y = x + . Solution: The slope of the line joining (−1. −4) is −2. Determine t so that the Lt be perpendicular to the line −5y = 3x − 1. 2) lies on the line Lt then we have 2 (4 − t)(2) = (t + 2)(1) + 6t =⇒ t = . −4). 4−t 5 In this case we need 7 t +2 5 = =⇒ 5(4 − t) = 3(t + 2) =⇒ t = . 2 140 Example For a given real number t. The slope of any line perpendicular to it m1 = − 1 1 = . b) belonging to every line Lt regardless of the value of t? Solution: If the point (1. m 2 4 x The equation sought has the form y = + k. 0) and perpendicular to the line joining (−1. Determine t so that the Lt be parallel to the line −5y = 3x − 1. In this case 0 = (4 + 2)x + 24 =⇒ x = −4. 2) and (2.24 Chapter 2 139 Example Find the equation of the line passing through (4. Is there a point (a. associate the straight line Lt with the equation Lt : (4 − t)y = (t + 2)x + 6t. Determine t so that the point (1. The slope of Lt is t +2 . Determine t so that the Lt be parallel to the x-axis and determine the equation of the resulting line. The equation of 2 2 x the perpendicular line is thus y = − 2. Determine t so that the Lt be parallel to the y-axis and determine the equation of the resulting line. whence k = −2. 2) and (2. 2) lies on the line Lt and ﬁnd the equation of this line. In this case (4 − (−2))y = −12 =⇒ y = −2. 5 5 We need t + 2 = 0 =⇒ t = −2. 4−t 3 4 . Therefore we need 5 t +2 3 = − =⇒ −3(4 − t) = 5(t + 2) =⇒ t = −11. 4−t 2 2 2 (4 − )y = ( + 2)x + 6 3 3 3 3 and the slope of the line −5y = 3x − 1 is − . We need 4 − t = 0 =⇒ t = 4.

1). establishing the theorem. Find the equation of the line passing through (a.20: Problem 149. if L1 and L2 must pass through (1. ) is the midpoint of (a. 0) and normal to the line joining (1. −1). 149 Problem Find the equation of the line l in ﬁgure 2.20 given that line l ′ is perpendicular to it. a) are at equal distances from the line y = x. 145 Problem Let a. Lt passes through (1. ﬁnd an t satisfying the stated conditions. Lt is parallel to the x-axis. Lt is parallel to the line of equation 3x − 2y − 6 = 0. b) and perpendicular to the x y line − = 1. 1). a) is symmetric about the line y = x to the point (a. a2 ) and (b. The line joining (b. To verify this observe that (4 − t)(−2) = (t + 2)(−4) + 6t. b). 6). a) to (a. 2) and (−3. b) and parallel to the line − = 1. b) ∈ (R \ {0})2 . associate the straight line Lt having equation (2t − 1)x + (3 − t)y − 7t + 6 = 0. a b 146 Problem Find the equation of the line passing through (12. b) and (b. 141 Theorem The point (b. But( . −1). 147 Problem Find the equation of the line passing through (12. b2 ). a). 143 Problem Let (a. which means that 2 2 2 (a.Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Yes. regardless of the value of t. 150 Problem For any real number t. This line is perpendicular to the line y = x and meets a+b a+b a+b it when x = −x + a + b. or x = = y. 0). b) and (b. −2). b) is y = −x + a + b. Find the equation of the line x y passing through (a. 0) and parallel to the line joining (1. Homework 142 Problem Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line 8x − 2y = 6 and passing through (5. u Proof: y 25 (−3. Find the equations of the lines L1 parallel to L and L2 normal to L. 148 Problem Consider the line L passing through (a. Lt passes through the origin (0. 2) and (−3. 6). In each of the following cases. Lt is parallel to the y-axis. b be strictly positive real numbers.4) 3 x 2 l′ l Figure 2. a b 144 Problem Find the equation of the straight line normal to the line 8x − 2y = 6 and passing through (5. the obvious candidate is (−4. From above. 5. .

The graph appears in ﬁgure 2. Lt is parallel to the x-axis. +∞[ 1−x −x − 3 1−x x+3 4 x−1 x+3 2x + 2 |x − 1| + |x + 3| = −2x − 2 . 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 2.23: Example 154. Is there a point (x0 . 4 Is there a point (x0 . Solution: For x + 3 ≥ 0 =⇒ x ≥ −3 we have y = x + 3 + 2 = x + 5 and for x < −3 we have y = −(x + 3) + 2 = −1 − x. 155 Example Draw the graph of the equation y = |x − 1| + |x + 3|. 154 Example Draw the graph of the equation y = |x + 3| + 2. We make a sign diagram as follows. 1] [1. y0 ) belonging to Lt no matter which real number t be chosen? 152 Problem Shew that the four points A = (−2. The graph appears in ﬁgure 2.23. Solution: The quantities in absolute values vanish for x = 1 and x = −3. 3). x∈ |x − 1| = |x + 3| = ] − ∞. This gives the curve depicted in ﬁgure 2. B = (4. 0).7 Linear Absolute Value Curves To draw the graph of the absolute value curve y = |x| we simply draw the line y = x for x ≥ 0 and the line y = −x for x < 0. Figure 2. Lt is parallel to the y-axis. and D = (−1. Chapter 2 Lt has gradient −2. Figure 2. y0 ) belonging to Lt no matter which real number t be chosen? 151 Problem For any real number t. 1 Lt is normal to the line of equation y = − x − 5. 3) form the vertices of a rectangle. 1).22.26 Lt is normal to the line of equation y = 4x − 5. 153 Example Draw the graph of the equation y = |2x − 1|.22: Example 153. 2. C = (5. Solution: For 2x − 1 ≥ 0 =⇒ x ≥ 1/2 we have y = 2x − 1 and for x < 1/2 we have y = 1 − 2x. Lt is parallel to the line of equation x − 2y − 6 = 0.21: Absolute value y = |x|.21. associate the straight line Lt having equation (t − 2)x + (t + 3)y + 10t − 5 = 0. In each of the following cases. In curves with more than one absolute value term. −3] [−3. Lt passes through (−2. −2). ﬁnd an t and the resulting line satisfying the stated conditions. the following tabular method might facilitate computations.

Distance of a Point to a Line

27

Thus for x ∈] − ∞; −3], y = −2x − 2, for x ∈ [−3; 1], y = 4, and for x ∈ [1; +∞[, y = 2x + 2. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2.24. 156 Example Draw the graph of the equation y = |x + 2| − 2|x − 3|. Solution: The quantities in absolute values vanish for x = −2 and x = 3. We make a sign diagram as follows. x∈ |x + 2| = |x − 3| = ] − ∞; −2] [−2; 3] [3; +∞[ −x − 2 3−x x+2 3−x 3x − 4 x+2 x−3 −x + 8

|x + 2| − 2|x − 3| = x − 8

**Thus for x ∈] − ∞; −3], y = −2x − 2, for x ∈ [−3; 1], y = 4, and for x ∈ [1; +∞[, y = 2x + 2. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 2.25.
**

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −7−6−5−4−3−2−1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −7−6−5−4−3−2−1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Figure 2.24: Example 155.

Figure 2.25: Example 156.

Homework

157 Problem Draw the graphs of the following equations. y = 3 − |x + 2| y = |x + 2| y = |x + 1| − |x − 1| y = |x − 1| + |x| + |x + 1| y = |x − 1| − |x| + |x + 1| y = |x − 1| + x + |x + 1| y = |x + 3| + 2|x − 1| − |x − 4|

y = 2|x + 2|

y = |x − 1| + |x + 1|

y = |x − 1| − |x + 1|

**2.8 Distance of a Point to a Line
**

158 Theorem (Distance between a point and a line) Let L : y = mx + k be a ﬁxed line on the plane and let P = (x0 , y0 ) be a point not on L. Then the distance d L, P is given by |x0 m + k − y0 | √ 1 + m2 (2.11)

Proof: If the line has inﬁnite gradient, then the line is of the form x = c for a constant c, and clearly d L, P = |x0 − c|.

28 If m = 0, then L is parallel to the x-axis and clearly d L, P = |y0 − k|,

Chapter 2

which agrees with the theorem. Suppose now that m = 0. The line L has gradient m and any line perpendicular to 1 it has gradient − . The distance from P to L is the length of the line segment joining P to the intersection point m (x1 , y1 ) of the line L1 perpendicular to L and passing through P. Now, it is easy to see that L1 has equation x0 1 L1 : y = − x + y0 + , m m and so, L and L1 intersect at x1 = Therefore d L, P = d (x0 , y0 ), (x1 , y1 ) = = = = = proving the theorem. u 159 Example Find the distance between the line L : 2x − 3y = 1 and the point (−1, 1). 2 1 Solution: The equation of the line L can be rewritten in the form L : y = x − . Using Theorem 158, we have 3 3 √ 1 2 | − 3 − 1 − 3 | 6 13 = . d L, P = 13 1 + ( 2 )2

3

y0 m2 + x0 m + k y0 m + x0 − bm , y1 = . 1 + m2 1 + m2

(x0 − x1 )2 + (y0 − y1 )2 x0 − y0 m + x0 − km 1 + m2

2

+ y0 −

y0 m2 + x0 m + k 1 + m2

2

(x0 m2 − y0 m + km)2 + (y0 − x0 m − k)2 1 + m2 (m2 + 1)(x0 m − y0 + k)2 1 + m2 |x0 m − y0 + k| √ , 1 + m2

Homework

160 Problem Find the distance from the point (1, 1) to the line y = −x. 161 Problem Let a ∈ R. Find the distance from the point (a, 0) to the line L : y = ax + 1. 162 Problem Find the equation of the circle with centre at (3, 4) and tangent to the line x − 2y + 3 = 0.

2.9 Parabolas

163 Deﬁnition A parabola is the collection of all the points on the plane whose distance from a ﬁxed point F (called the focus of the parabola) is equal to the distance to a ﬁxed line L (called the directrix of the parabola). See ﬁgure 2.26, where FD = DP. We can draw a parabola as follows. Cut a piece of thread as long as the trunk of T-square (see ﬁgure 2.27). Tie one end to the end of the trunk of the T-square and tie the other end to the focus, say, using a peg. Slide the crosspiece of the T-square along the directrix, while maintaining the thread tight against the ruler with a pencil.

Hyperbolas x2 . 4d

29

164 Theorem Let d > 0 be a real number. The equation of a parabola with focus at (0, d) and directrix y = −d is y =

The distance of (x, y) to the point (0, d) is |y + d| =

Proof: Let (x, y) be an arbitrary point on the parabola. Then the distance of (x, y) to the line y = −d is |y + d|. x2 + (y − d)2 . We have =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ as wanted. u

x2 + (y − d)2

(|y + d|)2 = x2 + (y − d)2 y2 + 2yd + d 2 = x2 + y2 − 2yd + d 2 4dy = x2 y= x2 , 4d

! Observe that the midpoint of the perpendicular line segment from the focus to the directrix is on the parabola.

We call this point the vertex. For the parabola y = x2 of Theorem 164, the vertex is clearly (0, 0). 4d

3 2 1

F

D P L

Figure 2.27: Drawing a parabola.

−3

−2

−1 −1 −2 −3

1

2

3

Figure 2.26: Deﬁnition of a parabola.

Figure 2.28: Example 165.

165 Example Draw the parabola y = x2 . 1 1 1 = 1, that is, d = . Following Theorem 164, we locate the focus at (0, ) and the Solution: From Theorem 164, we want 4d 4 4 1 directrix at y = − and use a T-square with these references. The vertex of the parabola is at (0, 0). The graph is in ﬁgure 2.28. 4

Homework

166 Problem Let d > 0 be a real number. Prove that the equation of y2 a parabola with focus at (d, 0) and directrix x = −d is x = . 4d 167 Problem Find the focus and the directrix of the parabola x = y2 . 168 Problem Find the equation of the parabola with directrix y = −x and vertex at (1, 1).

2.10 Hyperbolas

169 Deﬁnition A hyperbola is the collection of all the points on the plane whose absolute value of the difference of the distances from two distinct ﬁxed points F1 and F2 (called the foci1 of the hyperbola) is a positive constant. See ﬁgure 2.29, where |F1 D − F2 D| = |F1 D′ − F2 D′ |.

1

Foci is the plural of focus.

Then |d (x. c) | = 2c ⇐⇒ (x + c)2 + (y + c)2 − (x − c)2 + (y − c)2 = 2c (x − c)2 + (y − c)2 = 4c2 ⇐⇒ (x + c)2 + (y + c)2 + (x − c)2 + (y − c)2 − 2 (x + c)2 + (y + c)2 · ⇐⇒ 2x2 + 2y2 = 2 (x2 + y2 + 2c2 ) + (2xc + 2yc) · ⇐⇒ 2x2 + 2y2 = 2 (x2 + y2 + 2c2 )2 − (2xc + 2yc)2 ⇐⇒ (2x2 + 2y2 )2 = 4 (x2 + y2 + 2c2 )2 − (2xc + 2yc)2 (x2 + y2 + 2c2 ) − (2xc + 2yc) ⇐⇒ 4x4 + 8x2 y2 + 4y4 = 4((x4 + y4 + 4c4 + 2x2 y2 + 4y2 c2 + 4x2 c2 ) − (4x2 c2 + 8xyc2 + 4y2 c2 )) ⇐⇒ xy = c2 .30: Drawing a hyperbola. ! Observe that the points 2 c c −√ . Put tacks on F1 and F2 and measure the distance F1 F2 . Attach piece of thread to one end of the ruler. Figure 2. y) be an arbitrary point on the hyperbola. c). . as in ﬁgure 2. and whose absolute value c2 of the difference of the distances from its points to the foci is 2c has equation xy = .30. (c.−√ 2 2 c2 2 the vertices of the hyperbola xy = . Hold the pencil against the side of the rule and tighten the thread. (−c. and the other to F2 . x 170 Theorem Let c > 0 be a real number.29: Deﬁnition of a hyperbola. 2 Proof: Let (x. 2 and c c √ .30 Chapter 2 We can draw a hyperbola as follows. y). The lengths of the ruler and the thread must satisfy length of the ruler − length of the thread < F1 F2 . 2 where we have used the identities (A + B +C)2 = A2 + B2 +C2 + 2AB + 2AC + 2BC u and √ √ A−B· A+B = A2 − B2 . −c) and F2 = (c. We call these points 2 Vertices is the plural of vertex. while letting the other end of the ruler to pivot around F1 .31: The hyperbola y = 1 . F2 D D′ F1 Figure 2. −c) − d (x. y). The hyperbola with foci at F1 = (−c.√ 2 2 are on the hyperbola xy = c2 . Figure 2.

long. it is a2 + b2 a2 + b2 on this line. +∞[ 70 ] − ∞. 3).C = (− . 106 (x − 2)2 + (y − 3)2 = 2 107 We must ﬁnd the radius of this circle. By the triangle inequality OM ≤ OL + LM. we get the picture in ﬁgure 2. On [2. Upon assembling all this. where equality occurs if and only if the points are collinear. its two foci are at (− 2. 0) is 2 a + b units long and the bug spends an amount of time equal to a + b there. 3] x−2 −x + 3 1 [3. b d 72 { 73 {−1. −b) . R = 10. 1) the origin. 2. 5 5 . b + d). 1. −b) 97 It is enough to prove this in the case when a. b) and M = (a + c. But by the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality we have √ 2ab ≤ a2 + b2 =⇒ (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ≤ 2a2 + 2b2 =⇒ a + b ≤ 2 a2 + b2 . 0). 2). (a. We decompose R into (overlapping) intervals with endpoints at the places where each of the expressions in absolute values vanish. +∞[ x−2 x−3 2x − 5 93 (11. and then from the origin to (2.1 7 1 ) 7 a2 + b2 2 63 For x > 1 . d are all positive. 2] −x + 2 −x + 3 −2x + 5 x∈ |x − 2| = |x − 3| = |x − 2| + |x − 3| = [2. if a > 0. 1} 74 {−3. and equality occurs if and only if the points are collinear. this follows in our case. We examine the sign diagram ] − ∞. Since the radius is the distance from the centre of the circle to any point on the circle. (3) (x + 2)2 + (y − 1)2 = √ √ 3 5 1 3 1 10. R = 5. b. To this end. and the bug spends an amount of time equal to 64 We have the bug should avoid quadrant II completely. (−a. According to Theorem 170. By alternately pivoting about these points using the procedure above. 0) and (a. we have |x − |1 − 2x|| = x − 1. − ) 2 65 The ﬁrst term vanishes when x = 2 and the second term vanishes when x = 3. (4) (x − 2)2 + y2 = 12. Since at x = −3 we also obtain −7. 0). 1). Since 2 1 1 < √ . we have |1 − 2x| = 2x − 1. −2] 3 + 2 √ √ 17 3 17 . +∞[. 3] ∪ [3. 3} 76 We have 99 Use the above generalisation of Minkowski’s Inequality and the fact that 172 + 1442 = 1452 . 1 which means that as long as the speed of the bug in quadrant II is < √ then the bug will better avoid quadrant II. 2.C = (−2. On [3.C = (0. 0) to (a. if x + 3 ≥ 0. This means that all the numbers on this interval are solutions to this equation. 108 (1) x2 + (y − 1)2 = 36. 1). −2. the solution set is {x|x ∈ [2. |x − 4| = This means that when x < −3 |x + 3| − |x − 4| = (−x − 3) − (−x + 4) = −7. 3] we obtain the identity 1 = 1. 1. (6) (x + √ ) + (y − ) = . Thus as long as a+b ≤ |5x − 2| = |2x + 1| ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ (5x − 2 = 2x + 1) or (5x − 2 = −(2x + 1)) (x = 1) or (x = x∈ 1 . − . b) . we see that the required radius is (−1 − 1)2 + (1 − 2)2 = The equation sought is thus (x + 1)2 + (y − 1)2 = 5.C = (−2. ). 2 In conclusion. 2] we need −2x + 5 = 1 from where x = 2.C = (2. 94 Its x coordinate is Its y coordinate is Thus on ] − ∞. L = (a. +∞[ we need 2x − 5 = 1 from where x = 3.Hyperbolas 31 √ √ 1 171 Example To draw the hyperbola y = we proceed as follows. put O = (0. Thus |x − |1 − 2x|| = |x − (2x − 1)| = | − x + 1|. a constant. b > 0 then the line segment joining (−b. 1) avoiding quadrant II altogether. 3]}. For. the result holds true for the larger interval x ≤ −3. 2} 2 2 2 Therefore. 2] ∪ [2. for all x > 1 (and a fortiori x > 2. (2) (x + 2)2 + (y − 1)2 = 25.C = (− . } 2 2 67 {x|x ∈ [0. 0) lies in quadrant II.31. 2a − b) 1 92 (5. 2 8 32 5 1 − −1 4 1− 4 1 1 1 = . 2 2 90 (0. R = 8 3 3 3 3 3 110 (x − 1)2 + (y − 3)2 = 5 111 (x − 127 7 9 b a 1 2 221 9 2 ) + (y − ) = 10 10 50 √ 5 ≈ 2. R = 2 3 (5) (x + )2 + (y − )2 = . −3/4) 91 (2b − a. 1−r 96 (a. |x + 3| = −x − 3 x+3 if x + 3 < 0. + −··· = 4 16 5 1 − −1 4 2 4 . Answers 62 √ 3− √ 15 − 2 89 The bug should travel along two line segments: ﬁrst from (−1. 1]} 68 {−1} 69 [1. with |r| < 1 and ﬁrst term a is a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + · · · = 95 ( 3a + b 3b + a . But a path on the axes from (−b. 1 3 66 {− . R = 2 2 8 2 2 √ √ 1 2 5 5 3 2 3 √ 5 . c. Thus we have R =] − ∞. If x > 1 then | − x + 1| = x − 1. the ﬂy ends up in Here we have used the fact the sum of an inﬁnite geometric progression with common ratio r. Put length of the ruler − length of the thread = 2 2. 3} 75 {−6. that is a c = . if x − 4 ≥ 0. R = 6. − 2) x √ √ √ and ( 2. But then (a + c)2 + (b + d)2 = OM ≤ OL + LM = a2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 . The desired value is S12 . 1). ) 4 4 a . √ 85 2 10 √ 2|b − a| 86 (a2 − b)2 + (b2 − a)2 128 − 87 129 −6 130 y = x 1 + 4 4 88 4x2 + (a + b)2 t 2 131 y = −x + b + a . − 15 ) 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 − + −··· = = . −x + 4 x−4 if x − 4 < 0.236.

−3) passes through every line Lt . . 132 y = (a + b)x − ab 133 m = 2 135 x = 3 142 y = 4x − 14 143 y = b x a The line x − 2y − 6 = 0 has gradient or t = 1/3. The lines will be parallel when = 2 t +3 t +3 2 5 10 5 − x+ y − = 0.32 Chapter 2 1 2−t 2−t 1 and Lt has gradient .1. (8) (3. 4 4 168 If (x. which necessitates t + 3 = 0 or t = −3. This radius is then 150 (1) t = 4/3. no matter the choice of t is seen from (t − 2)(−7) + (t + 3)(−3) + 10t − 5 = −7t + 14 − 3t − 9 + 10t − 5 = 0. In this case the line is x = −7. 11 11 11 The desired equation is r= 3−2·4+3 12 + (−2)2 2 = √ . 4 147 y = − x + 16 3 148 L1 : y = (a + b)x + 1 − a − b. y) is an arbitrary point on this parabola we must have | − x − y| Lt will be parallel to the x-axis if the x-term disappears. 3 3 3 1 2−t 1 . from where t = − 8 . (3) t = 1/2. (4) t = 3. Lt will be parallel to the y-axis if the y-term disappears. 3) then (t − 2)(−2) + (t + 3)(3) + 10t − 5 = 0. (6) t = 7/9. the desired equation is x2 + y2 − 2xy − 4x − 4y + 4 = 0. −3) is a candidate for the point sought. which necessitates t − 2 = 0 or t = 2. thus (x0 . −1) 151 We have If Lt passes through (−2. it would pass through the horizontal and vertical lines found above. L2 : y = − 149 l : y = 5 4 x − 1. 0) and the directrix is x = − . (7) t = 7/4. y0 ) = (−7. In this case the line is t +3 −4x + y − 25 = 0. In this case the line is 11 − 30 25 135 x+ y− = 0. l ′ : y = − x + 3 4 5 x a+b+1 + a+b a+b 161 1 + a2 162 The radius of the circle is the distance from the centre to the tangent line. = 1 + (−1)2 (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 Squaring and rearranging. That (−7. 5 4 (x − 3)2 + (y − 4)2 = . (2) t = 6/7. 5 1 1 167 By the preceding exercise the focus is ( . In this case the line is y = −3. In this case the line is 29 1 144 y = − x + 4 4 a2 a 145 y = − x + b + b b 146 y = 3 x−9 4 160 √ 2 If such a point existed. (5) t = −7. The lines will be perpendicular when The line y = − x − 5 has gradient − and Lt has gradient 4 4 t +3 2−t = 4 or t = −2.

172 Deﬁnition By a (real-valued) function f : ents: Dom ( f ) → x → Target ( f ) we mean the collection of the following ingredif (x) a name for the function. We concentrate on real-valued functions whose domains are subsets of the real numbers. We will use the curves obtained in the last chapter as examples to see how various transformations affect the graph of a function. Usually we use the letter f .1 Basic Deﬁnitions domain Figure 3. 33 .1: The main ingredients of a function. This assignment rule for f is usually denoted by x → f (x). Figure 3. The target set of f is denoted by Target ( f ). called the target set of the function. a set of real number inputs—usually an interval or a ﬁnite union of intervals—called the domain of the function. a set of possible real number outputs—usually an interval or a ﬁnite union of intervals—of the function. an assignment rule or formula. The output of x under f is also referred to as the image of x under f .Chapter 3 (x. 3. f (x)) f (x) rule image target set x Functions I: Assignment Rules This chapter introduces the central concept of a function. an input parameter . also called independent variable or dummy variable. We usually denote a typical input by the letter x.2: The graph of a function. The domain of f is denoted by Dom ( f ). and is denoted by f (x). assigning to every input a unique output.

the x-axis contains the set of inputs and y-axis has the set of outputs.5 and 3. Figure 3.7. Figure 3. ! From now on.5: Not a function.2. 175 Example (The Identity Function) Consider the function R → x → R . Figure 3. the graph does not represent a function. The element 3 in the domain is not assigned to any element of the target set. Also important in the deﬁnition of a function is the fact that all the elements of the domain must be operated on. For ellipsis. Thus Id (−1) = −1. x Id : This function assigns to every real its own value.3: Not a function. See ﬁgures 3.1. if a vertical line crosses two or more points of a graph.6: Not a function.4: Not a function. For example. Id (0) = 0. It must be emphasised that the uniqueness of the image of an element of the domain is crucial. we will take R as the target set of all the functions below.3 does not represent a function.4 does not represent a function. Also. The element 1 in the domain is assigned to more than one element of the target set. unless otherwise stated. By Theorem 121. the graph of identity function is a straight line. See ﬁgure 3. 2 1 3 4 2 8 16 0 1 3 4 8 Figure 3. that is. but we will see later on that these two sets may not be equal.6. Therefore. the diagram in 3. we usually say the graph of f . . y) ∈ R2 : y = f (x)} on the plane. or the graph y = f (x) or the the curve y = f (x). Chapter 3 173 Deﬁnition The image of a function f : Dom ( f ) → x → Target ( f ) is the set f (x) Im ( f ) = { f (x) : x ∈ Dom ( f )}. etc. the collection of all outputs of f . Id (4) = 4. and it is given in ﬁgure 3. ! We see that necessarily we have Im ( f ) ⊆ Target ( f ).34 See ﬁgure 3. For example. the diagram in ﬁgure 3. 174 Deﬁnition The graph of a function f : Dom ( f ) → x → R f (x) is the set {(x. by the deﬁnition of the graph of a function.

we will simply give the assignment rule or the name of the function.10: x → 1 x 178 Example Consider the function1 f: [−1. By Theorem 121.” e.” Figure 3. 179 Example (The Reciprocal function) Consider the function2 R \ {0} x 1 2 R . Thus Id 2 (−1) = 1.8: Id 2 Figure 3. the formula for f only makes sense in the interval [−1. 177 Example (The Square Function) Consider the function R x → → R . ! For ellipsis. etc. the graph of any afﬁne function is a straight line..7: Id Figure 3.9: x → 1 − x2 Figure 3.Basic Deﬁnitions 176 Example (Afﬁne Function) Consider the function R Id : x → → R . etc. x2 Id 2 : This function assigns to every real its square. By Example 113.866. 1] → x Then f (−1) = 0. “the function Id 2 ” or “the function x → x2 . mx + b 35 where m and b are real number constants. 1]. in situations when the domain of a function is not in question. By Theorem 164. Id 2 (2) = 4.” Similarly. Id 2 (0) = 0. which is 2 → g: → → R 1 x .8. the graph of f is the upper unit semicircle. f (0) = 1. . g only makes sense when x = 0. Since we are concentrating exclusively on real-valued functions.9.g. f shewn in ﬁgure 3. we usually refer to the identity function Id : R x → → R as “the function Id ” or “the function x x → x. 1 − x2 1 2 = √ 3 ≈ . So we will speak of “the function f ” or“the function x → f (x). the graph of the square function is given in ﬁgure 3.

namely: f1 given by f1 (a) = f1 (b) = c. d}. Hence f (6) = f (2(1) + 4) = 12 − 2 = −1. f2 given by f2 (a) = f2 (b) = d. f4 given by f4 (a) = d. Observe that Im ( f1 ) = {c. etc. Observe that Im ( f1 ) = {c}. f3 given by f3 (a) = c. We need 2u + 4 = x =⇒ u = f (x) = f 2 x−4 +4 = 2 x−4 2 2 −2 = x2 − 2x + 2.36 1 2 Chapter 3 Then g(−1) = −1.10. d}. x −2 Find γ (6) γ (1) Solution: We have γ (6) = 62 − 2 = 34 γ (1) = 12 − 2 = −1 γ (γ (x)) = (γ (x))2 − 2 = (x2 − 2)2 − 2 = x4 − 4x2 + 2 182 Example Let f : R → R satisfy f (2x + 4) = x2 − 2. d}. 180 Example Find all functions with domain {a. 3 We need 2x + 4 = 1 =⇒ x = − . Hence 2 f (1) = f 2 − 3 3 +4 = − 2 2 2 γ (γ (x)) f (x) f ( f (x)) 1 −2 = . Find f (6) f (1) Solution: We need 2x + 4 = 6 =⇒ x = 1. 4 . 4 x−4 . the number of functions from A to B is m . f3 (b) = d. Hence 2 First rename the dummy variable: say f (2u + 4) = u2 − 2. 181 Example Let γ: R x → → 2 R . Observe that Im ( f2 ) = {d}. Observe that Im ( f1 ) = {c. g(1) = 1. By Example 171. g = 2. f4 (b) = c. Solution: There are 22 = 4 such functions. b} and target set {c. the graph of g is the hyperbola shewn in ﬁgure 3. n ! It is easy to see that if A has n elements and B has m elements.

we only need f (3) = 0. . s(x) = x5 − 2x3 + 2x.t with t = 0. ∀x ∈ Q. Since f (1) is a constant. f (1). Find all ﬁxed points of s. If k is a positive integer we obtain f (kx) = f (x + (k − 1)x) = f (x) + f ((k − 1)x) = f (x) + f (x) + f ((k − 2)x) = 2 f (x) + f ((k − 2)x) = 2 f (x) + f (x) + f ((k − 3)x) = 3 f (x) + f ((k − 3)x) . and so f (0) = 0. Find f (x + h) − f (x − h) . 1. Letting x = 0 in the relation. 2} . This means that tx = s · 1 and so f (tx) = f (s · 1) and by what was just proved t s for integers. we ﬁrst put x = −3 in the relation. Solution: Since we are interested in f (−3). = · · · = k f (x) + f (0) = k f (x). 187 Problem Find all functions from {−1. f (0). 1} to {0. 1. 1}. +∞[→ R. Homework R 185 Problem Draw the graph of the function f : x and ﬁnd f (−1). h 186 Problem Find all functions from {0. Hence f (x) = f (1) = x f (1). Solution: Letting y = 0 we obtain f (x) = f (x) + f (0). f is said to have a ﬁxed point at t ∈ Dom ( f ) if f (t) = t. → → R |2x − 1| 188 Problem Let f : Dom ( f ) → R be a function. we may put c = f (1). Notice that the fact that f (3) = 2 is irrelevant. 2} to {−1. obtaining f (0) = f (3) f (−3). Prove that ∃c ∈ R such that f (x) = cx. f (3) = f (3) f (−3) =⇒ f (−3) = 1. x → x2 − x.Basic Deﬁnitions Using the above part. t f (x) = s f (1). which s means that x = for integers s. Let x ∈ Q. Let s : [0. Letting y = −x we obtain 0 = f (0) = f (x) + f (−x) and so f (−x) = − f (x). Thus f (x) = cx for t rational numbers x. . . 189 Problem Let f : R → R. Thus we must also know f (0) in order to ﬁnd f (−3). f ( f (x)) = ( f (x))2 − 2 f (x) + 2 4 2 x2 − 2x + 2 x2 4 −2 − 2x + 2 + 2 4 4 x4 x3 3x2 − + + 2x − 1 64 4 4 37 = = 183 Example f : R → R is a function satisfying f (3) = 2 and f (x + 3) = f (3) f (x). 184 Example (Cauchy’s Functional Equation) Suppose f satisﬁes f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y). Hence f (nx) = n f (x) for n ∈ Z. Find f (−3).

x 201 Problem Let f satisfy f (n + 1) = (−1)n+1 n − 2 f (n). −1 − (−4) 3 . be given by a(2 − x) = x2 − 5x. Solution: We have f (x) = 2x − 1 for 2x − 1 ≥ 0 and f (x) = −(2x − 1) for 2x − 1 < 0. a(x) and a(a(x)). 192 Problem Let f : R → R. 196 Problem Consider the polynomial (1 − x2 + x4 )2003 = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + a8012 x8012 . b ∈ R and f (x) > 0 ∀ x ∈ R. 204 Example Write f : R → R.22. be a function such that ∀x ∈]0. and draw its graph. 27 + y3 y3 27 y 198 Problem Find all functions g that satisfy g(x + y) + g(x − y) = 2x2 + 2y2 . f (x + 1) = x . 194 Problem Let f : R → R. 200 Problem Find all functions f for which 1 f (x) + 2 f ( ) = x. as in ﬁgure 3. Find f (x + h) − f (x − h) . Find f (−2). Find a piecewise formula for f . h(x + 2) = 1 + x − x2 . Find h(3x). 193 Problem Let : R → R. f (x) = |2x − 1| as a piecewise function.2 Piecewise Functions Sometimes the assignment rule of a function varies from interval to interval. ﬁnd f (−a) and f (2a) in terms of f (a). h(x). ﬁnd f (0).38 190 Problem Let f : R → R.11. 202 Problem If f (a) f (b) = f (a+b) ∀ a. Find a(3). 203 Problem Find all functions f : R \ {−1} → R such that ( f (x))2 · f 1−x 1+x = 64x. and it is made of straight lines. n ≥ 1 If f (1) = f (1001) ﬁnd f (1) + f (2) + f (3) + · · · + f (1000). f (x + 2) and f (x − 2) as powers of x. +∞[. f (x) and f ( f (x)). f for y ∈]0. Also. +∞[. Express h(x − 1). Find f (x). Find a0 a0 + a1 + a2 + · · · + a8012 a0 − a1 + a2 − a3 + · · · − a8011 + a8012 2 Chapter 3 197 Problem Let f : R → R. f (1 − x) = x2 − 2. [ f (x3 + 1)] √ x = 5. This gives 2x − 1 if x ≤ 1 2 f (x) = 1 1 − 2x if x > 2 The graph can be observed in ﬁgure 2. 205 Example A function f is only deﬁned for x ∈ [−4. x → x3 − 3x. 4]. Solution: The ﬁrst line segment L1 has slope slope L1 = 4 1 − (−3) = . a1 + a3 + · · · + a8009 + a8011 a0 + a2 + a4 + · · · + a8010 + a8012 3. 199 Problem Find all the functions f that satisfy f (xy) = y f (x). We call any such function a piecewise function. 195 Problem Let h : R → R be given by h(1 − x) = 2x. h ﬁnd the value of 191 Problem Let a : R → R. h(x + 1) as powers of x.

1. Figure 3. Then we write f (a−) for the value that f (x) would have if we used the assignment rule for values near a but smaller than a. so this line segment is contained in the line y = x + . and f (a+) for the value that f (x) would have if we used the assignment rule for values near a but larger than a.11: Example 205. let us say at x = a.13: Example 207. 2) is on the line. f (4+) = 5 = 4 9 6.Piecewise Functions 39 4 and so the equation of the line containing this line segment is of the form y = x + k1 . f (1) = (1)2 = 1 8.12. Since (1. we have 2 = −3 + k2 =⇒ k2 = 5. 4[ 5 if x ∈ [4. 1) is on the line. 206 Example The function f : R → R is piecewise deﬁned by −2 if x ∈] − ∞. f (−3) = −2 2. 4] 6 5 4 3 2 1 L2 1 2 3 4 5 6 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 L1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 L3 Figure 3. f (−2+) = (−2)2 = 4 5. We have. −2[ 2 x if x ∈ [−2. f (4−) = 4 11. 4−2 and so this line segment is contained in the line y = 1.12: Example 206. The second line segment L2 has slope 3 3 3 3 slope L2 = 1−1 = 0. f (1+) = 1 9. 2] 1 −3x + 5 if x ∈ [2. +∞[ Its graph appears in ﬁgure 3. Since (−1. f (−2) = (−2)2 = 4 4. f (4) = 5 12. f (−2−) = −2 3. for example. 1] f (x) = x if x ∈]1. f (1−) = (1)2 = 1 . 1 = 3 4 7 4 7 − + k1 =⇒ k1 = . f 2 3 = 2 3 2 7. f (2) = 2 10. Sometimes the pieces in a piecewise function do not connect at a particular point. Finally. Figure 3. 2 − (−1) −5 − 1 = −3. Upon assembling all this we see that the piecewise function required is 4 x + 7 if x ∈ [−4. the third line segment L3 has slope slope L3 = and so this line segment is part of the line of the form y = −3x + k2 . and so the line segment is contained on the line y = −3x + 5. −1] 3 3 f (x) = if x ∈ [−1.

13. g(−1+) = −1 5. g(+∞) = 0. The ceiling function ⌈·⌉ : R → x → Z ⌈x⌉ is deﬁned as follows. If x is an integer.15. ⌈π ⌉ = 4. g(0) = 0 6.40 207 Example The function g : R → R is piecewise deﬁned by 1 x g(x) = x 1 x if x ∈] − ∞. using 1. 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 Figure 3.9 208 Deﬁnition The ﬂoor function ⌊·⌋ : is deﬁned as follows. for example. 1. ⌊x⌋ is the unique integer satisfying the inequalities x − 1 < ⌊x⌋ ≤ x. Figure 3. Homework . g(1+) = 1 =1 1 3. ⌊−8⌋ = ⌈−8⌉ = −8.14 and a portion of the graph of the ceiling function appears in ﬁgure 3. We have. 209 Example We have ⌊π ⌋ = 3.9 2. +∞[ Chapter 3 Its graph appears in ﬁgure 3. 1] if x ∈]1. 4 3 2 1 ⌊−π ⌋ = −4.14: The ﬂoor function x → ⌊x⌋. ⌈−π ⌉ = −3. ⌈x⌉ is the unique integer satisfying the inequalities x ≤ ⌈x⌉ < x + 1. g(−1−) = 1 = −1 −1 4. then ⌊x⌋ = x = ⌈x⌋. using 1. g(−∞) = 0. g(−1) = −1 8.15: The ceiling function x → ⌈x⌉. If x is not an integer then ⌈x⌉ is the integer just to the right of x and ⌊x⌋ is the integer just to the left of x. A portion of the graph of the ﬂoor function appears in ﬁgure 3. g(1) = 1 R → x → Z ⌊x⌋ 7. −1[ if x ∈ [−1.

g. where j(x) = f (x+h). −1[ x g(x) = if x ∈ [−1. g(+∞) 41 Graph it and determine x 216 Problem Solve the equation ⌊ ⌋ = 10. it is v units down. g(1+) 9. 211 Problem Write f : R → R. and if v < 0. u 218 Deﬁnition Let f be a function and let v and h be real numbers. 217 Theorem Let f be a function and let v and h be real numbers. j respectively. Similarly. g(1) 8. Proof: Let Γ f . If h > 0. . If (x0 . (x1 . f (x) = x+|x| as a piecewise function and draw its graph. Γ j denote the graphs of f . y1 ) ∈ Γ f ⇐⇒ y1 = f (x1 ) ⇐⇒ y1 = f (x1 − h + h) ⇐⇒ y1 = j(x1 − h) ⇐⇒ (x1 − h. g(−∞) 2. then (x0 . 214 Problem Graph x → ⌊x2 ⌋. If v > 0 the translation is v up. f (x) = x|x| as a piecewise function. then the translation is h units right. 215 Problem Let g : R → R be piecewise deﬁned by 1 if x ∈] − ∞. y1 ) is on the graph of j. Graph this function. Similarly. where g(x) = f (x)+v. y0 ) ∈ Γ f ⇐⇒ y0 = f (x0 ) ⇐⇒ y0 + v = f (x0 ) + v ⇐⇒ y0 + v = g(x0 ) ⇐⇒ (x0 . y0 + v) ∈ Γg . We say that the curve y = f (x) + v is a vertical translation of the curve y = f (x). 212 Problem Write f : R → R. y1 ) is on the graph of f . and if h < 0.Translations 210 Problem Write f : R → R. g(−1−) 3. y0 ) is on the graph of f .3 Translations In this section we study how several rigid transformations affect both the graph of a function and its assignment rule. (x0 . g(0) 6. g(−1) 4. then (x1 −h. y0 + v) is on the graph of g. 1] |x| 1 + 2x if x ∈]1. y1 ) ∈ Γ j . g(1−) 7. and if (x1 . we say that the curve y = f (x + h) is a horizontal translation of the curve y = f (x). the translation is h units left. 5 3. g(−1+) 5. Γg . +∞[ 1. 213 Problem Graph x → ⌊2x⌋. f (x) = |x−1|+|x+2| as a piecewise function.

20.21. A function f has a pole of order k at the point x = a if (x − a)k−1 f (x) → ±∞ as x → a.19.23 and 3. rather than pole.21: y = g(x) = (x + 3)2 − 3 220 Example If g(x) = x (ﬁgure 3. Notice than in this case g(x + t) = x + t = g(x) + t. then ﬁgures .16. 3. then ﬁgures 3. so a vertical translation by t units has exactly the same graph as a horizontal translation t units.22: y = g(x) = x Figure 3. respectively. The corresponding assignment rules are a(x) = f (x) + 3 = x2 + 3. Some authors prefer to use the term vertical asymptote.42 Chapter 3 219 Example If f (x) = x2 . d(x) = (x + 3)2 . f has a pole of order 1 at x = 0.16: y = f (x) = x2 Figure 3. c(x) = f (x + 3) = (x − 3)2 . respectively shew a horizontal translation 3 units right.22). and a simultaneous translation 3 units left and down. f (0+) = +∞ for f : R \ {0} x → → R 1 . Figure 3.18: y = b(x) = x2 − 3 Figure 3. f (0−) = −∞. x . respectively.17: y = a(x) = x2 + 3 Figure 3. 3.24 shew vertical translations 3 units up and 3 units down. 223 Example Since x f (x) = 1. The line y = b is a (horizontal) asymptote for the function f if either f (−∞) = b or f (+∞) = b.23: y = g(x) + 3 = x + 3 Figure 3.20: y = d(x) = (x + 3)2 Figure 3. 3 units left. and 3. b(x) = f (x) − 3 = x2 − 3.17 and 3. 222 Deﬁnition Let k > 0 be an integer. Figures 3. but (x − a)k f (x) as x → a is ﬁnite. 3. g(x) = (x + 3)2 − 3 Figure 3.19: y = c(x) = (x − 3)2 Figure 3.18 shew vertical translations 3 units up and 3 units down.24: y = g(x) − 3 = x − 3 221 Deﬁnition Given a function f we write f (−∞) for the value that f may eventually approach for large (in absolute value) and negative inputs and f (+∞) for the value that f may eventually approach for large (in absolute value) and positive input.

230 Example Let a(x) = virtue of 2.4 Distortions 228 Theorem Let f be a function and let V = 0 and H = 0 be real numbers. j respectively. Figure 3. H is the upper semicircle of this circle. 231 Example Draw the graph of the curve y = 2x2 − 4x + 1. (x0 . then .10. 0) and radius 2 by y = a(x) = 4 − x2 x1 ·H H ⇐⇒ y1 = j x1 H ⇐⇒ x1 . The curve y = V f (x) is called a vertical distortion of the curve y = f (x). then x2 + y2 = 4. and let f be a function.27: x → 1 +3 x+2 Homework 225 Problem Graph the following curves: y = (x − 2)2 + 3 1 y= +3 x−2 y= y= 1 − (x − 2)2 + 3 4 − x2 + 1 y = |x − 2| + 3 1 226 Problem What is the equation of the curve y = f (x) = x3 − x after a successive translation one unit down and two units right? 227 Problem Suppose the curve y = f (x) is translated a units vertically and b units horizontally.Distortions 43 1 224 Example Figures 3.V y0 ) is on x1 the graph of g. where j(x) = f (Hx). Γg . . The curve y = f (Hx) is called a horizontal distortion of the curve y = f (x) The graph of y = f (Hx) is a horizontal dilatation of the graph of y = f (x) if 0 < H < 1 and a horizontal contraction if H > 1.26: x → 1 −1 x−1 Figure 3. where g(x) = V f (x). Similarly. If (x0 . and then a units vertically? 3. y1 ) ∈ Γ f ⇐⇒ y1 = f (x1 ) ⇐⇒ y1 = f u 229 Deﬁnition Let V > 0. and if (x1 . Figures 3. g. The graph of y = V f (x) is a vertical dilatation of the graph of y = f (x) if V > 1 and a vertical contraction if 0 < V < 1.V y0 ) ∈ Γg .25 through 3. y1 ) is on the graph of f . Notice how the poles and the x asymptotes move with the various transformations.33 shew various transformations of this curve. If y = 4 − x2 . then (x0 . H > 0. (x1 . y0 ) is on the graph of f .27 exhibit various transformations of y = a(x) = . y1 ∈ Γ j . H Proof: Let Γ f . Would that have the same effect as translating the curve b units horizontally ﬁrst. in this order. Γ j denote the graphs of f .25: x → 1 x Figure 3. y1 is on the graph of j. Hence 4 − x2 . which is a circle with centre at (0.28 through 3. y0 ) ∈ Γ f ⇐⇒ y0 = f (x0 ) ⇐⇒ V y0 = V f (x0 ) ⇐⇒ V y0 = g(x0 ) ⇐⇒ (x0 .

33: y = 2a(2x) + 1 = 2 4 − 4x2 + 1 Figure 3. Solution: After a translation one unit up. (ii) dilate the above graph by factor of two.32: y = 2a(2x) = 2 4 − 4x2 Figure 3. 2x + 2 1 + 1 = b(x).34 through 3.30: y = a(2x) = 4 − 4x2 Figure 3. (iii) a translation one unit left.28: 4 − x2 y = a(x) = Figure 3. 2x 1 + 1 = a(x).36: y = 2(x − 1)2 − 1 1 232 Example The curve y = x2 + experiences the following successive transformations: (i) a translation one unit up.34: y = (x − 1)2 Figure 3. y = 2x2 − 4x + 1 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ y 1 = x2 − 2x + 2 2 y 1 + 1 = x2 − 2x + 1 + 2 2 1 y + 1 = (x − 1)2 + 2 2 1 y = (x − 1)2 − 2 2 y = 2(x − 1)2 − 1. x .29: y = 2a(x) = 2 4 − x2 Figure 3. (iii) translate the above graph one unit down.36. Figure 3.35: y = 2(x − 1)2 Figure 3. Find its resulting equation. This succession is seen in ﬁgures 3.31: y = a(x − 2) = −x2 + 4x Figure 3. (ii) a x horizontal shrinkage by a factor of 2. the curve becomes y = f (x) + 1 = x2 + After a horizontal shrinkage by a factor of 2 the curve becomes y = a(2x) = 4x2 + After a translation one unit left the curve becomes y = b(x + 1) = 4(x + 1)2 + 1 + 1. Chapter 3 whence to obtain the graph of y = 2x2 − 4x + 1 we (i) translate y = x2 one unit right.44 Solution: We complete squares.

(x0 . and if (x1 . Similarly. 3. y1 ) ∈ Γ f ⇐⇒ y1 = f (x1 ) ⇐⇒ y1 = f (−(−x1 )) ⇐⇒ y1 = j (−x1 ) ⇐⇒ (−x1 . Note also how the domain of the function is affected by these transformations. Γg . x . y0 ) ∈ Γ f ⇐⇒ y0 = f (x0 ) ⇐⇒ −y0 = − f (x0 ) ⇐⇒ −y0 = g(x0 ) ⇐⇒ (x0 . 2x + 2 2x + 2 45 Homework 233 Problem Draw the graphs of the following curves: x2 2 x2 y= −1 2 y = 2|x| + 1 2 y= x y= y = x2 + 4x + 5 y = 2x2 + 8x 1 234 Problem The curve y = experiences the following successive x transformations: (i) a translation one unit left. 2 − x = a(x). Find its resulting equation and make a rough sketch of the resulting curve. (x1 . y0 ) is on the graph of f . y1 ) ∈ Γ j . A reﬂexion about the y-axis. 237 Example Figures 3. with Dom (a) = R \ {0}.Reﬂexions The required equation is thus y = 4(x + 1)2 + 1 1 + 1 = 4x2 + 8x + 5 + . A vertical dilatation by a factor of 2. y1 ) is on the graph of j. −y0 ) ∈ Γg . Γ j denote the graphs of f .37 through 3. x The curve y = f (x) experiences the following successive transformations: f (x) = x + A reﬂexion about the x-axis. 238 Example Let f : R \ {0} → R with 2 − 1. The curve y = − f (x) is said to be the reﬂexion of f about the x-axis and the curve y = f (−x) is said to be the reﬂexion of f about the y-axis. (iii) a translation one unit down. where g(x) = − f (x).40 shew various reﬂexions about the axes. u 236 Deﬁnition Let f be a function. (ii) a vertical dilatation by a factor of 2. A translation 3 units left. Find the equation of the resulting curve. g. then (x0 . then (−x1 .5 Reﬂexions 235 Theorem Let f be a function If (x0 . Proof: Let Γ f . Solution: A reﬂexion about the x-axis gives the curve y = − f (x) = 1 − say. −y0 ) is on the graph of g. where j(x) = f (−x). y1 ) is on the graph of f . j respectively.

A reﬂexion about the y-axis gives the curve y = b(−x) = −2 − say. A vertical dilatation by a factor of 2 gives the curve y = 2c(x) = −4 + 4 + 2x = d(x). 241 Problem The graphs of the following curves suffer the following successive. Notice that the resulting curve is y = d(x) = 2c(x) = 2b(−x) = 2a(−x + 3) = −2 f (−x + 3). Figure 3. with Dom (c) = R \ {3}. a vertical translation of 2 units down. A horizontal stretch by a factor of Find the equation of the resulting curve. and ﬁnally. A translation 3 units up. 3. rigid transformations: 1. a horizontal translation of 1 unit to the left. 4 .46 A translation 3 units left gives the curve y = a(x + 3) = 1 − say.37: y = d(x) = (x − 1)2 Figure 3. a reﬂexion about the y-axis. The curve y = f (x) experiences the following successive transformations: A reﬂexion about the x-axis. −x + 3 2 2 − (x + 3) = −2 − − x = b(x).39: y = d(−x) = (−x−1)2 Figure 3.40: −(−x − 1)2 y = −d(−x) = Homework 239 Problem Draw the following curves in succession: 1 y= x 1 y= x+1 1 y= −x + 1 1 y= +2 −x + 1 240 Problem Let f : R → R with f (x) = 2 − |x|.38: y = −d(x) = −(x−1)2 Figure 3. Find the resulting equations after all the transformations have been exerted. x−3 2 + x = c(x). y = x(1 − x) y = 2x − 3 y = |x + 2| + 1 3 . x+3 x+3 Chapter 3 say. with Dom (d) = R \ {3}. with Dom (b) = R \ {−3}. 2.

41: Example 243.Symmetry 47 3. Proof: We have (ε1 ± ε2 )(−x) = ε1 (−x) ± ε2 (−x) = ε1 (x) ± ε2 (x). The graph of an even function. all sharing the same common domain.41 is even. g is odd if it is symmetric about the origin.42: Example 243. (ε1 ε2 )(−x) = ε1 (−x)ε2 (−x) = ε1 (x)ε2 (x) (ω1 ± ω2 )(−x) = ω1 (−x) ± ω2 (−x) = −ω1 (x) ∓ ω2 (x) = −(ω1 ± ω2 )(x) (ω1 ω2 )(−x) = ω1 (−x)ω2 (−x) = (−ω1 (x))(−ω2 (x)) = ω1 (x)ω2 (x)) (ε1 ω1 )(−x) = ε1 (−x)ω1 (−x) = −ε1 (x)ω1 (x) u 245 Corollary Let p(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + · · · + an−1 xn−1 + an xn be a polynomial with real coefﬁcients. ε1 · ε2 is an even function. ε1 · ω1 is an odd function.6 Symmetry 242 Deﬁnition A function f is even if for all x it is veriﬁed that f (x) = f (−x). . ω2 be odd functions. ω1 ± ω2 is an odd function. in other words. This means that the graph of f is symmetric about the y-axis. The curve in ﬁgure 3. A function g is odd if for all x it is veriﬁed that g(−x) = −g(x). 243 Example The curve in ﬁgure 3. The graph of an odd function. ω1 · ω2 is an even function. that is. 244 Theorem Let ε1 . ε2 be even functions. This implies that the portion of the graph appearing in quadrant I is a 180◦ rotation of the portion of the graph appearing in quadrant III. if the portion of the graph for x < 0 is a mirror reﬂexion of the part of the graph for x > 0. Figure 3.42 is odd. Then ε1 ± ε2 is an even function. and let ω1 . and the portion of the graph appearing in quadrant II is a 180◦ rotation of the portion of the graph appearing in quadrant IV. Then the function p: R → x → R p(x) is an even function if and only if each of its terms has even degree. Figure 3.

u 249 Example Investigate which of the following functions are even. Solution: Let f : with . this means that f does not have a term of odd degree. u 246 Example Prove that in the product (1 − x + x2 − x3 + · · · − x99 + x100 )(1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + x99 + x100 ) after multiplying and collecting terms.48 Proof: Assume p is even. 248 Theorem Let f : R → R be an arbitrary function. or neither. there does not appear a term in x of odd degree. We claim that E is an even function and that O is an odd function. which proves that E is even. O(−x) = f (−x) − f (−(−x)) = −( f (x) − f (−x))) = −O(x). Then the function R → R p: x → p(x) is an odd function if and only if each of its terms has odd degree. R x → → R f (x) f (x) = (1 − x + x2 − x3 + · · · − x99 + x100 )(1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + x99 + x100 ) Then f (−x) = (1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + x99 + x100 )(1 − x + x2 − x3 + · · · − x99 + x100 ) = f (x). 247 Corollary Let p(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + · · · + an−1 xn−1 + an xn be a polynomial with real coefﬁcients. First notice that E(−x) = f (−x) + f (−(−x)) = f (−x) + f (x) = E(x). Analogous to Corollary 245. Then f can be written as the sum of an even function and an odd function. which proves that O is an odd function. we may establish the following. Proof: Given x ∈ R. 2 2 which proves the theorem. Clearly 1 1 f (x) = E(x) + O(x). odd. Then p(x) = p(−x) and so p(x) = p(x) + p(−x) 2 a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + · · · + an−1 xn−1 + an xn = 2 a0 − a1 x + a2 x2 − a3 x3 + · · · + (−1)n−1 an−1 xn−1 + (−1)n an xn + 2 = a0 + a2 x2 + a4 x4 + · · · + Chapter 3 and so the polynomial has only terms of even degree. put E(x) = f (x) + f (−x). and O(x) = f (x) − f (−x). The converse of this statement is trivial. which means that f is an even function. Since f is a polynomial. Also.

|y0 |) is on the graph of g. a(x) = b : R → R. Figure 3. x2 + 1 49 a : R → R. a(−x) = | − x| |x| = = b(x). u . Similarly.Symmetry x3 .48: x → 1 − x 251 Theorem Let f be a function If (x0 . Proof: Let Γ f .47: x → 1 x Figure 3. f : [−4. the graph of x → f (−|x|) is obtained by erasing the portion of the graph of x → f (x) for x > 0 and reﬂecting the part for x < 0. the graph of x → f (|x|) is thus obtained by erasing the portion of the graph of x → f (x) for x < 0 and reﬂecting the part for x > 0. (−x)2 + 1 x2 + 1 whence b is even. f (x) = |x| + 2. whence c is even. if b(x) = f (−|x|). Proof: Put a(x) = f (|x|). since its domain is also symmetric. Similarly. Solution: (−x)3 x3 =− 2 = −a(x). since its domain is also symmetric.43: y = g(x) = x2 − 1 Figure 3. so f is neither even nor odd. (−x)2 + 1 x +1 whence a is odd. then (x0 . d(x) = |x + 2|. y0 ) is on the graph of f . d(−1) = | − 1 + 2| = 1. respectively. (x0 .45: x → 1 x Figure 3. The domain of f is not symmetric. b(−x) = c(−x) = | − x| + 2 = |x| + 2 = c(x). but d(1) = 3. Then a(−x) = f (| − x|) = f (|x|) = a(x).44: y = |g(x)| = |x2 − 1| Figure 3. y0 ) ∈ Γ f =⇒ y0 = f (x0 ) =⇒ |y0 | = | f (x0 )| =⇒ |y0 | = g(x0 ) =⇒ (x0 . since f (x) = f (−|x|) for x < 0. x2 + 1 |x| . Since x → f (|x|) is even. whence x → a(x) is even. 5] → R. c(x) = |x| + 2. where g(x) = | f (x)|. since its domain is also symmetric. |y0 |) ∈ Γg . This function is neither even nor odd. then b(−x) = f (−| − x|) = f (−|x|) = b(x) proving that x → b(x) is even. b(x) = c : R → R. g. d : R → R. Γg denote the graphs of f . u Notice that f (x) = f (|x|) for x > 0. 250 Theorem Let f be a function. Then both x → f (|x|) and x → f (−|x|) are even functions.46: x → 1 − x Figure 3.

Figures 3.49: y = f (x) = (x − 1)2 − 3 Figure 3.54: x → 1 −1 x−1 Figure 3. 1 259 Problem Let f : R \ {0} → R with f (x) = .45 through 3.53: x → 1 −1 x−1 Figure 3.43 and 3.48 exhibit various 1 transformations of x → .44 shew y = x2 − 1 and y = |x2 − 1| respectively. Are any of these curves identical? y = f (x − 2) y = | f (x − 2)| y = f (|x − 2|) y = f (|x| − 2) . x Figure 3.55: x → 1 −1 |x| − 1 Homework 254 Problem Draw the graph of f : R → R. x−1 Figure 3.50: y = f (|x|)| = (|x| − 1)2 − 3 Figure 3.50 Chapter 3 252 Example Figures 3.51: y = f (−|x|) = (−|x| − 1)2 − 3 Figure 3. Draw the followx ing curves in succession and state the changes in the domain of each new curve. with assignment rule f (x) = x|x|.7 through 6. Prove that f (0) = 0.49 through 3.9 shew a few transformations of x → 1 − 1.52 exhibit various transformations of x → (x − 1)2 − 3. 255 Problem Draw the following curves in succession: y = x2 y = (x − 1)2 y = (|x| − 1)2 258 Problem Draw the following curves in succession: y = x2 + 2x + 3 y = x2 + 2|x| + 3 y = |x2 + 2x + 3| y = |x2 + 2|x| + 3| 256 Problem Draw the following curves in succession: y = x2 y = x2 − 1 y = |x2 − 1| 257 Problem Let f be an odd function and assume that f is deﬁned at x = 0. Figures 3.52: y = | f (|x|)| = |(|x| − 1)2 − 3| 253 Example Figures 6.

hyperbolas. . . ±2. ﬁnd a. or semicircles.” 266 Example Given that 6+x if x ∈] − ∞. We would now like to increase our repertoire of functions that we can graph. For that we need the machinery of Calculus.58 are the graphs of two curves. .56 to draw each of the curves below. Prove that the solutions of the equa- y y 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x C 4 3 x Figure 3. which will be studied in subsequent courses. f2 (x) = |1 − f1 (x)|. . . Through some arguments involving symmetry we have been able to extend this collection to compositions of the above listed functions with the absolute value function. parabolas. Determine the value of C.57 and 3.56: y = f (x) Figure 3. −2] f (x) = 2 3x + xa if x ∈] − 2. y = f (ax) 3.58: Problem 264. . . (n − 1)} if n is even and {0. y = f (x) and y = f (ax) for some real constant a < 0. f3 (x) = |1 − f2 (x)|.Behaviour of the Graphs of Functions 260 Problem Can a curve be even and odd simultaneously? What would the graph of such a curve look like? 261 Problem Draw the following curves in succession: y = |1 − x| y = 1−x 51 tion fn (x) = 0 are {±1. fn (x) = |1 − fn−1 (x)|. a continuous function is one whose graph has no “breaks. . Determine the value of the constant a.7 Behaviour of the Graphs of Functions So far we have limited our study of functions to those families of functions whose graphs are known to us: lines. +∞[ is continuous. It is continuous on the interval I if it is continuous on every point of I. ±3. 262 Problem Put f1 (x) = x. ±(n − 3). Heuristically speaking. (n − 1)} if n is odd. . . . ±(n − 3). . We will content ourselves with introducing various terms useful when describing curves and with proving that these properties hold for familiar curves. y = f (x) Figure 3.57: Problem 264. y = 2 f (x) y = f (2x) y = f (−x) y = − f (−x) y = − f (x) y = f (|x|) y = | f (x)| y = f (−|x|) y = | f (|x|)| y = | f (−|x|)| y = 1 − |1 − x| y = |1 − |1 − x|| y = 1 − |1 − |1 − x|| y = |1 − |1 − |1 − x||| y = 1 − |1 − |1 − |1 − x||| y = |1 − |1 − |1 − |1 − x|||| 264 Problem Given in ﬁgures 3. 263 Problem Use f in ﬁgure 3. 265 Deﬁnition A function f is said to be continuous at the point x = a if f (a−) = f (a) = f (a+).

268 Theorem (Bolzano’s Intermediate Value Theorem) If f is continuous on the interval [a. 270 Theorem (Weierstrass’s Theorem) A continuous function on a ﬁnite closed interval [a. that is. f (b)) there is c ∈ [a. b] such that f (c) = d. that is. f (b) − f (a) > 0). ! If the function f is (strictly) increasing.60.59: Example 266. By the intervals of monotonicity of a function we mean the intervals where the function might be (strictly) increasing or decreasing. b] such that f (c) = 0. 272 Theorem A function f is (strictly) increasing if for all a < b for which it is deﬁned f (b) − f (a) ≥0 b−a (respectively. b] with f (a) = f (b) then f assumes every value between f (a) and f (b). f (b)) ≤ d ≤ max( f (a). for d with min( f (a). A function is monotonic if it is either (strictly) increasing or decreasing. 267 Example Given that Chapter 3 is continuous.52 Solution: Since f (−2−) = f (−2) = 6 − 2 = 4 and f (−2+) = 3(−2)2 − 2a = 12 − 2a we need f (−2−) = f (−2+) =⇒ 4 = 12 − 2a =⇒ a = 4. there is c ∈ [a. a < b =⇒ f (a) < f (b)). The graph of f is x−1 Figure 3. then f is vanishes somewhere in this interval. A function g is said to be decreasing (respectively. Solution: For x = 1 we have f (x) = given in ﬁgure 3. and viceversa. ﬁnd a. b−a . b] and f and there are two different values in this interval for which f changes sign. Since f (1−) = 2 and f (1+) = 2 we need a = f (1) = 2.60: Example 267.59. b] assumes a maximum value and a minimum value. strictly decreasing) if a < b =⇒ g(a) ≤ g(b) (respectively. x2 − 1 x−1 f (x) = a if x = 1 if x = 1 x2 − 1 = x + 1. The following theorem is immediate. 271 Deﬁnition A function f is said to be increasing (respectively. Figure 3. The graph of f is given in ﬁgure 3. 269 Corollary If f is continuous on the interval [a. its opposite − f is (strictly) decreasing. a < b =⇒ g(a) < g(b)). strictly increasing) if a < b =⇒ f (a) ≤ f (b) (respectively. We will accept the following results without proof.

λ ∈ [0. Proof: Clearly λ a + (1 − λ )b = b + λ (a − b) and since a − b < 0. 1]. Thus O. B. f (λ a + (1 − λ )b) ≤ f (a)λ + (1 − λ ) f (b). 1] such that x = λ a + (1 − λ )b.62: A concave curve. 0). Conversely. b]. b. Id is an increasing odd function and Im (Id ) = R. Also. By the intervals of convexity (concavity) of a function we mean the intervals where the function is convex (concave).Behaviour of the Graphs of Functions Similarly. Hence. b] for 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1. In other words. x) be on the graph of Id . and C are . λ a + (1 − λ )b lies in the interval [a. g(b) − g(a) < 0). a function g is (strictly) decreasing if for all a < b for which it is deﬁned g(b) − g(a) ≤0 b−a (respectively. 1) and C(x. All what remains to b−a prove is that 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1. Similarly. An inﬂexion point is a point where a graph changes convexity. whence the ﬁrst assertion follows. 274 Deﬁnition A function f : A → B is convex in A if ∀(a. as 0 ≤ x − b ≤ b − a. then its opposite − f is concave. Consider the projections B′ (1. Solve the equation x = λ a + (1 − λ )b for λ obtaining λ = Figure 3. u Assume now that x ∈ [a. Thus △OBB′ and OCC′ are similar. b) ∈ R2 . geometrically speaking. 0) √ of B and C respectively onto the x-axis. x−b . b] then we can ﬁnd a λ ∈ [0. Then every number of the form λ a + (1 − λ )b. 0). then the midpoint of that straight line is above the graph. △OCC′ is rectangle at √ angle C′ and OC = 2|x|. Notice that if f is convex. This concludes the proof. b. a convex function is one such that if two distinct points on its graph are taken and the straight line joining these two points drawn. Proof: Let the points O(0. λ ) ∈ A2 × [0. △OBB′ is rectangle at ∠B′ and OB = 2. g(λ a + (1 − λ )b) ≥ g(a)λ + (1 − λ )g(b). a < b. By Lemma 273. λ ) ∈ A2 × [0. b]. 1]. but this is evident. the graph of the function bends upwards. C′ (x. 275 Theorem (Graph of the Identity Function) The graph of the identity function R x → → R x Id : is a straight line that bisects the ﬁrst and third quadrant. 1] belongs to the interval [a. b−a 53 273 Lemma Let (a.61: A convex curve Figure 3. b = b + 0(a − b) ≥ b + λ (a − b) ≥ b + 1(a − b) = a. and hence ∠B′ OB = ∠C′ OC. B(1. a function g : A → B is concave in A if ∀(a. if x ∈ [a.

u 276 Theorem (Graph of the Square Function) The graph of the square function Square : R x → → R x2 is a convex curve which is strictly decreasing for x < 0 and strictly increasing for x > 0. 0) and (1. As Id (−x) = −x = −Id (x). It is clear that the line passing through (0. b−a b−a Id is a strictly increasing function. Moreover. establishing the claim. +∞[. . Moreover. +∞[. We summarise this information by means of the following diagram. x → |x| is an even function. Since for a < b Id (b) − Id (a) b − a = = 1 > 0. x → x2 is an even function and Im (Square) = [0. Im (AbsVal) = [0. 1]. decreasing for x < 0 and increasing for x > 0.54 Chapter 3 collinear. 1) splits the ﬁrst and third quadrant halfway. Now. x −∞ ց 0 u 277 Theorem (Graph of the Absolute Value Function) The graph of the absolute value function AbsVal : R → x → R |x| 0 +∞ 0 ≤ λ (1 − λ )(a − b)2 . If 0 < a < b the sum a + b is positive and x → x2 is a strictly increasing function. Proof: As Square(−x) = (−x)2 = x2 = Square(x). Also suppose that y ∈ Im (Square) . the identity function is an odd function. for a < b Square(b) − Square(a) b2 − a2 = = b + a. To prove that x → x2 is convex we observe that Square(λ a + (1 − λ )b) ≤ λ Square(a) + (1 − λ )Square(b) ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ λ 2 a2 + 2λ (1 − λ )ab + (1 − λ )2 b2 ≤ λ a2 + (1 − λ )b2 0 ≤ λ (1 − λ )a2 − 2λ (1 − λ )ab + λ (1 − λ )b2 0 ≤ λ (1 − λ )a2 − 2λ (1 − λ )ab + ((1 − λ ) − (1 − λ )2 )b2 0 ≤ λ (1 − λ )(a2 − 2ab + b2 ) This last inequality is clearly true for λ ∈ [0. Also given any x ∈ R we have Id (x) = x and so every real number is an image of Id meaning that Im (Id ) = R. Thus there is x ∈ R such that x2 = x → x2 (x) = y. the square function is an even function. But the equation y = x2 is solvable only for y ≥ 0 and so only positive numbers appear as the image of x → x2 . Hence Im (Square) = [0 : +∞[. f (x) = x2 ր is convex. The graph of the x → x2 is called a parabola. b−a b−a If a < b < 0 the sum a + b is negative and x → x2 is a strictly decreasing function.

x . whence x → |x| is convex. +∞[. b−a b−a b−a x → |x| is a strictly decreasing function for x < 0. which means that y ≥ 0 and so Im (AbsVal) = [0. 1 is convex for x > 0. To obtain the graph of x → |x| we graph the line y = −x for x < 0 and the line y = x for x ≥ 0. Theorem 14. We have AbsVal(λ a + (1 − λ )b) = |λ a + (1 − λ )b| ≤ |λ a| + |(1 − λ )b| = λ AbsVal(a) + (1 − λ )AbsVal(b). a b + b a Thus for 0 < a < b we have 1 ≤ λ a + (1 − λ )b from where x → λ 1−λ + a b =⇒ Rec(λ a + (1 − λ )b) ≤ λ Rec(a) + (1 − λ )Rec(b). b by −a. for 0 < a < b AbsVal(b) − AbsVal(a) |b| − |a| b − a = = = 1 > 0. assume that y ∈ Im (AbsVal). If we replace a. −b then the inequality above is reversed and we x 1 obtain that x → is concave for x < 0. Then ∃x ∈ R with y = AbsVal(x) = |x|. |1 − λ | = 1 − λ for λ ∈ [0. Similarly. By the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality. 1 1 is decreasing for x < 0 and x > 0. 1]. x → is an odd function and Im (Rec) = x x Proof: Assume ﬁrst that 0 < a < b and that λ ∈ [0. x → → → R 1 x = λ |a| + (1 − λ )|b| 55 Rec : R \ {0}. u 278 Theorem (Graph of the Reciprocal Function) The graph of the reciprocal function R \ {0} x is concave for x < 0 and convex for x > 0.Behaviour of the Graphs of Functions Proof: To prove that x → |x| is convex. the absolute value function is an even function. 1]. As AbsVal(−x) = | − x| = |x| = AbsVal(x). b−a b−a b−a and so x → |x| is a strictly increasing function for x > 0. we use the triangle inequality theorem 60 and the fact that |λ | = λ . b a Hence the product (λ a + (1 − λ )b) λ 1−λ + a b = λ 2 + (1 − λ )2 + λ (1 − λ ) ≥ λ 2 + (1 − λ )2 + 2λ (1 − λ ) = (λ + 1 − λ )2 = 1. AbsVal(b) − AbsVal(a) |b| − |a| −b − (−a) = = = −1 < 0. Also. we deduce that a b + ≥ 2. For a < b < 0.

As Rec(−x) = u 279 Deﬁnition Let f be a function. Extend the graph of the curve if it is to be (i) periodic and even.64: Example 283. the decimal part of the real number x. We say that γ is periodic of period P if ∀x ∈ Dom (γ ).66. Solution: The required graphs are shewn in ﬁgure 3.65 and 3. 282 Example The graph in ﬁgure 3. .63 represents the periodic function f : R → [0.56 Chapter 3 1 1 = − = −Rec(x). (ii) periodic and odd.63: Example 282 Figure 3.66: Example 283. 1] with f (x) = {x} = x − ⌊x⌋. b have the same sign. 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 Figure 3. 281 Deﬁnition Let γ : γ (x) be a function. = b−a b−a ab 1 since we are assuming that a. we have Observe that if P is the period of γ then ∀n ∈ Z. Also given any y ∈ Im (Rec) we have y = Rec(x) = . the reciprocal function is an odd function. Then 1 1 − Rec(b) − Rec(a) b a = − 1 < 0. The points (x. whence x → is a strictly decreasing function whenever x 1 arguments have the same sign. 280 Deﬁnition A zero or root of a function f is a solution to the equation f (x) = 0. that is. Figure 3. are the x-intercepts of f .65: Example 283. if any. If f is deﬁned at x = 0. Assume a < b are non-zero and −x x have the same sign. f (0)) is its y-intercept. then (0.64 shews the portion of a curve. 283 Example The graph in ﬁgure 3. Thus the graph of a periodic curve consists of horizontal translations of copies of a single period. Notice that the period of (i) is 1 and the period of (ii) is 2. and so every real number is an image of Id meaning that Im (Rec) = R \ {0}. 0) on the x-axis for which f (x) = 0. Dom (γ ) → Im (γ ) x → x + P ∈ Dom (γ ) and γ (x + P) = γ (x). Figure 3. γ (x + nP) = γ (x). but this equation is solvable x only if y = 0.

f4 (1) = 1 f5 given by f5 (−1) = 0. f2 (1) = f2 (2) = −1 f3 given by f3 (0) = f3 (1) = −1. f6 (1) = 2 f7 given by f7 (−1) = 1. h(x) = −5 + 5x − x2 . 1}. h(x + 1) = −1 + 3x − x2 194 f (x) = x2 − 2x + 1.. if x = 1 if x = 1 291 Problem Let ||x|| = min |x − n|. Prove that x → ||x|| is periodic n∈Z and ﬁnd its period. 0. Answers 185 The graph is in ﬁgure ??. Our choice of g works. a0 + a1 + a2 + · · · + a8012 = p(1) = (1 − 12 + 14 )2003 = 1. ± 3. x2 − 2x − 1. if 1 − s = 3x then s = 1 − 3x. ± 4. We have g(x + y) + g(x − y) = (x + y)2 + (x − y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 + x2 − 2xy + y2 = 2x2 + 2y2 . Given that n x −1 x−1 f (x) = a is continuous. which is the functional equation given. f (t + 1) = + 2 has period 2. . x(x + 1)2 (x − 1)2 = 0. f3 (2) = 1 f4 given by f4 (0) = −1. 1} but continuous everywhere else. g(x) = x2 . Since −1 ∈ Dom (s). The solutions to this last equation are {−1. f (1) = 1. f (−1) = 3. 187 There are 32 = 9 such functions: f1 given by f1 (−1) = f1 (1) = 0 f2 given by f2 (−1) = f2 (1) = 1 f3 given by f3 (−1) = f3 (1) = 2 f4 given by f4 (−1) = 0. 290 Problem Let n be a strictly positive integer. f7 (2) = −1 f8 given by f8 (0) = 1. say h(1 − s) = 2s. x2 + x − 6. x(x4 − 2x2 + 1) = 0 x(x2 − 1)2 = 0 198 Let y = 0. f9 (1) = 1 27 + y3 y3 27 y = f 3 3 +1 y 3 3 +1 y 3 3 y 3 3 y 188 We must look for all x ∈ Dom ( f ) such that s(x) = x. 286 Problem Give an example of a function r discontinuous at the reciprocal of every non-zero integer. . f (x + 2) = x2 + 2x + 1. ﬁnd a. f8 (2) = 1 196 Put Then a0 − a1 + a2 − a3 + · · · − a8011 + a8012 = = = p(1) + p(−1) = 1. 0. 186 There are 23 = 8 such functions: f1 given by f1 (0) = f1 (1) = f1 (2) = −1 f2 given by f2 (0) = 1. f5 (1) = 2 f6 given by f6 (−1) = 1.Behaviour of the Graphs of Functions 57 Homework 284 Problem Give an example of a function which is discontinuous on the set {−1. Now. Notice that this function measures the distance of a real number to its nearest integer. ± 2. 2 p(−1) (1 − (−1)2 + (−1)4 )2003 1. f (0) = 1. Thus s(x) = x =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ x5 − 2x3 + 2x = x x5 − 2x3 + x = 0 = = = 53 f 125. f6 (1) = f6 (2) = 1 f7 given by f7 (0) = f7 (1) = 1. f (t) − ( f (t))2 is continuous. . that is. the only ﬁxed points of s are x = 0 and x = 1. f8 (1) = −1. 289 Problem Given that x2 − 1 f (x) = 2x + 3a if x ≤ 1 if x > 1 1 292 Problem Prove that f : R → R. p(x) = (1 − x2 + x4 )2003 = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + a8012 x8012 . Hence h(3x) = h(1 − s) = 2s = 2(1 − 3x) = 2 − 6x. a0 = p(0) = (1 − 02 + 04 )2003 = 1. 288 Problem Give an example of a function discontinuous at the square of every integer. ± 5. f4 (1) = 1. f (x − 2) = x2 − 6x + 9 195 Rename the independent variable. x4 − 4x3 + 8x + 2 193 h(x − 1) = −11 + 7x − x2 . 2 p(1) − p(−1) = 0. Then 2g(x) = 2x2 . 285 Problem Give an example of a function discontinuous at the √ √ √ √ √ 3 3 3 3 3 points ± 1. 287 Problem Give an example of a function discontinuous at the odd integers. f8 (1) = 0 f f9 given by f9 (−1) = 2. f7 (1) = 0 The required sum is The required sum is 197 We have f8 given by f8 (−1) = 2. f4 (2) = −1 f5 given by f5 (0) = f5 (1) = f5 (2) = 1 f6 given by f6 (0) = −1. . 24 − 11x − 10x2 + 2x3 + x4 192 7. 189 4x − 2 190 6x2 + 2h2 − 6 191 a(3) = 6. Let us check that g(x) = x2 works. ﬁnd a.

0) on the original graph was mapped to the point (4/3. 284 Take. 1] if x ∈ [1. 264 Notice that the graph of y = f (ax) is a horizontal shrinking of the graph of y = f (x). Since f (a) = 0. . But f (−0) = f (0). Therefore 500 . 260 The constant function R → {0} with assignment rule f : x → 0 is both even and odd. 1. 211 We have f (x) = −x2 x2 if x ∈] − ∞. 1. Then 1+x f Divide (I) by (II). 0) in the old graph gets mapped to (−2. 1−x 2 f (x) = 64 1+x 1−x 1+x . So all the functions satisfying the above equation satisfy f (y) = ky. 1. 1. −2] if x ∈ [−2. 241 (1) y = −(x + 1)(x + 2) − 2 (2) y = −2x − 7 (3) y = |1 − x| − 1 257 Since f is odd. . Observe that the resulting curve is 4 x =a 3 4 x +3 = −f 3 4 x + 3. 3 y=b 4x 4 4 + 1 = |x| + 1 = c(x). Put g(x) = f (ax). 3. Then f (y) = y f (1). This gives 2 f (1) + 3( f (2) + f (3) + · · · + f (1000)) + f (1001) = −500. (−1)5 4 − 2 f (4) Adding columnwise. 1} and f (−1) = 2 1−x = 642 x2 ) 1+x (I) −2x − 1 3 2x + 1 if x ∈] − ∞. +∞ f (1/x) + 2 f (x) = 1/x. for if g were both even and odd and g(x) = a = 0 for some real number x. x x−1 ⌋. giving f (0) = − f (0). +∞[ 215 0. −998 − 2 f (998) 999 − 2 f (999) −1000 − 2 f (1000) 234 The required equation is y = 240 Proceeding successively: A reﬂexion about the x-axis gives the curve y = − f (x) = |x| − 2 = a(x). . may divide by f (a) to obtain 1 f (−a) = . Since f (1) = f (1001) we have 2 f (1) + f (1001) = 3 f (1). −1. 1 1 x 1 200 From f (x) + 2 f ( ) = x we obtain f ( ) = − f (x). Then ( f (0))2 = f (0) f (0) = f (0 + 0) = f (0). 2 1 x3 − x for x ∈ {−1. = = = (−1)2 1 − 2 f (1) (−1)3 2 − 2 f (2) (−1)4 3 − 2 f (3) . Hence f (2a) = ( f (a))2 203 We have ( f (x))2 · f whence ( f (x))4 · Substitute x by 1−x . f (x)3 = 64x2 from where the result follows. +∞[ 290 For x = 1 we have f (x) = a = f (1) = n. xn − 1 = xn−1 + xn−2 + · · · + x2 + x + 1. substituting 1/x for x on the original equation we get x x 2 2 212 We have f (x) = 0 2x if x ∈] − ∞. . 0[ if x ∈ [0. then we would have a = g(x) = g(−x) = −g(x) = −a. . 0) on the new graph. y = c(x) = b Further. . Since f (1) is a constant. 0[ if x ∈ [0. We need then 0 = 2 + 3a or a = − . Since g(4/3) = 0 we must have 4a/3 = −2 =⇒ a = −3/2. x = 0. say. 1 − 1. 1 286 Examine the assignment rule r(x) = ⌊ ⌋.58 Chapter 3 199 Let x = 1. say. Also. implying that a = 0. 0. f (−0) = − f (0). . the function f : R → R with f (x) = f (0) = f (1) = 0. among many possible examples. 0. 0) and so C = −2. . Since f (1−) = n and f (1+) = n we need x−1 . (II) f 1−x 1+x = 64x. 285 Examine the assignment rule x → ⌊x3 ⌋. 2x + 2 1 −1 x−2 201 We have f (2) f (3) f (4) f (5) . f (999) f (1000) f (1001) = = = = . Since f (0) > 0 we can divide both sides of this equality to get f (0) = 1. we may let k = f (1). set b = −a. that is. Hence the point (3. 2 2 226 y = f (x − 2) − 1 = (x − 2)2 − 227 Yes. It is the only such function. x = 3 3 3 3 gives the curve 4 A horizontal stretch by a factor of f (1) + f (2) + · · · + f (1000) = − say. 210 We have f (x) = 1+x 1−x . 2 f (0) = 0 which implies that f (0) = 0. = = = 1 − 2 f (1) −2 − 2 f (2) 3 − 2 f (3) −4 − 2 f (4) . so the point (−2. +∞[ 287 Examine the assignment rule x → ⌊ 288 Examine the assignment rule x → ⌊ |x|⌋. 3 202 Set a = b = 0. This gives f (0)2 = f (0). 55[ Hence 1 1 1 1 − f (1/x) = − f (x) = 2x 2 2x 2 which yields f (x) = 2 x − . (−1)999 998 − 2 f (998) (−1)1000 999 − 2 f (999) (−1)1001 1000 − 2 f (1000) = = = = . f (2) + f (3) + · · · + f (1001) = 1 − 2 + 3 − · · · + 999 − 1000 − 2( f (1) + f (2) + · + f (1000)). 216 x ∈ [50. . 3x 3 x 1 − f (x) . 3 Notice that in this case we allow the intervals to overlap. A translation 3 units up gives the curve y = a(x) + 3 = |x| + 1 = b(x). f (a) Finally taking a = b we obtain ( f (a))2 = f (a) f (a) = f (a + a) = f (2a). . Then f (a) f (−a) = f (a − a) = f (0) = 1. 2 289 We have f (1−) = 0 and f (1+) = 2 + 3a.

Chapter

4

**Functions II: Domains and Images
**

4.1 Natural Domain of an Assignment Rule

293 Deﬁnition The natural domain of an assignment rule is the largest set of real number inputs that will give a real number output of a given assignment rule.

! For the algebraic combinations that we are dealing with, we must then worry about having non-vanishing

denominators and taking even-indexed roots of positive real numbers. 294 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x → 1 . x2 − x − 6

Solution: In order for the output to be a real number, the denominator must not vanish. We must have x2 − x − 6 = (x + 2)(x − 3) = 0, and so x = −2 nor x = 3. Thus the natural domain of this rule is R \ {−2, 3}. 295 Example Find the natural domain of x → 1 x4 − 16 .

Solution: Since x4 − 16 = (x2 − 4)(x2 + 4) = (x + 2)(x − 2)(x2 + 4), the rule is undeﬁned when x = −2 or x = 2. The natural domain is thus R \ {−2, +2}. 296 Example Find the natural domain for the rule f (x) = 2 . 4 − |x|

Solution: The denominator must not vanish, hence x = ±4. The natural domain of this rule is thus R \ {−4, 4}. 297 Example Find the natural domain of the rule f (x) = √ x+3

Solution: In order for the output to be a real number, the quantity under the square root must be positive, hence x + 3 ≥ 0 =⇒ x ≥ −3 and the natural domain is the interval [−3; +∞[. 2 298 Example Find the natural domain of the rule g(x) = √ x+3 Solution: The denominator must not vanish, and hence the quantity under the square root must be positive, therefore x > −3 and the natural domain is the interval ] − 3+; ∞[. 299 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x → √ 4 x2 . 59

60 Solution: Since for all real numbers x2 ≥ 0, the natural domain of this rule is R. 300 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x →

4

Chapter 4

−x2 .

Solution: Since for all real numbers −x2 ≤ 0, the quantity under the square root is a real number only when x = 0, whence the natural domain of this rule is {0}. 1 301 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x → √ . x2 Solution: The denominator vanishes when x = 0. Otherwise for all real numbers, x = 0, we have x2 > 0. The natural domain of this rule is thus R \ {0}. 1 302 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x → √ . −x2 Solution: The denominator vanishes when x = 0. Otherwise for all real numbers, x = 0, we have −x2 < 0. Thus −x2 is only a real number when x = 0, and in that case, the denominator vanishes. The natural domain of this rule is thus the empty set ∅. 303 Example Find the natural domain of the assignment rule x→ √ 1 . 1−x+ √ 1+x

Solution: We need simultaneously 1− x ≥ 0 (which implies that x ≤ 1) and 1+ x > 0 (which implies that x > −1), so x ∈]− 1; 1]. 304 Example Find the largest subset of real numbers where the assignment rule x → x2 − x − 6 gives real number outputs.

Solution: The quantity x2 − x − 6 = (x + 2)(x − 3) under the square root must be positive. Studying the sign diagram x∈ signum (x + 2) = signum (x − 3) = signum ((x + 2)(x − 2)) = ] − ∞; −2] [−2; 3] [3; +∞[ − − + + − − + + +

we conclude that the natural domain of this formula is the set ] − ∞; −2] ∪ [3; +∞[. 1 305 Example Find the natural domain for the rule f (x) = √ . 2 −x−6 x The denominator must not vanish, so the quantity under the square root must be positive. By the preceding problem this happens when x ∈] − ∞; −2[ ∪ ]3; +∞[. 306 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x → x2 + 1.

Solution: Since ∀x ∈ R we have x2 + 1 ≥ 1, the square root is a real number for all real x. Hence the natural domain is R. 307 Example Find the natural domain of the rule x → x2 + x + 1.

Solution: The discriminant of x2 + x + 1 = 0 is 12 − 4(1)(1) < 0. Since the coefﬁcient of x2 is 1 > 0, the expression x2 + x + 1 is always positive, meaning that the required natural domain is all of R.

Algebra of Functions Aliter: Observe that x2 + x + 1 = x + 1 2

61

2

+

3 3 ≥ , 4 4

the square root is a real number for all real x. Hence the natural domain is R.

Homework

308 Problem Below are given some assignment rules. Verify that the accompanying set is the natural domain of the assignment rule. Assignment Rule x x→ x2 − 9 x→ Assignment Rule x→ x→ x→ x→ (1 − x)(x + 3) 1−x x+3 x+3 1−x Natural Domain x ∈ [−3; 1]. x ∈] − 3; 1] x ∈ [−3; 1[ x ∈] − 3; 1[ x→ x→ −|x| −||x| − 2| Natural Domain x ∈] − 3; 0] x=0 x ∈ {−2, 2} x ∈]0; +∞[ x ∈ R \ {0} x ∈] − ∞; 0[ ∅ (the empty set) x ∈] − 1; 0[ [−1; 1] ]0; +∞[ ]3; +∞[

1 (x + 3)(1 − x)

1 x 1 x→ x2 1 x→ −x 1 x→ −|x| 1 x→ √ x x+1 √ √ x → 1+x+ 1−x

309 Problem Find the natural domain for the given assignment rules.

311 Problem Find the natural domain for the rule f (x) = x3 − 12x. 312 Problem Find the natural domain of the rule 1 x→ √ . x2 − 2x − 2 313 Problem Find the natural domain for the following rules. x→ x→ −(x + 1)2 , 1 −(x + 1)2 h(x) = √ 1 x6 − 13x4 + 36x2 1 x5 − 13x3 + 36x 1 |x4 − 13x2 + 36|

x→ x→

4 3

1 1 + |x| 5 − |x|

x→

5 − |x| 1 x→ 2 x + 2x + 2 1 x→ √ 2 − 2x − 2 x

x→

1 |x − 1| + |x + 1| √ −x x→ 2 x −1 √ 1 − x2 x→ 1 − |x| √ √ x → x + −x

310 Problem Below are given some assignment rules. Verify that the accompanying set is the natural domain of the assignment rule.

f (x) = x1/2 √ 4 − 13x2 + 36 x g(x) = √ 4 3−x √ 4 − 13x2 + 36 x

j(x) = √

k(x) =

4.2 Algebra of Functions

314 Deﬁnition Let f : Dom ( f ) → R and g : Dom (g) → R. Then Dom ( f ± g) = Dom ( f ) ∩ Dom (g) and the sum (respectively, difference) function f + g (respectively, f − g) is given by f ±g : Dom ( f ) ∩ Dom (g) → x → R f (x) ± g(x) .

In other words, if x belongs both to the domain of f and g, then ( f ± g)(x) = f (x) ± g(x).

1] ∩ [0. 2] → x → R 3x + 2 . ( f + g)(−1) is undeﬁned. 1] → x → R x3 − 2x . 319 Example Let g: √ √ Then x3 − 2x = x(x − 2)(x + 2). ( f + g)(2) is undeﬁned.62 Chapter 4 315 Deﬁnition Let f : Dom ( f ) → R and g : Dom (g) → R. 1] \ {− 2. 1]. √ √ supp (g) = [0. ( f + g)(1) = f (1) + g(1) = 3 + 5 = 8. 0 2}. 2] = [0. 1]. √ √ supp (g) = R \ {− 2. 318 Example Let g: √ √ Then x3 − 2x = x(x − 2)(x + 2). denoted by supp (g) is the set of elements in Dom (g) where g does not vanish. Since 2 ∈ [0. Dom ( f g) is also Dom ( f ) ∩ Dom (g) = [0. ( f − g)(0) = f (0) − g(0) = 0 − 2 = −2. that is supp (g) = {x ∈ Dom (g) : g(x) = 0}. 1]. → . Then Dom ( f g) = Dom ( f ) ∩ Dom (g) and the product function f g is given by fg : Dom ( f ) ∩ Dom (g) → x In other words. ( f g)(1) = f (1)g(1) = (3)(5) = 15. ( f g)(1) ( f − g)(0) ( f + g)(2) [−1. Since −1 ∈ [0. g: [0. 1]. 0 2} =]0. then ( f g)(x) = f (x) · g(x). → x + 2x 317 Deﬁnition Let g : Dom (g) → R be a function. The support of g. Thus R x → → R x − 2x 3 . 1] → x R 2 R f (x) · g(x) . 316 Example Let f: Find Dom ( f ± g) Dom ( f g) ( f + g)(−1) ( f + g)(1) Solution: We have Dom ( f ± g) = Dom ( f ) ∩ Dom (g) = [−1. Thus [0. . if x belongs both to the domain of f and g. 1].

−1[∪] − 1. 3] → x → R x3 − x . if x belongs both to the domain of f and g and g(x) = 0. 0[∪]0. g g(x) In other words. supp ( f ) = [−2. as 2 ∈]0. 3] ∩ (]0. Dom Dom g f = Dom (g) ∩ supp ( f ) = [0. 5] ∩ ([−2. 0[∪]0. 3] f g = Dom ( f ) ∩ supp (g) = [−2. 3].Algebra of Functions f g 63 320 Deﬁnition Let f : Dom ( f ) → R and g : Dom (g) → R. 2[∪]2. Dom Solution: As x3 − x = x(x − 1)(x + 1). 2[∪]2. 3] f (2) is undeﬁned. 2[∪]2. 5]) =]0. g g(2) 0 g (2) = = = 0. 3] As x3 − 2x2 = x2 (x − 2). g(x) f f (x) (x) = . 2[∪]2. 5]. −1[∪] − 1. then 321 Example Let f: Find supp ( f ) supp (g) Dom f g g f f (2) g g (2) f f (1/3) g g (1/3) f [−2.” . g: [0. Then Dom f is given by g f Dom ( f ) ∩ supp (g) → : g x → = Dom ( f ) ∩ supp (g) and the quotient function R f (x) . f f (2) 6 −8 f 8 (1/3) = 27 = 5 g 5 − 27 −5 5 g (1/3) = 27 = 8 f 8 − 27 We are now going to consider “functions of functions. 5] → x → R x3 − 2x2 . 3]) =]0. supp (g) =]0.

but this last is undeﬁned. but this last is undeﬁned. We have g(0) = −4. Find ( f ◦ g)(x). Hence Im ( f ) = {−3. We deﬁne the composition function of f and g as U x → → R f (g(x)) f ◦g : We read f ◦ g as “ f composed with g. g: R x → → R 5x + 1 .1) We have Dom ( f ◦ g) = {x ∈ Dom (g) : g(x) ∈ Dom ( f )}. Dom ( f ◦ g) = {x ∈ Dom (g) : g(x) ∈ Dom ( f )} = {2}. . Find (g ◦ f )(x). Hence Im (g) = {−4. −1. Thus to ﬁnd Dom ( f ◦ g) we ﬁnd those elements of Dom (g) whose images are in Dom ( f ) ∩ Im (g) 323 Example Let f: {−2. g : Dom (g) → R and let U = {x ∈ Dom (g) : g(x) ∈ Dom ( f )}. 1. Dom (g ◦ f ) = {x ∈ Dom ( f ) : f (x) ∈ Dom (g)} = {0. g(3) = 5. 3. 5}. ( f ◦ g)(2) = f (g(2)) = f (0) = 1. Find (g ◦ f )(2). (g ◦ f )(2) = g( f (2)) = g(5). → R 2x + 1 . g(2) = 0. 1. ( f ◦ g)(0) = f (g(0)) = f (−4). 5}. Find Im (g). (g ◦ f )(0) = g( f (0)) = g(1) = −3. 3} x → → R x −4 2 ! . f (0) = 1. Find ( f ◦ g)(2). f (−1) = −1. Demonstrate that Im (g) = R. Is it ever true that ( f ◦ g)(x) = (g ◦ f )(x)? Solution: R → x → R 2x − 3 . 0. −1. Find Dom (g ◦ f ). Find Dom ( f ◦ g).64 Chapter 4 322 Deﬁnition Let f : Dom ( f ) → R. 2. f (2) = 5.” . Find ( f ◦ g)(0). g(1) = −3. 1. 324 Example Let f: Demonstrate that Im ( f ) = R. (4. 1}. f (1) = 3. g: {0. 2} → x Find Im ( f ). 0. −3. Find (g ◦ f )(0). Solution: We have f (−2) = −3.

Find g ◦ f . 2 = b. and since x → − x + 2 decreases steadily. 1] . 5 = b. +∞[ → x → R . Take b ∈ R. +∞[: − 3 ≤ − x + 2 ≤ 3} √ √ = {x ∈ [−2.Algebra of Functions Take b ∈ R. Dom ( f ◦ g) = {x ∈ Dom (g) : g(x) ∈ Dom ( f )} √ √ √ = {x ∈ [−2. we have shewn that Im (g) = R. √ − x+2 325 Example Consider Find Im ( f ). we have Im (g) =] − ∞. 3] → x → R 3 − x2 . But g(x) = b =⇒ 5x + 1 = b =⇒ x = Since b−1 b−1 is a real number satisfying g 5 5 b−1 . Find Dom ( f ◦ g). We must shew that ∃x ∈ R such that f (x) = b. But f (x) = b =⇒ 2x − 3 = b =⇒ x = Since b+3 is a real number satisfying f 2 b+3 2 65 b+3 . √ √ Assume y = − x + 2. +∞[: x ≤ 1} = [−2. 0]. we have shewn that Im ( f ) = R. which entails that −1 = −14. This makes sense only if − 3 ≤ y ≤ 3. Find Im (g). Moreover x = ± 3 − y2 . Find f ◦ g. f: √ √ [− 3. If then we would have ( f ◦ g)(x) = (g ◦ f )(x) 10x − 1 = 10x − 14 (g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)) = g(2x − 3) = 5(2x − 3) + 1 = 10x − 14. 3]. Then y ≤ 0. Find Dom (g ◦ f ). Hence Im ( f ) = [0. g: [−2. We have ( f ◦ g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f (5x + 1) = 2(5x + 1) − 3 = 10x − 1 We have (g ◦ f )(x). Then y ≥ 0. Solution: √ √ Assume y = √ 3 − x2 . +∞[: − 3 ≤ − x + 2 ≤ 0} = {x ∈ [−2. absolute nonsense! ! Composition of functions need not be commutative. We must shew that ∃x ∈ R such that g(x) = b.

√ √ Assume that y = 2 − x. 2] : 2 − x = 1} = ] − ∞. Dom (g ◦ f ) = {x ∈ Dom ( f ) : f (x) ∈ Dom (g)} √ √ = {x ∈ [− 3. All y ≥ 0 will render x = 2 − y2 in the appropriate range. Dom ( f ◦ g) = {x ∈ Dom (g) : g(x) ∈ Dom ( f )} √ = {x ∈] − ∞. Find Dom ( f ◦ g). y−2 Thus the equation is solvable only when y = 2. 1[∪]1. Thus Im ( f ) = R \ {2}. Find Dom (g ◦ f ). 3] : 3 − x2 ≥ 0} √ √ = [− 3. 2] √ 1 .66 √ √ ( f ◦ g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f (− x + 2) = 1 − x. g : x → x−1 R √ 2−x y . Solution: Assume y = 2x . Find g ◦ f . 2] → 2x . 1]. 1]. Find Im (g). 3] : 3 − x2 ≥ −2} √ √ = {x ∈ [− 3. +∞[. Chapter 4 ! Notice that Dom ( f ◦ g) = [−2. although the domain of deﬁnition of x → √1 − x is ] − ∞. ( f ◦ g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f ( 2 − x) = √ 2−x−1 Dom (g ◦ f ) = {x ∈ Dom ( f ) : f (x) ∈ Dom (g)} 2x = {x ∈ R \ {1} : ≤ 2} x−1 2 = {x ∈ R \ {1} : ≤ 0} x−1 = ] − ∞. x ∈ Dom (g) is solvable. and so Im (g) = [0. Find f ◦ g. Then x−1 y(x − 1) = 2x =⇒ yx − 2x = +y =⇒ x = R \ {1} x → → R ] − ∞. x ∈ Dom ( f ) is solvable. 3] (g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)) = g( 3 − x2 ) = − 3 − x2 + 2. Then y ≥ 0 since y = 2 − x is the square root of a (positive) real number. 326 Example Let f: Find Im ( f ). 1[ .

and ﬁgure 4. 1.8). Figure 4.2: x → ( f + g)(x) = 2x Figure 4.7).5: g f (x) = 1 − 2 x+1 Figure 4. g: [−4. a g x−1 2 parabola.4 shews their product x → x2 − 1.6). −1.4: x → ( f g)(x) = x2 − 1 Figure 4.1: f (x) = x + 1 and g(x) = x − 1 Figure 4. 3] x → → R x4 − 16 . 1. . a line. 2} x → → Z x2 .1 shews two functions x → f (x) = x + 1 and x → g(x) = x − 1.Algebra of Functions (g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)) = g 2x x−1 = 2− 2x = x−1 2 1−x 67 327 Example Figure 4.7: ( f ◦ g)(x) = x Figure 4.8: ( f ◦ f )(x) = x + 2 Homework 328 Problem Let Dom ( f + g) Dom ( f g) f Dom g g Dom f ( f + g)(2) ( f g)(2) 329 Problem Let f: Find {−2. ( f ◦ g) = Id 4. 0. a hyperbola with pole at x = −1 and asymptote at y = 1 (ﬁgure f x+1 x+1 f x+1 2 (x) = = 1+ .6: f g (x) = 1 + 2 x−1 Figure 4.3 shews the difference x → ( f − g)(x) = 2. and x → ( f ◦ f )(x) = x + 2 (ﬁgure 4. 2] x → → R |x| − 4 .3: x → ( f − g)(x) = 2 Figure 4. 2} x → → Z 2x . g: {0. We also have x → (x) = = 1− .5). ﬁgure 4. a horizontal line. x → g x−1 x−1 (ﬁgure 4. f (2) g g (2) f f (1) g g (1) f f: [−5.2 shews their sum x → 2x. a hyperbola with pole at x = 1 and asymptote at y = 1 (ﬁgure 4. f g Figure 4.

Find (g ◦ f )(x). 2. h : R → R be functions. g(1) = g(2) = 2. 4} → {1. g: ] − ∞. b. 10. Find Dom (g ◦ f ). such f (2x) = 2 f (x). Chapter 4 334 Problem Let f . Find Dom ( f ◦ g). g(3) = g(4) − 1 = 1. f (1 − x) = x2 . with f (x) = ﬁnd all x for which (g ◦ f )(x) = ( f ◦ g)(x). x−1 338 Problem Let f : R → R. Find ( f ◦ f )(x). Compute ( f ◦ f ◦ f ◦ f ◦ f )(2) + f (g(2) + 2). Find Im (g). 1 . 0] x → → R . f [n+1] = f ◦ f [n] . Find a closed formula for f [n] 340 Problem Let f [1] (x) = f (x) = 2x. 330 Problem Let f . f (4) = 1993. 1993} be given by f (1) = 1. g: [−2. Find (g ◦ f )(x). Find Im (g). a2 ) ∈ (Dom ( f ))2 . 2] x → → R 4 − x2 .3 Injections and Surjections 343 Deﬁnition A function f : Dom ( f ) → a → Target ( f ) f (a) is said to be injective or one-to-one if (a1 . Find a closed formula for f [n] 341 Problem Let f [1] = f be given by f (x) = (i) f [2] = f ◦ f . c(t) = 5 demonstrate that (a ◦ b)(t) (b ◦ a)(t) (b ◦ c)(t) (c ◦ b)(t) (c ◦ a)(t) (a ◦ b ◦ c)(t) (c ◦ b ◦ a)(t) (a ◦ c ◦ b)(t) 332 Problem Let f: [2. √ − −x 3 c cx 342 Problem Let f : R \ {− } → R \ { }. (ii) f [3] = f ◦ f ◦ f . Find Im ( f ). If ( f ◦ f )( 2) = − 2 ﬁnd the value of a. h(1) = h(2) = h(3) = h(4) + 1 = 2. Find Dom (g ◦ f ). 3. Find ( f ◦ g)(x). a1 = a2 =⇒ f (a1 ) = f (a2 ). Find the value of c. + 2[ → f: x → R 2 − x2 . g : R \ {1} → R. c : R → R are functions with a(t) = t − 2. and (iii) f [69] = f ◦ f ◦··· f ◦ f 69 compositions with itself Find Im ( f ). 2. x → be such that 2 2 2x + 3 ( f ◦ f )(x) = x. Find 2+x 336 Problem Let f :]0 : +∞[→]0 : +∞[. n ≥ 1. Find Im (g). Compute ( f + g + h)(3) Compute ( f g + gh + h f )(4). Compute f (1 + h(3)). (t − 2)3 Find Dom ( f ◦ g). 335 Problem √ f : R → R be the function deﬁned by √ Let √ f (x) = ax2 − 2 for some positive a. n ≥ 1. f (2) = 2. b(t) = t 3 . Prove that their composition is associative f ◦ (g ◦ h) = ( f ◦ g) ◦ h whenever the given expressions make sense. f (3) = 10. = = = = = = = = t3 − 2 125 5 5 123 5 3 337 Problem Let f . 333 Problem Let √ √ [− 2. 339 Problem Let f [1] (x) = f (x) = x + 1. 2 . . h : {1. 4. g. Find Dom (g ◦ f ). Find 1−x . Find Dom ( f ◦ g). 4 .68 Find Im ( f ). +∞[ x → → R √ x−2 . g(x) = 2x. 331 Problem If a. f [n+1] = f ◦ f [n] . Find ( f ◦ g)(x). g.

R \ {1} x → → R \ {1} x+1 x−1 .11: A surjection Figure 4. That is.10.9: An injection.9 is an injective function. we must prove that (∀ b ∈ R) (∃a) such that g(a) = b. f is bijective if it is both injective and surjective. The number a is said to the the pre-image of b.10: Not an injection Figure 4. The function γ represented by diagram 4. 346 Example Prove that t: is a bijection.Injections and Surjections That is. Figure 4. To prove that g is surjective.12 is not surjective as 8 does not have a preimage. 2 b−1 .11 is surjective. The function δ represented by diagram 4. Then g(s1 ) = g(s2 ) =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ 2s1 + 1 = 2s2 + 1 2s1 s1 = = 2s2 s2 R → s → R 2s + 1 We have shewn that g(s1 ) = g(s2 ) =⇒ s1 = s2 . Solution: Assume g(s1 ) = g(s2 ). 344 Example The function α in the diagram 4. however is not injective. 69 f is said to be surjective or onto if Target ( f ) = Im ( f ). and the function is thus injective. The function represented by the diagram 4. since β (3) = β (1) = 4. ! 1 2 3 α 2 8 4 1 2 3 β 4 2 1 2 3 γ 4 2 1 2 δ 4 2 8 Figure 4. but 3 = 1. f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) =⇒ a1 = a2 . It is easy to see that a graphical criterion for a function to be injective is that every horizontal line crossing the function must meet it at most one point and one for a function to be surjective is that every horizontal line passing through a point of the target set (a subset of the y-axis) of the function must also meet the curve. We choose a so that a = g(a) = g b−1 2 =2 b−1 + 1 = b − 1 + 1 = b. Then 2 Our choice of a works and hence the function is surjective.12: Not a surjection 345 Example Prove that g: is a bijection. if (∀b ∈ B) (∃a ∈ A) such that f (a) = b.

Hence b − a = 0 in all cases. Therefore a − b = 0 which is to say a = b. we must prove that (∀ b ∈ R) (∃a) such that h(a) = b. +∞[ w2 is not injective. Then h(a) = h(b) =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ Now. Solution: Assume h(b) = h(a). it is only the right half of a parabola opening up. Then t(a) = t(b) =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ a+1 = a−1 (a + 1)(b − 1) = 2a a = = b+1 b−1 (b + 1)(a − 1) 2b b Chapter 4 ab − a + b − 1 = ab − b + a − 1 We have proved that t(a) = t(b) =⇒ a = b. . We have shewn that h(b) = h(a) =⇒ b = a. b are positive real numbers. 349 Example If we however restrict h in example 348 to the positive reals. But t(a) = y ⇐⇒ a+1 1+y = y ⇐⇒ ya − y = a + 1 ⇐⇒ ya − a = 1 + y ⇐⇒ a = . which shews that t is injective.70 Solution: Assume t(a) = t(b). R → x → R x3 a3 = b3 (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2 ) = 0 a3 − b3 = 0 a 2 3a2 + . a−1 1−y This last expression makes sense for y = 1 and thus t is surjective. Assume now that j(a) = j(b) with a. a + b > 0. Since a. Then h(a) = h(b1/3 ) = (b1/3 )3 = b. To prove that t is surjective. 2 4 This shews that b2 + ab + a2 is positive unless both a and b are zero. We can prove this analytically as follows. Our choice of a works and hence the function is surjective. as j: [0. We choose a so that a = b1/3 . For h(−2) = h(2) = 4 but −2 = 2. Clearly if j(s) = 0 then s = 0. +∞[ w2 then j is injective. Then a2 = b2 which is to say (a − b)(a + b) = 0. we must be able to ﬁnd a solution a with t(a) = y for y = 1. 347 Example Prove that h: is a bijection. b2 + ab + a2 = b + To prove that h is surjective. b positive. most vertical lines crossing h meet the parabola at two points. 348 Example Observe that h: R → w → [0. +∞[ → w → [0. and the function is thus injective. The graph of h is a full parabola opening up and in fact. For.

b}. whence f is injective. (4. f : R → R. g : F → G be two functions. z} and v : {x. 359 Theorem A function f : A → B is invertible if and only if it is a bijection. 3} → {a. c} → {x. x → x4 354 Problem Prove that f : R 2x is not surjective. Then there is a function f −1 : B → A such that f ◦ f −1 = Id B and f −1 ◦ f = Id A . y. Proof: Assume ﬁrst that f is invertible.4 Inversion 358 Deﬁnition Let A × B ⊆ R2 . x → 1 f : {1. Then f (x) = b =⇒ x1/3 b3 . Consider the functions u : {a. we observe that u and v are bijections and that the domain of u is the image of v and vice-versa. f (3) = b 3 353 Problem Prove that f : R \ {−1} → R \ {1} given by x−1 f (x) = is a bijection. 1/3 355 Problem Classify each of the following as injective. A function F : A → B is said to be invertible if there exists a function F −1 (called the inverse of F) such that F ◦ F −1 = Id B and F −1 ◦ F = Id A . x+1 R \ {1} x but that g : R \ {1} x → → → → R \ {2} is surjective 2x x+1 f : [0. Homework 351 Problem Prove that h : R → R given by h(s) = 3 − s is a bijection. This example motivates the following theorem. To prove that f is not surjective assume that f (x) = b. c} as given by diagram 4. x → |x| f (1) = f (2) = a. +∞[→ [0. +∞[→ R. It is clear the v undoes whatever u does. x+1 356 Problem Let f : E → F. x → −|x| f : R → [0. g : F → G be two functions. +∞[. 2. b. surjective. Prove that if g ◦ f is surjective then g is surjective. 352 Problem Prove that g : R → R given by g(x) = x bijection.Inversion R \ {1} x Solution: We have f (a) = f (b) =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ → → 71 350 Example Prove that f : R is injective but not surjective. +∞[→ R.13. Prove that if g ◦ f is injective then f is injective. bijective or neither. x1/3 x1/3 − 1 a1/3 a1/3 − 1 1/3 1/3 a b − a1/3 −a1/3 a b1/3 b1/3 − 1 1/3 1/3 = a b − b1/3 = = = −b1/3 b.2) . and so there is no real x such that f (x) = 1. x → x f : [0. f : R → R. +∞[. y. Furthermore. x → x4 is a f : R → {1}. Here Id S is the identity on the set S function with rule Id S (x) = x. 4. = b =⇒ x = (b − 1)3 x1/3 − 1 The expression for x is not a real number when b = 1. z} → {a. x → |x| f : [0. b. b ∈ R. 357 Problem Let f : E → F.

the graph of a function f is symmetric with its inverse with respect to the line y = x. x) are symmetric with respect to the line y = x. Assume now that f is a bijection. Then f (a) = f ( f −1 (b)) = ( f ◦ f −1 )(b) = b by deﬁnition of inverse function. Figure 4. we have 2g−1 (x) + 1 = x. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −8−7−6−5−4−3−2−1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 −8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −8−7−6−5−4−3−2−1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 −8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −8−7−6−5−4−3−2−1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 −8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −1 −8−7−6−5−4−3−2−1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 −8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Figure 4.13: A function and its inverse. Figure 4. g: is a bijection. Solving for x−1 . To prove that f is surjective we must shew that for every b ∈ f (A) ∃a ∈ A such that f (a) = b. Applying f −1 to both sides of this equality we get ( f −1 ◦ f )(s) = ( f −1 ◦ f )(t). We conclude that if f is invertible then it is also a bijection.17: Example 363. 360 Example By Example 345. We take a = f −1 (b) (observe that f −1 (b) ∈ A). Hence f (s) = f (t) =⇒ s = t implying that f is injective. 2 R → x → R 2x + 1 . Find the inverse of g. By the deﬁnition of inverse function. We may thus take f −1 = g. It is clear that g ◦ f = Id A and f ◦ g = Id B . For every b ∈ B there exists a unique a such that f (a) = b. f (x)) and ( f (x).15: Example 361. ! b a c u y x z y x z v b a c Figure 4. ( f −1 ◦ f )(s) = s and ( f −1 ◦ f )(t) = t.16: Example 362. The inverse of g is thus g−1 (x) we obtain g−1 (x) = 2 g−1 : R → x → R x−1 .72 Chapter 4 Let us prove that f is injective and surjective. Figure 4. (x. This makes the rule g : B → A given by g(b) = a a function. Thus s = t.14: Example 360. This shews that f is surjective. This concludes the proof. Let s. u Since by Theorem 141. Since g(g−1 (x)) = x.t be in the domain of f and such that f (s) = f (t). Solution: The graph of a is a line non-parallel to any of the axes.

√ x [0. Find the inverse assignment rule f −1 . The graph of b and its inverse appear in ﬁgure 4. so in order to ﬁnd an inverse. Solution: The expression under the square root must be positive.Inversion The graphs of g (dashed). +∞[ → ] − ∞. Solving for b−1 (x) we obtain b−1 (x) = x1/3 . Find the image of the natural domain of f and ﬁnd the natural domain of f −1 . f is not injective in this natural domain. +∞[ → x → [0.14. g−1 : [0. +∞[ x2 73 The graph of f (dashed). 361 Example f: has inverse f −1 : [0. +∞[ . −1[∪]1. Since f (−x) = f (x). +∞]. The graphs of g (dashed).17. 364 Example Consider the rule 1 f (x) = √ . 0] . Solution: Since b(b−1 (x)) = x. g−1 (solid) and the line y = x appear in ﬁgure 4. we have (b−1 (x))3 = x. Conclude. R → x → R x3 We will see in Theorem 375 how to graph b. f −1 (solid) and the line y = x (dotted) appear in ﬁgure 4. . 362 Example g: has inverse x → √ g−1 (x) = − x. Hence x4 − 1 > 0 and the natural domain is ] − ∞. 0] → x → [0. √ − x ] − ∞.16. +∞[ x2 363 Example Let b: Find the inverse of b. 4 −1 x Find the natural domain of f . we must restrict the domain to where f is injective. The inverse of b is b−1 : R x → → R x1/3 . +∞[ → x → [0.15. g−1 (solid) and the identity function (dotted) appear in ﬁgure 4.

f (x) = x+2 370 Problem Let f . on the other hand. Now exchange x and y and solve for y: x= 1 y4 − 1 =⇒ x2 (y4 − 1) = 1 =⇒ y4 = x2 + 1 . 2. 1993} be given by f (1) = 1. ]0. x x+2 Assignment Rule √ x → 2−x 1 x→ √ 2−x 2 + x3 x→ 2 − x3 1 x→ 3 x −1 Natural Domain ] − ∞. +∞[ R \ {−1} R \ {0} Inverse x → 2 − x2 1 x → 2− 2 x 2x − 2 x→ 3 x+1 1 3 x → 1+ x c: Prove that c is bijective and ﬁnd the inverse of c. g(x) = 2x + 8 and 1 ﬁnd (g ◦ f −1 )(−2). 4} → {1. f : R \ {−2} → R \ {0}. The image of the natural domain of f is. 366 Problem Consider the rule f (x) = √ 3 1 x5 − 1 . Shew that f ◦ g is invertible and that ( f ◦ g)−1 = g−1 ◦ f −1 . 2. 369 Problem Given g : R → R. x2 The expression for f −1 (x) is undeﬁned when x = 0 (notice that it is always positive). have the claimed inverses. Hence the natural domain of f −1 is R \ {0}. g : A → A be invertible. 368 Problem Let f . +∞[ 1 √ 4 −1 x ]1. 10. h(1) = h(2) = h(3) = h(4) + 1 = 2.74 Put Chapter 4 1 y= √ . . h : {1. x2 Since y > 0 we choose the plus sign and so y= Hence f −1 (x) = 4 4 x2 + 1 . +∞[ ]0. f (4) = 1993. +∞[ → x → ]1. g. Find the inverse assignment rule f −1 . +∞[. f (3) = 10. 4 −1 x Observe that y > 0. 2[ √ 3 R \ { 2} R \ {1} Image [0. The function f: is a bijection with inverse f −1 : ]0. Is f invertible? Why? If so. Find the image of the natural domain of f and the natural domain of f −1 . Homework 365 Problem Let R \ {−2} x → → R \ {1} . +∞[ x2 + 1 x2 . 2] ] − ∞. x2 x2 + 1 . f (2) = 2. 367 Problem Verify that the functions below. +∞[ → x → ]0. 3. Conclude. g(1) = g(2) = 2. what is f −1 ( f (h(4)))? Is g one-to-one? Why? Find the natural domain of f . with their domains and images. g(3) = g(4) − 1 = 1.

2[∪]3. −2. 5) 4 − x2 − 2. 6) ] − 1. 2[∪]3. 1 − 3[∪]1 + 3. [−4. (3) 10. For which parameters a and b is f = f −1 ? k=1 ∑ 9 k 10 2 + k 10 < 9. 2. −2. that 371 Problem Prove that t : . +∞[ √ √ 311 [−2 3. . f [3] (x) = f (x + 2) = (x + 2) + 1 = x + 3 and so. f (x) = ax + b. 2. +∞[. −3[∪] − 2. f [3] (x) = f (22 x) = 23 x and so. +∞[ R \ {−3. 5) 2 + x. 0] 3) [−2. √ 2 2 8 4+x 335 336 337 x = 1/3. recursively.18: Problem 374.Inversion ] − ∞. 372 Problem Let f : R → R. 1 − 3[∪]1 + 3. without using a calculator. {−1} ∅ [0. 5] R R √ √ ] − ∞. 1}. (2) 5981. 4} 2) {0. 0] 0 undeﬁned 5 1 5 329 1){−4. 0] ∪ [2 3. 6) − − 2 − x2 . 2[∪]3. +∞[ ]3. 4} 3) {0. 1. (4) 1995 √ 6 − x. +∞[ 328 [−4. 4) [2. 0. +∞[ is a bijection √ 1−x 373 Problem Prove that if ab = −4 and f : R \ {2/b} → R \ {2/b}. +∞] 2) [0. 2x + a then f = f −1 . 339 We have f [2] (x) = f (x + 1) = (x + 1) + 1 = x + 2. +∞[. 6]. 2[ −2 0 338 ( f ◦ f )(x) = 4x2 − 4x3 + x4 . f [n] (x) = 2n x. 2}. 2] √ √ √ √ 333 1) [0. 0]. recursively. √ √ 312 x ∈] − ∞. 4) {− 2. 2}. 2] ] − 4. Answers 309 R [−5. 340 We have f [2] (x) = f (2x) = 22 x. f [n] (x) = x + n. 2] 3) {0}. −2[∪] − 2. f (x) = bx − 2 374 Problem Prove. +∞[ ] − 3. −1[∪] − 1. 1] x and ﬁnd t −1 75 → → [0. 330 (1) 13. 313 They are ] − ∞.5 V9 V8 V7 V6 V5 V4 V3 V2 V1 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 Figure 4. 2] 2) ] − ∞. 0[∪]0. 1[ {0} R ] − ∞. 3} 332 1) [0. 4) {0. 2] [−4. −2[∪]0.

+∞[ . not injective. Since there is no x such that g(x) = 2 and 2 ∈ Target (g). so not surjective. There is no a with f (a) = −1. surjective. b ∈ R \ {2}. . there is no a with f (a) = −1. each rectangle Vk has its lower left corner at (0. We see that f is cyclic of period 3. non-injective since. x+1 2−b f −1 : R \ {0} x → → Thus as long as b = 2 there is x ∈ R with f (x) = b. . 365 Since c(c−1 (x)) = x. Hence x5 = 1 and the natural domain is R \ {1}. 0). f is a bijection. = x 1 − x−1 x [4] (x) = ( f ◦ f [3] )(x) = f ( f [3] (x)) = f (x) = f [1] (x). but it is never 0. f −1 ( f (h(4))) = h(4) = 1. +∞[ x → → [0. The collective area of these rectangles is lower left corner at ( . f [3] = f [6] = f [9] = . As x varies in R \ {1}. The 1−x 1−x c−1 (x) + 2 c−1 : R \ {1} x → → R \ {−2} 2 1−x is . base 10 10 10 1 2 + 10 2 2 + 10 3 2 + 10 9 2 + 10 1 10 1 + 10 2 + 10 3 +···+ 10 9 10 x= Since these grey rectangles do not intersect with the green squares on the corners.. injective. . 3 5 x −1 −1 (x) is undeﬁned when x = 0. b = 0 or a = −1 and b arbitrary. surjective. f [2] = f [5] = f [8] = . Chapter 4 1 assumes all positive and negative values. Hence f [69] (x) = f [3] (x) = x. √ x 366 We have The expression under the cubic root must not be 0. that is. 2) No 371 t −1 : [0.18. 1 k k ). =⇒ x3 (y5 − 1) = 1 =⇒ y = 3 5 x3 y −1 1 . so not surjective. 1 x 1 − 1−x x−1 1 (ii) f [3] (x) = ( f ◦ f ◦ f )(x) = f ( f [2] (x))) = f = x. base and height . +∞[ x2 −2 + → → [0. . 3 5 x −1 In diagram 4. x3 1 10 1 + 10 2 + 10 3 +···+ 10 9 10 < 95 . The expression for f is R \ {0}. 100 . the expression The function f: R \ {1} x → → R \ {0} 1 3 5 x −1 342 c = −3 354 We must shew that there is a solution x for the equation f (x) = b. say. f (1) = f (−1) so not injective. . as proved in text. Put y= Now exchange x and y and solve for y: 1 5 x3 + 1 . so not surjective. 1] 1 − x2 372 Either a = 1. +∞[ x → → ] − ∞. .76 341 We have (i) f [2] (x) = ( f ◦ f )(x) = f ( f (x)) = x−1 1 = . there is no a with |a| = −1. bijective. Hence the natural domain of f −1 Thus Im ( f ) = R \ {0}. | − 1| = |1| but −1 = 1. We thus conclude that 100 100 100 1 2 + 10 2 2 + 10 3 2 + 10 9 2 + 10 Hence f −1 (x) = 5 x3 + 1 . neither. say. . 374 The inverse of f: [0. their collective area is less than the area 1 4 95 of the unit square minus these smaller squares: 1 − − = . injective. (iii) Notice that f f [1] = f [14] = f [7] = . 355 neither. 368 1) Yes. we have inverse of c is therefore 2x 2 c−1 (x) = x. g is not surjective. Now is a bijection with inverse f (x) = b =⇒ 2x b = b =⇒ x = . f (−1) = f (1) so not injective. |1| = | − 1| so not injective. f −1 : [0. surjective. +∞[ x 369 3 5 x3 + 1 x3 R \ {1} . Solving for c−1 (x) we obtain c−1 (x) = = −2 + . . Each rectangle Hk has 10 10 10 1 k 2 k and height ( ) . non-surjective since. there is no a with −|a| = 1.

1 Power Functions By a power function we mean a function of the form x → xα . 77 . For n = 2. For n = 1.1: x → 1. which bisects the ﬁrst and third quadrant. which is equivalent to (λ 3 − λ )a3 + ((1 − λ )3 − (1 − λ ))b3 + 3λ (1 − λ )ab(λ a + (1 − λ )b). We have already encountered a few instances of power functions. we are interested in how to graph x → xn .3 for easy reference. whose graph is the straight line y = x.3: x → x2 . Figure 5. We now deduce properties for the cube function. Proof: Consider Cube(λ a + (1 − λ )b) − λ Cube(a) − (1 − λ )Cube(b).Chapter 5 Polynomial Functions 5. we have the square function x → x2 whose graph is the parabola y = x2 encountered in example 165. which is equivalent to (λ a + (1 − λ )b)3 − λ a3 − (1 − λ )b3 . where α ∈ R.2: x → x. Figure 5. In this chapter we will only study the case when α is a positive integer. 375 Theorem (Graph of the Cubic Function) The graph of the cubic function Cube : R → x → R x3 is concave for x < 0 and convex for x > 0. x → x3 is an increasing odd function and Im (Cube) = R. Figure 5. the function x → 1 is a constant function. the function x → x is the identity function. We reproduce their graphs below in ﬁgures 5. whose graph is the straight line y = 1 parallel to the x-axis. If n is a positive integer.1 through 5. For n = 0.

. 0[2 then −(λ a + (1 − λ )b + b + a) ≥ 0 and so x → x3 is concave for x ≥ 0.8: y = x5 . +∞[2 then λ a + (1 − λ )b ≥ 0 by lemma 273 and so −(λ (a − b) + 2b + a) = −(λ a + (1 − λ )b + b + a). Cube(λ a + (1 − λ )b) − λ Cube(a) − (1 − λ )Cube(b) has the same sign as If (a. f is decreasing for x < 0. f is increasing. if (a. Figure 5. Figure 5. b) ∈]0.9: y = x7 . 1]. f (−∞) = f (+∞) = +∞. f (−∞) = −∞ and f (+∞) = +∞. Also. Since λ (1 − λ )(a − b)2 ≥ 0 for λ ∈ [0. u Figure 5. • if n is odd. and f is convex for x > 0. −(λ a + (1 − λ )b + b + a) ≤ 0 meaning that Cube is convex for x ≥ 0.4: y = x2 . 4 Cube is a strictly increasing function. Figure 5. The equation y = x3 has a solution for every y ∈ R and so Im (Cube) = R. As Cube(−x) = (−x)3 = −x3 = −Cube(x). Since for a < b a Cube(b) − Cube(a) b3 − a3 = = b2 + ab + b2 = b + b−a b−a 2 2 Chapter 5 + 3a2 > 0.7. f is convex. Figure 5. Similarly. 376 Theorem Let n ≥ 2 be an integer and f (x) = xn .78 which is equivalent to −(1 − λ )(1 + λ )λ a3 + (−λ 3 + 3λ 2 − 2λ )b3 + 3λ (1 − λ )ab(λ a + (1 − λ )b). Figure 5. f is concave for x < 0. and f is increasing for x > 0. which in turn is equivalent to (1 − λ )λ (−(1 + λ )a3 + (λ − 2)b3 + 3ab(λ a + (1 − λ )b)). Also if y ∈ Im (Cube) then there is x ∈ R such that x3 = Cube(x) = y.5: y = x4 . Then • if n is even. b) ∈] − ∞. This proves the claim. Also. the cubic function is an odd function. This last expression factorises as −λ (1 − λ )(a − b)2 (λ (a − b) + 2b + a).6: y = x6 . The graph of x → x3 appears in ﬁgure 5.7: y = x3 .

the ﬂatter the graph (closer to the x-axis) will be. n Table 5. 377 Example Figures 5.1: x → x . Figure 5. then we call the function x → mx a linear function.10 through 5. Similarly for the graphs of y = x3 . For −1 ≤ x ≤ 1.10: y = (x − 1)3 + 1 Figure 5. . the higher the exponent. For |x| ≥ 1. This information is summarised in the tables below. however.12 shew a few transformations of the function x → x3 . The graphs of y = x2 .Afﬁne Functions 79 x −∞ 0 +∞ x −∞ ց 0 +∞ f (x) = x n ր 0 ր f (x) = x n ր 0 Table 5.11: y = |(x − 1)3 + 1| Figure 5. since |x| < 1 =⇒ · · · < x6 < x4 < x2 < 1.. we call x → k a constant function. k be real number constants.2: x → xn . y = x6 . y = x5 . y = x7 etc.2 Afﬁne Functions 379 Deﬁnition Let m.12: y = (|x| − 1)3 + 1 Homework 378 Problem Draw the following curves. the steeper the graph will be since |x| > 1 =⇒ · · · > x6 > x4 > x2 > 1. y = x4 . k = 0. with n > 0 integer and even. etc. A function of the form x → mx + k is called an afﬁne function. the higher the exponent. with n > 0 integer and odd. y = x6 − 1 y = 2 − x5 y = |2 − x5 | y = 2 − |x|5 5. In the particular case that m = 0. If. resemble one other.

with a = 0. u 2a The information of Theorem 381 is summarised in the following tables. decreases if x < − and increases if x > − . The analysis of − f yields the case for a < 0. b. + = a x+ 2a 4a → → R ax2 + bx + c 4ac − b2 b units and a vertical translation units of the square 2a 4a 2 function x → x and so it follows from example 177 and Theorems 217 and 228. Proof: Put f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. If b b a > 0 the parabola has a local minimum at x = − and it is convex. the graph of the function x → mx + k is a straight line. . The equation 382 Deﬁnition The point − y = a x+ b 2a 2 + 4ac − b2 4a is called the canonical equation of the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c. We also know that x → mx + k is strictly k increasing if m > 0 and strictly decreasing if m < 0. +∞ x −∞ ց − k m +∞ 0 f (x) = mx + k 0 ց Table 5. If a < 0 the parabola has a local maximum at x = − 2a 2a and it is concave. 381 Theorem Let a = 0. ax2 + bx + c = a x2 + 2 b b2 b2 x+ 2 +c− 2a 4a 4a b 2 4ac − b2 . If m = 0 then mx + k = 0 =⇒ x = − . with m > 0. 2a 4a The quantity b2 − 4ac is called the discriminant of ax2 + bx + c. Then f is convex. meaning that x → mx + k has a m k unique zero (crosses the x-axis) at x = − . b. Then its graph is a parabola.4: x → mx + k. c be real numbers.3: x → mx + k. with m < 0. This information is summarised in the following tables. c be real numbers and let x → ax2 + bx + c be a quadratic function. Completing squares. A function of the form f: R x is called a quadratic function with leading coefﬁcient a. 5. lies on the parabola and it is called the vertex of the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c. and so it has a 2a 2a b minimum at x = − . m x −∞ − k m ր f (x) = mx + k ր Table 5.3 Quadratic Functions 380 Deﬁnition Let a. and the Theorem is proved. that the graph of f is a parabola. and hence this is a horizontal translation − b b Assume ﬁrst that a > 0. b 4ac − b2 .80 Chapter 5 By virtue of Theorem 121.

4a b 2 b2 − 4ac = 2 2a √ 4a b2 − 4ac b =± ⇐⇒ x + 2a √ 2|a| −b ± b2 − 4ac ⇐⇒ x = . If b2 − 4ac > 0 then the parabola has two distinct real roots. This is illustrated in ﬁgure 5. 2a . Proof: By Theorem 381 we have ax2 + bx + c = a x + and so b 2a 2 + 4ac − b2 . 0 on the x-axis. with a > 0.14: One real zero. Finally.Quadratic Functions 81 x −∞ ց − b 2a ր +∞ x −∞ − b 2a +∞ f (x) = ax2 + bx + c ր 0 ց f (x) = ax + bx + c 2 0 Table 5. x = − b .15: Two real zeros. b. b !The parabola x → ax + bx + c is symmetric about the vertical line x = − 2a passing through its vertex. 2a b would be the only root of this equation.1) If a = 0.13: No real zeroes. with a < 0. Figure 5. Table 5. c are real numbers and b2 − 4ac = 0. the parabola x → ax2 + bx + c is tangent to the x-axis and has one (repeated) real root. 383 Corollary (Quadratic Formula) The roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are given by the formula √ −b ± b2 − 4ac ax2 + bx + c = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 2a (5.14.5: x → ax2 + bx + c. 2 Figure 5. Figure 5. and so the parabola is tangent there.6: x → ax2 + bx + c. if b2 − 4ac < 0 the parabola has two complex roots. ax2 + bx + c = 0 ⇐⇒ x+ If b2 − 4ac = 0 then the vertex of the parabola is at − Also. 2a where we have dropped the absolute values on the last line because the only effect of having a < 0 is to change from ± to ∓.

f will be increasing for x > and it . 2 b2 − 4ac √ √ −b + b2 − 4ac −b − b2 − 4ac and are is a complex number = 0 and so If b − 4ac < 0. Determine the intervals of monotonicity of f and its convexity. then is a real number = 0 and so 2a 2a numbers.16 through 5.16. 2 2 2 Figure 5.18: y = |x|2 − 5|x| + 3 . Since the leading coefﬁcient of f is positive. u 2 b2 − 4ac ! If a quadratic has real roots. +∞ . f (x) = 0 ⇐⇒ x2 − 5x + 3 = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 2(1) 2 √ √ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ≈ 0. then 2a 2a distinct complex numbers. and hence y = f (0) = 3 is the y-intercept. Find the x-intercepts and y-intercepts of f . Determine the set of real numbers x for which f (x) > 0. 4 5 5 13 . Solution: Completing squares y = x2 − 5x + 3 = x − From this the vertex is at 5 2 2 − 13 .17: y = |x2 − 5x + 3| Figure 5.− 2 4 2 5 will be decreasing for x < and f is concave for all real values of x.15.18. Write this parabola in canonical form and hence ﬁnd the vertex of f . and y = f (|x|).82 Chapter 5 √ √ −b + b2 − 4ac −b − b2 − 4ac and are distinct If b − 4ac > 0. √ −(−5) ± (−5)2 − 4(1)(3) 5 ± 13 = . Graph y = f (x).697224362 and ≈ 4.13. By the quadratic formula. or x ∈ . Observe that 2 2 The graphs appear in ﬁgures 5. 2 For x = 0. This is illustrated in ﬁgure 5. This is illustrated in ﬁgure 5.16: y = x2 − 5x + 3 Figure 5. y = | f (x)|. 384 Example Consider the quadratic function f (x) = x2 − 5x + 3. then the vertex lies on a line crossing the midpoint between the roots.302775638. f (0) = 02 − 5 · 0 + 3 = 3. √ √ 5 + 13 5 − 13 From the graph in ﬁgure 5. x − 5x + 3 > 0 for values x ∈ −∞ .

By Corollary 385. and c r1 r2 = . if a = 0. Since 2 2 = p(1) =⇒ 2 = a(12 − 2(1) − 4) =⇒ a = − .Quadratic Functions 385 Corollary If a = 0. then ax2 + bx + c has the same sign as a. a any quadratic can be written in the form ax2 + bx + c = a x2 + bx c + a a = a x2 − (r1 + r2 )x + r1 r2 = a(x − r1 )(x − r2 ). Another way of seeing this is to complete squares and notice the inequality 1 2 7 7 + ≥ . Solution: The discriminant is 12 − 4(2)(1) = −7 < 0. . since its leading coefﬁcient is 2 > 0. By Corollary 383. 2x2 + x + 1 = 2 x + 4 8 8 since x + 1 4 2 being the square of a real number. b. c are real numbers and if b2 − 4ac = 0 then the numbers √ √ −b + b2 − 4ac −b − b2 − 4ac and r2 = r1 = 2a 2a are distinct solutions of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. Find its equation. b. Solution: Observe that the sum of the roots is √ √ r1 + r2 = 1 − 5 + 1 + 5 = 2 and the product of the roots is Hence p has the form p(x) = a x2 − (r1 + r2 )x + r1 r2 = a(x2 − 2x − 4). Since b r1 + r2 = − . 5 √ √ √ r1 r2 = (1 − 5)(1 + 5) = 1 − ( 5)2 = 1 − 5 = −4. and 4ac − b2 > 0. 5 p(x) = − 2 2 x − 2x − 4 .1 the polynomial sought is 1 As a shortcut for this multiplication you may wish to recall the difference of squares identity: (a − b)(a + b) = a2 − b2 . c are real numbers and if b2 − 4ac < 0. q(x) > 0 regardless of the value of x. is ≥ 0. x+ + 4ac − b2 4a2 > 0 and so ax2 + bx + c has the same sign as a. hence the roots are complex. Proof: Since ax2 + bx + c = a b 2a 2 83 x+ b 2a 2 + 4ac − b2 4a2 . √ 387 Example A quadratic polynomial p has 1 ± 5 as roots and it satisﬁes p(1) = 2. u 386 Example Prove that the quantity q(x) = 2x2 + x + 1 is positive regardless of the value of x. a We call a(x − r1 )(x − r2 ) a factorisation of the quadratic ax2 + bx + c.

393 Problem Let 0 ≤ a. A root of p is a solution to the equation p(x) = 0. 400 Problem Solve 9 + x−4 = 10x−2 . It is known that for each additional tree planted.84 Chapter 5 Homework 388 Problem Let R1 = {(x. etc. where the ak are constants. R3 = {(x. If the ak are all integers then we say that p has integer coefﬁcients. Find: the current fruit production of the orchard. R2 = {(x. b. Prove that at least one of the 1 . 398 Problem Solve x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 = 0. and we write p(x) ∈ Z[x]. 396 Problem Find all the real solutions to (x2 + 2x − 3)2 = 2. 24). y) ∈ R2 |y ≥ x2 − 1}. (vi) y = 3x2 − 2x + . management increases the rent of the remaining tenants by $25. ak ∈ R. which produce 600 fruits each. 402 Problem The sum of two positive numbers is 50. determine their vertices and graph them: (i) y = x2 + 6x + 9. If all the units are inhabited.2 and 5. 403 Problem Of all rectangles having perimeter 20 shew that the square has the largest area. We would like to see what can be done for equations where the power of x is higher than 2. . (v) 8 1 y = 2x2 − 12x + 23. How many trees should be planted in order to yield maximum production? products a(1 − b). 391 Problem Find the equation of the parabola whose axis of symmetry is parallel to the y-axis. For every empty unit. the rent for each unit is $700 per unit. 399 Problem Find all real solutions to x3 − 1 = 0. c(1 − a) is smaller than or equal to 394 Problem An apartment building has 30 units. the production of each tree diminishes by 15 fruits. (vii) y = x2 + 2x + 13 9 5 390 Problem Find the vertex of the parabola y = (3x − 9) − 9. 17). b(1 − c). The degree of the polynomial p is denoted by deg p.4 Polynomials 5. 397 Problem Solve x3 − x2 − 9x + 9 = 0. respectively. R1 \ R2 R1 ∩ R 3 R2 \ R1 R1 ∩ R 2 2 2 2 2 2 395 Problem Find all real solutions to |x2 − 2x| = |x2 + 1|.3 we learned how to ﬁnd the roots of equations (in the unknown x) of the type ax + b = 0 and ax2 + bx + c = 0.4. The coefﬁcient an is called the leading coefﬁcient of p(x). −1) and passing through (3. y) ∈ R |x + y ≤ 4}. What will be the proﬁt P(x) that management gains when x units are empty? What is the maximum proﬁt? 5. We recall that 405 Deﬁnition A polynomial p(x) of degree n ∈ N is an expression of the form p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 . if the ak are real numbers then we say that p has real coefﬁcients and we write p(x) ∈ R[x]. (ii) y = x2 + 12x + 35. (iv) y = x(1 − x). Sketch the following regions. y) ∈ R |y ≤ −x + 4}. with vertex at (0. (iii) y = (x − 3)(x + 5). 4 2 401 Problem Find all the real values of the parameter t for which the equation in x t 2 x − 3t = 81x − 27 has a solution. 392 Problem Find the equation of the parabola having roots at x = −3 and x = 4 and passing through (0. a formula for the production obtained from each tree upon planting x more trees. Find the largest value of their product. a formula P(x) for the production obtained from the orchard upon planting x more trees. 404 Problem An orchard currently has 25 trees.1 Roots In sections 5. 389 Problem Write the following parabolas in canonical form. c ≤ 1. an = 0.

2) 412 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If the polynomial p(x) is divided by a(x) then there exist polynomials q(x). 2 The symbol ≡ is read “identically equal to” and it means that both expressions are always the same. 2π 2π A polynomial of degree 2 is also called a quadratic polynomial or quadratic function. and q(x) = bm xm + bm−1 xm−1 + · · · + b1 x + b0 . degree −∞.2 Rufﬁni’s Factor Theorem p(x) = a(x)q(x) + r(x) (5. √ • b(x) = π x2 + x − 3 ∈ R[x]. 410 Deﬁnition If all the roots of a polynomial are in Z (integer roots). is a constant polynomial. A 2 polynomial of degree 1 is also known as an afﬁne function. of degree 0. any polynomial splitting on a smaller set immediately splits over a larger set. by convention. In symbols. say. q are polynomials. q(x) = x + 1. 409 Example What is the degree of the polynomial identically equal to 0? Put p(x) ≡ 0 and. By the quadratic formula b has the two roots √ √ −1 + 1 + 4π 3 −1 − 1 + 4π 3 x= and x= . Here i = −1 is the imaginary unit. is a polynomial of degree 2 and leading coefﬁcient π . √ polynomial p(x) = 4x2 − 1 = (2x − 1)(2x + 1) The √ splits over Q but not over Z. We attach to it. If all the roots of a polynomial are in Q (rational roots). Proof: If p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 .4. Thus the 0-polynomial does not have any ﬁnite degree. It has x = − as its only root. is a polynomial of degree 1. and hence deg pq = deg p. deg pq = deg p + deg q. ! Since Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R ⊂ C. if p. with non-vanishing leading coefﬁcient an bm .2 407 Theorem The degree of the product of two polynomials is the sum of their degrees. then we say that the polynomial splits or factors over Z. 5. u 408 Example The polynomial p(x) = (1 + 2x + 3x3 )4 (1 − 2x2 )5 has leading coefﬁcient 34 (−2)5 = −2592 and degree 3 · 4 + 2 · 5 = 22.Polynomials 406 Example Here are a few examples of polynomials. 85 1 • a(x) = 2x + 1 ∈ Z[x]. and so the quotient is q(x) = x3 + x2 − x − 1 and the remainder is r(x) = x + 2. r(x) with and 0 ≤ degree r(x) < degree a(x). But if deg p were ﬁnite then deg p = deg pq = deg p + 1 =⇒ 0 = 1. p(x)q(x) = (an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 )(bm xm + bm−1 xm−1 + · · · + b1 x + b0 ) = an bm xm+n + · · · +. . But pq is identically 0. then we say that the polynomial splits or factors over Q. If all the roots of a polynomial are in C (complex roots). The polynomial q(x) = x2 − 2 = (x − √ + 2) splits over R but not over Q. 411 Example The polynomial l(x) = x2 − 1 = (x − 1)(x + 1) splits over Z. regardless of the value of the input parameter. with an = 0 and bm = 0 then upon multiplication. It has no roots. and leading coefﬁcient 2. Then by Theorem 407 we must have deg pq = deg p + deg q = deg p + 1. • C(x) = 1 ≡ 1 · x0 . nonsense. then we say that the polynomial splits (factors) over C. The polynomial 2)(x r(x) = x2 + 1 = (x − i)(x + i) splits over C but not over R. 413 Example If x5 + x4 + 1 is divided by x2 + 1 we obtain x5 + x4 + 1 = (x3 + x2 − x − 1)(x2 + 1) + x + 2. since it is never zero.

the remainder after diving p(x) by x − a is a polynomial of degree 0. that is r(x) = ax + b for some constants a. 415 Example A polynomial leaves remainder −2 upon division by x − 1 and remainder −4 upon division by x + 2. By the Division Algorithm. the remainder r(x) upon dividing p(x) by x2 + x − 1 is of degree 1 or smaller. Therefore p(x) = q(x)(x − a) + r. that is. then it has at most n roots. a constant. q2 (x) with p(x) = q1 (x)(x − 1) − 2 and p(x) = q2 (x)(x + 2) − 4. Hence −2 = p(1) = a + b and −4 = p(−2) = −2a + b. . Therefore.86 414 Example Find the remainder when (x + 3)5 + (x + 2)8 + (5x + 9)1997 is divided by x + 2. then p(a) = 0 if and only if p(x) = (x − a)q(x) for some polynomial q of degree n − 1. Thus p(1) = −2 and p(−2) = −4. there is a polynomial q(x) and a constant r with (x + 3)5 + (x + 2)8 + (5x + 9)1997 = q(x)(x + 2) + r Letting x = −2 we obtain (−2 + 3)5 + (−2 + 2)8 + (5(−2) + 9)1997 = q(−2)(−2 + 2) + r = r. that is. From these equations we deduce that a = 2/3. we must have 1 0 = t(−1) = (−1)3 − 3a(−1)2 + 2 =⇒ a = . 3 418 Deﬁnition Let a be a root of a polynomial p. Proof: As x − a is a polynomial of degree 1. from where the theorem easily follows. a constant. p(x) = q(x)(x2 + x − 1) + ax + b. We say that a is a root of multiplicity m if p(x) is divisible by (x − a)m but not by (x − a)m+1 . Find the remainder when this polynomial is divided by x2 + x − 2. 419 Corollary If a polynomial of degree n had any roots at all. b which we must determine. Solution: From the given information. The remainder sought is 8 2 r(x) = x − . From this we gather that p(a) = q(a)(a − a) + r = r. the remainder is a polynomial of degree 0. Chapter 5 Solution: As we are dividing by a polynomial of degree 1. As x2 + x − 2 = (x − 1)(x + 2) is a polynomial of degree 2. Solution: By Rufﬁni’s Theorem 416. This means that p can be written in the form p(x) = (x − a)m q(x) for some polynomial q with q(a) = 0. u 417 Example Find the value of a so that the polynomial t(x) = x3 − 3ax2 + 2 be divisible by x + 1. 3 3 416 Theorem (Rufﬁni’s Factor Theorem) The polynomial p(x) is divisible by x − a if and only if p(a) = 0. there exist polynomials q1 (x). b = −8/3. As the sinistral side is 0 we deduce that the remainder r = 0. Thus if p is a polynomial of degree n.

That all polynomials have at least one root is much more difﬁcult to prove. if a(x) has integer roots then they must be in the set {−1. then s divides a0 and t divides an . t we ﬁnd a(x) = x3 − 3x − 5x2 + 15 = (x − 5)(x2 − 3). 5}. concluding the proof. t t Proof: We are given that 0= p Clearing denominators. then it must have at most its degree number of roots. a contradiction. Since both sides are integers. −3. . −5. u 422 Example Factorise a(x) = x3 − 3x − 5x2 + 15 over Z[x] and over R[x]. a(±3). then s must divide a0 . x2 −3 x−5 x3 − 5x2 − 3x + 15 − x3 + 5x2 − 3x + 15 3x − 15 0 s = an t sn tn + an−1 sn−1 t n−1 + · · · + a1 s + a0 . By the Factor Theorem. and since s and t have no factors in common. x − 5 divides a(x). We ﬁnd that a(5) = 0. without a proof. which is the required factorisation over Z[x]. has a rational root s s ∈ Q (here is assumed to be in lowest terms). ! The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra implies then that a polynomial of degree n has exactly n roots (counting multiplicity). This last equality implies that −a0t n = s(an sn−1 + an−1 sn−2t + · · · + a1t n−1 ). It does not say that a polynomial must possess a root. We test a(±1). 0 = an sn + an−1 sn−1t + · · · + a1 st n−1 + a0t n . from where we deduce that t divides an . a(±5) to see which ones vanish. p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 .Polynomials Proof: If it had at least n + 1 roots then it would have at least n + 1 factors of degree 1 and hence degree n + 1 at least. We also gather that −an sn = t(an−1 sn−1 + · · · + a1 st n−2 + a0t n−1 ). u 87 Notice that the above theorem only says that if a polynomial has any roots. Solution: By Corollary 421. 421 Corollary If the polynomial p with integer coefﬁcients. 3. Using long division. A more useful form of Rufﬁni’s Theorem is given in the following corollary. 420 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra) A polynomial of degree at least one with complex number coefﬁcients has at least one complex root. 1. We will quote the theorem. The factorisation over R[x] is then √ √ a(x) = x3 − 3x − 5x2 + 15 = (x − 5)(x − 3)(x + 3).

= whence u − vi is also a root. . We quickly see that b(1) = 0. then its conjugate u − vi is also a root for p. −2. 425 Theorem Any polynomial with real coefﬁcients can be factored in the form A(x − r1 )m1 (x − r2 )m2 · · · (x − rk )mk (x2 + a1 x + b1 )n1 (x2 + a2 x + b2 )n2 · · · (x2 + al x + bl )nl . and conjugation is multiplicative (Theorem 463). where each factor is distinct. u Since the complex pair root u ± vi would give the polynomial with real coefﬁcients (x − u − vi)(x − u + vi) = x2 − 2ux + (u2 + v2 ). we have 0 = 0 = p(u + vi) = a0 + a1 (u + vi) + · · · + an (u + vi)n = a0 + a1 (u + vi) + · · · + an (u + vi)n = a0 + a1 (u − vi) + · · · + an (u − vi)n p(u − vi). −4. lk are positive integers and A. if b(x) has integer roots then they must be in the set {−1. we deduce the following theorem. ai . x − 1 divides b(x). by the Factor Theorem. 4}. 2.88 423 Example Factorise b(x) = x5 − x4 − 4x + 4 over Z[x] and over R[x]. By long division x4 x−1 5 4 x − x − 4x + 4 − x5 + x4 − 4x + 4 4x − 4 0 −4 we see that b(x) = (x − 1)(x4 − 4) = (x − 1)(x2 − 2)(x2 + 2). Since the conjugate of a real number is itself. and so. the mi . 1. which is the desired factorisation over Z[x]. Proof: Assume p(x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + an xn and that p(u + vi) = 0. Since the discriminant of x2 + 2 is −8 < 0. bi are real numbers. x2 + 2 does not split over R. 424 Lemma Complex roots of a polynomial with real coefﬁcients occur in conjugate pairs. that√ if p is a polynomial with is. ri . Here i = −1 is the imaginary unit. The factorisation over R is seen to be √ √ b(x) = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x + 2)(x2 + 2). Chapter 5 Solution: By Corollary 421. real coefﬁcients and if u + vi is a root of p.

since it is continuous. Find the value of p(4). 441 Theorem Let a = 0 and the ri are real numbers and the mi be positive integers. Graphing such polynomials will be achieved by referring to the following theorem. Proof: If x = 0 then p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 = an xn 1 + an−1 a1 a0 + · · · + n−1 + n ∼ an xn .Graphs of Polynomials 89 Homework 426 Problem Find the cubic polynomial p having zeroes at x = −1. the corollary follows from Bolzano’s Intermediate Value Theorem 268. which we will state without proof. b such that the polynomial x3 + 6x2 + ax + b be divisible by the polynomial x2 + x − 12. x x x since as x → ±∞. Shew that p(x) never equals 14. 2. 431 Problem Find the value of a so that the polynomial t(x) = x − 3ax + 12 3 2 be divisible by x + 4. u 440 Corollary A polynomial of odd degree with real number coefﬁcients always has a real root. 432 Problem Let f (x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1. 434 Problem The polynomial p(x) satisﬁes p(−x) = −p(x). 433 Problem If p(x) is a cubic polynomial with p(1) = 1. 430 Problem The polynomial p(x) has integral coefﬁcients and p(x) = 7 for four different values of x. Such polynomials have the form p(x) = a(x − r1 )m1 (x − r2 )m2 · · · (x − rk )mk . Find the remainder when f (x5 ) is divided by f (x). 3}? 428 Problem Find the cubic polynomial c having a root of x = 1. where a = 0 and the ri are real numbers and the mi ≥ 1 are integers. which gives the result. Then p(−∞) = (signum (an ))(−1)n ∞. 438 Theorem A polynomial function x → p(x) is an everywhere continuous function. the quantity in parenthesis tends to 1 and so the eventual sign of p(x) is determined by an xn . 2. p(3) = 3. p(2) = 2. When p(x) is divided by x − 3 the remainder is 6.. and a polynomial of even degree will have the same sign for values of large magnitude and different sign. Find the remainder when p(x) is divided by x2 − 9. p(3) = 9. 439 Theorem Let p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 an = 0. 435 Problem Factorise x3 + 3x2 − 4x + 12 over Z[x]. Proof: Since a polynomial of odd degree eventually changes sign. p(2) = 4. be a polynomial with real number coefﬁcients. p(+∞) = (signum (an ))∞. ﬁnd p(6). 3 and satisfying p(1) = −24. 436 Problem Factorise 3x4 + 13x3 − 37x2 − 117x + 90 over Z[x]. 427 Problem How many cubic polynomials with leading coefﬁcient −2 are there splitting in the set {1. Then the graph of the polynomial p(x) = a(x − r1 )m1 (x − r2 )m2 · · · (x − rk )mk . p(4) = 5. 5. Thus a polynomial of odd degree will have opposite signs for values of large magnitude and different sign. . a root of multiplicity 2 at x = −3 and satisfying c(2) = 10. u We now consider polynomials with real number coefﬁcients and that split in R.5 Graphs of Polynomials We start with the following theorem. 429 Problem A cubic polynomial p with leading coefﬁcient 1 satisﬁes p(1) = 1. 437 Problem Find a.

p(x) ∼ 8x2 and the graph is tangent to the 1 25 1 x-axis at x = 0. 444 Example Make a rough sketch of the graph of y = (x + 2)2 x(1 − x)2 . 2 Figure 5. Figure 5. the graph crosses the x-axis changing convexity at x = −2. In a neighbourhood of 0. Solution: The dominant term of (x + 2)2 x(1 − x)2 is x2 · x(−x)2 = x5 . 443 Example Make a rough sketch of the graph of y = (x + 2)3 x2 (1 − 2x). .19: y = (x + 2)x(x − 1). which means that for both large positive and negative values of x the graph will be on the negative side of the y-axis. Hence if p(x) = (x + 2)3 x2 (1 − 2x) then p(−∞) = −2(−∞)6 = −∞ and p(+∞) = −2(+∞)6 = −∞. and so the graph crosses the x-axis at x = . By Theorem 441. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 5. x = 0. u 442 Example Make a rough sketch of the graph of y = (x + 2)x(x − 1). Determine where it changes convexity.21: y = (x + 2)2 x(1 − x)2 . • is tangent to the x-axis at x = ri if mi is even. and x = 1. so the graph crosses the x-axis changing convexity at x = −2. in a neighbourhood of x = −2. The graph is 2 16 2 shewn in ﬁgure 5. This means that for large negative values of x the graph will be on the negative side of the y-axis and that for large positive values of x the graph will be on the positive side of the y-axis.19. Figure 5.20. as x → +∞. the theorem follows at once from our work in section 5.90 • crosses the x-axis at x = ri if mi is odd.20: y = (x + 2)3 x2 (1 − 2x). By Theorem 441. p(x) ∼ (1 − 2x). • has a convexity change at x = ri if mi ≥ 3 and mi is odd. the graph crosses the x-axis at x = −2.21.1. p(x) ∼ 20(x + 2)3 . it is tangent to the x-axis at x = 0 and it crosses the x-axis at 1 x = . Solution: We have (x + 2)3 x2 (1 − 2x) ∼ x3 · x2 (−2x) = −2x6 . By Theorem 441. Solution: We have p(x) = (x + 2)x(x − 1) ∼ (x) · x(x) = x3 . Hence if p(x) = (x + 2)2 x(1 − x)2 then p(−∞) = (−∞)5 = −∞ and p(+∞) = (+∞)5 = +∞. Determine where it achieves its local extrema and their values. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 5. In a neighbourhood of x = . Hence p(−∞) = (−∞)3 = −∞ and p(+∞) = (+∞)3 = +∞. Chapter 5 Proof: Since the local behaviour of p(x) is that of c(x − ri )mi (where c is a real number constant) near ri . which means that for large negative values of x the graph will be on the negative side of the y-axis and for large positive values of x the graph will be on the positive side of the y-axis.

Figure 5. √ 4± 2 . Find p(2). The set of solutions is −1 ± 397 x3 − x2 − 9x + 9 = 0 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ x2 (x − 1) − 9(x − 1) = 0 (x − 1)(x2 − 9) = 0 (x − 1)(x − 3)(x + 3) = 0 x ∈ {−3. −16) 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 5 (iv) y = −(x − )2 + . Find the equation of p(x). (iii) y = x(x − 1)3 (x + 5)5 (iv) y = −x2 (x − 1)(x + 2)(x − 3)3 . ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ 390 (3. Find p(−3). a contradiction. vertex at (−5. vertex at ( . (iii) y = (x + 1)2 − 16. (vi) 3(x − )2 + . x=− 2 2 2 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ x3 − x2 − x2 + x − 12x + 12 = 0 x2 (x − 1) − x(x − 1) − 12(x − 1) = 0 (x − 1)(x2 − x − 12) = 0 (x − 1)(x + 3)(x − 4) = 0 x ∈ {−3. (ii) y = (x + 6)2 − 1 vertex at (−6. 0 ≤ x(1 − x). −9) 391 y = 2x2 − 1 ⇐⇒ 392 y = −2(x + 3)(x − 4) ⇐⇒ 393 Observe that x(1 − x) = 1 1 1 1 − (x − )2 ≤ and that for x ∈ [0. . whence the solution set is − . 0). Thus one of the products 43 43 1 must be ≤ . 447 Problem The polynomial in ﬁgure 5. ) (v) y = 2(x − 3)2 + 5. Determine p(0). 1]. (viii) y = (x − 1)(x − 2)(3 − x) 446 Problem Sketch the graphs of the following curves: (i) y = (x − 1)(x − 2)2 (x − 3)3 . 1. (ii) y = (1 − x)3 . 8) (vii) y = (x + 5) 5 396 We have (x2 + 2x − 3)2 = 2 √ √ (x2 + 2x − 3 = 2) or (x2 + 2x − 3 = − 2) 2 + 2x − 3 − √2 = 0) or (x2 + 2x − 3 + √2 = 0) (x √ −2 ± 4 − 4(−3 − 2) x = 2 √ −2 ± 4 − 4(−3 + 2) or x = 2 √ −2 ± 16 + 4 2 x= 2 √ −2 ± 16 − 4 2 or x = 2 √ √ (x = −1 ± 4 + 2) or (x = −1 ± 4 − 2). all four solutions found are real. (v) y = (1 − x)2 (x − 2). −1).22 has degree 4. vertex at (−1. 1. Answers 389 (i) y = (x + 3)2 vertex at (−3.22: Problem 447. Thus if all these products are > 4 2 4 4 1 1 we obtain < a(1 − b)b(1 − c)c(1 − a) = a(1 − a)b(1 − b)c(1 − c) ≤ . 394 P(x) = 21025 − 25(x − 1)2 . 4}.Graphs of Polynomials 91 Homework 445 Problem Make a rough sketch of the following curves: (i) y = (x − 1)3 . vertex at (3. vertex at ( . ) 2 4 2 4 3 9 3 9 1 2 + 8. (vi) y = (x − 1)2 (2 − x). (ii) y = x2 (x − 1)2 (x + 1)4 . 5). (vii) y = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3). (iii) y = (x − 1)(x − 2)2 . $21025 395 We have |x2 − 2x| = |x2 + 1| ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ 1 2 (x2 − 2x = x2 + 1) or (x2 + 2x = −x2 − 1) 398 x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 = 0 (−2x − 1 = 0) or (2x2 + 2x + 1 = 0) 1 i 1 or x = − ± . 3}. 4 √ Since each of 4 ± 2 > 0. (iv) y = (1 − x)(x − 2)2 .

then we have 20 = 2b + 2h or 10 = b + h. which will be true for all values of x. There is only one real solution. c. 3. g(x) = (x − a)(x − b)(x − c)(x − d)q(x). (t 2 − 81)x = 3(t − 9) =⇒ (t − 9)(t + 9)x = 3(t − 9). p4 (x) = −2(x − 1)(x − 2)2 . b. Chapter 5 428 This polynomial must have the form c(x) = a(x − 1)(x + 3)2 . p6 (x) = −2(x − 1)(x − 3)2 . If x more trees are planted. 433 Put g(x) = p(x) − x. (5. getting x = 1/2 ± i 3/2. by f (x). We maximise P(x) = −15x2 + 225x + 15000 = 15000 − 15(x2 − 15x) = 15843. Hence a = −6. 402 Let x and 50 − x be the numbers.75 − 15(7 − 7. 427 There are ten such polynomials. The height is the same as the base. 9}. This shows that A(h) ≤ 25. p10 (x) = −2(x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3). which is impossible since 7 can be factorised as 7(−1)1. The area of the rectangle is then A(h) = bh = h(10 − h) = 10h − h2 = 25 − (h − 5)2 . 2 432 Observe that f (x)(x − 1) = x5 − 1 and f (x5 ) = x20 + x15 + x10 + x5 + 1 = (x20 − 1) + (x15 − 1) + (x10 − 1) + (x5 − 1) + 5. d. This yields p(4) = (3)(2)(1) + 42 = 22. If t = 9. The required polynomial is thus c(x) = (x − 1)(x + 3)2 . in which case the production will be 15843. They are p1 (x) = −2(x − 1)3 . We thus ﬁnd p(x) = −6(x + 1)(x − 2)(x − 3). then 3 x= t +9 is the unique solution to the equation. The remainder sought is thus 5. (5. the two solutions to x2 + x + 1 = 0 can be obtained using the quadratic √ formula. In virtue of the Factor Theorem. p7 (x) = −2(x − 1)2 (x − 3). Suppose that p(t) = 14 for some integer t. It follows that 7 = g(t) = (t − a)(t − b)(t − c)(t − d)q(t). A good function modelling this problem is {x ∈ N|x ≥ 25} x → → N −15x2 + 225x + 15000 431 By the Factor Theorem. 403 If b. as the square of any real number is always positive. p5 (x) = −2(x − 1)2 (x − 2). But −24 = p(1) = a(2)(−1)(−2) = 4a.3) becomes 0 = −54. Each of the summands in parentheses is divisible by x5 − 1 and.3) becomes 0 = 0. The production is maximised if either 7 or 8 more trees are added. This model assumes that the amount of trees is never fewer than 25. of the rectangle. we must have 0 = t(−4) = (−4)3 − 3a(−4)2 + 40 ⇐⇒ 0 = −24 − 48a 1 ⇐⇒ a = − . Observe that g is also a cubic polynomial with leading coefﬁcient 1 and that g(x) = 0 for x = 1.3) 430 The polynomial g(x) = p(x) − 7 vanishes at the 4 different integer values a. and so we must determine a. b = −60 P: . 400 Observe that x−4 − 10x−2 + 9 = (x−2 − 9)(x−2 − 1). whence 2 2 a = . and equality occurs when h = 5. namely x = 1. The maximum product is thus 625 occurring when x = 25. that is. . If t ∈ R \ {−9. then p(6) = 16. Now 10 = c(2) = a(2 − 1)(2 + 3)2 = 25a. If t = −9. p2 (x) = −2(x − 2)3 . p3 (x) = −2(x − 3)3 .5)2 . and so the rectangle yielding maximum area is a square. h are the base and height. We seek to maximise the product P(x) = x(50 − x). a fortiori.5)2 = 15840 fruits. 435 (x − 2)(x + 2)(x − 3) 436 (x − 3)(x + 3)(x + 5)(3x − 2) 437 a = −7. 2. Thus 3 x2 x2 401 Rearranging. 1 1 1 = 9 and = 1. If x = 1.75 − 15(x − 7. respectively. p9 (x) = −2(x − 2)2 (x − 3). we have factorised 7 as the product of at least 4 different factors. 426 Such polynomial must have the form p(x) = a(x + 1)(x − 2)(x − 3). the product of at most 3 distinct integral factors. 5 5 429 Put g(x) = p(x) − x2 . (5. whence x = ± and x = ±1. We deduce that P(x) ≤ 625. From this contradiction we deduce that such an integer t does not exist. Then P(x) = (25 + x)(600 − 15x) = −15x2 + 225x + 15000. where q(x) is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients. which is clearly nonsense. the production of each tree will be 600 − 15x. This means that g(x) = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) and hence p(x) = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) + x2 . p8 (x) = −2(x − 2)(x − 3)2 . But P(x) = 50x − x2 = −(x2 − 50x) = −(x2 − 50x + 625) + 625 = 625 − (x − 25)2 . In this case b = 10 − h = 5.92 399 x3 − 1 = (x − 1)(x2 + x + 1). 404 The current production is 25 × 600 = 15000 fruits. Then g(t) = p(t) − 7 = 14 − 7 = 7. Let P(x) be the total production after planting x more trees.

4: x → 1 x4 Figure 6. x • if n is even.9: x → 1 −1 |x| − 1 449 Example A few functions x → 1 are shewn in ﬁgures 6. Then 1 is increasing for x < 0.6.1 through 6.5: x → 1 x5 Figure 6.2: x → 1 x2 Figure 6.1: x → 1 x Figure 6.3: x → 1 x3 Figure 6. xn 1 • if n is odd. x 1 Thus x → n has a pole of order n at x = 0 and a horizontal asymptote at y = 0. xn 93 . and convex for x > 0.1 Inverse Power Functions We now proceed to investigate the behaviour of functions of the type x → 448 Theorem Let n > 0 be an integer. xn Rational Functions and Algebraic Functions 6. x → n is decreasing for all x = 0.7: x → 1 −1 x−1 Figure 6.Chapter 6 1 . decreasing for x > 0 and convex for all x = 0. x → Figure 6. concave for x < 0. where n > 0 is an integer.6: x → 1 x6 Figure 6.8: x → 1 −1 x−1 Figure 6.

2 Rational Functions 451 Deﬁnition By a rational function x → r(x) we mean a function r whose assignment rule is of the r(x) = p(x) and q(x) = 0 are polynomials. where q(x) 3 x → 1. and poles at x = −1 and x = 2. we now consider rational p(x) functions x → r(x) = where p and q are polynomials with no factors in common and splitting in R. By Theorem 452. • crosses the x-axis at x = ai if mi is odd. As (x + 1)(x − 2)2 (x − 3/4)2 (x + 3/4)2 . r(x) ∼ (x)(x)2 x and hence r has the horizontal asymptote y = 1. hence the graph of r crosses the x-axis at x = −2. 4 4 7 . the theorem follows at once from Theorem 376 and 448. and poles at x = ±1. hence the graph of r blows to +∞ both from the left 3(x − 2)2 and the right of x = 2. If ni is even. x Chapter 6 6.94 1 450 Example Figures 6. (x + 1)(x − 2)2 p(x) . around x = 2. r(x) = K (x − b1 )n1 (x − b2 )n2 · · · (x − bl )nl • has zeroes at x = ai and poles at x = b j .9 shew a few transformations of x → . u 453 Example Draw a rough sketch of x → Solution: Put r(x) = (x − 1)2 (x + 2) . • both r(b j −) and r(b j +) blow to inﬁnity. and x = −2. r(x) ∼ (x − 1)2 . Analogous to theorem 441. r has zeroes at x = 1. hence the graph of r is tangent to the axes. q(x) 452 Theorem Let a = 0 and the ri are real numbers and the mi be positive integers. 454 Example Draw a rough sketch of x → Solution: Put r(x) = (x − 3/4)2 (x + 3/4)2 . As x → 2. • has a convexity change at x = ai if mi ≥ 3 and mi is odd. 2 9 r(x) ∼ − (x + 2).7 through 6. r(x) ∼ 9(x + 1) 4 of x = −1 and to +∞ to the right of x = −1. As x → . Also we observe that (x)2 (x) x3 = 3 = 1. (x + 1)(x − 1) (x − 1)2 (x + 2) . and negative. First observe that r(x) = r(−x). hence the graph of r is tangent to the axes. and positive. and so r is even. r(x) ∼ . The graph of r can be found in ﬁgure 6.10. As x → −2. As x → −1. We now provide a few examples of graphing rational functions. If ni is odd. then they have the same sign inﬁnity: r(bi +) = r(bi −) = +∞ or r(bi +) = r(bi −) = −∞. By Theorem 452. • is tangent to the x-axis at x = ai if mi is even. then they have different sign inﬁnity: r(bi +) = −r(bi −) = +∞ or r(bi +) = −r(bi −) = −∞. r(x) ∼ − (x − 3/4)2 . r has zeroes at (x + 1)(x − 1) 3 3 36 x = ± . Then the rational function with assignment rule (x − a1 )m1 (x − a2 )m2 · · · (x − ak )mk . hence the graph of r blows to −∞ to the left going to negative y=values on the right of x = −2. Proof: Since the local behaviour of r(x) is that of c(x − ri )ti (where c is a real number constant) near ri . coming from positive y-values on the left of x = −2 and 16 4 .

r(x) ∼ (x)2 (x)2 = x2 . The graph of r can be found in ﬁgure 6. r(x) ∼ 4 512(x − 1) 49 −∞ to the left of x = 1 and to +∞ to the right of x = 1.Rational Functions 95 49 3 . as x → +∞. hence the graph of r blows to +∞ to 512(x − 1) the left of x = −1 and to −∞ to the right of x = −1. Figure 6. Also. r(x) ∼ − . (x)(x) so r(+∞) = +∞ and r(−∞) = +∞. hence the graph of r blows to around x = 3/4.10: x → (x − 1)2 (x + 2) (x + 1)(x − 2)2 Figure 6.11. As x → −1.11: x → (x − 3/4)2 (x + 3/4)2 (x + 1)(x − 1) . As x → 1. and similar behaviour occurs around x = − .

96

Chapter 6

6.3 Algebraic Functions

455 Deﬁnition We will call algebraic function a function whose assignment rule can be obtained from a rational function by a ﬁnite combination of additions, subtractions, multiplications, divisions, exponentiations to a rational power. 456 Theorem Let |q| ≥ 2 be an integer. If • if q is even then x → x1/q is increasing and concave for q ≥ 2 and decreasing and convex for q ≤ −2 for all x > 0 and it is undeﬁned for x < 0. • if q is odd then x → x1/q is everywhere increasing and convex for x < 0 but concave for x > 0 if q ≥ 3. If q ≤ −3 then x → x1/q is decreasing and concave for x < 0 and increasing and convex for x > 0. A few of the functions x → x1/q are shewn in ﬁgures 6.12 through 6.23.

Figure 6.12: x → x1/2

Figure 6.13: x → x−1/2

Figure 6.14: x → x1/4

Figure 6.15: x → x−1/4

Figure 6.16: x → x1/6

Figure 6.17: x → x−1/6

Figure 6.18: x → x1/3

Figure 6.19: x → x−1/3

Figure 6.20: x → x1/5

Figure 6.21: x → x−1/5

Figure 6.22: x → x1/7

Figure 6.23: x → x−1/7

Answers

Appendix

A

√ −1. Then i2 = −1. √ −25.

Complex Numbers

A.1 Arithmetic of Complex Numbers

One uses the symbol i to denote the imaginary unit i = 457 Example Find

√ Solution: −25 = 5i. Since i0 = 1, i1 = i, i2 = −1, i3 = −i, i4 = 1, i5 = i, etc., the powers of i repeat themselves cyclically in a cycle of period 4. 458 Example Find i1934 . Solution: Observe that 1934 = 4(483) + 2 and so i1934 = i2 = −1. 459 Example For any integral α one has iα + iα +1 + iα +2 + iα +3 = iα (1 + i + i2 + i3 ) = iα (1 + i − 1 − i) = 0. If a, b are real numbers then the object a + bi is called a complex number. One uses the symbol C to denote the set of all complex numbers. If a, b, c, d ∈ R, then the sum of the complex numbers a + bi and c + di is naturally deﬁned as (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i The product of a + bi and c + di is obtained by multiplying the binomials: (a + bi)(c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i (A.2) (A.1)

460 Example Find the sum (4 + 3i) + (5 − 2i) and the product (4 + 3i)(5 − 2i). Solution: One has (4 + 3i) + (5 − 2i) = 9 + i and (4 + 3i)(5 − 2i) = 20 − 8i + 15i − 6i2 = 20 + 7i + 6 = 26 + 7i.

461 Deﬁnition Let z ∈ C, (a, b) ∈ R2 with z = a + bi. The conjugate z of z is deﬁned by z = a + bi = a − bi 97 (A.3)

98 462 Example The conjugate of 5 + 3i is 5 + 3i = 5 − 3i. The conjugate of 2 − 4i is 2 − 4i = 2 + 4i.

Appendix A

**! The conjugate of a real number is itself, that is, if a ∈ R, then a = a. Also, the conjugate of the conjugate of a
**

number is the number, that is, z = z. 463 Theorem The function z : C → C, z → z is multiplicative, that is, if z1 , z2 are complex numbers, then z1 z2 = z1 · z2 Proof: Let z1 = a + bi, z2 = c + di where a, b, c, d are real numbers. Then z1 z2 = (a + bi)(c + di) = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i = (ac − bd) − (ad + bc)i Also, z1 · z2 = (a + bi)(c + di) = (a − bi)(c − di) = ac − adi − bci + bdi2 = (ac − bd) − (ad + bc)i, which establishes the equality between the two quantities. u 464 Example Express the quotient 2 + 3i in the form a + bi. 3 − 5i 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 3 + 5i −9 + 19i −9 19i = · = = + 3 − 5i 3 − 5i 3 + 5i 34 34 34 465 Deﬁnition The modulus |a + bi| of a + bi is deﬁned by |a + bi| = (a + bi)(a + bi) = a2 + b2 (A.5) (A.4)

Solution: One has

Observe that z → |z| is a function mapping C to [0; +∞[. 466 Example Find |7 + 3i|. Solution: |7 + 3i| = (7 + 3i)(7 − 3i) = 72 + 32 = √ 58.

√ 467 Example Find | 7 + 3i|. √ Solution: | 7 + 3i| = √ √ ( 7 + 3i)( 7 − 3i) = 7 + 32 = 4.

468 Theorem The function z → |z|, C → R+ is multiplicative. That is, if z1 , z2 are complex numbers then |z1 z2 | = |z1 ||z2 | (A.6)

s2 − t 2 = (s − t)(s + t) s2k − t 2k = (sk − t k )(sk + t k ).9) (A. Solution: The idea is to write 22 + 32 = |2 + 3i|2 .7) The quantity v2 − 4uw under the square root is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation ux2 + vx + w = 0. x = −2i. x = 2i. one obtains complex roots. u 469 Example Write (22 + 32 )(52 + 72 ) as the sum of two squares. Similary. If u. Since i2 = −1. conjugation is multiplicative.11) . x = 2. one sees that x = i is a root of the equation x2 + 1 = 0. the student might proﬁt from the following identities. hence |z1 z2 | = √ z1 z2 z1 z2 √ = z1 z2 z1 · z2 √ z1 z1 z2 z2 = √ √ = z1 z1 z2 z2 = |z1 ||z2 | whence the assertion follows. Thus either x = −2.10) (A. x = 2 or x2 + 4 = 0. This last equation has roots ±2i. then the roots of this equation are given by the Quadratic Formula √ v2 − 4uw v x=− ± 2u 2u (A. (A.8) (A. x = −i is also a root of x2 + 1. 52 + 72 = |5 + 7i|2 and use the multiplicativity of the modulus.Equations involving Complex Numbers Proof: By Theorem 463. Now (22 + 32 )(52 + 72 ) = = = = |2 + 3i|2 |5 + 7i|2 | − 11 + 29i|2 112 + 292 99 |(2 + 3i)(5 + 7i)|2 A. The four roots of x4 − 16 = 0 are thus x = −2. 470 Example Solve 2x2 + 6x + 5 = 0 Solution: Using the quadratic formula √ 6 3 1 −4 x=− ± = − ±i 4 4 2 2 In solving the problems that follow. v. w are real numbers and this discriminant is negative. Complex numbers thus occur naturally in the solution of quadratic equations.2 Equations involving Complex Numbers Recall that if ux2 + vx + w = 0 with u = 0. k ∈ N s3 − t 3 = (s − t)(s2 + st + t 2 ) s3 + t 3 = (s + t)(s2 − st + t 2 ) 471 Example Solve the equation x4 − 16 = 0. Solution: One has x4 − 16 = (x2 − 4)(x2 + 4) = (x − 2)(x + 2)(x2 + 4).

Now let f (x) = (1 + x + x2 )1000 = a0 + a1 x + · · · + a2000 x2000 . |5 + i 7| and | 5 + i 7|. x2 + 8 = 0 2. 1. b) ∈ R2 . 481 Problem Prove that if k is an integer then (4k + 1)i4k + (4k + 2)i4k+1 + (4k + 3)i4k+2 + (4k + 4)i4k+3 = −2 − 2i. x2 − 4x + 5 = 0 in the form a + bi. (8 − 9i)(10 + 11i) 6. then |zz′ + zw + z′ w| = |z + z′ + w| 484 Problem Prove that if n is an integer which is not a multiple of 4 then 1n + in + i2n + i3n = 0. 478 Problem Prove that (1 + i)2 = 2i and that (1 − i)2 = −2i. The four roots are x = ±2i. 485 Problem Find all the roots of the following equations. Appendix A Solution: x3 − 1 = (x − 1)(x2 + x + 1). x4 + 2x2 − 3 = 0 9. 1 + 2i 1 + 2i 9. z′ and w are complex numbers with |z| = |z′ | = |w| = 1. b) ∈ R2 . Solution: One sees that x4 + 9x2 + 20 = (x2 + 4)(x2 + 5) = 0 √ √ Thus either x2 + 4 = 0. one sees that the √ solutions of this last equation are x = 1 ± i 3. 474 Example Solve the equation x4 + 9x2 + 20 = 0. By considering f (1) + f (i) + f (i2 ) + f (i3 ). formula. x6 − 64 = 0 . | 5 + 7i|. the two solutions to x2 + x + 1 = 0 can be obtained using the quadratic √ 3 1 . 36 + −36 2. (1 + i)3 476 Problem Find real numbers a. 1 − zz′ 483 Problem Prove that if z. √ √ √ √ 480 Problem Find |5 + 7i|. ±i 5 Homework 475 Problem Perform the following operations. Write your result in the form a + bi. prove that z − z′ = 1. Use this to write (1 + i)2004 (1 − i)2000 2 2 2 2 Use this to prove that 1 + 2i + 3i2 + 4i3 + · · · + 1995i1994 + 1996i1995 = −998 − 998i. Thus either x = −2 or x2 − 2x + 4 = 0. 4 + 5i + 6i2 + 7i3 4. Solution: x3 + 8 = (x + 2)(x2 − 2x + 4). (4 + 8i) − (9 − 3i) + 5(2 + i) − 8i 3. getting x = − ± i 2 2 473 Example Find the roots of x3 + 8 = 0. b such that (a − 2) + (5b + 3)i = 4 − 2i 477 Problem Write (2 + 3 )(3 + 7 ) as the sum of two squares. If x = 1. i(1 + i) + 2i2 (3 − 4i) 5. x2 − 3x + 6 = 0 3. √ √ 1. Using the quadratic formula. Use this to prove that √ (1 + i 3)30 = 230 . 5. with (a. x6 − 1 = 0 6. ﬁnd a0 + a4 + a8 + · · · + a2000 . (a. x4 − 1 = 0 7. x3 − 27 = 0 8.100 472 Example Find the roots of x3 − 1 = 0. i1990 + i1991 + i1992 + i1993 2−i 7. in which case x = ±2i or x2 + 5 = 0 in which case x = ±i 5. x2 + 49 = 0 4. (5 + 2i)2 + (5 − 2i)2 10. 482 Problem If z and z′ are complex numbers with either |z| = 1 or |z′ | = 1. √ 479 Problem Prove that (1 + i 3)3 = 8. 2+i 1+i 1−i + 8.

Appendix B Sample Multiple-Choice Questions 101 .

A x2 + (y − 1)2 = 16 B x2 + (y − 1)2 = 4 C x2 + (y − 1)2 = 4 D x2 + (y − 1)2 = 16 E none of these 6.3: C Figure B.5: Problem 5.4: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 4. Find its equation. and a diameter of the circle. y) ∈ R2 : 1 ≤ x ≤ 2. Figure B. |y| ≤ 4}? y x Figure B. Which of the following graphs represents the set {(x. 1[∪{3} C ] − 1. 0} E none of these 2. ] − 1. −2b)? A (a − 2)2 + 9b2 B a + 3b C a2 + 9b2 D a2 + b2 E none of these 3.2: B Figure B. b A y = x−a a b B y = − x + ab a b C y = − x − ab a b D y = x + ab a E none of these 5. 3] = A ] − 1.openmathtext. Find the equation of the straight line passing through (a2 . 1) and (−1.5 shews a circle. 1] ∪ {3} D {−1. 1] http://www. 3[ \ ]1. What is the distance between the points (a − 1. −1). A √ 2 B 2 √ C 2 2 D 1 E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.Precalculus I 1. Assume that the dots marked on the graph are diametrically opposite and that have integer coordinates. b) and (−1.org Sample Exam Problems B ] − 1.edu .1: A Figure B. 0) and perpendicular to the line ax − by = 1. Figure B. Find the distance between (1.

1) 2 1 D (−1. For which value of u is Lu parallel to the line passing through (1. 7.openmathtext. − ) 2 E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.Precalculus I http://www.edu . 4)? 2 3 2 3 A −6 B 6 C − D E none of these 11.org Sample Exam Problems For a real number parameter u consider the line Lu given by the equation Lu : (u − 2)y = (2u + 4)x + 2u. Which of the following points is on every line Lu regardless the value of u? 1 A (1. 4)? 2 3 2 3 1 3 A −6 B C) − D E none of these 10. − ) 2 1 B (− . 2) and (−1. For which value of u is Lu parallel to the y-axis? A −2 B 2 C −1 D 1 E none of these 9. 2) and (−1. −1) 2 1 C (− . For which value of u is Lu perpendicular to the line passing through (1. Questions 7 to 11 refer to Lu . For which value of u is Lu parallel to the x-axis? A 2 B −2 C −1 D 1 E none of these 8.

6: A Figure B. Which type of function is a? A decreasing and odd B increasing and odd C decreasing and even D increasing and even E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.7: B Figure B. 12.openmathtext. If x < −1 then a(x) = A 2 B 2x − 2 C −2 D 2x E none of these 13. If x > 1 then a(x) = A −2 B 2x C 2 D 2 − 2x E none of these 15.edu .8: C Figure B. The graph of y = |x + 1| − |x − 1| is Figure B.org Sample Exam Problems Situation: Problems 12 through 16 to the function a given by a(x) = |x + 1| − |x − 1|.9: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 16. If −1 < x < 1 then a(x) = A −2x B 0 C 2x − 2 D 2x E none of these 14.Precalculus I http://www.

2}? A 6 (B) 9 (C) 8 D 0 E none of these 24. −b). Find its equation. b. +∞[ √ x−2 ? x3 − 8 D [2. 1) and (2. Which one most resembles the graph of y = |1 − x| + |x + 3|? Figure B. b). −1[∪]1. a2 + b2 B (a. a2 + b2 E none of these 19. How many invertible functions are there from the set {a. −1] ∪ [1. +∞[ C ] − ∞. c} to the set {1. −1).Precalculus I http://www. 2}? A 0 (B) 6 (C) 9 D 8 E none of these 25. +∞[ B R \ {2} C ] − ∞. √ A (x + 2)2 + (y − 1)2 = 20 B x2 + y2 = 5 C x2 + y2 = 5 18. 2}? A 0 (B) 6 (C) 9 D 8 E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.org Sample Exam Problems 17. c} to the set {1. What is the natural domain of deﬁnition of the assignment rule x → ? |x| − 1 A [−1. 1] B ] − ∞. b. 2}? A 9 (B) 8 (C) 6 D 1 E none of these 23. a2 + b2 C (a. What is the centre and the radius of the circle x2 + 2ax + y2 − 2by = 0? A (a. c} to the set {1.10: A Figure B. −b).13: D A A B B C C D D E none of these √ x2 − 1 20. b. How many functions are there from the set {a. What is the natural domain of deﬁnition of the assignment rule x → A ]2.openmathtext.edu .12: C Figure B. b. How many surjective functions are there from the set {a. +∞[ E none of these D R \ {±1} E none of these 21. −2[ 22. How many injective functions are there from the set {a. c} to the set {1.11: B Figure B. The diameter of a circle lies on the points (−2. b). a2 − b2 D x2 + y2 = 25 E none of these D (−a.

Precalculus I http://www.16: C Figure B. +∞[ ? Figure B.edu . 1[ [1.19: B Figure B. the curve y = x − A y = 1−x− (B) y = 1 − x − (C) y = 1 (1 − x)2 1 becomes x2 1 (x + 1)2 1 −x+1 x2 1 D y = 2 −x−1 x E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.openmathtext. Which one most resembles the graph of y = f (x) = (x + 3)2 − 5 x3 5 − (x − 3)2 if x ∈] − ∞. −1] if x ∈] − 1.20: C Figure B.17: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 27.21: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 28.14: A Figure B.15: B Figure B. 1[ [1. −1] if x ∈] − 1. After a rigid translation 1 unit up and a successive reﬂexion about the x-axis.org Sample Exam Problems 1 +1 x 26. +∞[ ? Figure B.18: A Figure B. Which one most resembles the graph of y = f (x) = 1 − x2 1 −1 x if x ∈] − ∞.

26: A Figure B. then f −1 (x) = 31.28: C Figure B.Precalculus I http://www. Which one most resembles the graph of y = f (x) = 1 ? ||x| − 100| Figure B.openmathtext. If f (x) = (x + 2)1/3 − 1.22: A Figure B.24: C Figure B. then f −1 (x) = A (x − 2)3 + 1 B (x − 2)3 − 1 C (x + 1)3 − 2 D 1 (x − 1)1/3 + 2 E none of these √ 3 x .27: B Figure B.25: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 30.edu .29: D A A B B C C D D E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.org Sample Exam Problems 29.23: B Figure B. Which one most resembles the graph of y = |x|3 − 1000? Figure B. If f (x) = √ 3 x+1 A 1 (x − 1)3 B x3 (x − 1)3 C x3 (1 − x)3 D x3 x3 − 1 E none of these 32.

openmathtext.36: C Figure B. A 4 (B) 14 3 (C) 8 D 3 E none of these 35.edu . Which one most resembles the graph of f ? Figure B.31: B Figure B. Which one could not possibly be a possible value for ( f ◦ · · · ◦ f ) (a). n compositions A 0 (B) −5 (C) 5 D 6 E none of these 36. −2[ if x ∈ [−2. 5] 33. Find the exact value of ( f ◦ f )(2). 5]?.org Sample Exam Problems Problems 33 through 36 refer to the function f with assignment rule x 10 − 3 3 y = f (x) = 2x x 10 + 3 3 if x ∈ [−5.35: B Figure B. 2] if x ∈]2. where n is a positive integer and a ∈ [−5.34: A Figure B.33: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 34. Which one most resembles the graph of f −1 ? Figure B.30: A Figure B.37: D A A B B C C D D E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.Precalculus I http://www.32: C Figure B.

Find f (x). A 1 − 2x B 2 − 2x C 1 + 2x D 2−x E none of these 39.openmathtext. Problems 37 through 39 refer to the following situation.Precalculus I http://www. A 2x − 2 B 4x + 3 C x D 4x − 1 E none of these 40.org Sample Exam Problems 37.edu . Find ( f ◦ f )(x).41: D A A B B C C D D E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. Which one of the the following represents a function? Figure B. Find f (−1).39: B Figure B. A −3 B 1 C 3 D 0 E none of these 38.38: A Figure B.40: C Figure B. A function f : R → R satisﬁes f (1 − x) = 2x − 1.

edu . 5[ D [−5. −3[∪]2. The domain of the functional curve in ﬁgure B.openmathtext. −3]∪]2. −3[∪]2. f (3) = A 1 B 2 C 3 D 5 E none of these 44. −1[∪]2.org Sample Exam Problems Figure B. −1] ∪ [2. 5] C [−5. then f −1 (x) = x−1 B 1−x x+1 C x+1 1−x D x+1 x−1 E none of these A T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. 5[ E none of these 43. 5] C [−5.42: Problems 41 to 44. 41. 5] B [−5. If f (x) = x−1 x+1 x+1 . 5] D [−5. f is A an even function B increasing C an odd function D decreasing E none of these 45. The image of the functional curve in ﬁgure B.42 is A [−5.Precalculus I http://www.42 is A [−5. Figure B.42 shews a functional curve y = f (x). and refers to problems 41 to 44. −1[∪[2. 5] B [−5. 5[ E none of these 42.

y = f (x + 1) + 2 = GG.y = | f (−|x|/2)| = 1 KK.51: H Figure B.44 to B.Precalculus I http://www. y = f (x/2) = LL.48: E Figure B.y = | f (−|x|)| = HH. Figure B. Some ﬁgures may not match with any equation.45: B Figure B. y = −| f (x)| = BB. y = | f (−x)| = JJ. y = f (−x) = DD. You are to match the letters of ﬁgures B.47: D Figure B.edu .44: A Figure B.43: y = f (x) Figure B.43 shews a functional curve y = f (x). or viceversa. y = f (x − 1) + 1 = T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.49: F Figure B. y = − f (−x) = EE.org Sample Exam Problems Figure B.openmathtext. y = f (−|x|) = FF.54 with the equations on AA through LL below.52: I Figure B. y = f (x) = 2 CC.53: J Figure B.50: G Figure B.54: K AA. y = −| f (|x|)| = II.46: C Figure B.

61: C Figure B.56: B Figure B.63: A Figure B.57: C Figure B.58: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 47.60: B Figure B.edu .65: C Figure B. Which graph most resembles the graph of y = 1 − 2 1 − (x − 1)2 ? Figure B.55: A Figure B.64: B Figure B.62: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 48.59: A Figure B. Which of the following graphs represents the curve 1 − 2y2 = x2 ? Figure B.Precalculus I http://www. Which graph most resembles the graph of x = −(y + 1)2 + 1? Figure B.org Sample Exam Problems 46.66: D A A B B C C D D E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.openmathtext.

67: A Figure B. A y = 2(x − 1)2 − 1 B y= 2 · (x + 1)2 − 1 9 C x= 1 · (y + 1)2 + 1 4 D x = (y − 1)2 + 1 E none of these 50.71: A Figure B. A polynomial of degree 3 has roots at x = 0.73: C Figure B.69: C Figure B. Find its equation. −1) and passes through (2.74: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 52. A 2x(x − 1)2 B 2x(x − 1) C x(x − 1)2 D x2 (x − 1) E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. A −x(x − 1)(x + 2) B x(x + 1)(x − 2) C 2x(x − 1)(x + 2) D −x(x − 1)2 (x + 2) E none of these 53. Which graph most resembles the graph of p(x) = (x + 2)x(x − 2)? Figure B. 1). A parabola has axis of symmetry parallel to the x-axis. has vertex at (1.Precalculus I http://www. Which graph most resembles the graph of p(x) = −(x + 2)x(x − 2)2 ? Figure B.68: B Figure B. x = 1 and x = −2. Find its equation.70: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 51. Find its equation.72: B Figure B. Its graph is tangent to the x-axis at x = 0 and p(2) = 4. A polynomial of degree 3 has roots at x = 0 and x = 1.edu . and it satisﬁes p(−1) = 4.openmathtext.org Sample Exam Problems 49.

5] C [−4. The graph of f −1 is Figure B.openmathtext. −1[ C = −1 D ∈] − 1.75: Problems 54 to 58. 5] D [−5. composed of lines and a quarter circle with centre at (0. and refers to problems 54 to 58.79: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 58.Precalculus I http://www. What is Dom ( f )? A [−3.77: B Figure B.82: C Figure B. 54.81: B Figure B. Figure B. f (−2) = A 1 B 0 C −1 D 3 E none of these 55. The graph of y = | f (−|x|)| is Figure B. 0[ E none of these B [−6. 0).edu . f −1 (1) A = −2 B ∈] − 2.76: A Figure B.80: A Figure B.75 shews the graph of a function f .83: D A A B B C C D D E f is not invertible T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. 4] 56. 5] E none of these 57.78: C Figure B.org Sample Exam Problems Figure B.

What is the natural domain of deﬁnition of the assignment rule f (x) = √ A [0. Find (g ◦ f )(1).org Sample Exam Problems Consider the functions given by f: [0. 2[∪]2. A 7 63.Precalculus I http://www. → → R x2 − 2 and g: [−1. then f (x) = 2 B 2x − 2 C 4x − 1 D x−1 E none of these A 4x − 2 67. A 2 62. 0] x 4 − x2 ? D [0. Find ( f + g)(−1). A 4x2 + 4x + 1 B 2x2 − 3 C 2x2 + 5 D 4x2 + 4x − 1 √ E undeﬁned 65.openmathtext. If f x = 2x − 1. 2[ B ] − 2. Find ( f ◦ g)(x) whenever this composition makes sense. If f (x) = 2x − 1 then f −1 (3) = A 3 B 2 C 1 3 D 1 E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. +∞] E none of these 66. 2[ C ] − 2. A 2 61. Find ( f ◦ g)(1). 2] x Questions 59 through 64 refer to f and g. Find ( f + g)(1). A −2 60.edu . Find ( f g)(1). A −1 B 7 C −3 D −7 E undeﬁned B 1 C −3 D 3 E undeﬁned B −2 C −3 D 3 E undeﬁned B −2 C −3 D 3 E undeﬁned B 2 C 3 D −3 E undeﬁned 64. 1] x → → R 2x + 1 59.

0[ C R D R \ {0} E none of these 70.Precalculus I http://www.85: A Figure B.87: C Figure B. The graph of y = f (x − 1) + 1 is Figure B.84: Problems 68 to 72. +∞[ B ] − ∞.84 shews the graph of the function f with f (x) = x − .89: A Figure B.86: B Figure B.org Sample Exam Problems 1 Figure B. 68.openmathtext.90: B Figure B.92: D A A B B C C D D E f is not invertible T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. and refers to problems 68 to 72.88: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 72.91: C Figure B. The graph of f −1 is Figure B. What is Dom ( f )? A ]0. x Figure B. Which of the following applies to f ? A f is increasing B f is convex C f is injective D f is odd E none of these 69. Which one of the following assertions is true? A f (−a) = f (a) B f 1 a = f (a) C f 1 a = f (a2 ) D f 1 a = f (−a) E none of these 71.edu .

Find its equation.94 shews a parabola.94: Problem 74.edu . Find its equation. A x = 3 1 − (y − 1)2 B y = −3 1 − (x + 1)2 C x = −3 1 − (y − 1)2 D x = −3 1 + (y − 1)2 E none of these 74. its center.93 shews half an ellipse.Precalculus I http://www. Assume that it passes through the points marked on the graph and that the said points have integer coordinates.93: Problem ??. Figure B. A y = −(x + 1)2 + 2 B y = −2(x + 1)2 + 1 C y = −(x − 1)2 + 2 D y = −2(x − 1)2 + 2 E none of these 1 75. and three points on its graph. What is the equation of the resulting curve? A y= 1 − (x + 1)2 x+1 B y= 1 + (x − 1)2 x−1 C y= 1 − (x − 1)2 x−1 D y= 1 + (x + 1)2 x+1 E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp. Assume that the dots marked have integer coordinates.org Sample Exam Problems 73. The curve y = x2 − undergoes the following successive transformations: (i) a reﬂexion about the x-axis. and (ii) a translation one x unit right. Figure B. Figure B. Figure B.openmathtext.

org Sample Exam Problems Questions 76 through 78 refer to the polynomial p(x) = x2 (x − 3).104: B Figure B.102: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 78. Which one most resembles the graph of y = p(−x)? Figure B.97: C Figure B.edu .99: A Figure B.openmathtext. Which one most resembles the graph of y = |p(x)|? Figure B. Which one most resembles the graph of y = p(x)? Figure B.95: A Figure B.103: A Figure B.100: B Figure B.Precalculus I http://www.101: C Figure B.105: C Figure B. 76.96: B Figure B.106: D A A B B C C D D E none of these T(215) 751-8698 á êàá kdsantos@ccp.98: D A A B B C C D D E none of these 77.

E. Differential and Integral Calculus. 2002.G.. M. 1970. Vol 1 & 2. [Gel2] Gelfand. S. [Gel1] Gelfand. Inc. Vol 1 & 2.. Mathematical Association of America. R. [Olm] Olmstead. The Method of Coordinates. Inc.G. Mineola. Michael Calculus. N. New York: Springer-Verlag. A.. I.E. Texas: Publish or Perish. Gabriel. [Art] Artino. Pure Mathematics.. Calculus with Analytic Geometry. Functions and Graphs . [Spi] Spivak. [Har] Hardy. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Pure Mathematics. 3rd ed. 2002. 1950. Glagoleva. 119 .. [Par] Parsonson. 1994.. H. I. Calculus.. Gaglione. and Shell.. M. A. H. Inc. Kirillov. L. E.Bibliography [Apo] Apostol. Mineola.M. Chelsea Publishing Company. 1986. Glagoleva. Shnol. New York: Cambridge University Press. [Kla] Klambauer. 2nd ed.. T..M. New York: Dover Publications. New York: Dover Publications. G. The Contest Problem Book IV.. 1952... J... New York: Cambridge University Press. [Lan] Landau. 1967. 1966.. Vol 1 & 2. Waltham: Xerox. Houston. Aspects of Calculus.. 10th ed.. New York. E. E.A.