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2003; Vol 3, Suppl 1

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Quantum Mind 2003

Consciousness, Quantum Physics and the
March 15-19, 2003,
The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
Could quantum information be the key to understanding consciousness?
Will the study of consciousness enable quantum information technology?
The nature of consciousness and its place in the universe remain mysterious.
Classical models view consciousness as computation among the brain's neurons but
fail to address its enigmatic features. At the same time quantum
processes (superposition of states, nonlocality, entanglement...) also
remain mysterious, yet are being harnessed in revolutionary information
technologies (quantum computation, quantum cryptography and quantum
teleportation). A relation between consciousness and quantum effects has
been pondered for nearly a century, and in the past decades quantum
processes in the brain have been invoked as explanations for consciousness
and its enigmatic features. Critics deride this comparison as a mere
"minimization of mysteries" and quickly point out that the brain is too warm
for quantum computation which in the technological realm requires extreme
cold to avoid "decoherence", loss of seemingly delicate quantum states by
interaction with the environment. However quantum computation would surely be
advantageous from an evolutionary perspective, and biology has had 4 billion years
to solve the decoherence problem and evolve quantum mechanisms. Furthermore
recent experimental evidence indicates quantum
nonlocality occurring in conscious and subconscious brain function, and
functional quantum processes in molecular biology are becoming more and more
apparent. Much like study of the brain's synaptic connection promoted
artificial neural networks in the 1980's, appreciation of biological
quantum information processing may promote quantum information technology.
Moreover macroscopic quantum processes are being proposed as intrinsic
features in cosmology, evolution and social interactions. Following the
first "Quantum Mind" conference held in Flagstaff at Northern Arizona
University in 1999, "Quantum Mind 2003" will update current status and
future directions, and provide dialog with skeptical criticism of the
proposed synthesis of quantum information science and the brain.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Confirmed Plenary Speakers include:

Sir Roger Penrose, Henry Stapp, Guenter Mahler, Dick Bierman, Scott Hagan,
Harald Walach, Jiri Wackerman, Jack Tuszynski, Nancy Woolf, Koichiro
Matsuno, Paavo Pylkkanen, Stuart Hameroff, Paola Zizzi, Alexander Wendt,
Jeffrey Satinover, Roeland van Wijk, and Guenter Albrecht-Buehler

For further information:

Sponsored by
Center for Consciousness Studies, The University of Arizona;
The Fetzer Institute; The YeTaDeL Foundation;
The Samueli Institute for Information Biology

Organizing Committee
Stuart Hameroff, Fred Thaheld, Harald Walach Paavo Pylkkanen,
Jack Tuszynski, Dick Bierman, Nancy Woolf, Scott Hagan, Avner Priel,
Adele Behar, Pierre St. Hilaire, Paola Zizzi, Alexander Wendt,
Andrew Duggins, Jeffrey Satinover

Stuart Hameroff M.D.

Professor, Departments of Anesthesiology and Psychology
Associate Director, Center for Consciousness Studies
The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Plenary Planck's explanation of the blackbody

radiation to present day nano-technology
experiments. But how can the familiar
Plenary Session I classical and the unfamiliar quantum
features be reconciled? How does our
Foundations of Quantum classical world emerge from its quantum
Mechanics and the substrate?
I will show that the well-known thermal
Brain/Mind Problem equilibrium emerges as a typical "local"
property of closed quantum systems
How mind influences brain. partitioned into parts: It derives from
Henry Stapp <> (Professor of Physics, entanglement between the system of
University of California, Berkeley). interest and its quantum environment.
Our conscious thoughts do not enter While "entangled states" (a generalization
into the dynamical equations of classical of superposition states to composite
physics. They are considered to be either systems) abound on the level of the total
passive observers, or perhaps just system, these strange quantum states just
reorganized expressions of the classically give rise to that fairly classical appearence
described physical processes. In either of our physical world, to which we have no
case they can do nothing that is not access other than via some of its parts! The
already done by the local mechanistic huge space of correlations associated with
laws, which act exclusively at the any entanglement does not show up locally.
microscopic level, and completely specify (Neither does the ability to support massive
from the initial conditions of the universe quantum computation.)
the course of physical events for all time. In the classical domain partitions are
Quantum theory was born by injecting not fundamental; they often are a matter
the actions and observations of human of convenience. In quantum mechanics the
agents into the dynamical laws. partitions define the pertinent
Formalized by von Neumann as Process I, "perspective", a kind of generalized
this crucial insertion of the human agent reference frame, whithout which we cannot
into quantum dynamics allows a person's even formulate "elements of reality" (just
conscious thoughts, per se, to influence as you cannot define an angle without
the dynamical processes occurring in his referring to a given direction). In a
brain. Thus quantum mind-brain dynamics theoretical simulation of a closed quantum
combines naturally the bottom-up local world one can easily change partitions and
mechanistic brain process with a genuine thus "change reality", without even
top-down action of mind on brain that is touching the underlying total quantum
not just a reorganized expression of the state at all.
mechanical bottom-up process. The But who selects the partitions in our
details will be described. real world? To some extent the
experimentalist does; in fact, this is a
Closed quantum worlds and their prerequisite of empirical science to begin
partitions. Guenter Mahler with. But in most other respects the
<> experimentalist is a player like other
(Institute of Theoretical Physics I human beings on a stage, which nobody is
University of Stuttgart). free to define to ones's liking. So, are the
Quantum mechanics is often believed partitions (specifying the material world as
to be counter-intuitive if not mysterious. it appears) to an overwhelming extent the
At the same time this theory has met result of (collective?) consciousness?
with unprecedented success, from

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

I do not know. But I think, it could the only escape from our conclusion must
prove useful to consider (define?) deny one’s ability to freely (or randomly)
consciousness as such a partitioning agent choose behavior. Moreover, such denial of
(which would thus have to transcend any “free will” must also involve a strange and
local system including the brain!) rather unexplained connectivity between physical
than as the immediate local companion of phenomena. Therefore the conclusion that
any computing device of high enough consciousness itself, though yet
internal complexity (as some computer unexplained, is physically efficacious is at
specialists would like us believe). This least as modest an hypothesis as any other.
role of consciousness would be much Basically, of course, we are dealing with
broader and more "exquisite" then that of the quantum measurement problem. A
taking care of the notorious "quantum difference is that we treat it directly from
jumps" (believed to define microscopic the experiment without appeal to quantum
"facts" within a given partition). Is there theory. We finally relate our treatment to
any empirical evidence for that assertion? the way the problem is usually treated,
I cannot judge. One might look for i.e., from the point of view of the theory.
induced changes of partitions (as in the
theroretical model above), hopefully not
only in a metaphorical sense. Plenary Session II
Quantum Coherence in Brain
The only objective evidence for
consciousness: The quantum
experiment. Bruce Rosenblum A field theory of consciousness. E. Roy
<> (Department of John <> (Brain
Physics University of California at Santa Research Laboratories, New York University
Cruz ), Fred Kuttner. School of Medicine), Leslie S. Prichep.
In the absence of objective, third- Understanding the basis of subjective
person evidence of conscious experience, awareness and consciousness is the most
i.e., qualia, one can logically deny the challenging task facing neuroscience today.
very existence of consciousness beyond Apart from the need to elegantly resolve
the so-called “easy problems” of mind-brain dualism, there are pressing
consciousness. Consciousness has, in fact, practical needs to make progress on this
been claimed to be no more than the problem. Alterations in the quality of
behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells consciousness are fundamental to many
and their associated molecules. However, behavioral disorders. Understanding the
objective evidence for a physically brain processes which generate
efficacious consciousness actually exists, consciousness may lead to better
and the experimental facts are treatments. In spite of voluminous studies
undisputed. We will illustrate a physical by cognitive neuroscientists, a
manifestation of consciousness with a comprehensive theory of consciousness is
theory-neutral description of a quantum still lacking. These studies can be
mechanical thought experiment. It’s a characterized largely as either in the
version of the two-slit experiment, and “particle “ domain (Studies of neuronal
therefore realized in practice. The characteristics) or in the “wave domain”
obvious rebuttal to our argument, that an (Studies of EEG, MEG, EP). In recent years,
unconscious robot could do the imaging studies of processes reflecting
experiment, will be countered by metabolic processes in large cell masses
assuming the predictions of quantum have expanded the wave domain. This
theory (the most battle-tested theory in theory attempts to unify the particle and
science) are all correct and showing that wave domains.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Complex transformed into a seamless subjective

neuroanatomical/neurochemical experience. The inadequacy of connectionist
homeostatic systems, geneticallyconcepts to account for this process points to
determined, regulate baseline levels of 1)the need for a paradigm shift.
local synchrony, 2) global interactions How information fractionated into
among regions, and 3) periodic sampling specialized analyzers is integrated into a
of the signal space. This regulation holistic percept constitutes the binding
defines the most probable configuration problem. How a percept defined by a
of activity in the resting brain, spatial distribution of statistically
considered to contain no information, a nonrandom neural activity is subjectively
ground state of maximum entropy. experienced constitutes the problem of
Deviations from these baselines are consciousness. In this theory, the building
considered as negative entropy. Such blocks of consciousness arise from the
changes are consistently found during occurrence of local negative entropy,
information processing and cognitive within a set of neuronal populations
activity, in many developmental, widely distributed throughout the brain.
neurological, and psychiatric disorders, Pyramidal cells serve as coincidence
after administration of centrally active detectors binding dispersed coherent
substances, during seizures accompanied neuronal ensembles into Global Negative
with loss of consciousness, and in sleep, Entropy. Consciousness is postulated to
coma, and anesthesia. arise from an electromagnetic field
Research on anesthetic effects shows, resonating in a critical mass of
independent of any particular anesthetic, electrotonically as well as synaptically
that upon loss of consciousness, certain coupled cells
abrupt and distinctive changes always
take place in the local power spectra, the Dimensional analysis of neurophysical
distribution of power and interactions processes related to mentation. Gustav
among brain regions. A subset of these Bernroider <>
changes always reverses before return of (University of Salzburg, Institute of
consciousness. These robust findings have Zoology, Brain Imaging Group).
been combined with a number of critical Recent decoherence calculations of
observations from particle and wave brain states have failed to identify neural
research to build a theory of subsystems relevant to brain signalling with
consciousness. dynamical properties that require non-
Information is encoded by nonrandom classical physical descriptions [Tegmark,
synchronization of neuronal ensembles or Phys. Rev E 61, 2000]. Others have
cell assemblies within a brain region, plausibly suggested neural environments
rather than by discharges of dedicated that may protect a neural subsystem such
cells. Since random neural activity is the as microtubules from environment-induced
most probable, deviations from the einselection up to time-scales relevant for
regulated levels of local synchronization, classical signals [Hagan, Hameroff &
regional interactions and sampling periods Tuszynski, 2001].
constitute negative entropy. Integration of In this work, I will systematically apply
activity encoding sensory information, the Lagrangian concept of action order to
recent and episodic memories, brain processes at different scales of
expectations, planned actions, resolution in order to clarify the current
interoceptive stimuli, affective states and dispute whether classical neurophysics
levels of motivation is required to yield a suffices to analyse higher level brain
global percept. Spatially extensive, functions or a whether a quantum physical
essentially statistical information must be approach is necessary. The critical issue is

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

to estimate action orders over those to 2.1 x 10 to -16 L (involving electrical

quantities that are truly pertinent to the units). This is between 10to18 up to 10to19
relevant brain phenomena and to see x Planck’s constant, which is in good
whether the appropriate action orders agreement with the time-scale differences
require a quantum notation. Compared to for neural state decoherence and spiking
estimates about decoherence times, time calculated by Tegmark (10to19 s).
dimensional evaluation has several However, of particular interest at the
advantages; i) it is the most natural molecular level are actions behind selective
approach to delimit the domain of ion permeation and channel gating. With up
validity between classical and quantum to 10to5 ions permeating per msec and
theories, ii) it avoids ambiguity in the employing a ‘saturating barrier model’ with
definition of ‘environment’ (which , at one or two ions crossing at the time [Hille,
the present stage of knowledge is hardly 1992 and Joao H. Morais-Cabral et al,
possible for ‘real’physiological systems), Nature 414, 2001], action based on
iii) it avoids ‘assumptions’ about relevant mechanical units gives 0.48 x 10to-34 L,
physical (and physiological) magnitudes which is exactly in the range of the
but expresses a system in the most quantum constant h-bar (1.05459 x 10to-34
natural standard of ‘action’ and iv) it MKSA units). It is remarkable that this
does not anticipate the interpretation result, based exclusively on empirically
and correspondence problem (e.g. to established ion-conduction properties,
calculate the decoherence time of a yields precisely the dimension of a quantum
neuron in superposition of ‘resting’ and domain (actions above this dimension would
‘firing’ is to take a ‘Schrödinger cat imply classical validity, actions at the ‘sub-
state’ literally – whereas classicality Planck scale’ would be traditionally
behind neurophysiology clearly only considered insignificant, except some
involves stable and ‘einselected’ pointer quantum versions of classically chaotic
states). systems that scale as small as [(h-bar)2 /
Finally v) in the Lagrangian formalism action], and have recently been reported to
physical actions are treated as integrals be highly effective in the selection of
over magnitudes that conserve the preferred pointer states by the
integrand along spatio-temporal environment [Zurek, Nature 412, 712,
translations. As within this view action 2001].
can be expressed by the combination of Whereas classical neurophysiology has
many different physical magnitudes (e.g. considered selective diffusion of ions across
electrical quantities can be represented the cell membrane basically as the
by purely mechanical units and actions constructing mechanism leading to brain
involving energy can be calculated by signals (e.g. action potentials), with no
masses, time and length) the present particular coding potency as such (e.g.
approach accesses a wide range of Barlow’s doctrine in perception), more
empirical control benefiting from the recent progress in molecular and sub-
enormous amount of available molecular neurophysiology at the
physiological data. synchrotron 2 A resolution opens a new
The results presented here encompass perspective [Zhou, et al, Nature 414, 2001].
processes established at the macroscopic It becomes apparent that the classical level
single cell level to processes at the sub- of nerve impulse signalling ‘reflects’ on a
molecular level and the ‘concerted’ functionally indispensible lower level,
molecular population level. ‘Spiking’ involving energetically delicate concerted
action at the single cell level for example ion-protein and ion-ion interactions
is found to involve 1.8 x 10 to-15 [Berneche & Roux, Nature, 414, 2001], with
Lagrange (using mechanical units) down possible signalling properties of it’s own

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

relevance. It is this view that the present transforming into the spectral domain is
work tends to adopt. This is also that a great variety of transformed patterns
supportive of quantum models of higher can be readily convolved (multiplied) so
level brain functions in general [e.g. that by performing the inverse transform
Hameroff & Penrose, J. Consciousness the patterns have become correlated.
Stud. 3,36, 1996]. Results from this work Image processing as in tomography such as
demonstrate, that the brain spans over PET scans and fMRI are prime examples of
roughly 10to20 magnitudes of action the utility of the transformation.
orders with physiologically significant In quantum physics the Fourier
signal properties. Thus the following transformation is primarily applied in
question is put into the center of relating the position in space of a particle
attenion: how does the brain resolve the to its linear momentum (that is, a constant
problem of correspondence between the velocity). Much has been written regarding
extensive quantum Hilbert space the indeterminacy of this relationship at
governing ion dynamics on one hand and the lower limit of measurement, that is,
stable, einselected pointer states of that at the limit it is impossible to
propagating membrane potentials on the accurately measure both position and
other hand? In this paper some proposals momentum. This is also known as
for this decisive question concerning the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
relation of mentation and brain processes In classical physics the terms
will be discussed within the frame of a momentum and position refer to an
quantum-neurodynamical concept. unchanging status: "momentum" to the
inertia of velocity of a mass and "position"
Brain mathematics. Karl Pribram of its location. By contrast, "energy" in
<> (Cognitive classical physics refers to change, the
Neuroscience Program, Department of change being measured as a quantitative
Psychology, Georgetown University and amount of work necessary to effect the
School of Computational Sciences, George change. In quantum physics change is
Mason University). measured in terms of frequencies, of wave-
The current paper stems from the length (times Planck's constant). The
finding that there is a parallel between Fourier relation envisions the wave form
the formalisms of quantum physics and not as a linear continuum but as a clock-
those that describe certain information face-like circle - thus one can triangulate
processing aspects of brain function. Of and obtain the cosine and sine of the wave
course the brain processes represented form to produce their interference and
are not necessarily of the order of create phase in the spectral domain. This
quantum physics. Essential to the was Fourier's definitive insight (or was it
formalisms is the Fourier relationship that that of the mathematicians in Egypt with
states that any space-time pattern can be whom he discoursed during Napoleon's
transformed into the spectral domain expedition?) that has made his theorem
characterized by a set of waveforms that "probably the most far reaching principle of
encode amplitude, frequency and phase. mathematical physics" as Feynman has
Inverting the transform realizes the declared it. Thus, the Fourier energy-time
original space-time configuration. The relation becomes, in a sense, spatialized.
domain is "spectral" not just "frequency" In quantum physics very little has been
because the Fourier relation encodes made of the uncertainty involved in relating
both the cosine and sine of a waveform energy and time. Dirac called attention to
allowing the interference between the 90 this indeterminacy in discussing the delta
degree phase separation to be encoded as function, but for the most part quantum
coefficients. The advantage gained by physicists (e.g. Bohr) have focused on the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

relationship between energy and mass as theories: First there are no references to
in Einstein's equation: E=mc*. By squaring the momentum and position of a mass.
c, the constant representing the speed of Second, the emphasis is on energy as
light, a linear measure of time becomes measured not as a pseudospatial quantity
"spatialized" into an area-like concept, but as dynamic "free" energy. The utility of
Minkowsky's space-time. We will return to this free energy for structured work (as in a
a discussion of this version of time when steam engine) is of concern; its dissipation
considering brain processes. For quantum in unstructured heat is measured as
physicists interested in the composition entropy. In the diagram of the Fourier
of matter, the Einstein/Minkowsky space- relation, thermodynamics focuses on the
time formulation comes naturally. upper part of the relationship (the
For brain function, Dirac's dynamics of energy and time) just as
indeterminacy in the relation between physics focuses on the lower part (the
energy and time is the more cogent. statics of momentum and location of a mass
During the 1970s and 1980s the maps of or particle).
dendritic receptive fields of neurons in The distinction devolves on the
the primary visual cortex were described conception of time. Time in relativistic and
in such terms. The maps fit a space-time quantum physics has been spatialized as
constrained Fourier relation, the Gabor clock time, the chronos of the ancient
elementary function, essentially a kind of Greeks. Time in thermodynamics is a
wavelet in phase (Hilbert) space. Gabor measure of process, its duration, which
had used the same mathematics that may vary with circumstance. It is the
Heisenberg had used; he therefore called "Duree" of Bergson, the Kairos of ancient
his unit a "quantum of information" Greece.
warning that by this he meant only to Brain processes partake of both aspects
indicate the formal identity of the of time as developed in the space-time
formulation, not a substantive one. constrained Fourier measure utilizing the
Gabor had undertaken his phase between cosine and sine aspects of a
mathematical enterprise to determine wave form. In vision, for example, a two-
the minimum uncertainty, the maximum dimensional spatial frequency relation
compressibility, with which a telephone represents the momentum of a movement
message could be transmitted across the (velocity) and location of a point in visual
Atlantic cable without any loss in space. In audition, a time-frequency
intelligibility. He later related this process allows a distinction to be made
minimum uncertainty to Shannon's BIT, between the duration of a tone and its
the measure of a reduction of pitch. What is important is that in both
uncertainty. In turn, Shannon had related cases the results of the process are
his measure of uncertainty to Gibbs' and projected into the environment of the
Boltzman's measure of entropy. The stage organism. Bekesy demonstrated this by
was set for the issues that currently arranging the phase relations among
concern us: a set of identical formalisms vibrators placed on the skin; stereophonic
that refer to widely different substantive systems demonstrate the projection in the
and theoretical bodies of knowledge. arrangement of speakers in an engineering
What is needed is something like the artifact; and in vision it is an ordinary
discovery of atomic number in chemistry observation that we see things "out there"
that related the periodic table to its not on our retinas or in our brain cortex.
physics underpinnings. The projective nature of the brain process
To begin, contrast the referents of is what distinguishes it from both the
the formulations in classical and quatum quantum physical and thermodynamic
physics to those in thermodynamic processes.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

The brain organizations that make means to study society "scientifically." This
projection possible describe an internal, has led many interpretivists implicitly to
semi-closed, self-organizing set of accept a problematic Cartesian dualism,
processes. However, that is not the whole and even to reject the idea of social
story. The formal, mathematical science altogether. If consciousness is a
descriptions of our subjective quantum rather than classical mechanical
experiences (our theories) of observations phenomenon, then these basic parameters
in the quantum, thermodynamic and of contemporary social scientific discourse
communications domains are non-trivially and debate will be called into question, and
coordinate with each other. They are also radically new models of human agency,
coordinate with brain processes that, by social structure, and the epistemology of
way of projection, unify the experiential social inquiry will need to be developed.
with the physical. By this I mean that the Some ideas about what these might look
experiences of observations in quantum like are proposed.
physics, in thermodynamics and in
communication appear to us to be "real", Generalized entanglement - Possible
that is, extra-personal. Adaptation to examples, empirical evidence,
living in the world makes it likely that experimental tests. Harald Walach
this coordination of the mathematical <> (University
formulations in physics, thermodynamics, Hospital Freiburg, Institute of
and brain processes thus represents the Environmental Medicine and Hospital
useful reality within which we exist. Epidemiology, Germany).
Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) uses the

Plenary Session III formalism of algebraic quantum mechanics

(QM) to build a generalised version of a
formalism applicable to all sorts of systems
Transpersonal Implications beyond the realm of QM proper and
of the Quantum Mind material systems. WQT drops some
Quantum mind and social science. restrictions specific to QM, like Planck's
Alexander Wendt constant, but retains the handling of non-
<> (University of commuting or complementary observables.
Chicago). From the theoretical framework of WQT it
Social science in both its positivist can be derived that entanglement, which is
and interpretivist or humanistic forms is well known as EPR-correlations for material
based on the metaphysical assumptions of systems described by QM proper, could also
classical physics. The effects of this be operative between parts of systems not
worldview have been clearest on normally treated by QM. Most notably, WQT
positivist scholarship, in which human predicts that entanglement should ensue
beings are conceptualized as machines between parts of a system, if a local
and as such can be studied like any other observable describing one part of the
material object, in an objective, third- system and a global observable describing
person manner that has no need to take the whole system are complementary.
consciousness into account. While the notion of complementarity is well
Interpretivists reject the machine model defined within QM proper, it is more
and its deterministic implications in favor difficult to handle in the context of
of a phenomenological, first-person everyday or non-formal scientific language.
perspective that makes consciousness "Complementary" denotes two elements
central. But their approach too is subtly which are mutually incompatible and yet
indebted to classical physics, which they necessary to describe one whole or system.
have taken as their reference for what it This fact is mathematically modelled by the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

non-commutativity of operations. If this

prediction of WQT is true, then we would
expect generalised entanglement Plenary Session IV
between elements of macroscopic
systems to be a rather common
Cell Biology I - Is the Brain
phenomenon. In this lecture, I will give a Really “Warm, Wet and
few empirical examples, which are Noisy”?
suggestive of generalised entanglement,
Varieties of computational experience:
and derive some empirical and
Molecular biology and quantum
experimental predictions.
information processing. Jeffrey Satinover
One such example is the correlation
<> (Condensed
of improvement rates of patients treated
Matter Theoretical Physics & W. H. Keck
by pharmacological treatment and
Foundation Center for Quantum Information
placebo within the context of randomised
Physics, Yale University).
double blind clinical trials. These
It remains widely believed that
improvement rates we and others have
biological processes can be wholly
shown to be highly correlated (r = .78). I
understood using the models and
suggest that this is due to entanglement,
mathematical methods of classical physics,
rather than to classical processes, and
chemistry and thermodynamics. In this
will present data from a meta-analysis of
view, quantum theory merely provides for
121 clinical trials to make this case
the rules of material interaction; the
plausible. Another example is the
quantum statistics of many-body systems
correlation of EEG of spatially separated
gives these interactions a distinct cast in
subjects, as presented by Wackermann et
circumstances of exceptional isolation and
al. in another lecture. A further example
control but are washed out in the
could be the well known transference and
thermodynamic conditions that prevail in
countertransference phenomena, as
living systems. This view is flatly wrong.
witnessed in psychotherapy. It is possible
Without appeal to any theory of
that generalized entanglement is also
consciousness, nor to formal (qubit-based)
used by subsystems of the body. If some
"quantum computation," there are
genes act as pattern specifiers, rather
innumerable processes critical to living
than as specifier of particular building
matter that depend directly upon quantum
blocks, this would explain some of the
effects that play themselves out on a
puzzles of genetics, as suggested by
mesoscopic scale, and whose consequences
Michael Hyland. Apart from that this
are as baffling as all quantum results.
would predict a hyperfast communication
These processes are also inherently
system in the body, which could be
computational in character. This
tested empirically.
presentation will describe examples of such
By that mechanism quite a few other
processes and explain how their quantum
hitherto unexplained phenomena, which
and computational characteristics
are deemed unscientific, could be
distinguish them from qubit-based quantum
explained. Among them would be
computation. It will be argued that the
relational phenomena as the basis for
evidence for such processes in living
healing, ritual, and other branches of
systems is already (a) ubiquitous and
complementary and alternative medicine,
unique, (b) of enormous theoretical
or parapsychological phenomena.
significance, (c) readily assimilable at
Consciousness, possibly being itself a
(scarcely beyond) the advancing edge of
variable complementary to matter, would
current scientific research, (d) becoming
enter the field by ways yet to be
central to emerging, rigorously scientific,
explored and would take a new role.
biological models and (e) that it can help

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

provide accountability and rigor for the be shown. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
more speculative ideas that are a large laser optical techniques for determining the
part of, for example, this conference. To polarizability and consequently dipole
crib from Richard Feynman: moment of tubulin and MTs will be
“Imagination, but imagination in a strait- presented. The applicability of SPR and
jacket.” femtosecond laser pulses to detection of
long-lived, room-temperature quantum
Experimental "quantum brain"? Andreas superposition and entanglement among
Mershin <> tubulin dipole states will be discussed.
(Texas A&M University) A.A. Kolomenski; Evidence in support of crucial involvement
H.A. Schuessler. of neuronal MTs in Drosophila fruit-fly
It has been suggested that tubulin has associative olfactory memory formation will
a permanent electric dipole moment be shown.
which changes direction as the protein
undergoes a conformational change. It Quantum models of consciousness in brain
has been argued that this property can be microtubules: Decoherence and the issue
used as the basis for an electronic binary of biological feasibility. Scott Hagan
switch. Biophysical analysis has yielded <> (Department of
predictions that under certain Mathematics, British Columbia Institute of
circumstances, dipole-moment “flip- Technology Burnaby, British Columbia, V5G
waves” can propagate along microtubules 3H2, Canada).
(MTs) and that MTs are ferroelectric. Enigmatic features of subjectivity and
There have also been indirect indications consciousness have motivated several
that optical and quantum effects play a approaches that postulate an ultim ately
significant role in the function of these quantum basis for these phenomena. In the
intracellular cytoskeletal structures. most prominent model - the orchestrated
Although crucial to these hypotheses and objective reduction t heory of Penrose and
to a better understanding of MT Hameroff - the neuronal cytoskeleton is the
structure, function, polymerization, site of quantum level superpositions that
energy transduction and anesthetic and avo id environmental decoherence long
other drug binding, so far, the electric enough to interact with classical
dipole moment of tubulin has never been neurophysiology. Such models have been cr
experimentally determined and flip iticized, both as regards their motivation
waves or quantum behavior have not and their biological feasibility, in a report
been observed. by Tegmark. The repo rt suggests that
This talk concentrates on avenues of quantum coherence could be maintained in
experimental investigation of the microtubules for only about 10-13 seconds,
dielectric and possibly quantum far too s hort to be neurophysiologically
properties of tubulin, microtubules and relevant.
associated proteins, as these pertain to On critical examination, however, the
their possible role in storing and calculations do not appear to justify the
processing information in biomolecular claim. Tegmark's formulation of the
circuits. Our theoretical as well as decoherence time, for instance, predicts
experimental in vitro and in vivo methods exactly the opposite temperature
used to try to answer these questions will dependence to that which is observed in
be described. practice. The derivation, once corrected
A QED-cavity, quantum optics derived for several discrepancies between
model of MTs implying dissipationless Tegmark's account of the model and the
energy transfer along MTs and quantum actual hypothesis, also appears to
teleportation of biomolecular states will determine a result that invalidates the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

assumptions on which the derivation satisfy; the theory should maximally

proceeds. The assessment of decoherence describe its own validity and strength and it
times is further based on an equilibrium should be maximally valid and strong. Some
model, clearly inappropriate in the aspects of the basic observation that all
context of a living system continually language necessarily has physical
supplied with energy, especially when representations (language is physical) will
Tegmark himself allows that non- also be discussed.
equilibrium ordering processes could in
fact counter short-range sources of Quantum associative memories. Carlo
decoherence like ion scattering. Revised Trugenberger
estimates for the decoherence time due <>
to the tidal influence of Coulomb forces (InfoCodex S.A.).
(the case investigated by Tegmark) are Contrary to traditional computers which
presented as well as results for the store information in address-oriented
decoherence time due to other potential memories, our brain makes use of
sources of decoherence. All are found to associative, or content-addressable
be within tolerances allowed by the memories. These have the advantage that
model. information can be reconstructed from
Tegmark also questions the incomplete or corrupted inputs and are
motivation for introducing quantum distinctive of higher intelligences. Given
models in the first place and argues that the superiority of this type of memories, it
classical (non-quantum) models can is important to construct models of their
accomplish these same ends. His behaviour, both to gain insight in the
formulation is reviewed to demonstrate functioning of our brain and to realize
that his classical characterization of artificial devices based on them. Present
subjectivity is not, in fact, about models of associative memories are based
subjectivity. It is shown that the solution on the neural network paradigm and are
he envisions to the binding problem essentially all variants of the basic Hopfield
cannot succeed, specifically because of model. While they are able to capture some
constraints that apply to all classical important aspects of the problem they
(non-quantum) phenomena. suffer from a severe capacity shortage
which limits their applicability: only a

Plenary Session V number of patterns linear in n can be

stored in a network of n neurons. As I have
recently shown, this problem can be solved
Quantum Information by a model of quantum associative memory.
Science In this model binary patterns of n bits sre
Towards a coherent theory of physics stored in the quantum superposition of the
and mathematics together. Paul Benioff appropriate subset of the computational
<> (Physics Division, basis of n qbits. Information can be
Argonne National Laboratory). retrieved by performing an input-
Some work based on my long standing dependent rotation of the memory within
interest in the relation between physics this subset. The resulting amplitudes are
and mathematics at a foundational level peaked on those stored patterns which are
will be discussed. Included will be most similar to the input. A collapse of the
consideration of very general aspects of a wave function according to the
possible framework for a coherent corresponding probability distribution
theeory of physics and mathematics generates the output of the memory. This
together. Emphasis will be placed on two collapse can be due to a measurement, in a
basic conditions that such a theory should quantum computer, or to objective

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

reduction, in Hameroff-Penrose type sensors have no passive counterparts. For

models of consciousness. The capacity of example, synthetic aperture radar (SAR),
such quantum associative memories is computes an image of the ground from a
exponential in the number of qbits, large set of radar return pulses collected
thereby solving the main problem of from an airplane. The image formation
classical associative memories. The price processing is an integral part of the sensor;
to pay is the probabilistic nature of without it there is nothing to see. The
information retrieval, a feature that, same can be said for many other computer-
however, they share with our own brain. dependent sensors such as computer-aided
Quantum sensors. Ken Augustyn Quantum effects such as superposition
<> (Ann Arbor and entanglement are now moving into the
Research & Development Center). domain of sensor engineering, and it is
A wide variety of quantum nearly certain that entirely new kinds of
technologies are currently under sensors will result; sensors with properties
development in universities across the that cannot be explained in terms of
world. The motivation for this classical physics. For example, Paul
substantial effort is to realize the Kwiat’s quantum zeno effect experiment,
promises of quantum computing, conducted while he was at Los Alamos, can
quantum cryptography, and quantum be interpreted as a very unusual kind of
communications. These promises sensor. Here, a physical pathway between
appeared rather suddenly and two points can be monitored from a remote
unexpectedly in the 1980’s from both location, where one can know whether or
theoretical breakthroughs, such as David not the “beam” between these two points
Deutsch’s original quantum computing has been broken by the insertion of an
algorithm, and from nearly simultaneous opaque object. But this “beam” is not
experimental breakthroughs, such as made of anything classical, like a beam of
Aspect’s demonstration of EPR photons or electrons or atoms. Our
phenomena. classical language breaks down; it is a
These three big areas -- computing, “beam” of probability amplitudes.
cryptography, and communications -- are Equipped with a photon detector, or any
all in the more general area of quantum other kind of detector, an intruder is highly
information technology. However, there unlikely to detect this beam. Yet it can
are yet other areas that are likely to reliably detect this intruder’s detector
benefit from the technologies being when it breaks the beam.
developed. In laboratories such as JPL’s Quantum
One such area is sensors. A sensor is Sciences and Technology Group new kinds
a physical device that produces of gravity gradiometers have been
information about the world, such as a developed that are a thousand times more
thermometer, or a camera, or an MRI sensitive than the best classical instrument.
scanner. They use atom interferometry, a quantum
Sensors are of two types, active or effect that has no classical counterpart.
passive. Passive sensors such as a Boston University’s Quantum Imaging
microphone merely respond to their Laboratory has developed many practical
environment. Active sensors in some way applications based on the properties of
probe their environment. Sonar, for entangled photons, or biphotons. These
example, is an active sensor. include entangled photon microscopes,
Although many active sensors are spectroscopes, and tomographic sensors.
trivial extensions of passive sensors, such At Veridian’s Ann Arbor Research &
as a camera with a flash, other active Development Center, we are investigating a

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

wide range of potential new quantum Full Turing-equivalent scalable quantum

sensors, such as: computers are still some years away. But
· Sensors that can detect hazardous many sensor applications will not need their
chemical or biological aerosols or universality. With sensors such as SAR and
surface deposits from a large MRI, “doing the computing right” is the
“standoff” distance. Generally, largest part of the engineering job, and for
biohazard sensors work by many of the new sensors we are
illuminating molecules by envisioning, a small on-board quantum
ultraviolet light and inducing device will do the specific required
fluorescence. Since atmospheric computing job. For example, we have
ozone is a strong absorber of UV developed a special-purpose quantum
light, distances are limited. By computing device to rapidly compute the
down converting UV photons into so-called cross-ambiguity function needed
entangled pairs of green photons, by many sensor types.
and by utilizing entangled two- We are also working on algorithms for
photon fluorescence, we think we universal quantum computers. For
can solve this standoff distance example, we have developed a quantum
problem. computing algorithm for optimization that
· Virtual State Spectroscopy sensors uses information about the problem
that use the differential (density of states) to speed up the process
fluorescence response to subtle of finding the optimal solution.
variations in entanglement time, To me it is clear that as more
relative delay, and other applications become real and tangible,
entangled two-photon parameters more bright young people will be attracted
to give unique material signature to careers in what will be called quantum
information. engineering. The number of people
In the process, we are developing working in this field is increasing rapidly
new technologies such as our Biphoton already because of the excitement of
Detection Device, which can distinguish quantum computing. Tangible, practical
the unique case of the simultaneous applications such as quantum sensors will
arrival of an entangled pair of photons further stimulate and attract bright new
from the simultaneous arrival of an minds to this new field. We are only at the
“ordinary” (not entangled) two-photon very beginning of the quantum engineering
pair. This device is thought to be key to era.
a number of sensor concepts that rely on What does all of this have to do with
the distinction of biphotons detection the philosophical problems of interpreting
events from background photon quantum physics, especially with the
detections. Without it, one can only problem of understanding conscious
infer (by means of coincidence detection) awareness and the relationship of
that an entangled pair has arrived, and consciousness to the physical world?
the reliability of this inference goes down I believe that the future rapid growth of
as the background photon flux level quantum applications will attract and
increases. provide the economic infrastructure to
We are also involved in quantum greatly increase the number of people
computing, both in developing algorithms working in quantum engineering jobs. All
that would run on full, Turing-equivalent of these new people will be qualified to
quantum computers and in developing think in quantum terms, and their jobs will
special-purpose quantum computing enable them to be continuously immersed
devices. in real-world quantum problems. And many
of them will want to deal with the quantum

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

foundations of consciousness – if not on cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation) is

the job then on their own time – and they sometimes induced for testing internal
will knock their heads against the wall as defibrillators. In these patients the EEG
most of you have been doing. They will becomes usually flat within 10-15 seconds
be younger, and better educated. Their from the onset of syncope due to the
physics education will, I hope, be (reversible) total loss of function of the
“quantum from day one” rather than brain. According to this theory, all patients
quantum bolted onto a classical in our study should have had NDE, but only
framework. And, they will have all of 18% reported NDE.
your work to build upon. The psychological explanation: NDE is
So, while I have no solution of my caused by fear of death. But in our study
own to propose to the quantum-mind only a very small percentage of patients
problem, I am confident that practical said they had been afraid the last seconds
quantum applications, such as quantum preceding the cardiac arrest. And also the
sensors, will provide the economic given medication made no difference.
infrastructure to support a growing army Finally there is a theory that
of new quantum engineers. Through consciousness can be experienced
them, a more satisfactory understanding independently from the normal body-linked
of quantum physics and consciousness will waking consciousness.
come in time. Research on NDE pushes us at the limits
of our medical concepts of the range of

Plenary Session VI human consciousness and the relationship

between consciousness and memories with
the brain.
The “Near Death First we will discuss the content of
Experience” certain elements of NDE, like the out-of-
About the continuity of consciousness: body experience, the holographic life
Near-death experience during cardiac review and preview, the encounter with
arrest. Pim van Lommel deceased relatives, the return to the body
<> (Division of and the disappearance of the fear of death.
Cardiology Hospital Rijnstate Arnhem The These elements of NDE show that people
Netherlands). can experience consciousness, with self-
Recently our article in the Lancet was identity, cognitive function and memories,
published, entitled: “ Near-death including the possibility of perception
experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: outside their body, during a flat EEG.
a prospective study in the Netherlands”. Consciousness can get into a dimension
A near-death experience (NDE) is the without our conventional body-linked
reported memory of all impressions concept of time and space, enabling
during a special state of consciousness, simultaneous existence of past, present and
including specific elements such as out- future events (review and preview). It is
of-body experience or a life review. also possible to become connected with
There are three theories that should personal memories and with the personal
explain the cause and content of NDE. consciousness of others, as well with fields
The physiologic explanation: The NDE of consciousness of deceased loved ones
is experienced as a result of pancerebral (interconnectedness). Finally, the return of
anoxia. In our study all patients had a consciousness into the body is experienced,
cardiac arrest, they were clinically dead, including the accompanying sense of
unconsciousness that was caused by limitation.
insufficient blood supply to the brain, and We will discuss some neurophysiology of
the EEG has become flat. In patients the normal function and of anoxia of the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

brain. Quantum field theory is important, death consciousness can continue to exist in
because of the similarities found in NDE another dimension in which all past,
and in the concepts of non-locality, present and future is enclosed. Could
universal interconnectedness, a non- death, like birth, then be a mere passing
material dimension without our time- from one state of consciousness to another?
space relationship, and in the concept of
subjectivity. All events are related and Reference:
influence each other instantaneously and Van Lommel, P., van Wees, R., Meyers, V.,
in reciprocity, and only subjectivity Elfferich, I. “Near-death experience in
remains. The fleeting, highly ordered 4- survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective
dimensional patterns of germs of study in the Netherlands”. Lancet 2001;
subjectivity (virtual photons), generated 358: 2039-2045.
by assemblies of dendritic trees of a
specialized neuronal network, should be Near-death experiences and the temporal
thought as the final product of chaotic, lobe. Willoughby Britton
dynamically governed self-organization. <> (Sleep
Such patterns encode for subjective Research Laboratory Department of
(conscious) experience (Romijn). Psychology University of Arizona), Richard
The role of DNA is essential in R. Bootzin.
explaining the continuity of consciousness Introduction: A small number of
in a permanent changing body with 50 individuals react to life threatening trauma
billion cells dying and being renewed with an atypical response called a near-
each day. DNA must be the place of death experience (NDE). The NDE is
resonance, and the function of DNA in typically characterized by dissociation from
receiving, “translating” and transmitting the physical body, entering an unearthly
information from (virtual) photons must realm, euphoria and the transcendence of
have been permanently changed after an space time and self. The reason why some
NDE because of the possibility of individuals report NDEs while others do not
receiving not only your personal remains unknown. In addition to quantum
(evolving) consciousness, but also the models, the most common theories about
consciousness and emotions of others and NDEs propose psychological defense
sometimes even receiving future events mechanisms or stress/hypoxia induced
into your day-consciousness. neurophysiological alterations as
The current concept in medical explanations. The temporal lobe has been
science, however, states that implicated in NDEs because direct
consciousness is the product of the brain. stimulation the temporal lobe and TL
According to this concept all aspects of epileptic seizures produce similar
NDE and its transformation should not be subjective experiences. NDErs and TL
possible. Could then the brain be a kind epileptics also tend to undergo similar
of receiver (interface) for consciousness personality changes in which they become
and memories, like TV, radio, mobile more spiritually oriented and less
telephone or laptop? What you receive is materialistic.
not in the receiver (music, voice, Methods: In order to determine if NDErs
internet), but electromagnetic show more signs of temporal lobe epilepsy,
informational waves (photons) 23 near-death experiencers and non-
transmitted from elsewhere are made traumatized age and gender-matched
visible or audible for your sense organs. controls were screened for paroxysmal EEG
Our opinion on death changes discharges during an overnight EEG sleep
fundamentally because of the almost study. Twenty-seven channels of digitized
unavoidable conclusion that on physical polysomnographic EEG were sleep stage

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

scored and screened for epileptiform Does consciousness collapse the wave
activity that was independently rated by function? Dick Bierman <> (Dept. of
a registered EEG technician at the UMC Psychology, University of Amsterdam).
Epilepsy Unit. Subjects also completed In 1977 Hall et al reported an
the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the experiment that, according to their
Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD, a description, tested the most radical
temporal lobe symptom questionnaire, solution to the ‘measurement problem’,
the COPE, the Anomalous Experiences namely the proposition that: …. The
Inventory, and a dream questionnaire. reduction of the wave packet is a physical
Results: Near-death trauma survivors event which occurs only when there is an
were found to have more temporal lobe interaction between the physical measuring
paroxysmal activity and reported apparatus and the psyche of some
significantly more temporal lobe (p<.005) observer….
and partial complex epileptic symptoms They defended their experiment
(p<.001) than controls. All of the writing: … although we concur that there is
epileptiform activity in NDErs was a genuine problem of the reduction of the
lateralized to the left side (T3-T5) with wave packet, we do not intend in our paper
one bilateral case. Paroxysmal activity in to defend this opinion against those who
the left temporal lobe was associated maintain that it is a pseudo problem….
with the near-death experience (p<.05), The measurement problem is still not
but not PTSD or history of head trauma. solved although there seems to be growing
Near-death experiencers also showed consensus that maybe there is no reduction
differences in sleep patterns: they slept of the wave packet at all. We too, do not
significantly less than controls (p<.05) wish to fight this or any other position with
and had longer REM latency (p<.05). REM regard to the proper interpretation of the
latency was significantly associated with quantum formalism and the role of the
the near death experience (p<.05), even measurement therein, but like Hall and his
after sleep reduction was accounted for. collaborators, we investigate the issue
The near-death group were marginally experimentally.
more dissociative (p<.1) but were no The Hall experiment is conceptually
different than controls on measures of easy to understand. A quantum event, in
PTSD. Conclusion: Individuals who have this case a radioactive decay, is measured
had NDEs were found to be distinct from in a counter and the signal is displayed on a
the general population on three scaler. An observer A is observing the
physiological measures: left temporal scaler. The scaler signal is transmitted
lobe epileptiform activity, reduced sleep through a delay unit and displayed again.
time and increased REM latency. These This time it is observed by observer B.
physiological differences were not Observer A will sometimes observe but
associated with maladaptive trauma sometimes not observe the scaler. Observer
responses, but rather positive coping B has to ‘guess’ if a quantum event
styles. observed by him or her has already been
observed by observer A.

Plenary Session VII The results of this experiment were

precisely at chance. I.e. the second
observer B guessed 50% correct. Hence it
Experimental Tests of was concluded that observer B was unable
Nonlocality in Brain to detect if the observed signal had already
Function been observed earlier. It was concluded
that this experiment did not provide
support for the hypothesis that it is the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

interaction with consciousness which few facts, some ideas, and lots of doubts.
causes the wave packet to collapse. Jiri Wackermann <> (Institute
It should be made explicit that there
for Frontier Areas of Psychology Dept.
is an implicit assumption here that ourEmpirical and Analytical Psychophysics).
brains in some way are able to detect the In a recent study [1], correlations
difference between a superposition state
between brain electrical activities (EEG)
and a singular state. And secondly thatrecorded from pairs of spatially and
this difference can be communicated sensorily separated human subjects were
consciously. explored. One member of the pair was
In a comment later added to the visually stimulated while the other, non-
article the authors note that the used stimulated member relaxed. EEGs recorded
delay was extremely short and that …. from non-stimulated subjects at stimulation
The delay time should be in the order of
times showed significant deviations of mean
psychologically discriminable intervals…
effective voltages from their distributions
In the present conceptual replication
during the inter-stimulus periods. The
the time between the first observation results indicated a kind of correlation
and the second one can be adjusted. between two brains, for which no
Indeed Libet’s seminal work on the neurobiological basis is known. However, no
processing time needed for conscious responses similar to visual evoked
experience sets a lower interval of about
potentials (so-called 'transferred potential',
300-400 msecs because one should [2]) were found in the EEGs of non-
require the first observation to be a stimulated subjects. The results did not
conscious one before the second support the assumption [2,3] of an
observation starts. 'empathic bond' established by pairwise
The difference with the original meditation playing a crucial role in such
experiment goes a bit further than justcorrelations.
adjusting the interval. Rather than asking This and earlier studies [2,3] were
the second observer for a conscious guess
implicitly based on an asymmetrical, 'signal
we measure the brain responses to the propagation' model. Adopting tentatively
stimulus (Evoked Potential). If
the 'entanglement' paradigm, symmetrical
consciousness is the crucial element for
experimental arrangements and/or
wave packet reduction the conscious symmetrical analysis strategies may be
decision will be based on the physical more appropriate. For example,
state of the wave packet which is singular
experimental designs may involve elements
at the moment of conscious guess even if
of shared, goal-oriented intention, e.g. co-
no pre-observation has taken place. operative games, in which correlated
By measuring brain potentials of the
actions are positively rewarded. Data-
second observer before consciousness can
analytic strategies may benefit from global
arise one taps into the non conscious approach to analysis of brain electrical
interaction of the brain with the wave activity [4], embedding parallel streams of
packet which supposedly is still in EEG data into a common state space and
superposition during the first 300-400 identifying periods of high synchronisation
msecs of brain processing by the secondin the activity of such a 'super-brain'.
observer (in case the first observer was It is still questionable whether the
not observing).
results of [1], or any follow-up studies
Results of this experiment will be based on symmetrised experimental
presented at the conference. designs, have any bearing on the notion of
quantum entanglement in macroscopic,
Correlations between electrical e.g. biological systems, or on the `physics
signatures of separated brain states: of consciousness' at all. Even if correlations

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

between brain states not mediated by Leila Kozak, (Bastyr University Research
direct physical communication were an Institute).
established experimental fact (which is Purpose: Since 1965 there have been
not the case yet), the consequences for scattered and controversial reports of
our understanding of consciousness would correlated event-related brain potentials
be unclear (if any). Also, there is no a detected in humans who are separated and
priori argument that understanding of isolated from one another by distances of
such `non-local' inter-organismic up to 14 meters. In order to replicate and
interactions would require quantum 'non- further investigate these findings
locality' as the explanatory basis. sophisticated EEG software and statistical
The epistemological situation of this signal detection methods were developed.
type of research is entirely different from Methods: Simultaneous digitized EEG
usual experimentation or observation: was recorded from the occiput of pairs of
neither well-proven theorical basis nor healthy human adult subjects (n =60; 30
self-evident phenomenal experience are pairs) who knew each other well and
available. It is thus incorrect to speak of claimed to have a sense of emotional and
'experimental evidence'; a more psychological connection with their
appropriate expression would be partner. Subjects were separated from
'experimental coercion' of phenomena each other by 10 meters in sound
intended to feed theorical speculation. attenuated rooms. Prior to each
Such epistemological traps are well- experiment, one member of the pair was
known in certain areas of science, e.g. randomly designated as the “sender” and
parapsychology. To escape the trap, we the other as the “receiver”. Pattern
should not ask 'what can laboratory reversal visual evoked potentials were
research do to substantiate the new triggered in the “sender’s” brain by
paradigm?' but, rather, 'is there any flickering black and white checkerboard
reliably observable phenomenon requiring stimuli. Senders were presented with an
necessarily a new paradigm?' alternating schedule of stimulus on
(flickering pattern)/stimulus off (static
References pattern) conditions. Receivers were
[1] J. Wackermann, C. Seiter, H. Keibel, presented with a static pattern (stimulus
H. Walach, Neurosci. Lett. 336 (2003): off) throughout the whole session A
60--64. statistical signal detection algorithm was
[2] J. Grinberg-Zylberbaum, M. Delaflor, developed to determine whether brain
L. Attie, A. Goswami, Physics Essays 7 activation during the 80-180 msec interval
(1994): 422--427. in the “receiver” was higher when the
[3] A. Sabel, C. Clarke, P. Fenwick, Proc. “sender “was visually stimulated compared
44th Ann. Conv. Parapsychol. Assoc. to when the sender’s monitor showed a
(2001): 419--422. static image of the same checkerboard
[4] J. Wackermann, Int. J. Psychophysiol. stimulus. “Receiver” subject EEG data
34 (1999): 65--80. collected during the Static condition was
used to construct a within-subject control
EEG evidence of correlated event statistic by which to compare EEG data
related signals between distant human collected from the “Receiver” during the
brains. Leanna J. Standish Sender’s flicker condition. A Runs test was
<> (Bastyr University applied to compare EEG “hits” in the
Research Institute), L. Clark Johnson, “Receiver’s” EEG during the ‘Sender’s’
(University of Washington), Todd Flicker condition than during the
Richards, (University of Washington), “Sender’s” Static condition. Those subjects
with Runs Test results with p values < 0.01

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

were considered to provide evidence of a

correlated brain signal associated with The Quantum Coherent Organism. Mae-
their sending partner’s Flicker condition. Wan Ho <> (Institute of Science in Society,
Pairs in whom at least one subject had PO Box 32097, London NW1 0XR, UK www.i-
significant results were invited back to
the lab for a replication experiment. The quantum coherent organism is the
Results: Of the 60 subjects (30 pairs) prerequisite of mind and mental processes.
tested, five subjects (four women and I shall present theoretical, heuristic
one man) showed significantly higher arguments and empirical evidence that
brain activation (p < 0.01) during their organisms are indeed quantum coherent.
sending partner’s Flicker condition This leads to new conceptions of organic
compared to the Static condition. One space-time as opposed to Newtonian time.
subject in one pair replicated the effect Key contents: Maxwell’s demon, molecular
in a second trial. energy machines, stored coherent energy,
Discussion: These EEG results liquid crystalline organism, Onsager’s
indicate that in some pairs of healthy reciprocity relationship, Morowitz theorem
human subjects a signal can be detected of cycles, principle of internal entropy
in the brain of a distant member of the compensation, thermodynamics of
pair when the brain of the other member organisms, Frohlich?s coherent excitation,
is visually stimulated. These data quantum coherent organism, factorisability,
represent a rigorous demonstration of time and entropy, organic, fractal space-
correlated event related potentials time, time and freewill.
between human brains at a distance.
These anomalous findings warrant further Testing the physical basis of the Orch-OR
replication. model of consciousness. Roger Penrose <>
(Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematical
Cells, gels and ordered cytoplasm. Physics, Mathematical Institute, University
Gerald H. Pollack of Oxford, UK).
<> (University of The Orch-OR model of consciousness, as
Washington). put forward by Hameroff and Penrose,
Conventional wisdom in biology posits that conscious events arise as a
emphasizes 1) the role of cell membrane feature of an objective reduction of the
ion pumps and channels in control of cell quantum state. The model has many
activity, and 2) an aqueous cell interior. attractive features, but it suffers from
However close scrutiny reveals that cells being dependent upon certain speculative
can maintain ion and voltage gradients ideas which have yet to be demonstrated.
and function normally in the absence of The two most important of these lie in the
an intact membrane. Phase transitions respective areas of biology and physics.
and ordered water in cytoplasmic protein The main biological speculation lies in
gels (e.g. assembled actin) in cell the possibility of maintaining large-scale
interiors can account for ionic fluxes and quantum coherence in a living brain, for up
voltage gradients between cells and their to the order of a second, predominantly
environments. Cell interiors are highly through the actions of microtubules. My
ordered by protein gels whose extensive main concern, in this talk, however, will be
surfaces may intermittently order all cell the key physical speculation, which is the
water, and whose dynamics can account very existence of an objective reduction of
for cell function. Possible implications of the quantum state (OR), at the appropriate
ordered water and cytoplasmic gels for scale. In a joint Oxford/Santa Barbara
mesoscopic quantum states in living project, colleagues (Dik Bouwmeester,
neurons will be considered. William Marshall, and Christoph Simon) are

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

presently engaged in setting up an actual have solved the apparent problems.

physical experiment involving a Specific predictions and experimental
"Schrodinger's cat" (some 109 times more approaches to Orch OR include the
massive than the current record) following.
consisting of a tiny miror---a 10 micron 1) Quantum coherence in
cube---to be put in a quantum microtubules – Saint Hilaire and
superposition of two locations, displaced Bierman have suggested using
through a distance of about the diameter quantum optical photon echo
of a nucleus. experiments for detection of
The gravitational OR scheme, on quantum coherence. Such
which Orch-OR depends, demands that experiments at the level of tissue
spontaneous quantum state reduction will and cell culture and MT assemblies
occur in the order of seconds. However, are in planning/preparation.
an improvement factor of some 104 over 2) MT quantum decoherence times in
what is currently proposed will be needed the range of tens to hundreds of
in order to reach this level. There are milliseconds have been predicted
various possibilities for achieving this. (Hagan et al) based on ordered
water, actin gelation and a Debye
Testing the biological basis of the Orch- ionic plasma layer due to charged C-
OR model of consciousness. Stuart termini surrounding microtubules.
Hameroff <>. Work by GH Pollack predicts ordered
Microtubules (MTs) are cylindrical water/actin gelation in neuronal
polymers of the protein tubulin, and are cytoplasm, and simulations by
main components of the cell Tuszynski and Sackett predict a C-
cytoskeleton. MTs provide not only termini plasma layer surrounding
“bone-like” structural support but, as MTs. Experiments can verify these
shown in recent years, also convey signals predicted conditions.
and information within living cells, for 3) Orch OR suggests unified quantum
example regulating synapses in brain coherent states among MTs in
neurons. Theoretical models through the neurons throughout cortical regions
1980’s suggested classical information interconnected by gap junctions
processing in MTs with tubulin states (e.g. Woolf and Hameroff).
functioning as interactive “bits”. The Experiments have shown that
Penrose-Hameroff model of orchestrated coherent 40 Hz oscillations are
objective reduction (Orch OR) proposes mediated by gap junctions, and
that MTs act also as quantum computers, future experiments can determine
with superpositions of tubulin states whether neural correlates of
acting as quantum bits, or “qubits”. In consciousness (NCC) involve gap
Orch OR, entangled tubulin superpositions junction-connected neurons.
reach threshold for self-collapse via 4) Decoherence may be avoided by
Penrose “objective reduction”, a topological quantum error
quantum gravity process in fundamental correction using the specific MT
spacetime geometry at the Planck scale. lattice geometry based on the
The connection to spacetime geometry Fibonacci series. Experiments in
can account for consciousness based on a nonliving systems and simulations
pan-protopsychist philosophical stance. can determine if MT topology is
Macroscopic/mesoscopic quantum optimal for quantum error
states in the brain have been deemed correction.
unlikely due to thermal/environmental 5) Experiments on MT preps or in
decoherence. However evolution may cells can determine if MTs exhibit

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

superconductivity as has been five years. In this talk, I will review our
suggested for DNA. knowledge about the physical properties of
6) Optical transmission studies can tubulin including such properties as the net
determine if NCC brain regions charge, the charge distribution, the dipole
exhibit super-radiance (lossless moment, the electrostatic potential and
optical transmission, as proposed the conformational states. I will also
by Jibu and Yasue). In awake present some recent result regarding the
monkeys Macknik and Haglund behavior of the tubulin's C-termini which,
have shown that NCC brain tissue we believe, play a crucial role in the
is more transparent to near infra- interactions of tubulin with its
red photons than is non NCC brain environment. There is a quantifiable effect
tissue (irrespective of blood of the states of the C- termini on the ionic
absorption). environment as well as on nearby proteins
7) Nanoprobes able to detect such as kinesin and MAPs. I will present a
conformational, electronic, spin, physical model based on the hypothesis
dipole, ionic or other states of that the state of microtubules may affect
individual tubulins in MTs can test the functioning of the neurons via
for EPR entanglement among electrostatic forces that may extend to the
tubulins in the same MT, different ion channels via ion gradient propagation
MTs in the same cell or prep, and along MAP's and possibly actin. This
different MTs in different gap molecular model may have far-reaching
junction-connected neurons. repercussions for the biophysics of the
8) Drugs which bind to MTs (e.g. brain.
general anesthetic gases.
psychoactives) without affecting Acknowledgements: This work has been
MT assembly and/or supported by MITACS, NSERC (Canada) and
membrane/synaptic function will the YeTaDel Foundation.
be shown to affect conscious
processes. Fluorescent labeling of cytoskeletal
Orch OR may be falsified by proteins in PC12 cells grown in culture.
demonstration of consciousness Nancy Woolf <>
(admittedly a difficult problem in itself) (Department of Psychology UCLA).
in the absence of functional MTs. Psychologists have pondered the
material basis of mind since the inception

Plenary Session X of the field. Recently, Penrose and

Hameroff have implicated brain
microtubules in higher cognitive functions,
The Cell Cytoskeleton a hypothesis that stands to revolutionize
From tubulin to neurons: An overview the fields of psychology and neuroscience.
of the physical properties of tubulin and In order to more fully test this model, one
their potential for affecting the needs a cell system that is easy to
functioning of neurons. Jack Tuszynski manipulate. Cells grown in culture
<> (Department of represent one such system.
Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Neurotransmitters, for example, can be
AB, Canada). directly added to the cell culture medium
Atomic resolution structure of tubulin and the effects that these signaling
revealed through the x-ray molecules have on internal cytoskeletal
crystallography experiments of Downing proteins can be directly viewed by epi-
and his collaborators has been the fluorescence microscopy or by confocal
subject of our investigations for the past fluorescence microscopy.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

I will present microscopic analyses of cascade of effects through the evaluation

microtubules, microfilaments, and of the receptors (muscarinic and nicotinic),
microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) protein kinases (protein kinase C, cAMP-
found in PC12 cells grown in culture in dependent kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-
the presence of nerve growth factor dependent kinase II) and phosphatases
(NGF). The neurotrophin, NGF, causes (e.g., calcineurin) involved. Other
PC12 cells to extend expansive dendrite neurotransmitter systems will be assessed
trees. These dendrites are enriched with as well.
microtubules, microfilaments, and MAP-2. These kinds of studies should shed some
The cytoskeletal linker, MAP-2, is of light on how the cytoskeleton may
particular interest to psychologists and participate in information processing in the
neuroscientists because it is degraded or living cell, with possible applications to
proteolyzed with Pavlovian conditioning neurons. Although PC12 cells are not
(Woolf et al., Brain Research, 821: 241- neurons, in the presence of NGF, they
249, 1999). The breakdown of MAP-2 is acquire key similarities to neurons such
likely to precede new MAP-2 linkages, elaborate dendritic trees, MAP-2
many of which may be related to the expression, and sensitivity to acetylcholine.
newly formed memories.
The fluorescent method is highly Cellular photon emission and cytoskeletal
applicable to the problem since multiple activity. Roeland Van Wijk
labeling is possible. In the studies I will <> (Utrecht University,
present, microtubules are labeled with Utrecht, The Netherlands).
mouse monoclonal antibodies directed There is a need for techniques that
against tubulin, the major constituent of quantitate collective phenomena and
microtubules. These microtubules are internal dynamic organization of living
visualized as red with Texas Red- organisms. In studies on collective
conjugated secondary antibodies (anti- phenomena in cell populations the
mouse IgG). The MAP-2 will be labeled as attention has been focussed on the
green with rabbit polyclonal antibodies to characteristics of spontaneous and light-
MAP-2 and fluorescein-conjugated induced photon emission (delayed
secondary antibodies (anti-rabbit IgG). luminescence) of organisms and cells. Two
Actin is labeled as orange with types of studies that suggest inter- and
rhodamine-phalloidin, the latter of which intracellular collective behavior in cell
naturally binds to the native structure of populations are discussed. The first type
F-actin. As a reference, the nucleus of deals with the anomalic inter-cellular
the cell is labeled as blue with DAPI, behavior of the concentration-dependency
which binds to DNA. Different of delayed luminescence in normal and
combinations of the above are used to tumor mammalian cells populations. The
study the interactions between second deals with the delayed
microtubules, microfilaments and MAP-2 luminescence of single cells of Acetabularia
in PC12 cells differentiated in the acetabulum. In these studies anaesthetics
presence of NGF. like chloroform, isoflurane and sevoflurane
Future studies will assess the have been used to suppress intra-cellular
response of these cytoskeletal systems to motility. Long-term delayed photon storage
neurotransmitters. Application of can be related to intracellular motility.
carbachol, an acetylcholine agonist, is Spontaneous photon emission has been
known to cause alterations in the studied less often, most likely because its
cytoskeletal systems outlined here. We intensity is extremely low. Recently, in
plan to extend these findings in the studies on spontaneous emission the Fourier
literature and to further trace the spectrum analysis has been introduced for

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

analysing photon count data. The most Max Planck as a nonlocal physical unit of
important conclusion for mammalian space-time configurations.
fibroblastic cells was that they have no A thread connecting Planck•fs energy
detectable photon emission above the quanta to the biological language processor
photon emission of culture medium. effecting a form of nonlocal simultaneity
However, they are able to modulate the can be accessed in first and second person
frequency spectra of photon emission of descriptions in the progressive tense,
culture medium. The use of specific whereas in third person descriptions in the
cytoskeletal inhibitors shows that present tense the thread would inevitably
modulation is dependent on the end up with thermal decoherence resulting
intactness of the cytoskeleton. Fourier in failures in establishing the intended
spectrum analysis of spontaneous photon nonlocal coherence due to its queer
emission of A. acetabulum cells has descriptive stipulation. Nonetheless, the
presented evidence for cell-specific high linguistic access to nonlocal simultaneity in
frequency oscillations (with periods in the first and second person descriptions is
second and minute range). The main clumsy because of its internalist stipulation
oscillations are related to the endogenous conditioned on the finiteness of descriptive
activity of the cytoskeleton. The latter horizon within which only those objects
characteristics were studied for their assuming the first and second person status
response upon, weak magnetic fields and can directly be focused, with no prior
healing intention. coordination with the outside of the current
It is concluded that the technique of horizon. First and second person
photon counting, when highly sensitive, is descriptions are constantly tolerating those
appropriate for dealing with the dynamics inconveniences originating in and coming
of internal organization, in particular from over the current horizon of
with the functioning of processes description.
regulated by the cytoskeleton. An empirical short-circuiting of the
linguistic clumsiness associated with first

Plenary Session XI and second person descriptions is to make

an appeal to internal measurement as an
elementary physical process of pointing to
Space-time and and being pointed out by others in the
Consciousness empirical domain. Internal measurement
Nonlocal simultaneity from quantum admitting the inevitable locality of directly
mechanics or the other way around? measurable objects in a concurrent manner
Koichiro Matsuno is constantly disturbed by the indirect
<> influences coming from over the current
(Nagaoka University of Technology). finite horizon of measurement. What is
Our mind as a language processor unique to every material body processing
takes nonlocal simultaneity for granted. internal measurement is its cohesiveness in
Every linguistic participant in a third tailoring those physical inconveniences
person description in present tense shares coming from over the current horizon to its
the same present tense. Empirical own suit.
upholding of nonlocal simultaneity of the An experimental example of
linguistic origin should be sought in the demonstrating the nonlocal cohesiveness
material makeup of our mind because the imputed to internal measurement is seen in
language processor is installed in our magnetization of an actin filament
physical body. At this point enters the contacting myosin molecules in the
significance of the energy quantum after presence of ATP molecules to be
hydrolyzed, that is, a prototype of muscle

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

contraction that is ubiquitous in biology. constructing space-time representation for

We observed that the magnetization neuronal circuitry in the central nervous
exhibited a nonlocal coherence over the system(CNS) and arrived at negative
entire actin filament at a mesoscopic conclusion. On the otherhand Pribram
scale in a simultaneous manner, even at proposed a holographic model of brain and
the normal ambient temperature. The investigated the Hilbert structure of the
present magnetization remained robust receptive fields using the Gabor function.
to thermal agitations available from the However, his work is built mainly on Fourier
surroundings. Harmonic analysis rather than Euclidean
Internal measurement processing geometric appraoch.
those physical inconveniences ascribed to The applicability of quantum processes
its locality can precipitate a form of to brain function raises fundamental
nonlocal simultaneity and coherence in question whether we can assign any kind of
the perfect tense. That is a geomterical notion like the distance
phenomenological reduction (e.g., the function or metric to the different cortical
Penrose-Hameroff orchestrated areas of the brain and hence Hilbert space
reduction), which is hard to access in structure. The developments of Planck
third person descriptions in the present scale physics and Menger's idea of hazzy
tense alone. Precipitation of nonlocal lumps led the present authors to
simultaneity in the perfect tense on reformulate the age old problem of
physical ground can be viewed as a assigning geometric representation. This
necessary material precondition for how leads us to assign a kind of space-time
the language processor takes nonlocal geometry using the idea of probability over
simultaneity for granted linguistically. the cortical areas of the brain. This kind of
In short, although classical mind has space-time geometry is shwon to be useful
difficulty in overcoming thermal for the description of Planck scale physics.
decoherence, quantum mind facing Here, the notion of generalized time has
quantum phenomena can live with been used to understand the space-time at
nonlocal coherence even at the elevated Planck scale and the physical time around
ambient temperature. or above Planck scale can be derived by
putting conditions on generalized time. This
Space-time representation and kind of generalized time seems to be very
information processing in the Brain. useful in understanding brain processes and
Sisir Roy <> (George cognitive activities. It should be noted that
Mason University), Menas Kafatos this kind of generalized time is well
<> (George Mason formulated in sheaf cohomology and brian
University). modelling. Within the framework of sheaf
The possibility of constructing space- cohomology, a type of communication or
time representation in the brain has processing of information (with respect to
challenged numerous scinetists for generalized time) is possible which
several decades in the 20th century. The resembles the concept of non-local
recent interest in the role of quantum transmission in quantum mechanics.
processes in brain function gives rise to In this paper we shall discuss the
new impetus to re-evaluate the above possibility of assigning statistical geometric
situation in the light of developments of structure to the cortical areas of the brain
our understanding of Planck scale as well as the role of generlized time in
physics, as well as networks of fuzzy brain function. This might shed new light on
lumps and generalized time in sheaf the existence of quantum-like processes in
cohomology. Pellionisz and Llinas the brain. Ofcourse, this may be possible at
critically analyzed the possibility of more fundamental level than the usual

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

neuronal level. It gives rise to new consciousness based on quantum

possibility to formulate the information information, as it would follow the rules of
processing in the brain and its relation to non-Boolean logic (quantum logic).
quantum-like processes in brain function. However, this approach is different
from computationism. In our view,
Qualia and quantum space-time. Paola consciousness is not the result of classical
Zizzi <> (Department of computation in the brain. A conscious
Astronomy, Padova University, Italy). experience is a flow of classical
Which is the relation between the information, but it relies on previous
"occasions of experience" of Whitehead quantum computation at the stage of proto-
and the subjective aspects of conscious consciousness. A classical computer would
experience known as "qualia", a term never be conscious but a (very big)
coined by Lewis (Lewis, 1929)? decohered quantum computer might be.
In fact, what is the wider, basic field
of protoconsciousness Whitehead talked
about? Plenary Session XII
We understand the occasion of
experience as collapses, (OR events)
Space-time and consciousness
occurring in quantum spacetime, the seed II
of qualia. This idea is based on the Consciousness and the universe:
correlation of superposition with Generalized principles of unification.
separation in underlying spacetime, and Menas Kafatos <> ((1)
the OR collapses being a re-annelling, a School of Computational Sciences, and
reforming of the separation. Qualia are Center for Earth Observing and Space
nonlocal patterns in Planck scale Research, George Mason University (2)
spacetime. Once the collapse occours, a Physics Department, George Mason
set of qualia is selected, leading to a University, Fairfax, VA), Sisir Roy
conscious experience. In mathematical <> ( School of
terms, qualia can be interpreted as states Computational Sciences, and Center for
of quantum information (for example a Earth Observing and Space Research,
quale could be the 1-qubit state which is George Mason University (3) Physics and
the superposition of the two bit states 0 Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical
and 1). A set of N qualia could be a N- Institute, Calcutta, India).
qubit state. After the collapse, one is left Developments from quantum theory
with classical bits. In this scenario, a have made it plausible that certain
conscious experience is a flow of classical principles cut across different fields of
information, proto-consciousness (qualia) natural sciences and can be considered to
is given in terms of quantum information, hold universal validity. It is likely that
and the occasions of experience are the quantum-like effects may be pervasive at
collapses of the quantum information all scales in the universe. What is meant
states. here by quantum-like is phenomena that
It is very important to notice that in are more akin to the quantum description
this picture, consciousness, as we know of nature, even though they may not
it, is classical information, although its occurring strictly in the microscopic realm
origin (proto-consciousness) is quantum. or described by quantum physics. For
The fact that a conscious experience example, complementarity, and non-
is a flow of classical information should locality are two principles that apply
not be too surprising. In fact, we are beyond quantum microphysical scales and
Boolean-minded, thus we would not be as such may be considered to be universal
able to support a different kind of foundational principles applying at all

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

scales from the quantum to the unnaturalized. One response to this

cosmological realms. If true, these and frustrating situation has been to say that
other principles should be applicable to explaining consciousness naturalistically
other fields such as brain dynamics and requires a fundamental change in our
open new ways of study. In the same general concept of reality, and not just
way, one can search for general universal some new specific (e.g. neurophysiological
principles that hold in realms even or computational) model within the old
beyond the physical, namely mental, mechanistic “paradigm”.
psychological, or informational. If It is well known that quantum and
consciousness is the foundational relativity physics also require a new
substratum of the universe, principles concept of reality. Is it possible to develop
developed in perennial philosophical a new overall world-view that can
systems should be even more universally assimilate both conscious experience and
applicable and cut across all levels of the quantum/relativistic phenomena, while
cosmos, "internal" (e.g. individual mental containing the familiar, classical,
and psychic, etc.) as well as "external" mechanistic world as a special case? This
(e.g. collective unconscious, physical, was the long-term aim of the physicist
etc). We sketch here a possible new David Bohm. This paper gives a brief
prescription for a unified "science" that overview of his research programme and
will encompass ordinary natural science uses some of the theoretical ideas to obtain
and extend it to realms where it has not a new way of looking at certain central
been extended up to now. The problems in contemporary consciousness
prescription is simply, start from the studies. The following aspects of his work
larger whole and then study the will be distinguished:
particulars, a reversal of the way that 1) Hidden variable / causal /
ordinary science proceeds. ontological interpretation of quantum
theory (1952), culminating in the book
Consciousness and our concept of Undivided Universe (1993 with Basil Hiley).
reality. Paavo Pylkkanen This interpretation is important because
<> (University of Skovde) a. It proved false wide-spread
Can conscious experience be misunderstandings about quantum theory,
understood as a natural phenomenon, and such as that it is impossible to provide a
can there be a “science of consciousness” hypothesis about how electrons (understood
which can be coherently related to the as little particles) move along trajectories
other sciences? A great number of and yet manage to collectively produce
researchers in different fields (e.g. interference patterns (e.g. in the famous
philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, two-slit experiment).
cognitive science) have tackled this issue b. More importantly for our
in recent years. Some have boldly tried to understanding of living and mental
“explain consciousness” naturalistically phenomena, the ontological interpretation
while others have more cautiously contains an entirely new type of energy
suggested that such an explanation is (mathematically described by the quantum
beyond the reach of human cognitive potential). The way this energy affects the
capacities. But regardless of useful particle can be understood via a new notion
conceptual analysis and of active information. Bohm suggested that
phenomenological description, and this kind of energy might be relevant to
relevant empirical evidence about understanding features of living and
“neural correlates of consciousness”, especially mental phenomena, and explored
some central aspects of conscious the issue further with e.g. Hiley and
experience remain mysterious and Pylkkanen.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

2) In the early sixties Bohm began to informational content can be understood as

develop – often in discussions with Hiley - some higher-order organisation of this new
a more general conceptual framework “quantum potential energy” then an
which takes as constraints both the entirely new way of understanding mental
results of relativity and quantum theory. causation, or how “mind” could affect
In particular he argued that both “matter” (and vice versa) opens up.
relativity and quantum theory challenge 2. The general mind-body problem.
the “mechanistic order”, but their basic When discussing the implicate order, Bohm
concepts directly contradict each other. (1980) offers us a version of the idea that
We need in physics a new theory that mind and body are aspects, related
starts from what relativity and quantum projections from a common ground beyond
theory have in common, namely them both. He uses the well-known non-
undivided wholeness. The challenge then locality of quantum theory as an analogy to
became to develop “new notions of illustrate the “non-causal” nature of the
order” that are appropriate to describe relation of mind and body. Is there a way to
such undivided wholeness. The most reconcile this talk of “non-causal”
important new concept was that of relationship of mind and body with the
implicate order, which he illustrated with apparently more causal relationship that is
e.g. the hologram. The implicate order suggested by the active information
arises from considering the meaning of picture? Can this view be the basis for a
quantum theory and relativity, but he new, explanatorily powerful mind-body
claimed that it applies even more ontology?
obviously in other domains such as the 3. The problem of time consciousness.
biological domain, and especially in The essence of the problem is to
cognitive processes and conscious understand our experience of temporal
experience. This framework provides an objects as temporal. When I am listening to
entirely new “paradigm” in which to try music, for example, how am I to
to understand the nature of conscious understand the status of the sounds that I
experience, mental processes and their first heard a very short time ago? Bohm’s
relation to the underlying idea is that when e.g. listening to music we
neurophysiological and physical are directly perceiving an implicate order.
processes. He presented this framework Is it possible to develop a satisfactory
in the book Wholeness and the Implicate theory of time consciousness with the help
Order (1980). of the concept of implicate order?
I will use some of the above
theoretical ideas (which also differ from
each other in some important ways) to
look at the following problems:
1. The problem of mental causation,
or the problem of how could mental
states (as non-physical states) possibly
influence the course of physical processes
without, for example, violating the
energy conservation laws. Bohm and
Hiley’s ontological interpretation of
quantum theory suggests that an entirely
new kind of energy operates in situations
where quantum theory is required, an
energy best understood as “active
information”. If mental states and their

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Concurrents: the neural membranes are the pixel-

embedding and associative memory storage
Concurrent Session I matrices; and (3) the unpaired electrons of
Quantum biology the rapidly diffusing oxygen molecules are
Spin-mediated consciousness theory: the spin beam for information retrieval,
Possible roles of oxygen unpaired communication and pixel-activation.
electronic spins and neural membrane Together, they form the interface (neural
nuclear spin ensemble in memory and substrates) to consciousness. (Please visit
consciousness. Huping Hu
<> (Biophysics ph/0208068 to retrieve the archived paper.
Consulting Group), Maoxin Wu/Dept. of More information is also availiable at
Pathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center,
New York, NY.
A novel theory of consciousness is Looking for quantum processes in
proposed. We postulate that networks of human neurons on printed
consciousness is connected to quantum circuit board. Rita Pizzi
mechanical spin since said spin is <> (Dept of Information
embedded in the microscopic structure of Technologies - University of Milan ), F.
spacetime and may be more fundamental Gelain; D. Rossetti; F. Gregori; A
than spacetime itself. Thus, we theorize Fiorentino; & A. Vescovi (Stem Cells
that consciousness is connected with the Laboratory - DIBIT International Science
fabric of spacetime through spin. That is, Park Milano, Italy).
spin is the "pixel" and "antenna" of mind. At the Stem Cells Laboratory of DIBIT-S.
The unity of mind is achieved by non- Raffaele, Milan, human neural cells have
local means within the pre-spacetime been grown on suitable printed circuit
domain interfaced with spacetime. boards developed at the Dept of
Human mind is possible because of the Information Technologies of the University
particular structures and dynamics of our of Milan. The lay-outs are designed with
brain postulated working as follows: The 100x100 micron gold pads connected by
unpaired electronic spins of highly lipid- thin nickel/gold wires. Pads are connected
soluble and rapidly diffusing oxygen to build known models of neural networks.
molecules extract information from the The neurons are put and grown on the gold
dynamical neural membranes and pads. In particular, simple and more
communicate said information through complex connections have been
strong spin-spin couplings to the nuclear implemented, as a Kohonen network and a
spin ensemble in the membranes for holographic hopfield-like network. The
consciousness-related quantum statistical input and output connections are directed
processing which survives decoherence. to a multifunction I/O device connected to
In turn, the dynamics of the nuclear spin a personal computer. A specific hw/sw
ensemble has effects through spin system schedules a series of input patterns
chemistry on the classical neural and records the output sequences coming
activities such as action potentials and from the neurons. At the moment we are
receptor functions thus connecting with analyzing with classical techniques and
the classical neural networks of the chaotic analysis the results of our first
brain. Our proposal calls for associative measures. In addition to results useful to
encoding of neural memories in the the improvement of knowledge in
dynamical structures of neural neurophysiology and in the research on
membranes. Thus, according to the brain/chip interfaces, we hope to obtain
present theory: (1)the dynamical nuclear some hints of the quantum processes in
spin ensemble is the "pixels" of mind; (2) brain. In particular, we are interested in

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

testing possible effects of quantum non- superposition of all component waves of

locality by comparing the behavior of the electrically-charged oscillators of the
simple gates, also tested with a quantum organism, ranging from the atomic,
emulator on PC. Besides, we are testing molecular and cellular levels to that of
the measures on a holographic Hopfield- whole organs and organ systems including
like network of real neurons, comparing the heart and the brain. The biofield is
it with its classical Hopfield model, AND hypothesized to regulate the
with the corresponding quantum model homeodynamics of the organism via bio-
simulated on PC. information contained in the field. This
goes beyond the usual molecular concepts
The “Biofield hypothesis”. Beverly Rubik of bio-information, to include
<> (Institute for electromagnetic and acoustical bio-
Frontier Science and Union Institute and information as well as information
University). conveyed by more subtle quantum fields
A systems view of life based on (nonlocal consciousness).
biophysics and quantum concepts, The biofield as proposed here is a useful
complementary to the molecular construct consistent with the physical
reductionistic view of life based on theory, but it goes beyond conventional
chemistry, is offered. At the holistic science in offering a holistic model of mind-
level, living systems are complex, body-spirit. Consider that the heart is the
nonlinear, dynamical, self-organizing most powerful oscillator in the human body
systems according to principles of non- whose pulse is felt in every cell both
equilibrium thermodynamics of open acoustically and electromagnetically.
systems. They constantly exchange According to Chinese medicine, the heart is
energy-with-information at multiple also the seat of the shen (soul), or universal
levels of organization with their consciousness. These two categories of
surroundings in order to maintain fields---physical and ultraphysical, or ego
themselves. They also possess higher- self and the higher self—also represent the
order relationships dependent upon most powerful forces that govern the life of
context and meaning that reflect a a human being.
connection with universal consciousness. The biofield also offers a unifying
When perturbed by stress or disease, hypothesis to explain many phenomena that
living systems do not return to their presently challenge the dominant
original state, but attain a new dynamical biomedical view of life based on molecular
state that integrates the new information reductionism. For example, it provides the
from the experience. This process is rudiments of a scientific foundation for
called homeodynamics. certain types of complementary and
We propose that bioregulation of alternative medical interventions that
homeodynamics is achieved by the involve the transfer of bio-information
biofield of the organism. The biofield is carried by extremely small energy signals,
proposed as the complex organizing field such as acupuncture, biofield therapies,
of the organism that is comprised of well- bioelectromagnetic therapies, and
known energy fields (electromagnetic and homeopathy. It is hypothesized that these
acoustical) and more subtle fields of interventions may work by interacting
information involving nonlocal or directly with the biofield and thus
universal consciousness not yet impacting directly the global regulatory
elaborated by conventional science. The processes of life, rather than impacting the
electromagnetic component of the physical structures of the body. Moreover,
biofield is hypothesized to be a complex the rapid signal propagation of
dynamic standing wave produced by the electromagnetic and other fields comprising

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

the biofield as well as its holistic brain), are processes of catalysis. Biological
properties may account for the rapid, processes persist, be they chemical, neural,
holistic effects of certain alternative and perceptual or behavioral, as a direct
complementary medical interventions. consequence of the way that they mediate
transitions in their local environments. I
Supported in part by NIH P20 AT00774-01 suggest that the process of catalysis
provides energy at points or regions of
Penrose-Hameroff quantum tubulin symmetry or invariance. A consequence of
electrons, Chiao gravity antennas, and the process of catalysis then, is to bridge
Mead resonance. Frank Smith the discontinuity between energy and
<> (Cartersville). structure by utilizing the ‘order’ in the
Penrose and Hameroff have proposed relationship between the reagent(s) and
that consciousness in the human brain products(s) such that energy and structure
may be based on gravitational work together.
interactions and quantum superposition Catalysts are generally understood to
states of electrons in tubulin cages in accelerate rates of reactions by providing
microtubules. Chiao has proposed ‘paths’ to the transition state. The
experimental construction of a gravity transition state can be thought of as state
antenna that might be analogous to that is half way between the reagents and
tubulin caged electrons. Tegmark has the products of a reaction. Recently it has
criticized Penrose-Hameroff quantum been proposed that energy in the form of a
consciousness, based on thermal vibrational mode of the enzyme, called a
decoherence of any such quantum soliton wave, may be the principle agent of
superposition states. This paper briefly enzyme catalysis. The action of the soliton
describes some experimental results and may be to provide sufficient energy via
theoretical ideas that indicate to me that conformation changes in the
Tegmark's criticism may be invalid. Such enzyme/substrate complex to cause the
theoretical ideas include Mead's quantum wave functions of the substrate and
physics of resonance. This paper closes products to overlap and thereby increase
with brief summaries of relevant the likelihood of quantum tunneling at the
experiments of Grinberg-Zylberbaum, the ‘transition state’. The important point is
quantum cosmology of Paula Zizzi, and that the transition state occurs at the
26-dimensional closed unoriented bosonic intersection between potential energy/
string theory interpreted as a many- nuclear configuration surfaces of the
worlds quantum theory in which strings substrate and product(s). Catalysis
correspond to world lines, with massless establishes transitions by providing a path
spin-2 gravitons in 26-dimensions through this point of symmetry or
corresponding to gravitational interaction invariance. Furthermore, I suggest that this
among tubulin electrons in states with analysis of the critical features of catalysis
Penrose-Hameroff superposition applies to biological processes at higher
separation. levels or scale; the hypothesis is that life is
'scale invariant' process of catalysis.
Simplicity theory: Is the brain a catalyst Supporting evidence for this hypothesis
and can enzyme catalysis shed light on can be found in many areas of research that
consciousness? Christopher Davia implicate solitons in biological processes at
<> (Carnegie multiple levels of scale. From protein
Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, folding (Ben-Jacob, E., Caspi, S., 2002),
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213). enzyme function (Satarik, M.V., Ivic, Z.,
I propose that living processes, from Tuszynski, J. A., & Zakula, R., 1991) and
the smallest to the largest (including the muscle function (Davydov, 1980), to

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

macroscopic processes including the 'functional' development of the brain may

action potential of neurons. Also, the be seen as consequent upon the persistence
plausibility of ‘scale invariance’ in (or not) of soliton waves arising as a result
general is supported by the existence of of interacting neurons where the
numerous biological relations (fractal persistence (or not) of a soliton is
scaling laws) that hold across biological dependent upon the 'order' or invariances in
levels from the microscopic to the environmental stimulus.
macroscopic (Brown & West, 2000). By concentrating upon living structures
I propose that all brain states, and and processes in terms of their persistence
hence conscious states, can be correlated or robustness I have been addressing the
with a continuous process of catalysis. problem of life and consciousness from an
Consequently, consciousness is to be ontological perspective. I will argue that
correlated with a continuous 'transition the ontology of living processes shares
state' of macroscopic catalysis. The fundamental similarities with quantum
transition state associated with any single phenomena. In this respect, it may be more
instance of enzyme catalysis may hold useful to ask 'How does a brain process
the key to understanding cognition and persist within its particular context or
brain 'functions' generally. within a particular set of boundary
Furthermore, given the central conditions?' than 'What 'function' does a
mechanism of catalysis, the soliton wave, brain process perform?' This is to say that
there is a strong relationship between the the apparent functionality of a living
scale invariant catalytic model and process is, in fact, identical with how it
previous theories that implicate persists. Thus, function = metabolism.
‘resonance’ as a possible mechanism of I believe that this approach constitutes a
brain function (Shepard, 1984; Roy, radical simplification of our understanding
2000). of life and may offer an insight into the
Departing from popular lines of interaction and persistence of the many
research that look towards 'emergent' complex systems that comprise an
processes to provide the key to complex organism. If the common language of life is
mental states, I argue that complex the language of catalysis in a fractal or
dynamic processes in living systems give scale invariant organization, then we can
rise to macroscopic 'emergent' processes begin to understand that the persistence of
of the same type - catalysis. Thus, the any biological process is consequent upon
interaction among enzyme mediated its being a mediator of transitions, utilizing
reactions at the sub-cellular level may the same mechanism that the enzyme does
give rise to macroscopic catalytic -- the soliton.
processes at the level of the cell. At the
level of the enzyme we observe instances Concurrent Session II
of highly specific catalysis; whereas, at Time
the level of the cell, we observe a Temporal anomalies involving causality
continuous and broader ranging catalytic and free will. Stanley Klein
process. Following on from this, it may be <> (University
argued that the process of evolution is of California, Berkeley).
from catalytic specificity to catalytic Temporal anomalies in human
non-specificity. performance have led several physicists
I shall offer a view of the living (Penrose being the most well known) to
process as a unique synthesis between question whether classical physics can
matter, energy and 'order' that is provide a satisfactory account of brain
mediated by the action of soliton waves. function. In my talk I will examine three
So, for example, the structural and categories of temporal anomalies that seem

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

to violate classical physics: (a) superfast referral. However, the need for quantum
reaction times. (b) Libet's finding of mechanics in backward referral is still
backward referral, (c) Libet's findings questionable.
regarding free will and brain waves. Many articles in C&C (2002) discussed
The first category involves an analysis Libet's experiments that measured the
of the timing requirements for hitting a physiological precursors of volition. Except
fast ball in cricket or baseball. I will for commentaries by Libet and me, all
present previously unpublished data on these articles accepted the position that
the reaction time for tracking a randomly free will is compatible with classical,
moving dot. We found the relevant deterministic physics. In my talk I will
reaction time to be about 80 msec, discuss this compatibilist position,
rather than the commonly believed value defending its strengths but pointing out its
of 200 msec. I will ask whether the sped weakness. I will argue that a quantum
up reaction time is compatible with what metaphysics similar to that of Stapp is
is known about human physiology based needed to provide the underpinnings for a
on classical physics. The consequences dualistic type of consciousness that gives us
for classical vs. quantum explanations of a special, responsible role in the universe,
hitting balls will be discussed. not possible under a classical metaphysics.
My discussion of the second and third
categories centers around new insights Dynamic spatial information and the
into Benjamin Libet's experiments. At the subjective relativity of time perception.
1999 Flagstaff Quantum-Mind meeting John Leach <> (The
Libet presented his data on backward University of Findlay).
referral and on volition. These data have It is well established that the subjective
been widely discussed in a number of perception of time is relative. Anyone who
books and meetings. Several new and has sat through a long boring lecture is
surprising insights into this topic were keenly aware of the subjective feeling of
recently presented in a special issue of time moving slowly. Theories of time
Consciousness and Cognition (C&C, June perception that rely on the "clock in the
2002), head" metaphor fail to explain how a
( hypothetical neural meter can subjectively
/ccog/latest) devoted to Libet's data and speed up and slow down. Variations of the
conclusions. That special issue contained metaphor based on probabilistic random
six target articles, twelve commentaries neural firings also fail to deal with the
on the target articles and six responses to subjective relativity of the perception time
the commentaries, several of which are passage. An alternative theory of time
worth reviewing for the Quantum-Mind perception is proposed. It is hypothesized
2003 conference. that time perception is based on cognitive
An example of a fresh insight into representations of dynamic spatial
Libet's backward referral experiment relationships. It is further hypothesized that
came from Gilberto Gomes who pointed in the absence of dynamic spatial
out (C&C, 2002) a difference in stimulus information an organism will experience
duration between Libet's thalamic vs. his distortions in time perception. Dynamic
cortical brain stimulation experiments spatial information can be perceived in
(the experiments that Penrose felt auditory, visual, or tactile forms as well as
needed a quantum explanation). Gomes mentally generated images. The theory
argued this difference eliminated the predicts that subjects exposed to dynamic
need for backward referral. I disagreed spatial information will estimate "objective"
(C&C, 2002) and joined Penrose in clock time better than subjects who are
defending Libet's concept of backward prevented from perceiving such

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

information. Three experiments were $\nu$. The beat frequency exhibits

conducted to test the hypothesis that variability, with $1/f$ power spectrum,
estimates of time depend on the that we explained from phase locking of the
perception of dynamic spatial events. In input oscillators. We could model the effect
all three experiments, mean estimates of by considering a discrete coupling
clock time by subjects exposed to coefficient versus time, related to the
dynamic spatial information were closer logarithm of prime numbers and also to the
to the objective time interval than Riemann zeta function and its critical
subjects not exposed to dynamic spatial zeros. The model could be justified from
information. Further, subjects in the "no the hyperbolic geometry of the low pass
information" conditions estimates of time filtering [Planat, Arxiv: hep-th/0209243].
were twice as variable as those in the Time evolution in human classical
dynamic spatial conditions. Theories of oscillators such as the circadian rhythm in
time perception based on the "clock in plants, the heart rate or the one of
the head" metaphor would predict that melatonine secretion should obey the same
under such conditions no differences in rules, because they are slaved to the
time perceptions would be evident. The lightning environment or to internal
results of these experiments suggest that pacemakers. But does time perception
traditional theories of time perception resort to the arithmetic above? Our
may need to be abandoned for theories postulate is that our mind still uses phase
that embrace the relationship between locking, but in a discrete algebraic way,
space and time, and the human capacity from mental states related to the finite
to exchange metric distance with time circle $Z_q=Z/qZ$, the group of integers
intervals given sufficient stimulation from modulo $q$, also related to Schor's model
a dynamic environment. of quantum computation [Lomonaco $\&$
Kauffman, ArXiv: quant-ph/0201095]. In
Time perception, cyclic groups and particular we claim the ability of our mind
quantum computation. Michel Planat to lock to the period
<> (Laboratoire de $\lambda(q)\le\phi(q)\le q-1$ of the largest
Physique et Métrologie des Oscillateurs cyclic subgroup of $Z_q^*$. This is a very
du CNRS), Metod Saniga Astronomical irregular function, of which the mean value
Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, scales roughly as $O(t^{0.90})$ and which
SK-059 60 Tatransk\'{a} Lomnica, Slovak exhibits an error term with $1/f^{0.70}$
Republic ( power spectral density. A closely related
In the macroscopic realm, period view of time perception based on cyclic
measurements of a test oscillator against properties of Galois fields $GF(p^k)$ has
a reference one is performed close to been proposed [Saniga, Chaos, Solitons \&
baseband, thanks to a non linear mixer Fractals, 9, 1071 (1998)]. This pencil model
and a low pass filter. The set-up only sheds new light on profoundly distorted
preserves irreducible fractions $p/q$ in perceptions of time characterizing a
the frequency ratio $\nu$ of input number of mental psychoses, drug-induced
oscillators. They are $\phi(q)$ allowed states, as well as many other \lq\lq altered"
fractions (where $\phi(q)$ is a quite states of consciousness.
irregular function bounded above by $q- The human ability to perceive the
1$, the value it takes when $q$ equals a greatest common divisor in the frequencies
prime number). The resulting beat note of two sounds, instead of their beat
in units of the frequency of the reference frequency, is well known, as is the ability
oscillator is the diophantine to implicitly manage with continued
approximation $q|\nu -p/q|$, and results fraction expansions in the musical design of
from the continued fraction expansion of well tempered scales. In classical

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

computers these tasks require a Einstein appreciated the seriousness of

polynomial time. In contrast, finding the the problem of the subjective now and
primitive roots $g$ and the corresponding concluded that it was beyond the reach of
exponent $r$ (the discrete logarithm) of science. It is not, however. The subjective
the algebraic equation $g^r \equiv 1 now is simply any structure that allows the
(\rm{mod}$ $q)$ requires exponential past and the future to have a relationship,
time. (We remind that $g$ is a primitive and every theory in physics must invent
root whenever the equation above is some abstract framework that serves this
wrong for any $1\le r < q$, but is true for purpose. It is simply not possible to
$r=q$. Primitive roots are used to describe an observable that is changing
discover if the group $Z_q^*$ is cyclic. both constantly and causally without
This happens for $q$ equal to a prime inventing some conceptual framework that
number $p$, or of the form $2$, $4$, remains constant in relation to the
$p^k$ and $2p^k$, $p>2$; otherwise the changing observable. These frameworks are
group is not cyclic. By generalizing the conceptual and not empirical because they
notion of a primitive root to an element are unobservable in principle – being fixed.
which generates a maximal cyclic The only fixed empirical framework in
subgroup, one gets the period nature, is the mechanism of consciousness.
$\lambda(q)$ also called Carmichael I outline a logical argument demonstrating
lambda function). Thus our intuitive that the properties of the abstract
sense of time, of prime numbers, of frameworks used in physics must assume
primitive roots should result from the the properties of subjective consciousness.
ability of our mind to perform quantum In classical physics for example, making
computation. Both hypotheses may be infinitesimal durations equal to zero is
checked simultaneously from clever considered to have no important
physiological experiments of time ontological significance, whereas in fact,
perception, in different stress contexts. this assumption creates an abstract fixed
The $1/f$ noise effects observed in framework whose function is to hold the
human cognition and performance argues past and future together. Kant called this
in favour of the theory. framework the noumenal, or unknowable
properties, the “thing-in-itself”, and it is
Time and observation. John Sanfey considered constant in relation to change.
<> It is needed because observers experience
(unaffiliated). duration, and its properties reflect that
Science is simply the process of unique capacity of observers to relate the
agreement on invariance that has been past and the future. In quantum theory the
experienced subjectively by generations abstract observer framework is more
of scientists. What if every occasion of obvious since there is always an external
experiencing invariance that has ever time framework that allows constancy to
taken place, has required some essential exist in relation to change.
component found only in consciousness? These abstract, physical frameworks
This would mean that all along, we have reflecting the mechanism of subjective
agreed to attribute some property to the duration, have a common irreducible
external world that properly belongs to structure, which must be present in every
consciousness. Here I show that this is consideration by a human mind both
indeed the case. The properties of time classical and quantum. Within that
in physics are a mirror image of structure there are two orthogonal time
subjective consciousness. Understanding dimensions, one of which is informational
this relationship is the key to solving the and the other causally determined. Either
problems of both time and consciousness.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

of these dimensions can appear to be model extrapolated from Bohm’s

constant in relation to the other. conception of the Implicate and Explicate
This model makes testable predictions Orders (Impression and Expression
about the structure of the brain, because respectively) one can conceptually (at
it provides a strong, physical definition of least) bridge the divide between the linear
subjective consciousness. In principle, it and nonlinear distinctions of time.
should also make testable predictions in In this paper, I will argue that time can
physics. be both linear and nonlinear. In this
modified worldview time is intimately
linked to the 'Expression (materialized)
Space-time-event-motion (STEM): A new Order' of existence. Time does not exist in
metaphor for a new concept. Joseph the same sense on the 'Impression Order'
Naimo <> (quantum vacuum) of existence, which
(Murdoch University Western Australia). needs to be thought about in terms of
Have we got the concept of time potential although an existent (as in a
right? In the context of relativity theory superimposed absolute realm) due to its
space and time are intimately connected time-independence. The Impression Order
and form a four-dimensional continuum – coexists with the Expression Order at the
spacetime. Two observers will order Planck scale, which occupies the interstices
events differently in time if they happen of all space yet is theoretically not space in
to be moving at differing velocities the classical sense of the term. To
relative to observed events resulting in understand these concepts requires the
them the perception of different development of new concepts that
temporal sequences of those events. incorporate the physical processes of
Relativity theory implies that perception energetic activity. The processes discussed
cannot be uniform among perceivers. The involve the combined concepts of Space-
past seems fixed and yet we intuitively Time-Event-Motion (STEM) to form a new
know that the future is open to concept. The acronym STEM is a new
possibility. Strictly speaking, then, an metaphor to describe both linear (causal)
open future cannot necessarily be and nonlinear (simultaneous) processes
determined by the past. Time appears to related by the notion of energy
flow asymmetrically (fixed past – open corresponding to its frequency (Planck’s
future). In what way, then, is time linked constant) signature-energy-frequency (SEF).
to consciousness? Time, according to The implications of this model have far-
quantum physics, has directionality only reaching consequences for consciousness
in the conventional sense determined by studies especially with respects to brain
the discourse of tensed language; its exploration concerned with occurrent
existence is asymmetric. For example, at events centered on the timing of processes.
the Planck length space and time lose The measure of such events in terms of
their identity to what is known as the elapsed time are modeled against a
‘quantum foam’ and there is no background emerging from a historical
distinction between past and future. Yet, dialectic based on the concept of causality
according to the physics of and its hybridization, e.g. mental
nonequilibrium processes, irreversibility causation, causal theories of perception,
leads to a host of novel phenomena (e.g. etc. What is on offer in this paper is a
chemical oscillations, laser light, etc.) in process philosophy based on a holistic
which the arrow of time plays an worldview.
essential and constructive role. Which
theory is right? Can time be both linear
and nonlinear? By employing a similar

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Humean induction and tensed-time cognizance: But why this experience should
futurity. Ralph Hunt <> be extended to future times and to other
(Ohio State Univ., Mansfield Campus). objects which, for ought we know, may be
Tenseless-time arguments against the only in appearance similar, this is the main
reality of futurity and tensed time in question on which I would insist.
general can be countered by a tensed- Whether induction actually fails is not
time appeal to Hume’s Problem of at issue. The relevant core of Hume’s logic
Induction: future differs from past and is that future change is invulnerable to the
present in the problem futurity raises for "it’s never happened before" attack:
inductive processes. induction can’t provide inductive support.
Tenseless-time theorists take So where induction gets into (possible)
McTaggert’s B-series as all of what time trouble is where safe past generalizations
is: past, present and future are human- become riskier assessments of futurity.
only perceptions, unreflective of All this runs counter to B-series claims
scientific temporality that recognizes just that science is unconcerned with A-time.
earlier-than and later-than, past, present That scientific laws as such ignore time’s
and future being ontologically identical. passage has been shown false in some
A-series advocates, construing the instances, but is no doubt largely true;
present as not only real but central to all physical laws are usually expressed
change, counter with ways future events mathematically in the timeless "is" copula.
differ from past/present, to substantiate When we separate laws themselves from
time’s passing. Familiar arguments for a processes of science, however, we get a
substantival futurity, supporting tensed different picture: science utilizes
A-time, are that (1) future events can induction, which utilizes prediction and
(unlike most past or present events) lack prediction largely relies on futurity.
truth or falsity conditions, and that (2) Predicting the moment a Galilean moon will
future events lack specificity. The eclipse another means more than just that
suggestion I develop is that (3) future the eclipse event is timelessly subsequent
events exemplify Hume’s Problem of to the prediction (in the sense that the
Induction in a way most past/present Declaration of Independence is later than
events don’t. Hume is further seen as the Magna Carta): the eclipse hasn’t
countering the B-thesis because induction happened yet.
difficulty has continuously concerned My account includes postdiction—
scientists and philosophers of science. predicting what will be found to have
The puzzle Hume raises for induction already happened—as likewise requiring
is the difficulty of projecting to future futurity: confirmation usually has to have
conclusions from present or past been epistemically inaccessible at the time
premises: supporting future induction by of the prediction. Ultimately, science does
the success of past inductions is circular, not speak in one voice for B-series time.
verifying induction by induction. The
future could still suddenly change, and Concurrent Session III
this separates future events from past Experimental approaches to nonlocality
and present: future events are subject to Biological nonlocality: Problems and
Hume’s Problem. potential. Fred Thaheld
Hume notes: Several years ago I advanced the
As to past experience, it can be allowed proposal that in the near future it would be
to give direct and certain information of possible to conduct experiments to
those precise objects only, and that simultaneously deal with several of the
precise period of time which fell under its major problems in the field of

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

consciousness studies based upon the between the spatial nonseparability of

concept of biological nonlocality to wit: physical systems due to entangled states in
(i) Are there nonlocal correlations QM and the spatial separability of physical
between human brains via the mind? systems in GR or, nonlocality vs locality.
(ii) Can one transfer conscious And, that what we call mental events or
subjective experience from one individual mental forces may be the same as the
to another? quantum mechanical forces of information
(iii) Whether mental events can or influence transfer which are involved
influence, control and initiate when a measurement is made on 2
neural events or what is known as entangled particles.
the 'reverse direction problem'. While experimental efforts are
(iv) The 'measurement problem' or beginning to catch up with and complement
whether consciousness collapses the previous theoretical work in this field, we
wave-function. are now faced with the problem of
(v) The 'binding problem' or how it is accurately measuring and controlling the
that the brain can fuse together 'energy' of the anomaly which is involved.
the many disparate features of a This will require us to go beyond the
complex perception. present use of Random Event Generators
This proposal is based upon the (REGs), which have been used for several
original research of Grinberg-Zylberbaum decades to determine if mental events
which appeared to reveal EPR-style (operator intention or willful intent) can
nonlocal correlations between the brains influence quantum random noise from
of 2 subjects. semiconducting devices and radioactive
Experiments which have been decay events. The problem with REGs is
performed in the past and which are that although very nice p values are
presently ongoing at Bastyr Univ.-Univ. of generated, showing that the normal
Washington and the Univ. of Freiburg Gaussian output distribution is displaced
replicating this earlier work, appear to towards higher or lower values than the
indicate, in preliminary fashion, that one baseline, as a result of operator intention,
or more of the above items has been they are incapable of telling us when
successfully dealt with or will be exactly this 'energy' appears, what its level
explored very shortly following specific might be or its consistency. One is certainly
experimental protocol. The fact that both justified in thinking that this informational
subjects are in Faraday chambers appears measure should be equivalent to so much
to rule out any electromagnetic or neural 'energy' but, at the present time there
energy mechanism, leaving a combination exists no simple conversion metric and, it is
of entanglement, nonlocality and mental impossible to derive one for the REGs as
forces (as per Popper) as the possible presently constructed. There may be
solution to the above problems. several ways around this problem by
Resolution of one or more of the utilizing the following:
above problems should allow us to (i) Beamsplitters where each time a
examine the question of the Neural photon goes to one of 2 detectors,
Correlates of Consciousness (NCC), and we get a more measureable 1 or 0
leads me to postulate the existence of digital output which can then be
their equal and dual partner, which I influenced by operator intention.
have named the Mental Correlates of (ii) Superconductors where a current
Consciousness (MCC). In addition, analysis can persist for years without any
of the ongoing experiments appears to decay and having an operator
reveal a possible solution to the attempt to disrupt or alter it in
conceptual tension which has existed some fashion.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

(iii) Spontaneous fission rate of Functional magnetic resonance imaging

uranium-238, from each gm of (fMRI) methods were used in the present
which, one obtains a baseline of study as an attempt to replicate these
25 spontaneous fission events per findings using an independent measure of
hour and, where the attempt can brain activity. Metabolic brain signals were
be made to alter this figure up or measured using fMRI technology in four
down. humans subjects using a sender/receiver
(iv) The atomic resonance of paradigm previously designed for an EEG
Rubidium (6.8 GHZ) or Cesium signal transfer experiment. During the fMRI
(9.192 GHz) in which operator experiment, the receiver subject was
intention is used to try and placed in the scanner with sensory isolating
increase or decrease the goggles covering the subject's eyes. The
fundamental resonance rate of sender subject was placed 30 feet away in
these atomic clocks i.e., to a chamber that was electrically and
change time, if not space-time magnetically shielded from the scanner
itself. room. The sender sat in front of a video
(v) The Casimir effect where zero- monitor that presented an alternating
point energy is measured by 2 schedule of 6 stimulus on/stimulus off
closely spaced conducting plates conditions. The stimulus on condition
(0.6-6 micrometers) attached to a consisted of a black and white
torsion pendulum, which are kept checkerboard pattern (that is known to
at a fixed separation by a minute generate visual evoked potentials in visual
current. Operator intention cortex.) The stimulus off condition
attempts to change the normal consisted of a black and white
twisting of the pendulum or the checkerboard pattern that remained static
amount of current needed to (that does not trigger visual evoked
maintain the pendulum's position, potentials). Twelve static and flickering
with a sensitivity of around 100 checkerboard stimulus intervals were
microdynes or the weight of one presented in time blocks of random length
red blood cell! adding 150 sec over the 300 sec
The advantage which these experimental session. Static checkerboards
techniques would have over REGs is that were presented for a total of 150 sec.
one could get a real time readout Statistically significant activation (p <
between cause and effect. 0.001, corrected for multiple comparisons)
was detected in brain voxels located in
Preliminary evidence of correlated visual brain areas 18 and 19 (Brodmann
functional MRI signals between areas) in three out of four of the receiver
physically and sensory isolated human subjects using the GLM statistical model
subjects: Two case studies. Todd comparison of flicker versus static visual
Richards <> stimuli of the sender. For one of the
(University of Washington), Leila Kozak subjects, significant brain activation was
(Bastyr University Research Institute), L. not observed anywhere in the brain. These
Clark Johnson, (University of preliminary data suggest that fMRI
Washington), Leanna J. Standish, (Bastyr technology may be useful in the
University Research Institute). investigation of the controversial
Previous visual evoked potential EEG phenomenon of distant neural signal
experiments have suggested that neural transfer. Non-local information models are
signals may be transferred and detected proposed as a possible mechanism for this
between subjects who are physically and anomalous finding.
sensory isolated from each other.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Experimental evidence of macroscopic the entropy production into the measured

nonlocality of the dissipative processes. signal. The construction of the detector has
Serguei Korotaev to supress and/or to control all possible
<> local factors ifluencing on the probe-
(Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute, process. Our experimental setup includes
Russian Academy of Sciences), Vyacheslav three detectors of two types. The first type
Olegovich Serdyuk. was based on the variations of weakly
During the last decades in geophysics, polarized electrodes in an electrolite, the
astrophysics and biophysics number of second-on variations of dark current of the
facts on statistically reliable but photomultiplier. Except data of own
classically impossible correlations experiment we also used ones of
between some processes were independent experiment performed by A.
collected.Firstly,it was impossible to Morozov with the detector based on
point out any local carriers of variations of ions mobility.
interaction.Secondly,except retarded We performed two kinds of the
correlations,unusial advanced experiments-with non-controlled natural
correlations were observed.Thirdly,the source-processes and with controlled lab
only common property of such processes ones. The first is more interesting, because
was their dissipativity.Unique not ad hoc according to principle of weak causality
concept explaining such correlations was suggested by J. Cramer for quantum
causal mechanics suggested by nonlocality, if a source-process is
N.Kozyrev,but it was weakly formalized noncontrolled we can observe both
and its experimental basis was retarded and advanced correlations.
insufficiently reliable.On the other Moreover interpretation of nonlocality in
hand,recently in some theoretical the framework of action-at-a-distance
works(N.Mermin,D.Home and electrodinamics predicts higher level
A.Majumdar)an idea on persisting of namely of advansed correlations than
qantum nonlocality in the macro-limit retarded ones.
was suggested. At last a new way of the The detectors reaction on the following
entanglement formation through a natural processes was studied: the
common thermostate was suggested by A. meteorological, solar, geomagnetic and
Basharov and this way needs dissipativity ionospheric activity. Total reaction of 4
of the quantum correlated processes. detectors of 3 types (separated up to 40
Macroscopic nonlocality might explain km) on the large-scale processes proved to
mentioned correlations of the dissipative be rather high correlated, that is results
processes. are independent on type of the probe-
We have formulated a heuristic process.
equation of macroscopic nonlocality For the all source-processes existence
which is based on above ideas and action- of advanced correlation with the detector
at-a-distance electrodinamics. signals was reliable revealed. Level of
This equation represents relation advanced correlations proved to be really
between the entropy production of the higher than retarded ones. The values of
different processes not interacting advancement are large (from hours to
locally. This equation admits months) and likely depend on scale of the
experimental verification. source-process. Combining measurements
The idea of experiment consists in of some processes we revealed violation of
measurement of reaction of a probe Bell-type inequality for the advanced
insulated process on an external source- transaction.
process. The theory of the detector based On the contrary the second type of
on some probe processes has to translate experiments (with controlled lab source-

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

processes) has demonstrated only sound could affect seed germination. For
retarded correlations. ten of the fourteen runs, a condition was
added where an experimenter treated
Effects of intention, musical sound and seeds for 15-20 minutes twice a day with a
noise on the germination of seeds: consciously focused intention that the
Evidence of entanglement between treated seeds germinate faster. During a
human and plant systems. Katherine series of 6 runs utilizing similar treatment
Creath <> (Center for protocols, a greater number seeds exposed
Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, to human intention sprouted when
University of Arizona), Gary E. Schwartz. compared to the control (p<0.0006) and
As a rule, scientists try not to affect they sprouted significantly faster than the
the outcome of their experiments, controls (p<0.0001) with an effect size
whereas musicians with every comparable to those exposed to musical
performance have the intention of sound. These results indicate that human
affecting the audience. Human conscious intention can have a replicable
consciousness and intention interacts effect on the germination of seeds. This
with other living systems in ways that can experimental evidence illuminates
sometimes be sensed but are not always entanglement between macro systems
tangible. A series of experiments was where human intention can effect the
initiated to study the effects of music on growth of another biological system.
a biological system. Seed germination Supported in part by the SBS Research
was used as a model system to avoid Institute, University of Arizona and by NIH
human preferences for music and to P20 AT00774-01.
create a replicable, easily quantifiable
measure of the effects of musical sound. Further validation of the “one mind
We found that a larger number of okra model” of quantum reality. Mark Germine
and zucchini seeds exposed to musical <> (Psychoscience).
sound germinated than those exposed to According to the One Mind Model of
no sound (p<0.002). When this same quantum reality, Universal Mind is viewed
interaction was studied as a function of as a single wave function that gives rise to
time the seeds exposed to musical sound individual branches or minds that remain
germinated faster than those with no entangled with Universal Mind and all other
sound with highly statistically significant individual minds. We have previously
results (p<0.000001). These results were reported experimental validation of a
replicable across seed type, petri dish, prediction of the One Mind Model using an
temperature and assignment of condition EPR-type paradigm involving individual
to a particular growth chamber. A total event-related potentials (ERPs) in the
of 4,600 seeds were studied over 14 runs human brain (Quantum Mind Archives,
encompassing five experiments. When 11/7/00).
musical sound was compared to “pink” In the experimental paradigm employed
noise to a control with no sound as a here, ERPs are generated using the
function of time, this interaction was also standard “oddball” paradigm. The ERP is
significant (p<0.034). Seeds exposed to elicited in the brain of the observer when a
musical sound sprouted faster than seeds random “rare” or less-common stimulus is
exposed to noise and both sprouted faster substituted for a common stimulus. The
than the control. The interaction common stimulus is delivered as a tone
between noise and control was not through headphones to the observer, who is
significant. As the experiments in a separate room from the computer
progressed, we wanted to see if human module that generates the tone and records
intention alone independent of musical the brain response for 750 msec. Stimuli

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

are delivered every 1.5 seconds, with asymmetry in the brain’s response in the
rare tones being randomly substituted for observed and unobserved conditions of the
of an average of one in four stimuli based rare tone. This asymmetry was predicted to
on a random number generator in the result in a difference in the ERP wave forms
computer. The brain response of the generated under the two conditions. It was
observer is measured by EEG and predicted that this difference, derived by
averaged over numerous trials to yield a subtracting wave forms generated under
pattern of electrical potentials reflecting the two conditions, would be statistically
the brain response of the individual reproducible.
observer to the rare tone. The rare tone Using the standard oddball paradigm,
is selectively attended to by the two sets of ERPs were generated in each of
individual observer, and the number of the two conditions in two separate series
rare tones is counted silently in trials averaging four trials each. Electrical
averaging 24 rare tones each. ). Although potential was measured and averaged for
we would have preferred to use a each set of trials in each of the two
radioactive decay or similar conditions, and the unobserved profiles
microquantum event to generate the were subtracted form the observed profiles
stimulus in our paradigm, as per our to produce a difference potential profile.
original design (see Dyamical Psychoogy, The difference potential profiles were then
1998), only electronically generated measured at intervals of ten msec. from
stimuli were available to us, and these zero to 750 msec.
are assumed to have some Heisenberg Data for the standard oddball paradigm
uncertainty in the Model itself. yielded difference potentials that were
Each wave form in the ERP reflects a highly significantly correlated in the
cycle of electrical potential activity positive direction on single factor ANOVA,
around the whole brain. Positive (P) based on the correlation of amplitude of
potentials are traveling away from the wave forms at ten msec. intervals. The
vertex electrode. Negative (N) potentials wave forms of these difference potentials
are traveling towards the vertex had a strong periodicity of about 90 msec.
electrode. All potentials were recorded or 11 Htz.
at the vertex (Cz – A1). The oddball Another set of difference potentials was
paradigm is designed to elicit the P300, generated in which the decibel level of the
or P3 wave form. rare tone was set at zero, yielding a
In our paradigm, an observer in random absent tone. These potentials were
another room randomly observes the generated and analyzed in the same
condition of each stimulus on the manner as the standard oddball potentials.
computer module one second before the Two sets of ERPs were generated in each of
tones are generated in the headphones of the two conditions in two separate trials
the observer who’s brain waves are being averaging four trials each. The difference
recorded. Approximately one half of the potentials of the two sets were highly
trials are observed based on the significantly correlated in the positive
generation of odd or even random direction on single factor ANOVA.. The
numbers, without the knowledge of the waveforms of the difference potentials had
observer being recorded. a strong periodicity of about 90 msec or 11
On the basis of the One Mind Model, Htz.
the two observers are entangled in the The data from the absence and rare
event of generation of the random tone. tone and absence conditions were
Since the first observer or brain compared using single factor ANOVA. This
determines the status of this event, it was the most powerful statistic generated
was predicted that there would be in the trials, and also minimized the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

autocorrelation factor between similar What these studies share are brain
wave forms. Difference potentials under mechanisms involving theta rhythm,
the absence and rare tone conditions particularly in the frontal cortex, along
were very highly correlated in the with alpha rhythm in the occipital cortex. A
positive direction on single factor ANOVA QEEG measure that integrates relative and
(F = 15.2; p = 0.00015). absolute power, called cordance, is also
Examination of the data indicates involved, especially with frontal theta.
that the difference potentials are Cordance is the best EEG predictor of
interference patterns with a periodicity cerebral blood flow. Concordance refers to
that is emergent form the individual a state of brain characterized by cordance
profiles in the observed and unobserved symmetry. We present pilot data showing
conditions, probably due to alpha that participation in prayer ceremonies has
desynchronization in the unobserved similar effects as the successful treatment
condition. It is proposed that correlation of depression, with changes in relative
of the difference potentials reflects EPR power in frontal theta, theta cordance in
correlation of the brain electrical frontal lobes, increase in relative power in
potentials in the observed and occipital alpha, and overall dampening of
unobserved conditions. Further work is absolute brain wave power during the
needed using ERPs in both EEG and fMRI heighth of the ceremony. We suggest that
paradigms. depression and spiritual transformation
exist on a continuum in the brain. We
Effects of participation in a prayer discuss changes in QEEG during different
ceremony upon QEEG. Lewis Mehl- phases of the prayer ceremony, and wonder
Madrona <> if QEEG may be a biofield marker to
(University of Arizona Department of document the interaction of non-local
Psychology Center for Frontier Medicine quantum-level processes with the physical
in Biofield Science and Program in biological realm. We will discuss the
Integrative Medicine (Department of evolution of control strategies for
Medicine)), Daniel Lewis, Sabrina Lewis, experiments such as these, and results
Iris Bell, Gary Schwartz, Scott Ferrell. accruing from different control strategies
Studies exist to document the effects that also imply non-local effects.
of prayer upon the treatment of
infertility, recovery from myocardial Information transmission between killed
infarction, seed germination under and survivor individuals of the same
adverse conditions, length of life among population on several species. Aroutioun
mice bred to develop cancer, and other Agadjanian <> (21st
conditions. A Quantitative Century Information).
Electroencephalographic (QEEG) In order to establish experimentally the
literature also exists upon the QEEG role of consciousness of single biological
characteristics of depression, and how species during the evolution, it is necessary
depressed people respond to placebo to understand first that the most important
treatment and medication treatment -- function of consciousness of the single
similar but different response sets. living species by analogy with human
Psychological therapies have been shown consciousness is to provide conditions for
via PET (positron emission tomography) the successful surviving of the species
scans to have consistent effects upon against new deadly killing factors by
depressed patients. QEEG studies also nonspecific and specific defense
exist to document reliable changes when mechanisms.
shamans enter a state of possession in the Experimental project “Feedback” was
Balinese trance possession ceremony. accomplished form 1976 to 1989 in the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

former Soviet Union using as objects the fact of their violent death and specific
several biological species: mice, rats, information about nature of the deadly
aquarium fish, several species of insects. factor to the survivors of the same group.
General design of experiments was Based on this received information the
following: two identical groups of consciousness of this population employed
individuals of the same species, control both nonspecific and specific defense
and experimental, were kept physically mechanisms in order to survive the deadly
separated. Individuals in both of these factor. First, as a nonspecific defense the
groups were living together for some time consciousness of the population increased
to allow consciousness of the local the speed of reproduction. Second, as a
population to be established. Specific specific defense, using the received specific
number of individuals was removed from information about the deadly agent, the
the control group alive and removed from consciousness of the population activated
further experiments. Simultaneously the the specific resistance to this killing factor.
same number of individuals with the The conclusion of the project is that
same sex-ratio in the experimental group consciousness of the species is that long
was killed by the specific killing agent sought “intelligent” force that
(for example, in case of fish by physical “consciously” defends species numbers and
destruction and in case of pest insects by directs the emergence of specific new
one of commonly used against this mutations to adapt to a new deadly factor
species pesticides), left in the groups for during evolution.
a period of time and then removed too.
This was accomplished in the way that Concurrent Session IV
would completely eliminate any direct Platonic realism
exposure of the survivors to the killing A quantum model of organizations:
agent. These manipulations were Formation, information processing and
repeated periodically during some period decision-making. William Lawless
of time. The reproduction rates were <> (Paine
observed in the both of these groups. College).
Also in experiments on several insect- To address how systems of
pesticides combinations single individuals computational agents, working alone, in
from both groups were checked teams, or with humans, can best cooperate
periodically to compare the resistance to to solve problems and advance technology
the pesticide used as a killing agent. The more autonomously than the current
results of experiments on all studied generation of remotely controlled
species showed that after some time and unmanned systems, it is increasingly clear
number of above described manipulations that a revolution in computing foundations
the reproduction rate in the experimental is necessary. Yet, the most fundamental
group became considerably higher than in revolution in computational agent systems,
control groups. Also the results on insects and the major unsolved problem in Social
established that individuals in the Psychology (Allport, 1962), is understanding
experimental groups gradually acquired and controlling group processes. By
resistance to the pesticide used as a determining the optimum structure for
killing factor, whereas resistance of decision-making or the formation of
individuals of control groups to this organizations, the group offers the greatest
pesticide did not change. opportunity for advancements in military,
The interpretation of experimental computational, social, and industrial
results was following. The killed violently systems. On this question may well turn the
individuals transmitted by signals of future of U.S. and Western technological
unknown nature the information about advances. However, this problem remains

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

not only unsolved, but also virtually information, I, but insufficient to impair
unstudied simply because social scientists the interaction, unexpectedly producing
have until now studied groups from the more trust compared to cooperation
perspective of the individual (Levine & (Lawless & Castelao, 2001). Using the social
Moreland, 1998), notably game theory. As quantum model, we extend this model to
the first attempt to analyze social the first information density functional
interdependence, game theory only theory (IDFT) of groups, especially mergers
produces static information, I (Von between heterogenous organizations
Neumann & Morgenstern, 1953, p. 45; (Lawless & Chandrasekara, 2002).
similar to static snapshots of polls and
repeated or “evolutionary” games). Luce Acknowledgements. The lead author thanks
and Raiffa (1967) concluded game theory J.A. Ballas ITD, NRL, Washington, DC,
could not rationally or mathematically where most of this research was conducted
determine the difference in value with funds from ONR through an ASEE
between a group and the aggregated grant.
value of individuals who comprise it, such
as IBM versus the sum of its individual References:
employees. After many years, group Allport, F.H. (1962), A structuronomic
theorists now reluctantly agree that conception of behav., J Abn. Soc Psych, 64,
traditional approaches, reliant on survey 3-30.
and polling methods, do not measure Bohr, N., Ed. (1955). Science and the unity
“groupness”(Levine & Moreland, 1998). of knowledge. New York, Doubleday.
The “groupness” problem arises by Lawless, W.F. & Castelao, T. (2001), Univ
recognizing that once members have Dec. Center, IEEE Techn. Soc., 20(2), 6-17.
been surveyed with questionnaires or Lawless, W.F. & Chandrasekara, R. (2002a,
polls, summing individual data does not forthcoming), Information density
reconstitute the group (adapted from functional theory: A quantum approach to
Zeilinger, 1999). Nash (1950) avoided this intent, Proceedings AAAI Fall Conference,
question in bargaining situations by November 15-17, 2002, North Falmouth,
assigning zero social value to groups with MA.
internal dissent, assuring that game Levine, J.M. and Moreland, R.L. (1998),
theory only addressed a select number of Small groups, In Gilbert et al., Hdbk Soc
groups whose values might be summed. Psych, pp. 415-469, McGraw.
But even for stable, homogeneous, Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social
dissent-free groups, Lewin (1951) science, Harper.
famously recognized that a group is Luce, R.D. and Raiffa, H. (1967), Games
different from the sum of its parts. In and decision, New York: Wiley.
contrast to logical positivist models, Nash, J.F., Jr. (1950), The bargaining
quantizing the pro-con positions in problem, Econometrica, 18, 155-162.
decision-making suggests that a robust Von Neumann, J., & Morgenstern, O.
model of argumentation increases in (1953). Theory games & economic beh.
computational power with N, just as it Princeton.
does with humans. Previously, compared Zeilinger, A. (1999), Experiment and
with consensus or command decision- foundations of quantum physics, RMP, 71:
making models, we have found that S288.
optimum solutions of ill-defined
problems, idp’s, occurred when
incommensurable beliefs interacting Paranoiac-criticism, Salvador Dalí,
before neutral decision makers generated Arcimboldo and superposition in
sufficient emotion to process interpreting double images. Michael

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Betancourt <> (University of Miami, appreciation? What are its eigenvalues? In

Graduate Student (Ph.d candidate)). short, is there a quantum theory of
This is an interdisciplinary paper aesthetics?
exploring issues of perception in the
realm of art history. Surrealist painter Naturalistic, libertarian free will. Peter
Salvador Dalí’s early theorization of a Ells <>.
painterly Surrealism was derived from his In the 17th century, Descartes cleaved
observations about paranoid the cosmos into two parts: the subjective
schizophrenia. The articulation of this world of experience, and the objective
theory in his paintings both anticipates physical world. Since then, science has
and demonstrates quantum superposition enjoyed extraordinary success in explaining
in everyday perception. This paper the physical world naturalistically, in terms
examines the form his theory takes and of universal mathematical laws. These
suggests an approach to this work that laws, in principle, give the fullest possible
incorporates the historical precedents for objective, causal explanation for all
the double images he makes while physical events. Many scientists and some
drawing parallels with optical illusions as philosophers have used these successes to
demonstrations of quantum superposition assert that the objective worldview is the
in our perceptions. only valid way of judging what is real.
Science has proven this viewpoint to be
Toward a theory of quantum aesthetics. true, they claim, and the evidence of
Jonas Mureika science contradicts all other viewpoints.
<> (W. M. A few, however, argue that ordinary
Keck Science Center The Claremont human experiences, while fallible, cannot
Colleges). be discounted entirely as experiences.
The two physical revolutions of the Chalmers has summarized the strong case
early 20th century – Special Relativity and that our subjective experiences cannot be
Quantum Mechanics -- showed us that the reduced to or identified with objective
observer plays a crucial role in brain states. A smaller minority claim that
interpreting their surroundings. The human self-understanding implies that we
notion of subjective realism is a radical possess free will that is causally effective:
departure from "classical" views of the philosophers call this libertarian free will.
universe and objective reality. In In our private subjective world, we each
particular, it is an open question as to on have evidence that our free decisions cause
which the nature of aesthetics is based. our subsequent actions. Several workers
Our perceived likes and dislikes are have proposed that the incompleteness of
certainly independent from those of quantum mechanics allows room for this
others -- or are they? Is there a second type of causality, but none has yet
fundamental unit of aesthetic value developed a naturalistic theory.
which can be quantized, much like the Although this minority have put forward
physical quantities of classical physics cogent arguments, they have been less
which have discrete quantum successful in fully integrating their ideas
observables? This talk will review the with current scientific understanding.
concepts of classical theories of Chalmers, by proposing psychophysical
aesthetics, human perception and laws, achieves a large degree of
discrimination methods, and will propose integration, but he does this at the heavy
future directions to finding a method of cost of making consciousness an
aesthetic quantification which adheres to epiphenomenon in practical terms. Hodgson
the postulates of quantum mechanics. Is makes a case that consciousness and free
there an observable for aesthetic will arise out of quantum events in the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

human brain, though as he admits, his evolutionary approach. It proposes that all
account is unsatisfactory because it is not elementary particles possess both an
naturalistic. All theories that attempt to extremely primitive phenomenology, and
make consciousness causally effective, some freedom of action based on this
while restricting this faculty to highly sentience, as fundamental, intrinsic
evolved creatures, run into the difficulty properties. In addition to panpsychism,
that they inevitably contradict therefore, panfreedom (hinted at by
naturalism. Such theories imply that, Seager) reigns throughout the cosmos. A
once conscious creatures have evolved, a panfree cosmology, which is related to the
new causal influence emerges in the ideas of Penrose and Hameroff, integrates
physics of the cosmos. Naturalism is panpsychism and panfreedom with general
perhaps the best-established relativity and quantum mechanics. The
characteristic of our current scientific paper goes on to show how human beings
understanding. Physical laws hold (and some other organisms) have evolved in
universally in all modern scientific accordance with natural selection to a
theories, even though these theories have degree of complexity where they could
changed greatly, and currently appear to reasonably be said to possess both mind and
conflict with one another to a certain free will. The objective (extrinsic) causality
extent. Any account of consciousness and of physics, and the subjective (intrinsic)
free will must be naturalistic if it is to be causality of panfreedom, mesh together
compatible with science. precisely, to give a complete, well
Many others besides Hodgson have integrated causality for all events in the
turned to quantum mechanics as holding cosmos.
the key to understanding consciousness
and human freedom of action. Among Quantum representation of idealism's
them are Hameroff, Penrose, Seager, and view of consciousness. H. Froning, Jr.
Stapp, who have put forward their views <> (Flight
in contributions to "Explaining Unlimited), H.D. Froning, Jr.
consciousness, the ‘Hard Problem’". The idealistic world view, first proposed
Chalmers and Seager in particular have by Plato, holds that the entirety of
shown that panpsychism possesses many temporal ever-changing physical experience
desirable explanatory properties, and is is the sum of the substance-less shadows
not contradicted by science. The cast upon the mass-less mental terrain of
philosopher Kane has made significant consciousness by the eternal solidity of
recent progress in understanding ideal patterns, called ideas. And Plato
libertarian free will. endowed ideas—-now usually referred to as
This paper is based on the plausible platonic forms—-with not only immortality
philosophical assumptions of rationalism, and immutability, but with absolute
physicalism, naturalism, modulated goodness and perfect beauty, as well.
common understanding, realism, the Quantum Mechanics (QM) cannot, of course,
Copernican principle, Occam’s razor, and prove the validity of such idealism. But
monism. It attempts to show that some of its underlying formalisms are used
libertarian free will is consistent with as mathematical metaphors to attempt a
these principles, and with all of the better visualization of the non-physical
current, standardly accepted laws and being that idealistic theories of
experimental findings of physics. The consciousness propose.
theory given here is a combination and A classical view of platonic form
refinement of the work of the authors so immortality and immutability places them
far mentioned, and of others; but it is within a time-less x-ikz realm, that is
novel in that it takes a bottom-up, orthogonal to the x-ct Minkowskian space of

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Special Relativity, and within which the and interconnectedness is symbolized by

“ideal patterns” of platonic forms are entangled superpositions of quantum states
Lorentz-invariant. And since platonic that, in the simplest approximation, can be
form world lines and dynamical states are visualized as a stupendous omni-directional
invariant with respect to Lorentz emanation of rays from the South Pole of a
transformations, while those of material Reiman Sphere region that contains their
forms are not, spacetime and energy- effulgence. And the material senses (like an
momentum histories of material forms obscuring, distorting transparency) perform
can be viewed as shadows, cast upon x-ct the equivalent of wavefunction collapse
and p-E/c planes of existence by the that allows only a distorted and
higher order kine-matics and dynamics of infinitesimal fraction of platonic form
platonic forms. The mental topology of effulgence to pass through. And just as
consciousness, which is repre-sented by a cancellations of enormous zero-point field
3-D surface of zero thickness, includes: energies continually occur within the
horizontal x-ct and p-E/c components quantum vacuum—-the most invisible
that display third person objective component of physicality, so cancellations
experience—-the spacetime and energy- of platonic form effulgence may occur
momentum shadows cast by platonic within the subconscious—-the most invisible
forms. The topology also includes vertical component of the senses.
x-ikz and q-iku components that display The paper concludes by examining
first person subjective experience—-our possibilities for favorable re-sculpturing and
hopes/fears, exaltations/despairs, higher re-aligning of the mental terrain of
sentiments/lower tendencies, etc. And consciousness by making the
because the slopes, peaks, and valleys of senses/subconscious a clearer transparency
such mental terrain determine the for the glory and goodness of platonic form
measure of platonic form-beauty and effulgence to shine through.
goodness that is seen and felt, the slopes,
valleys, and peaks determine the richness The biology of morality. Nancy Morrison
or poverty of the human experience. <> (Department
The quantum mechanical “heaven”, of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico
in which platonic forms dwell, is Health Science Center), Sally K. Severino,
symbolized by a Hilbert Space (a complex MD.
configuration space) that is orthogonal to The morality of human beings, defined
that Hilbert Space of QM, in which here as our ability to determine whether
quantum states of physical forms unfold. our actions are right or wrong, depends not
And, like the Hilbert Space of QM, the just on following rules but also on
fabric of the platonic Hilbert realm is understanding the impact of our actions on
woven by the enumerable state vectors another person. How we understand the
(wavefunctions) representing the impact of our actions on another person
enumerable combinations of goodness depends on our state of consciousness,
and beauty that platonic forms express. A which is mediated by our brain and nervous
Schroedinger equation equates the system. We will describe how our morality
unitary evolution of physical states [H•] flows naturally from the biological state we
within QM Hilbert Space with the eternal are living in. Our biology and our morality
being [•k/c ∂•/∂z] occurring within the are mutually interactive; a change in one
platonic Hilbert Space of platonic forms. changes the other. Another way of saying
Thus, the quantum states of physical this is that changing either our morality or
forms are viewed as shadows cast upon our biology changes both and changes who
the Hilbert realm by higher order platonic we are and what we do.
form activity. Platonic form effulgence

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Concurrent Session V No attempt to banish the observer from

Philosophy and Ontology quantum theory has yet produced
An integrated physical and satisfactory results. Quantum systems
informational ontology for conscious evolve according to three distinct dynamic
agents. Kathryn Laskey processes. In the absence of observations,
<> (George Mason the state of a quantum system evolves
University). deterministically according to the
Importation of methods from Shrödinger equation. In a second process
statistical physics into machine learning occurs not specified by the theory, an
has led to rapid advances in learning observer prepares an experimental set-up
methods for complex problems. This to measure some observable event. Finally,
paper explores the potential for cross- the event occurs, producing an outcome
fertilization in the other direction. The according to the statistical rules specified
Stapp ontology for quantum dynamics can by the theory. Because evolution of the
be coupled with the recent work in system depends on what question is asked
probabilistic knowledge representation to at what time, there is an unsatisfactory gap
yield a unified ontology for physical and in the theory. Von Neumann and Wigner
mental processes. Conscious experience suggested filling this explanatory gap by
and learning play a central and bringing the bodies and brains of the
fundamental role in this ontology, as observers into the quantum state, and
distinct from their epiphenomenal role in allowing an interaction between the
the classical ontology. The ontology informational structure represented by the
suggested here is fully consistent with our quantum state and the informational
current knowledge of the workings of the structure of conscious experience. Stapp
physical universe. Moreover, it fills an argues that such an interaction can fill a
acknowledged gap in currently popular fundamental lacuna in the formulation of
ontologies for quantum theory and at the quantum theory, considered as a theory of
same time fills a complementary gap in reality, and that it allows consciousness to
current theories of neurobiology, become efficacious without disturbing any
psychology and artificial intelligence. of the precepts or rules of quantum theory.
Classical mechanics is a dynamically Stapp suggests that the brain encodes a
complete theory with no role for "body-world schema" to represent the body
conscious thought and efficacious and its environment. More faithful
deliberate action. It fails at precisely the representations evolve as information is
place at which learning and artificial gained via the measurement process.
intelligence require an adequate theory. Bayesian sequential learning provides a
The attempt to found artificial natural framework, consistent with the
intelligence and computational probabilistic language of quantum physics,
psychology on a deterministic for dynamic evolution of body-world
computional dynamics with no role for schemas given environmental feedback.
consciousness and efficacious action has Recent advances in probabilistic knowledge
given rise to a number of difficulties. representation provide a language for
Physics also is plagued by difficulties expressing cognitive-level models and their
associated with explaining the periodic relationship to the sub-symbolic events that
"collapses" that interrupt deterministic occur in the physical substrate that
Shhrödinger evolution. Coupling quantum supports cognition. The ontology presented
dynamics with Bayesian probability and here provides a unified account of the
decision theory provides an ontologically physical and mental aspects of the
complete non-dualistic theory that scientific description of the world. As such,
seamlessly fills both gaps. it shows promise for a post-classical theory

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

of computing founded on explicitly non- follow from the axioms. Then one may
deterministic and irreversible quantum adopt a larger axiomatic system consisting
systems. of either the original axiomatic set and p or
In closing, it is worth considering the the original set and not p. These two
sociological implications of the ontology axiomatic systems would not have
proposed here, especially if it proves to isomorphic interpretations; they would not
be fruitful in generating engineering be "categorical." But Lowenheim-Skolem,
advances. If all quantum systems are in establishing a more extreme kind of
some sense conscious, then building a departure from categoricity, says that
quantum computer would amount to there are alternative interpretations of an
creating an engineered proto- axiomatic system that differ without adding
consciousness. Because all physical any new axioms.
systems are quantum systems, this is true Since there are both "upward" and
even of digital computers, although it "downward" versions of Lowenheim-Skolem,
would appear that the degree to which and since their set-theoretical implications
they exhibit the property we call might be plumbed probabilistically via
consciousness at the human level is measure theory, Lowenheim-Skolem may
extremely limited. However, we may provide insight into the problem of
soon succeed in building adaptively unrenormalizable divergences in locally
intelligent quantum computers. It is symmetrical transformations between Bose-
worth pausing to give serious thought to Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. Since
how we wish to go about doing this. An the intentionality of model theory is
important first step is to found both our assumed from the start in Lowenheim-
theory of quantum computing and our Skolem, its possible implications for
economic and social theories of collective supergravity might relate to the
decision making on a scientific ontology semantically self-referent paradoxes of
that has an explicit place for free will consciousness as well. These linkages could
and responsible choice. The ontology connect Lowenheim-Skolem to the Penrose-
proposed here does this quite naturally Hameroff hypothesis.
and is fully consistent with known
science. Complex semiotic dynamics. Edwina
Taborsky <> (Bishop's
Quantum field theory and the critical University, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada).
semiotics of digital mind. Donald Mender This paper is focused around my
<> (New York Medical research in Semiotic Realism, which refers
College). to natural processes of measurement of
Penrose and others have asserted that energy/mass interactions found within all
Godel undecidability implies the realms of our universe, the abiotic, biotic
noncomputability of mental processes. and conceptual. Our universe is composed
The Lowenheim-Skolem theorem is an of energy and mass; the one is a version of
even more radical statement than Godel's the other. Radiant energy is transformed
undecidability theorem. This paper into diverse densities of matter, by means
proposes that such hyper-radicality has of a complex architectural network of
potential implications in support of the active measurements or codifications of
gravitonic brain model proposed by mass/energy.
Penrose and Hameroff. The measurement infrastructure for this
Godel says that there exist dynamic process operates within four
undecidable propopsitions p (and not p) spatial dimensions and three temporal
for a given meta-arithmetical axiomatic dimensions. When spatiotemporally linked
system, such that neither p nor not p at key nodal sites, these dimensions result

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

in six predicate relations, which measure of Science' (Vol 33 2002), where French
energy such that it is stabilized as argues that London and Bauer's monograph
'informed mass'. 'The Theory of Observation in Quantum
A vital measurement is the interface Mechanics' is heavily influenced by
'cut' that permits dissimilar densities of Husserlian phenomenology. French claims,
energy/matter such that matter can be re-interpretation of the measurement
divided into internal and external realms. problem in this light leads to a dissolution
Internal measurements are richer or more of the problem of its 'collapse'as it is
complex than external measurements. traditionally conceived. The theory he puts
The three internal predicate forward in this paper is that the 'collapse' of
measurements operate by quantum the wave function is not a physical process
processes, while the two external at all and the problem is dissolved through
predicates operate by classical processes. an explanation of the measurement process
However, energy/matter does not exist from a phenomenological perspective
within an either-or architecture, for our whereby 'we create for ourselves new
universe requires both the quantum and configurations of objects' and 'it is only in
the classical measurements of this creative act itself that the seperation
energy/matter. What differentiates the between the I and the object occurs'.
two realms? It is not a micro/macro However my paper will conclude that
differentiation nor is it the existence of these phenomenological ideas do not go far
the 'observer'. The differentiation is due enough towards solving the measurement
to the dissimilar spatial and temporal problem, the major weak point of the
perimeters. I am suggesting that both the arguement being the explanation as to why
internal and external are objectively real we have a collective scientific regard so
measurement processes and that the that out of that scientific regard we all see
'same' matter is entangled within both the same thing.
quantum and classical measurement This paper will present a solution to this
processes. If we take an internal/external problem by examining Schrodinger's
entangled architecture as a basic philosophical ideas that there is a collective
requirement of energy/matter dynamics, consciousness through which we view the
then, consciousness arises within the world and furthermore it is a waste of time
modal typology of these interactions - for us to pin down the place where the
whether they are iconic, indexical or mind on matter or visa versa. We all belong
symbolic. to one consciousness and reality is not
outside this consciousness in some way but
A phenomenological approach to the is embodied within consciousness itself.
measurement problem. Where do these
ideas take us? Elizabeth Hill Phenomenology of scientific observation
<> (University of and paradoxes of measurement. Patrick
Leeds, England). Heelan <>
Recent exploration of phenomenology (Georgetown University, Washington, DC
as a means of understanding/solving the 20057).
measurement problem in Quantum Husserl’s Eidetic Phenomenology is used
Mechanics will be the subject of this to analyse the perceptual ‘constitution’ of
paper. Here I shall examine the issues scientific data ‘given’ in measurement to a
raised in Steven French's recent article 'A first-person individual observer (the
phenomenological solution to the experimenter, S1) and a related third-
measurement problem? Husserl and the person individual observer (the observer of
foundations of Quantum Mechanics' in the the measurement process, S3). A
journal 'Studies in History and Philosophy comparison of these outcomes leads to two

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

paradoxical theses: I: Classical science Organic systems have always taken

necessarily entails ‘complementarity’ and advantage of this principle and evolved in a
‘uncertainty relations’ between the way which took advantage of the latent
observational outcomes of the two predispositions of their immediate
individual observers (S1 and S3) and the environment. As a matter of fact living
‘entanglement’ of every datum with its systems will mold their environment in a
observer, in ways formally identical with way which improves their performance.
the structure of quantum physics. II: A Clark mentions experiments on Tuna fish
quantum object is a physical object with which seem to suggest that the Tuna's fins
footprints in the perceptual world, but store energy in its immediate surrounding in
lacks a space-time ‘body’ in the the form of vortices which it then utilizes
experimenter’s space-time; it exists then to swim more efficiently than it should
ontologically prior to the ‘constitution’ of theoretically. ( Based of course on a theory
the experimenter’s perceptual space- which considers the Tuna by itself.)
time. This paper will attempt to speculate on
embedded molecules. For example, instead
The embedded molecule, self of simply considering a chunk of alpha
organization and quantum mechanics. helical protein by itself one considers it
Uziel Awret <> (Science together with its immediate water
& Consciousness Review). environment and perhaps some other
The emerging paradigm of essential molecules like Ca++.
'embeddedness' claims that natural Such an approach raises an interesting
systems, especially organic ones cannot question, suppose that we have a collection
be separated from their immediate of self replicating molecules operating as
environment. The system and it's dissipative, open systems far from
immediate environment co-evolve thermodynamic equilibrium. What are the
interactively. It is this compound system properties of the environment which such a
in which the relevant dynamic variables collection would attempt to harness? We
should be discerned (as in dynamic know that in a way it will do what it has to
system theory.) An idealized analysis of do to maximize its survival chances and
the isolated system cannot explain it's that it exists in order to do just that. Can
properties. we circumvent this tautology and ask a
In Consciousness studies we have more meaningful or useful question?
Varela's "The embedded mind" or more Well, there is a conjecture that we can
recent work by Andy Clark on the make that is probably true at least for
embodied and environmentally embedded these early evolutionary stages. Those early
brain. In sociopolitical theories there is a systems evolved in such a way that they
shift from the mythical rational agent to could absorb maximal amounts of useful, or
the embedded agent. low entropy, energy from distinct
Even in elementary particle physics environmental sources (blue photons, hot
something like en electron is really a geysers and what not) and transform this
collective excitation of the vacuum, a energy into useless high entropy energy
radical plurality that cannot be reduced better than the environment by itself. (
or apprehended by a simple ontology. According to the Virial theorem that energy
We are witnessing a movement which will spread evenly over the available
can be called 'The denaturalization of the degrees of freedom of the system.)
medium.' We cannot always treat the What does Quantum Mechanics have to
medium as the neutral and inert arena in do with all this? If one follows Penrose "The
which the theory unfolds. Emperor's New Mind" one realizes that there
is an important argument that can be used

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

to bring Quantum Mechanics and Biology use the distinguishability of nonorthogonal

a little closer. if E=hv than a blue photon single states (Gao, 1999b; Gao, 2000a; Gao,
with frequency v can be converted almost 2000b; Gao, 2001a).
instantly into a hundred near infra red According to revised quantum dynamics
photons with one hundredth of the (Ghiradi et al, 1986; Pearle, 1989; Diosi,
frequency v. This means a sudden 1989; Ghiradi et al, 1990; Penrose, 1996;
increase in the system's degrees of Gao, 1999a; Gao, 2000b; Gao, 2001b ), the
freedom and in its entropy. It is collapse process of wave function is one
important because it suggests possibilities kind of dynamical process, and it will take a
of self organization which are peculiar to finite time interval to finish. We
QM. So perhaps instead of looking for demonstrate that a conscious being may
systems with important information perceive the dynamical collapse time under
theoretic properties we should look for the assumed QSC condition, thus can
the mechanisms that could cause distinguish the nonorthogonal single states
entropic cooling in biological systems in the framework of revised quantum
since this is a prerequisite for self dynamics (The conclusion is irrelevant to
organization. the concrete perception of the observer in
I will first mention thermalization in the superposed state). This in principle
general (Fermi-Pasta-ulam) and than provides a quantum method to differentiate
concentrate on a specific compound man and machine, or to test the existence
system - The Davidov Soliton + it's of consciousness.
immediate water environment, and try to We further discuss the rationality of the
show that such an approach is essential assumed QSC condition, and denote that
for this type of problem. some experimental evidences have
I will also mention some recent indicated that our human being can satisfy
results on the importance of hydrogen the condition (Duane et al, 1965; Grinberg-
bonds to various properties of water (like Zylberbaum et al, 1994). This not only
phase transitions and the dissociation of provides some confirmation of our method,
salts in water) in general, to the but also indicates that the method is a
embedded approach and to this specific practical proposal, which can be
model in particular. implemented in the near future
Concurrent Session VI
Nonlocality Mindless sensationalism. Don Page
A quantum method to test the <> (University of
existence of consciousness. Shan Gao Alberta).
<> (The Scientists Mindless Sensationalism is a framework
Work Team of Electro-Magnetic Wave for laws of psycho-physical parallelism
Velocity, Chinese Institute of connecting a quantum description of the
Electronics). physical world with the mental world of
As we know, "Who can be said to be a conscious experiences. It postulates that
conscious being?" is one of the hard for each possible conscious experience or
problems in present science, and no perception (or for each set of them if the
method has been found to strictly set of all possible perceptions is a
differentiate the conscious being from continuum, so that each individual
the being without consciousness or usual experience has zero measure), there is a
matter. In this short talk, we will present corresponding positive operator in the
a strict physical method based on revised quantum theory. Then it further postulates
quantum dynamics to test the existence that the measure for each perception (or
of consciousness, and the principle is to for each set of them) is simply the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

expectation value of that operator in the terms of the physical processes in the
quantum state of the physical world. brain. The firing of a single neuron with a
This framework is analogous to many- particular stimulus selectivity does not
world quantum theory in that the suffice. The neuro-physiological data on the
quantum state is postulated to be fixed, neural basis of color perception is
never undergoing state reduction or compatible with the hypothesis that (e.g.)
"collapse of the wavefunction." However, the quale of red is coded by the cluster of
instead of postulating many physical neural activity including those in V1 and V4.
worlds, it postulates that what there are Despite this nonlocal nature of the neural
many of are conscious perceptions in a correlate, we can subjectively perceive a
single quantum world, though the result red spot at a particular position in the
is qualitatively similar to what would be visual field. This seemingly nonlocal to local
the case if there were many different mapping from the cortical activities to the
conscious perceptions in many different percepts in subjective experience is one of
quasi-classical worlds. Nevertheless, the key features to be explained about
there are no strictly defined sequences of consciousness.
perceptions in Mindless Sensationalism, so One obvious way to account for the
it is not a many-minds theory either. nonlocal nature of the neural correlates of
In Mindless Sensationalism, there is conscious experience is to resort to the
nothing truly probabilistic about either nonlocality in quantum mechanics.
the quantum physical world (which has a However, there are the obvious difficulties
unique state and a determined set of in spelling out how the quantum nonlocality
operators) or the conscious perceptions, can contribute. In addition to the
but of course one may consider the decoherence problem due to high
statistics of perceptions that are temperature, there is the essential problem
considered to be selected randomly from of how one may make any quantum model
the set of all possible perceptions. It is of consciousness compatible with the
proposed that one may in principle test wealth of experimental evidence on the
any specific theory within this framework correspondence between neural activities
by considering the typicality of one's and conscious experience.
experienced perception in comparison Here, I explore a possible account of
with perceptions randomly chosen with the nonlocal feature of the conscious
the weighting given by the measure percepts based on a formulation similar to
assigned by the specific theory to each the "twistor" formalism developed by Roger
set of perceptions. Penrose. Specifically, it is assumed that the
physical time required for the transmission
On the nonlocal nature of the physical between the neurons is neglected and
basis of consciousness. Ken Mogi mapped to a point in the psychological time
<> (Sony (synaptic simultaneity). In addition, under
Computer Science Laboratories). certain conditions the physical distance
One of the most puzzling features of between neurons are mapped to a point in
the conscious experience is the apparent psychological space, leading to a twistor-
nonlocality of the neural correlates of like geometry. These assumptions are
percepts. Since every aspect of our shown to be compatible with the known
subjective experience should be experimental facts of neuropsychology.
ultimately explained in terms of the A twistor-like geometrical mapping has
mutual relationships between neural the potential to explain some important
firings (Mach's principle), it logically aspects of the cognitive process, such as
follows that the elements of perception the binding of features (color, shape,
(a.k.a. qualia) are coded nonlocally in motion etc.) within the framework of

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

psychological space-time (the binding revealed that entangled quantum particles

problem). This particular formalism can exhibit correlations violating the
be formulated, on the surface, with or predictions of local hidden-variable
without quantum mechanical formalism. I theories. However it is generally believed
discuss the relevance of the proposed that, at best, these correlations represent a
formalism for the possible ultimate non-causal "influence" between the
account (quantum or non-quantum) of particles, and that no information is shared
the nonlocal physical basis of or transmitted between them. This
consciousness. presentation will put forth a simple
argument that an entangled EPR system
Do entangled systems share information does in fact carry information that is
non-locally? A key question for available to the particles for the
understanding the non-extended nature governance of their behavior, but that the
of qualia. Logan Trujillo information is not available to observers
<> (Department of outside the system at the time of external
Psychology, University of Arizona). measurement. Using the mathematical
Modern cognitive science conceives of concept of information-entropy, it will be
the mind and brain as both energetic and shown that a measure of mutual
informational processes. In the context of information can be defined upon the
the "hard problem" of consciousness entangled system, and that this measure is
(Chalmers, 1996), information has been non-zero. Mutual information can be
suggested as the ontological bridge interpreted as a measure of informative
between material processes and qualia. interactions shared between the sub-
However recent arguments (Trujillo, components of a system, and as such does
1999) questioning the relationship not depend upon reference to an external
between information and energetic- observer (Edelman, 2000). Hence the
material processes suggest that the mutual information shared between the
spatiotemporal parameters governing two particles may be considered as an
informational dynamics need not be objective, physically real property that is
restricted to the ranges allowed for by spread out across the system, analogous to
energetic causation. This has significant the concept of potential energy in physics.
implications for any theory of The fact that the entangled system's mutual
consciousness relating qualia and information is non-zero indicates that one
information because it suggests that may ascribe true physical presence of
qualia may be an entity quasi-localized in information sharing within the entangled
both space and time. The possibility of system. Since comparison across particle
non-local information has well known measurements is necessary for any non-
consequences for key enigmatic features local correlations to be detected, the
of consciousness such as the apparent mutual information content of the system is
spatial non-extension of the mind, not available to external observers at the
phenomenal binding, and the possible time of measurement. However it will be
existence of macroscopic non-local suggested that this information is truly
consciousness-related phenomena such as "global" in the sense that it is non-locally
psi. available to observers "within" the system
This presentation will examine the (e.g., the particles), and as such may
spatiotemporal (non-) locality of causally influence particle behavior in a
information from the context of the limited manner.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and This presentation will conclude with a
Bell's Theorem. Experimental brief discussion of the consequences of
investigations of these ideas have information non-locality for the key

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

enigmatic features of consciousness mechanical physics. Another, derived from

mentioned above. In addition, this cybernetics, is the immaterial aspect of
presentation will also present a simple content expressed via physical media--a
mathematical model of a non-local distinction related to the ancient
information/qualia space. This model discrimination of form from substance--
utilizes a functional metric based upon encountered most vividly in the
the concepts of information instrumentality of virtual reality.
entrapment/amplification via The case is made first by considering
autocatalytic closure (Gabora, 2002). dualism as it has appeared over the
centuries and in the several recent
The use of probability fields in the varieties, focusing on the approach each
defense of mind-body dualism against version has taken to the question of psycho-
the critique of causal physical interaction and the resulting
overdetermination. James van Pelt problems concerning causality. Second, the
<> (Yale major physicalist objections to dualism are
University Divinity School). considered, especially causal
The recent predominance of overdetermination, focusing on
physicalism in consciousness studies can interactionist dualism as the most
be traced in great measure to its efficacy challenging case. Next, a set of basic
in solving the problem of causal guidelines is proposed for the development
overdetermination emerging from the of a psycho-physical functional model
dualist model of the mental causation of linking mind and body in a way that
physical interactions. In that sense, the supports the plausibility of interactionist
strength of the case for physicalism dualism in the modern context. Central to
results from its being the only plausible this model is the concept of the probability
solution to that problem. field, whose function in this regard was
This paper explores the extent to advanced by Sir John C. Eccles in 1988. The
which a prima facie case can be made for objective is not to present either a
the plausibility of the intuitive conclusive case for interactionist dualism or
understanding of the mind-body a detailed psychophysical mechanism for it.
relationship--i.e. the commonplace Instead, it is to make a case that
experience of interacting causally as a interactionist dualism is a plausible
mental being with the material world and alternative for explaining the mind-body
with other persons, via the relation, thereby contributing to the
instrumentality of the physical body. validation of the common-sense view of
Essentially this equates to the plausibility how persons experience the physical world
of interactionist dualism in regard to and their own mental lives. In the course of
causality. Making this case depends upon making this case, simplistic notions of
the plausibility of an instrumentality of causality and materiality customarily
mental-neural interaction that avoids implied by this stalemated debate are
causal overdetermination by not resulting brought into question.
in the direct modification of the neural
system by a non-material mental force, From Quantum to Complete
nor of the mental system by Consciousness. James Beichler
neurochemical activity. Instead, an <> (West Virginia
intervening field must be identified University at Parkersburg).
capable of interfacing the two domains The Orch OR model and other theories
via a non-causal transmission medium. of quantum consciousness are not yet
One candidate that has been proposed is adequate to explain all the mysterious
the probability field of quantum features that are usually associated with

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

consciousness and could well prove Therefore, whether consciousness creates

inadequate to completely describe physical reality itself or just the perception
consciousness. The Orch OR model suffers of reality in the brain, via quantum
the same fate as all quantum models of processes, it can be argued that
consciousness: Such models are, in consciousness must exist before and/or
principle like the quantum theory itself, independent of the quantum process in the
incomplete, borrowing a term from brain and any ‘complete’ theory of
Einstein. In particular, the quantum consciousness requires more than, or
theories address only the individual local otherwise must go beyond, the quantum
aspects of consciousness and not the and the quantum view of physical reality
more global and non-local aspects of alone. It is consciousness in this latter
consciousness. At best, they only explain global respect that relates quantum
how individual thoughts develop within consciousness to cosmology, and it is to this
the brain rather than the macroscopic end that the other great modern theory of
aspects that many scientists associate physical reality, relativity, enters the
with conscious thought. In other words, search for an explanation of the global
the present theories attempt to explain features of consciousness. In particular, a
how consciousness interacts with the single field theory of a type investigated by
material brain at the quantum level on a Einstein can be used to build a model of
molecular or even a neuron by neuron consciousness which is compatible with the
basis, but do not address the overall Orch OR model, yet provides for quantum
concept of consciousness as the complete entanglement as well as the great
collective product of a person’s thoughts, complexity of global features of
dreams, memories and other “qualia” consciousness.
associated with mind. In their defense,
scientists attempt to go beyond the Concurrent Session VII
inherent incompleteness of the quantum Experimental approaches
models by invoking the concept of Photon Emission Studies in Consciousness
entanglement, but entanglement is at the Research
very least a misunderstood concept, if Eduard P.A. Van Wijk (Ph.D.) 1, Guido L.R.
not completely undefined. There is no Godaert (Ph.D.) 3 and Roeland Van Wijk
known mechanism for entanglement, so (Ph.D) 1,2
its application to the global problems of International Institute of Biophysics
consciousness is no more than speculation (Neuss, Germany)
at this point in time. Without a Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University
theoretical basis, entanglement is an (Utrecht, The Netherlands)
unknown quantity within quantum theory. Department of Health Psychology, Utrecht
Outside the quantum domain it is known University (Utrecht, The Netherlands)
under its proper name of relativity,
implying that science should turn to In our research we have asked the question
relativity theory for a more complete whether the consciousness-mediated act of
understanding of consciousness than the intention has field properties that could be
quantum theory alone could ever provide. detected either in a living organism, which
This is true even from the more was present as the object of this directed
philosophical perspective where intention, or in this organism, when it was
consciousness either ‘collapses the wave present as a witness and not the object of
function’ or otherwise chooses which directed intention.
single quantum state will manifest out of We focused on the process of photon
the infinite number of possible quantum emission of the algal cell Acetabularia
states at any point in space-time. acetabulum, in particular the number and

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

periodicity of photon counts. The discussion on the resonance mechanism of

consciousness-mediated act of intention the proposed consciousness field and the
in this study was a healer that committed animate system. In recent studies on
himself to either the treatment of the photon emission several experimental
algal cells, or to the treatment of a observations with mammalian as well as
human patient while the algal cells were with A. acetabulum cells point to the role
present as witness. The first type of of the intact cytoskeleton in photon
experiment is characterized by the emission. The role of the cytoskeleton of
healer’s intention to influence the A. the bio-sensor system in sensing the
acetabulum cells. In the second type the changes in the consciousness field are
healer’s intention was to heal a human currently under investigation.
patient while the A. acetabulum cells Acknowledgements
were present at a distance of about 5 This work was supported by a grant from
meters in the metal-shielded chamber The Johan Borgman Foundation (The
situated below the photomultiplier tube. Netherlands).
In the latter type of experiment, an
electronic RNG was included additionally. Lasers in the biosciences. Hans Schuessler
Neither healer nor patient had attention <> (Texas A&M
for these measurements in these latter University), Andreas Mershin, Alex A.
experiments but were purely involved in Kolomenski, Dimitri V. Nanopoulos.
the healing ritual. Exploiting the coherence properties of
The primary analysis is based on the laser light has revolutionized the way we
frequency distribution of the photon approach and think about the interaction of
counts as characterized by skewness and light with biomolecules.
kurtosis. Counts were registrated during Laser methods have proved to be
non-healing and healing periods that instrumental in studying, processing and
alternated and had durations of 1020 manipulating biomaterials and bio-systems.
measurement of 1 second each. In both Some examples include laser spectroscopy,
types of experiments with A. acetabulum laser scissors and tweezers, fluorescence
cells we found a small but highly imaging and biosensors based on the
significant shift in the distribution interaction of light with biomolecules.
frequency during the healing segments. Recent advances in femtosecond lasers
The second analysis deals with the provide new tools for investigating
existence of any order in photon counts. microstructure and dynamic processes at
We used periodograms to explore cyclical the cellular and molecular levels, such as
patterns in photon counts. In both types multiphoton confocal microscopy, time-
of experiments with A. acetabulum cells resolved spectroscopy, and photo-chemical
we detected a striking shift in the ablation. Tunable lasers have made possible
periodicity during healing, in particular in high precision measurements of the
the 2-50 seconds period range. The REG spectroscopic structure even on single
responded less than the bio-sensor to the atoms and molecules, while pulsed lasers
alternating healing and non-healing open a window to view the dynamics
sequence. associated with transient states and
The change in photon count output during molecular motors. With single frequency
periods of healing intention supports the lasers we can cool ions to milli-degree
idea of a consciousness field in which the temperatures, with femtosecond lasers we
A. acetabulum cells take part. The can possibly freeze the molecular rotation
response of an animate system seems and vibration, getting insight into the most
larger than that of the inanimate REG. fundamental chemistry of life, such as the
This opens the possibility to enter the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

folding of protein molecules and the time Results of the tests showed that DL
evolution of photosynthesis. changes are closely connected to the highly
In this talk, examples will be organized and hierarchical arrangements of
presented where single atoms, molecules in cells. In this respect DL results
biomolecules, and intact subcellular units could be a possible evidence of the
such as cardiac muscle sarcomeres (actin- metabolically excited coherent excitations
myosin complexes) are studied with which H. Fröhlich hypothesized at the base
tailored laser radiation. of the functional order of active biosystems
A connection to the study of tubulin through the establishment of collective
and microtubules will be drawn and properties of the whole biological multi-
several new avenues of experimental components system.
research will be outlined. The idea is that long time involved in DL
measurements let to gather information
Delayed luminescence as a tool to about energy transfer pathway from more
investigate cell organization. Franco distant molecules, so taking into account
Musumeci for log-range interactions.
<> Moreover the similarity evidenced in
(Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e the DL responses of biological and solid
Chimiche per l’Ingegneria, Catania state systems related to the “grade of
University), Agata Scordino, Antonio order” present in the structures, pointed at
Triglia, Simona Carruba, Giuseppe the idea that the phenomenon can be
Privitera, Maurizio Tedesco, Salvatore connected to the existence of collective
Tudisco. electron states and challenged the authors
In the last years a relevant in applying a Davydov’s soliton model to
experimental work conducted by explain DL results from a theoretical point
researchers of different countries has of view.
outlined the possibility to connect In the end, experimental and
phenomenologically changes in the theoretical results of DL show the
physiological state of biological systems possibility of using DL measurements in
to the changes in the low-level order to closely investigate the energy and
luminescence they emit on being information transfer mechanisms in
illuminated. This luminescence is known biological systems letting to study the
in Literature as Delayed Luminescence biophysics of a living organism as a whole
(DL), due to the long duration that complex system, and to prove that
typically occur after the stimulating light properties of living beings ultimately rely
has been switched off. Moreover such on and are determined by the law of
results have produced notable interest physics.
for the application potentialities of DL
measurements as technique for Toward testable hypotheses of neuro-
environmental control, food quality test dynamic and quantum field mechanisms
and clinical diagnosis. underlying anomalous conscious states.
In order to give a deeper glance in James Lake <>.
the mechanism of DL phenomenon, the Classical explanations based on strictly
effects of reversible or irreversible biophysical models, cannot potentially
disorganization of cytoplasm in explain core features of anomalous
unicellular alga, by using freezing- conscious phenomena including shared
thawing procedure, anesthetic incubation information under conditions of sensory
and calcium influx change, have been shielding, so-called “distant healing,” and
studied. others. Several theories of anomalous
conscious experience have emerged from

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

different interpretations of the role of features. Following the work of

quantum mechanics, and especially Zylberbaum, Walach et al, Thaheld, and
quantum field theory, in brain others, this paper reviews evidence from
functioning. It has been suggested that both classical and quantum models
so-called “subtle energy” therapies, pertaining to anomalous conscious
including QiGong, prayer, meditation and experiences with the goal of advancing a
other forms of directed intention result in testable hypothesis that certain anomalous
therapeutic changes in brain processes features of consciousness, including
that are analogous to highly ordered telepathy, clairvoyance and the capacity to
neuro-dynamic changes induced by EEG- effect “distant healing,” can be enhanced
biofeedback or magnetic stimulation, and or reinforced using EEG biofeedback, and
these “energy medicine” techniques that these neuro-dynamic changes are
operate at the level of complex verifiable using functional brain imaging
interacting quantum fields. Recent brain technologies.
imaging studies have shown that so-called A survey of EEG-biofeedback
“energy medicine” practices affect practitioners and equipment manufacturers
different functional brain parameters, will be undertaken to demonstrate the
including EEG frequency, power and frequency of reports of anomalous
phase coherence, and appear to be conscious experiences in the context of EEG
correlated with above-chance rates of biofeedback, and the strength of
biomagnetic regional and inter-regional correspondences between specific kinds of
coherence using fMRI or PET. These anomalous effects and neuro-dynamic
findings suggest a therapeutic mechanism states achieved using specific protocols.
analogous to induced electromagnetic Following analysis of survey data, testable
changes in the brain achieved during EEG candidate hypotheses will be advanced
biofeedback. It follows that certain about causal relationships between specific
evoked physico-chemical or biomagnetic induced neuro-dynamic states and specific
patterns of brain functioning, including anomalous conscious phenomena.
sustained coherence in specific EEG Hypotheses will be constructed to be
parameters, are possibly correlated with, falsifiable with respect to experimental
or “evoke,” certain kinds of anomalous evidence using available validated
conscious phenomena at above-chance technologies for measuring changes in brain
rates. function. The paper will conclude with
Until now direct effects of “subtle specific suggestions for pilot studies and
energy” healing methods have not been controlled clinical trials that will refute or
identified or measured and their confirm the hypotheses derived from survey
underlying physical or physiological results in the context of a focused review
mechanisms have not been elucidated. of the literature. The general goal of
Case reports suggest that anomalous proposed studies will be the elucidation
conscious events are more often elicited neurobiological or quantum mechanical
during certain EEG biofeedback protocols, mechanisms underlying anomalous
for example alpha-theta training. conscious states associated with EEG
However, rigorous studies have not been biofeedback.
conducted to determine whether
reported anomalous experiences occur at Quantum mechanistic event associated
above chance rates during or following with electron flux migration through a
EEG biofeedback sessions using specified semiconductor substrate and the
protocols, or whether correlations exist conscious perception of reality. Charles
between anomalous conscious states and Victor Davis <>.
specific EEG-biofeedback-induced

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

In our quest to build the tool sets we to create visual effects. Actual source
need to achieve our technical goals, or at footage of work was created for a special
least further the functionality, and effect using RS170A for video mask
understand the subject matter of choice mapping*. Using an unpredictable system,
within the applicable fields of study. One complex, and non-linear in nature, a
has to appreciate the plethora of custom imaging system was configured to
mechanisms all inclusive of trying to record different conditions with the signal
prove proof-of-principal concepts and the chain controlling feedback and control.
convincing of ones' self of determining Time base errors and distortions were
the conscious reality of a particular introduced to create resultant (if any)
event. It is this forum the intersection of differences. Monochrome sources were
disciplines crosses over to the subject needed to reduce the data sets and
matter hopefully is realized, and of therefore have a higher resolvable
course questioned. throughput of data.
The author wishes to present and Of course, with the characteristic of
qualify terms in conjunction with unpredictability, the results have to be
observations in order to establish reversed engineered to clearly understand
conclusions associated with the data what is happening in the static and dynamic
presented. The data presented is a data. That is also the purpose of submitting
representative model of the this paper. Without unbiased (and biased),
demonstrated laws* physical and quantum but purely subjective outside party
forms in nature. In the primary case interpretation, the facets of all what in
RS170A video was captured as the main involved may surface discontinuities, and
data set presented to demonstrate real therefore a higher level of integrity is
time* electron flux migration through the achieved to qualify reality in determining
substrate and surface structure of an what actually is happening in the images.
inter-line transfer CCD (Charge Coupled
Device). Two static bit mapped pictures, Universal spintronic device for
(Pic#1 and Pic#2) are included with this manipulating quantum information. Afzal
abstract. Kamboh <> (Spins
The recorded event demonstrates a Research Group,Department of Electronics
few representative mechanisms of and Tletcommunication Engineering,
quantum motion generated from Mehran University of Engineering and
electronic charge migration propagating Techonology, Jamshoro 76062, Sindh
through a substrate of silicon. A system of Pakistan.), B.S. Chowdhary, A.R. Memon.
imaging a interline CCD "Hot Pixel", and The model of universal Spintronic
reading out the video in real time creates device is proposed in our paper, which not
a most intriguing dataset of images. only can manipulate quantum information
Patterns that are fractal at first glance, but also can perform logic operation. The
but appears to be molecular in form, and proposed model consists of three horizontal
possibly an ideal representation of "Real- and three vertical layers of semiconductor
Time" electron flow. As shown in Pic#1 a and ferromagnetic semiconductor
baseline position is determined from the materials. Thus it forms a array (qunatum
odd to even raster noting that each state cube named as say [A]) of 3 by 3. Three
changing as a function of position and different elctrons, all having different
time with the Pic#2 being the next exact precessional characteristics thus possessing
frame in the sequence of capture. quantum information, are forced to enter
The history of the work was the the array elements labelled a11, a21, a31
culmination of a few projects and (region 1) with the application of external
disciplines of study. One application was electric field. The elements a11, a21, a31

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

consist of semiconductor material p-type Newtonian (calculable) science, through

(or n-type). The electrons then enter into chaos to complexity. Currently scientists
region 2 (a12,a22,a32)where suppose any are trying to tackle the problem of
one of the electrons has lost its organisation in complex systems, including
precessional characteristics depending on such aspects as functionality and cognitive
the strength of electric field that has processes. Hopefully, an understanding of
pushed it into the region 1. If, for quantum reality, the role of mind in nature,
example, the electron which entered into and paranormal phenomena, will emerge
the element a11 has lost its precessional out of such considerations.
characteristics (due to weak electric
field) in its corresponding element a12 in Chaos, quantum-transactions and
region 2, the elctron will adapt the consciousness: A biophysical model of the
precession of any one of the two intentional mind. Chris King
electrons say of electron in a21. <> (Mathematics
The region 2 consists of ferromagnetic Department, University of Auckland).
semiconctor. Now is the job of region 3 The nature of subjective conscious
which starts here. The region 3 is a experience, and its consequences in
ferromagnetic material which is intentionality, remain the central unsolved
separated from the region 2 by magnetic problem in science and one of critical
tunnel junction. It compares the spins in importance to humanity’s future as sentient
region 2 & 3 and will allow only those observers and autonomous participants in a
electrons whose spins are matched on world history we are coming to have ever
both sides. Thus element a13 of region 3 more pivotal influence upon. Each of us
does not get any electron, because its who read this paper are subjective
corresponding electron lost its precession conscious observers, making an autonomous
in region 2. Hence two operations have decision to carry out a volitional action. All
been performed. First, a logic operation: our knowledge of the physical universe is
an empty a13 element represents logic gained through the immediate conduit of
low '0' for the voltage that pushed the our subjective experience and our
electron in the element a11 of region 1. intentionality in turn has major impacts on
Second, spin flow has been amplified in the physical world around us.
the element a23 because it gains the To understand how the subjective
electron from a11. Thus amplification can aspect arises requires both a radical
be acheived by decreasing the electric investigation down to the foundations of
field contrary to conventional transistor. physics and an understanding of how
We have also derived the equation for subjective awareness, as opposed to mere
how to increase time for electrons to computational capacity, may have become
maintain their precessional elaborated by Darwinian natural selection.
characteristics in the region 2 to allow We thus have to find reasons why
region 3 to compare spins. subjectivity itself, rather than computation
alone, is of pivotal importance in
Concurrent Session VIII organismic survival. The answer lies in its
Mathematical and physical approaches capacity to anticipate situations crucial to
Organised complexity and quantum survival. For this to be possible, the
mind. Brian Josephson foundations of physics must contain a
<> (Department of principle of space-time anticipation not
Physics, University of Cambridge). covered by any mechanism of computation
Our understanding of nature has alone, or subjectivity would become
involved appreciation of its different superfluous and would have never been
levels of intractability, going from selected for in evolution. This paper sets

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

out to demonstrate how quantum E. Mac Cormac and M. Stamenov (Eds.)

transactions universal to all quantum Fractals of brain, fractals of mind,
phenomena may fulfil this pivotal role. Advances in Consciousness Research, 7 :
The role of dynamical chaos and John Benjamin.
bifurcation in neurodynamics has been King, C.C. (1997) Quantum Mechanics,
the subject of an increasing volume of Chaos and the Conscious Brain, J. Mind and
theoretical and experimental research in Behavior, 18 155-170.
which transition from chaos to order may
form a key process in perception and Fractal compression algorithms:
cognition. There has also been a Implementation of brain and machine
continuing interest in the possible link consciousness. Erhard Bieberich
between quantum non-locality and <> (Institute of
consciousness. This paper presents a two- Molecular Medicine and Genetics Medical
part theory in which: (a) a fractal link College of Georgia).
between neurodynamical chaos and Consciousness may be distributed
quantum non-locality; and (b) a complex throughout the brain or localized in single
system theory of the sub-quantum world; neurons. Localized consciousness requires a
together provide a physical solution to robust compression algorithm that feeds
the mind-brain paradoxes of subjective single neurons with globally processed
consciousness and free-will. information. Recently, I have reported a
The fractal link between dynamical contraction mapping operation that
chaos and quantum uncertainty is emerges from recurrent fractal neural
proposed to be made through overlapping networks (RFNNs). In RFNNs, the local
non-linearities capable of chaos, running dendritic input pattern (active spines) of
from the neurosystems level down any single neuron contains the downscaled
through the neuron, synapse, to the ion version of the global network output
channel. Chaotic systems possess
structure (active neurons) [1]. Fractal
sensitive dependence, and brain states compression can map the dendritic input
also contain features of self-organized pattern onto a molecular substrate thereby
criticality. In a critically poised brain linking the network output to molecular
state representing uncertainty of
computation within single neurons. This
outcome, it is proposed that sensitive includes quantum physical effects that are
dependence opens the brain to quantum stabilized by the fractal structure of their
processes. In the transactional
biological substrate [2]. I will argue that
interpretation of quantum mechanics, the interaction of neural and molecular
future states form part of the boundary correlates of consciousness relies on fractal
condition of reduction of the wave compression algorithms that emerge from
packet. Transactional supercausality may RFNNs and biological substrates with
allow a form of prediction in the intrinsic fractal structure (e.g., cell
excitable cell which bypasses and membrane, cytoskeleton). These biological
complements formal computation. The substrates are unique in that they are not
selective advantage of such a process simply replaceable by any electronic
would explain the emergence of device. Neurons that are connected to
consciousness in organismic evolution. microelectrodes (neurochips) may thus be
the first step toward the implementation of
This work continues that in the invited machine consciousness. I will discuss
papers promising results from our laboratory that
King, C.C. (1996). Fractal neurodyamics show the feasibility of the fractal neural
and quantum chaos : Resolving the mind- network-to-neurochip approach for the
brain paradox through novel biophysics.In

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

generation of consciousness in applications development in both artificial

bioelectronic hybrid structures [3]. intelligence and quantum computing. The
1.Bieberich, E. (2002) Recurrent US Air Force is funding a further exploration
fractal neural networks: a strategy for of quantum corobs.
the exchange of local and global We find it remarkable that the same
information processing in the brain. statistical data token object, the corob,
Biosystems 66, 145-164. should emerge from two of the most
2.Bieberich, E. (2000) Probing mysterious things known, living neurons and
quantum coherence in a biological system quantum states. Even more remarkable is
by means of DNA amplification. the fact that the corob can be employed to
Biosystems 57, 109-124. process information uniquely, effectively
3.Bieberich, E. and Guiseppi-Elie, A. and in the same basic way in both systems.
(2003) Neuronal differentiation and The three key properties that enable this
synapse formation of PC12 and ES cells on are 1) the emergent yet intrinsic properties
interdigitated microelectrode arrays: of very high-dimensional bounded spaces,
Contact structures for neuron-to- 2) static yet "soft" data tokens (or corobs)
electrode synaptic transmission (NEST). statistically emerge from purely random
Biosensors and Bioelectronics, submitted. processes as found in both neurological and
quantum processes, and 3) corob soft
The math over mind and matter. tokens encoded in the quantum domain
Douglas Matzke <> survive measurement. We therefore
(Lawrence Technologies, LLC), Dr. P. N. propose the corob as the mathematical
Lawrence. "link" between Quantum Mind and Gray
Large numbers of an emergent Matter.
statistical data token object called a
"corob" are now known to exist in both The concept of irreducible field applied
systems of living neurons and systems of for consciousness understanding. Michael
non-entangled quantum states. Each Lipkind < (work);
corob has strong error-correcting (home)> (1. Molecular
properties. A corob retains its identity in Virology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, BEIT
the noisy environment of living neurons. DAGAN, 50250 Israel; 2. International
It also retains its identity as it passes Institute of Biophysics, Neuss-Hombroich,
back and forth between classical and D-41472, Germany).
quantum domains. This robust identity Recently suggested theories of
allows each corob to be used as a unique consciousness based on irreducible field
"soft token" to represent information. principle (“Mental field” by Libet and
Collections of corobs also form computing “Unified conscious field” by Searle,
systems with unique, living-system-like together with “Morphic resonance” by
characteristics. Sheldrake,) have a claim on immediate
The term "corob" stands for connection with the main consciousness
Correlithm Object, or Correlational- riddle – the psycho-physical gap – lately
Algorithm Object and was coined to formulated as the ‘Hard Problem’
encourage people to think about (Chalmers, 1995). Namely, the Chalmersian
neurological computing from a concept of ‘extra ingredient’, which, ac-
completely novel perspective. cording to definition, is additional to the
Comprehensive patents on these concepts physical fundamentals, is compatible with
are issued and pending, and Lawrence the postulated field ir-reducibility in the
Technologies LLC is also developing a above theories. Hence, it is tempting to
Corob Programming Language to analogize such still undefined ‘extra
facilitate corob modeling and ingredient’ with the well-established and

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

comprehensively defined field principle, or vapid metaphoric description (Searle).

which is the most universal notion The suggested positive alternative of using
involving the whole physical world from the irre-ducible field concept for explaining
elementary particles till cosmic level, consciousness is based on the field theory
such profound generalization of physical elaborated by Alexander Gurwitsch (1944).
reality being based on the strictest Here, the notion of the autonomous
formalism (equations by Maxwell, irreducible field is neither tautological, nor
Lorentz, Einstein, Lagrange, meta-phoric, being grounded on strictly
Schroedinger). The modern theoretical defined postulates deeply rooted in
summits based on hyperdimensional biological reality. These postulates concern
spaces (Pagels, 1985, Kaku, 1994) vectorial repulsive character of the field,
including ‘reflection space’ and field anisotropy, concept of elementary
‘catastrophe structures’ (Sirag, 1996) field “flash”, field sources, mechanism of
were terminated by the Ultimate Theory the field influence upon molecular
of Everything based on ‘superstring substrate within living cell, formation of
revolution’ that resulted in “a quantum- integral microfields and macrofields,
mechanically consistent description of all dynamics of field tension. The field
forces and all matter” (Greene, 1999). influence is realized at morphological,
Naturally, such Theory may induce hope cellular, and molecular levels of living
that this “Everything” must include systems. Further development of
Consciousness as well. However, since Gurwitsch’s field theory as applied to
the Ultimate Theory a priori is based on consciousness problem (Lipkind, 1996,
physical fundamentals, it is questionable 1998, 2000, 2003) has resulted in
whether it has potentiality for deduction elaboration of the concept of ‘geometrical
of such non-physical entities as various feeling’ as irreducible protophenomenal
consciousness manifestations fundamental, which meets all the formal
(experience, awareness, intention, demands to physical fundamentals, being
volition, imagination, etc.). Therefore, elementary (further unsplittable),
namely an autonomous field theory of axiomatic (further unquestionable), strictly
consciousness based on irreducible and unequivocally defined, qualitatively
fundamental(s) is hoped to enter as an uniform (homogeneous), and measurable.
integral part into a comprehensive
picture of ‘The Elegant Universe’ Virtual stability and the quantum mind.
(Greene, 1999). However, in the above Burton Voorhees <>
theories, the word ‘field’ has purely sym- (Athabasca University).
bolic meaning emphasizing either non- A system exhibits virtual stability when
locality it utilizes self-monitoring and adaptive
of consciousness or its continuity, control to maintain itself in a state that
while declared irreduci-bility of a would otherwise be unstable. The cost is a
hypothetical field does not free it from small but ongoing energy expenditure. The
subordinating to axiomatic postulates advantage gained from this is a significant
inherent to any field irrespective of its increase in behavioral flexibility. Thus, to
physical nature (e.g. action-at-a- the extent that increased flexibility and the
distance, unboundedness, continuity, ability to quickly adapt to environmental
directionality, measurability). Such vague contingencies is advantageous, there will
allegoric use of the great principle leads be a selective bias in favor of the evolution
to its devaluation as ontological entity of systems with the capacity to maintain
and explaining factor, that resulting in virtually stable states. In this presentation
either esoteric speculation (Sheldrake), we consider the possibility that certain
or purely tautological defini-tion (Libet), quantum systems may utilize virtual

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

stability by maintaining themselves in a

superposition of states until an
advantageous moment for collapse arises.
We consider how the virtually stable
state might be maintained in the face of
decoherence effects, and how the nature
of the collapse might be partially
controlled. In both cases it is argued that
the role of consciousness is essential.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

(Inmente. Biocomp Research Institute,

Minkind Research Foundation, Psychotronics

Poster Sessions
Research, Alma-Ata University, among
During 20 years we have been doing
A model for the quantum mind. Diaa experimental research following after Cleve
Ahmed <> (ITP Backster's experiments with plants. We
Utrecht). have been using extremely sensitive
A model for the "Quantum Mind" was equipment manufactured by the Biocomp
introduced in conjunction with the study Research Institute of Los Angeles, hold a
of the "Quantum Topology", the theory of cordial friendship with Hershel Toomim and
the quantum space on the basis of set Bob Marsh (directors), and we believe we
theory. Some new development are based are now used to understanding their bio-
on the logical structure of the "Yoga feedback devices. Their equipment has
Sutras of Patanjali", the ancient text on been our technological basis to support our
Yoga Psychology that describe the proposal.
development of Existential states of the As a matter of fact, we do believe
mind; Ones that have the nature of Hershel does not pay attention to the fact
existence itself. of how far his machine can go beyond its
main purpose of detecting very small
Quantum state engineering with the rf- physiological signals to perform clinical
SQUID. Christopher Altman biofeedback tasks.
<>. His equipment being extremely
Quantum computers take sensitive, we have adapted it to detect
advantage of the superpositional logic of some other phenomena beyond the
quantum mechanics to allow for dramatic physiological. In other words, we have
increases in computational efficiency. rf- harnessed its sensitivity capacity to try to
SQUIDs show potential for quantum detect electromagnetic phenomena beyond
computing applications by forming the the clinical environment.
qubit component of a quantum computer, Counting on this tool, then, many years
through simply treating the direction of ago we applied ourselves to the task of
its current - clockwise or detecting some kind of computer-
counterclockwise - as the value of the electromagnetic results that might be a
bit. rf-SQUIDs present a major advantage consequence of mental or consciuos
over atomic-scale qubit systems: they are activity. Our hypothesis has been that
sensitive to parameters that can be counsciousness activity somehow has to
engineered. The flux qubits are linked interact with some range of the
through controlled inductive coupling - electromagnetic spectrum. Also, that the
the magnetic field of each junction electromagnetic means of information
affects the others. The strength of this transportation could eventually carry
coupling can be "tuned", allowing for mental signals.
refined control over the behaviour of the Although that has been only a
system. rf-SQUIDs can also be mass hypothesis, or an intuition, we have never
produced on-chip, making large-scale stopped experimental sessions devoted to
production feasible. confirm that relations.
So far, we have conducted more than
Electromagnetic detection of non-local 2.000 measurements of this kind of
mind-energy interaction. Gabriel interactions, and to date we are fully
Aramburo convinced that THERE IS A CLEAR INTER

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

electromagnetic response of some kind, Susceptibility Scale, Form C. Ten high

at least utilizing said Hershel's devices. (GSHSS:C 9-12) and 10 low (GSHSS:C 0-5)
To our team, one conclusion is that IT hypnotizables participated. Participants
HAS TO EXIST some counciouss way to were exposed to an 18 minute guided
communicate with electromagnetic meditation tape in waking on one day and a
devices. The responses our computers 16 minute guided meditation tape in
detect are clear enough to prove how hypnosis on a separate day. Waking and
individual and collective mental activity hypnosis sessions were counterbalanced
do affect electromagnetic devices. within hypnotic groups. Participants'
Interestingly enough, we have always estimates of the elapsed time for each tape
connected either a plant (following after were obtained Time estimates were
Backster) or a human individual transformed into a percentage of the total
(following our own intuition) to the time for each tape. A Conditions (Waking,
computerized electromagnetic Hypnosis) X Hypnotic Susceptibility (High,
arrangement. Watching the results have Low) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
always been spooky and amazing. So far, performed on these data. A significant main
we have it clear THAT THERE IS effect for conditions was not obtained
SOMETHING detectable, consistent, easily (F(1,18)=1.01), nor was a significant main
observable by means of current sensitive effect for hypnotic susceptibility
machines, that conects aspects of the (F(1,18)=.27). A significant conditions X
mind with the electromagnetic field. hypnotic susceptibility interaction effect
We find it interesting to report our was similarly not obtained (F(1,18)=.25).
data to the scientific community. We These results fail to support a body of
believe we understand the quantum literature suggesting a reliable
nature of these phenomena, the strange underestimation of elapsed time in
reactions of the equipment and the clear hypnosis.
responses it renders.
Our abstract, then, intends to report Quantum theory and perception:
that the available electromagnetic Quantum state as “sense-data” and
computerized technology is able to “Emotion” as quantum measurement
contribute to the demostration of process. Balaraju Battu <>
interactions between the mind and the (National Brain Research Centre, Gurgaon,
electromagnetic domain. This situation India.).
might eventually add evidence to the The objective world what we know is
alleged theory of counciouss/mental our perception, Perception involves, sense
quantumm influences over the data and concepts. According to context,
energy/matter model of reality. the emotional act of the brain / mind
supplies concepts to sense data. The
Time perception in waking and emotion brings up particular percept: Sense
hypnosis: moderating influences of data + concepts (in the presence of
hypnotizability. Richard Atkinson emotion)----> percept. The percept is in our
<> (Weber State mind; it is our knowledge regarding an
University), Robert Hall Keri Wilde. object that we perceive in the objective
This study examined the moderating world. In quantum theory, the
influences of hypnotic susceptibility on measurement processes brings particular
the estimation of time in waking and observed state from all unobserved logical
hypnosis. Participants were screen for states (quantum superposed state). In the
hypnotizability on the Harvard Group process of perception, the emotion selects
Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A particular percept from sense data, which
and the Group Stanford Hypnotic is treated as all logical possible percepts

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

(sense-data). The emotion seems like controlled feasibility trial of classical

quantum measurement process, which homeopathy in fibromyalgia (FM) patients
brings particular percept from sense data (mean age 50+-11 yrs; 94% women; FM
[quantum state + measurement ----> duration 13+-13 years). All patients were
particular classical state]. In modern evaluated simultaneously by 2 experienced
economic theories, Daniel Kahneman and homeopaths. An individualized homeopathic
Amartya sen showed that decision-making remedy was chosen for 62 patients at a
is not preceded by minimizing or confidence level >7/10. The pharmacist
maximizing our comforts and loses. In dispensed number-coded bottles for either
quantum theory, wave function collapse active or placebo LM daily doses using a
does not depend on minimizing or randomization protocol. After 4 months,
maximizing certain parameter. Here, patients could choose optional crossover to
certain similarities are shown among the the other group, under continued double-
perceptual phenomena and quantum blind conditions. Forty-nine patients (79%)
mechanical phenomena. completed the study (15% dropped before
and 6% after the switch decision;
Trait absorption and treatment choices comparable between groups). Active and
in fibromyalgia patients under double- placebo groups did not differ in
blind conditions: Implications for percentages electing to switch to the other
Walach’s Entanglement Model for group (overall rate=19/53 [36%] switched).
homeopathic remedies and placebo. Iris The subset who stayed with active or
Bell, MD PhD <> placebo assignments were significantly
(Program in Integrative Medicine, The higher in trait absorption than those who
University of Arizona College of chose to switch groups (Staysame group:
Medicine), Daniel A. Lewis II, Sabrina E. 20.97+-6.14; Switch: 16.33+-8.03; p=0.024).
Lewis, Audrey J. Brooks, Carol M. The Staysame and Switch groups did not
Baldwin, Gary E. Schwartz. differ significantly in age, sex, FM duration,
From studies on the complementary Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability, or
and alternative medicine (CAM) modality Barsky Somatic Amplification. Covarying for
of homeopathy, Walach observed that absorption, education, and childhood
individuals assigned to placebo conditions emotional neglect, the Staysame group
under double-blinding may nonetheless exhibited significantly greater
experience effects unique to the active improvements at 6 months than did the
remedy chosen for them (intentionality), Switch group for McGill Affective and
but not physically administered. Sensory Pain ratings, Appraisal of FM for
Consequently, he proposed a nonlocal, illness adjustment, Profile of Mood States
acausal understanding of homeopathic Vigor, and global ratings of physical health,
remedy effects from the standpoint of with similar trends at 3 months. Overall,
macro-entanglement. The personality absorption correlated significantly with the
trait of absorption, i.e., the openness to Limbic Symptom Checklist total score (a
shifting total attention into self-altering measure of temporal lobe
experiences, could contribute to symptomatology)(r=0.37, p=0.003) and
experiencing intended homeopathic JAREL Spirituality ‘Faith’ subscale (r=0.33,
remedy effects in active and placebo p=0.009). Absorption correlated with the
conditions. Higher scores for absorption change in global physical health at 6
correlate with greater CAM utilization, months (r=0.41, p=0.005), but not with
intrinsic religiosity, hypnotizability, and other improvements. The Staysame active
experiences of psi phenomena. remedy subgroup did significantly better
The present study was a 6-month than the Staysame placebo subgroup at 6
randomized, double-blind, placebo- months for impr ovement in Affective Pain

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

(p=0.029), Appraisal of FM (p=0.01), and into existence, and what accounts for the
global physical health (p=0.005). Taken variability of their properties"?
together, the findings indicate that FM • the implications of nonlocality on the
patients who choose to stay with quantum level that everything in our
randomly-assigned, blinded active or universe is entangled, communicates, and is
placebo treatment have increased scores thus aware and conscious.
on trait absorption and are clinical Virtually all historical cultures other
responders. Although absorption has some than our own have acknowledged the
heritable features and may relate to existence of life-force energy and made it
limbic function associated with certain the basis of their cosmology, sciences,
altered consciousness states and spiritual healing, and fine arts. As we understand
experiences, absorption does not appear life-force energy better, we are finding
to correlate with most clinical outcomes. significant congruence in their explanations
For those staying with their randomized of the structure of our universe;
assignments, active remedy has an coincidence with carefully documented
advantage over placebo. The data suggest experiences of consciousness researchers,
a need to explore additional factors in as well as modern and ancient mystics; and
positive responses to homeopathic effective conceptual and operational ability
remedies and placebo within the macro- to embrace modern issues of consciousness
entanglement model. and quantum physics.
We do not have conclusive evidence of
Supported by NIH R21-AT00315-02 (IRB), whether life-force energy is a variation of
K24-AT00057-02 (IRB), P20-AT00774-01 conventional electromagnetic or
(GES), and U01-HL53938-07S1 (CMB). gravitational energies, or a totally different
realm of existence, though most traditional
Quantum nonlocality, consciousness, cultures posit the latter. It does appear to
and architecture. Tom Bender play a significant and demonstrable role in
<>. a wide variety of phenomena that have
Modern physics posits the existence of resisted conventional explanation; work
only a material universe, and all non-locally and based in universal
properties in it inherent in the properties consciousness; and fit into coherent and
of its elemental particles. Yet we are effectual models of our cosmos that
faced today with significant limitations of promise intriguing new avenues of
that hypothesis as currently developed: exploration, verification, and application.
• the widespread experiencing and
active work in our own culture with life- Pulsed-nonlocality: Towards a unification
force energy (chi or prana) which our of approaches to consciousness. Donivan
physics denies the existence of – in Bessinger <> (retired
realms as different as healing, martial physician).
arts in the military, architecture, and CIA Certain quantum theory concepts,
remote viewing. Any model of our especially nonlocality, probability, and
universe today that ignores the entanglement with consciousness, mean
phenomena of life-force energy has that we cannot be satisfied with a theory of
questionable credibility. consciousness until we achieve a
• the logical enigma of "fundamental satisfactory theory of reality. Current
particles" - particularly when they are approaches to a “final theory” of cosmos
large in number and with diverse focus on the nature of the smallest objects
properties: the inevitable questions "what in space. However, a theory of whole-
are they made of, what brought them cosmos Energy nonlocally pulsed (quantized
and renormalized) in Planck time intervals,

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

when taken in concert with quantum Bondi’ <> (Universita' "La

mind theory, yields a unification of Sapienza" di Roma), Manuele Bondi'.
physics and consciousness which The mysteries of Consciousness have
intuitively describes physicality as we gripped human imagination for over 5,000
know it, and can account for years. At the dawn of the new millennium
“anomalous” nonlocal effects in psyche the international “debate over
seen in various types of studies. Such a Consciousness” is largely being supported
model points to consciousness as a by two competing world-views: Dualism
“reading” of cosmic integration in which splits the Universe into two
nonlocality, providing a screen on which fundamentally different mental and
content is projected by processes at physical substances or properties; Material
ordinary (local) neurological scale. Yet, Reductionism, which claims consciousness
since consciousness would be one aspect to be nothing more than a state or function
of the state of cosmos being integrated at of the brain. Can consciousness be
each “pulse,” it could (if only weakly) interpreted as a pile where both opinions
influence the probability wave equation are present? It is what the present effort
for the next pulse. Having such a common endeavours to demonstrate. The aim of this
working model would provide appropriate paper is to show how the evolution of man
mapping of evidence to its proper level of is above all linked to the development of
description, would show where the gaps his own neurons, which during the
are, and would affirm the importance of milleniums acquire new information,
all disciplines as work proceeds toward a increasing enormously in number and
final theory. quality and assuming, so to speak, the
features of the modern neurons. We have
Quantum mechanics allows energy-less also tried to combine classical physics with
information- and cause-transfer quantic physics in the emersion and
between mind and matter. Gerard identification of consciousness represented
Blommestijn <>. as a “whole”. Through a careful revision of
A concept of mind or 'I-ness' is the bibliography of QED (Quantum
proposed that is, materialistically seen, Electrodynamics) and its application to the
as little harmful as possible: it only biochemical structure of the USC (Unified
exists, experiences and chooses. But it Synaptic Channel), a model of
has no processes of its own: no time, no consciousness identification is proposed.
space, no qualities. All these things it The model entails a channel running in
obtains from matter in space-time. loops all along the labyrinthic structure of
The connection between this mind, the bi-emispheric cerebral cortex and
this matter-less and space-time-less 'I- constituting an anatomical-istological
ness', and the material world may be structure on its own along which the flow of
formed by the quantum mechanical molecular (and ionic) particles as
reduction process. It will be discussed neurotransmitters determines a sort of
how this might give a consistent model of constant low-noise effect. According to this
reality involving quantum mechanics and model the molecules would thus gain an
this ontologically independent 'I-ness'. additional informative value; for their
Also the empirical testability of this presence in the synaptic fissure they would
theory will be discussed. become relevant apart from their bonding
reabsorption since by the process of
Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and diffusion they would induce concentration
Unified Synaptic Channel (USC) in the changes in other portions of the cortex,
identification of consciousness.Massimo thus affecting the underlying mosaic of
neuronal activity and inhibition. We are

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

inclined to think that the process or the being. It is a cosmic limiting condition over
result of the awareness of the “Self” which the individual has no control. It is
could be more clearly understood, owing this that the jiva or individual soul
considering it as a change of molecules- considers itself apurna or imperfect, a
particles concentrations along the separate entity cut off from the universal
structure of the USC. This would consciousness."
determine a subtly regulated transmission "Consciousness is the nature of Self
of all the pre-synaptic inputs so starting a which verily is the Divine Self freed of all
syncronic and synergic low-level activity limiting conditions."
in the “whole” neuronal web. Perception, "Every appearance owes it existence to
memory and learning are the three the light of consciousness. Nothing can ever
physiological functions through which have its own being without the light of
emerges the consciousness of the self, consciousness. Being experienced, it is of
increasing from the constant low-noise the nature of consciousness itself, because
effect of a quiescent state to particular of its being identical with that light."
map interconnection systems correlating "When the mind is united to the core of
selective events. Such moments would consciousness, every observable
necessarily have to correspond to ionic- phenomenon and even the void appear as a
molecular codifications that coherently form of consciousness."
are accounted for by the QED mechanism. "The individual mind intently entering
We also described how physiological, into the universal light of foundational
pharmacological and pathological consciousness sees the entire universe as
moments through which consciousness saturated with that consciousness."
disappears could confirm the global "That harmony, delight, bliss is the
nature of consciousness which “lights up” characteristic of consciousness which forms
and “turns off” when all the neuronal the warp and woof of the universe."
cytoskeletons and the USC loose their "Consciousness shines in various
quantic/computational capacity. external and internal forms. There is no
existence of objects apart from
Consciousness studying itelf. Stephen consciousness. Therefore, the world is
Bost <> (The simply a form of consciousness. Objects are
Center for Creative & Enlightened not known by anybody without
Education). consciousness. It is consciousness that has
There is a dilemma with the study of assumed the forms of objects. it is through
consciousness, and that it is consciousness that objects are ascertained."
consciousness studying 'itself'. It is sort of To sum up, I believe that these Sages
like water trying to determine if it is wet. and Mystics are saying that individual
I also have found it interesting that this consciousness and Universal Consciousness
topic has been studied before. The Sages are one and the same separated only by
and Mystics of old did their own inquiries perception, and 'everything' that exists is a
on this profound subject. The following form of this One Consciousness.
writings talk about consciousness in such
a unique way that I thought that I would Jung/Pauli dialogue: The influence of
present them here. These works give us a quantum consciousness on psychology.
different view about the nature of Gregory Brack <> (Georgia
consciousness. State University), Michele B. Hill, Ph.D.
From the "Shiva Sutras": "It is the The concept of "quantum consciousness"
primal limiting condition (called anava has increasingly captured the attention of
mala) which reduces the universal social scientists, but historically the
consciousness to that of an empirical dialogue of quantum physics and social

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science is old. One of the earliest and unconsciousness level. James would
most significant continuing dialogues suggest, and the writings of Jung and Pauli
between physics and psychology was that seem to support, that quantum effects
between psychiatrist Carl Jung and Nobel likely influence consciousness via the
Prize winning physicist Wolfgang Pauli. unconsciousness. Such insight may lead to a
Among a select group of Jung's followers, revised formulation of "quantum
the Jung/Pauli dialogue was followed consciousness."
closely, and influenced extensions of
Jungian therapy, but until recently much The survival of consciousness. Else Byskov
of the psychological community was <> (Scientific and
ignorant of the groundbreaking work Medical Network International Association
between the two very different of Near Death Studies).
scientists. With the recent publication of Based on the fundamental
several sources recording this dialogue, electromagnetic nature of consciousness it
deeper insight into their thoughts are can be explained why consciousness is not
now available to a wider audience. In restricted to the brain, but is dispersed all
particular the publication in English of through the body. The electromagnetic
the Jung/Pauli letters titled "Atom and nature of consciousness also explains how
Archetype" records the decades long cross consciousness can survive physical death.
fertilization of ideas between the two As consciousness consists of ray-formed
thinkers. In addition the publication of matter or energy it can be argued that this
Pauli's relevant collected work in type of matter is not subject to wear and
"Writings on Physics and Philosophy" has tear as physical matter is. Through an
provided Jungian scholars much more understanding of the various states of
material about the deeper aspects of matter it can furthermore be substantiated
their ideas on quantum consciousness. how ray-formed matter is the upper tier of
This paper will discuss first the notorious matter and how physical matter can be
background that led to Pauli entering the viewed as condensed or "frozen"
"Jungian circle." Next, the paper will consciousness matter. The talk explains in a
discuss that as the two scholars became logical and science-based way why death is
acquainted, there arose a mutual an illusion and why we are alive in a
recognition of the similarity of their two conscious universe.
apparently dissimilar fields. Their
subsequent communications then Synchronous oscillations and phase
affected Jung's view of "Synchronicity" encoding in the brain. Russell Ceballos
and Pauli's view of quantum mechanics. <> (School of
This paper next assesses how that Computational Sciences, George Mason
dialogue, and its subsequent effects upon University).
Jung and Pauli, may inform contemporary Recent neuroscientific evidence has
discussions about quantum consciousness called considerable attention to
and the continued cross communication spontaneously active neurons synchronized
of the hard science of physics and the as assemblies, within millisecond precision,
softer social science of psychology. over space-separated regions of the brain.
Finally, the paper will look at the This phenomenon has been related and
influence of William James upon both extended into many areas of neuroscience,
Jung and Pauli. Often in reviewing the especially its significance to the distributed
Jung/Pauli dialogues, commentators have nature of brain processing, and even to
forgotten that one crucial aspect of requirements of conscious experience and
James' theory of consciousness was the psychopathology. Much of the earlier data
role of the "spiritual" on an emphasized zero-phase lag between

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

synchronized signals, more often than not information processing in the brain and its
in terms of their relation to the relation to the conscious experience.
perception of a percept/stimulus.
However, accumulating evidence has The matter-mind continuum: Exploring
been calling this straightforward the sankhya paradigm in indian
approach to temporal binding into philosophy. Meera Chakravorty
question, as transient phase locking and <> (Bangalore University,
asynchronous inputs have been shown to Dept. of Sanskrit, (Indian Philosophy)).
be equally active mechanisms involved in New findings in science provide us with
this process. Attention is paid to the amazing details about the structure of
molecular, sub- and super-neuronal Matter. To come to this fascinating
processes that provide insight into the understanding it has taken a long time.
pathways and possible mechanisms Both the scientific experience and the
involved in “binding” distant spatio- perceptual experience are affected by the
temporally encoded processing in the behaviour of Matter, verifiable in details by
brain. The phase relationships inherent in experiments. Classical Physics has come to
these processes, as well as other relevant discover certain laws which can be
data regarding non-local formulated mathematically and are
interactions/phenomenon in the brain are universal inasmuch as they are believed to
also discussed. It is emphasized that the apply to all Matter at all times. When we
resolution of time scales within which discover Matter that do not obey such laws,
these synchronized processes occur need that would mean we are yet to
to be enhanced before any serious understandabout it more and more. For
assessment can be made in terms of EPR- instance, the question of whether at it's
like correlations. It seems that such most fundamental level, matter behaves in
precise and delicate phase encoding a wave like or particle like way or both, has
between millimeters of space within the been a source of continuing bewilderment.
brain, working within the time scales Our present understanding based on
evidenced so far in the data, would be quantum theory, is that at sub-atomic
best represented non-locally; in a level, Matter isn't either wave like or
Quantum-like way. That is, sub- and particle like in nature but both, depending
super-neuronal wave processes would on the circumstances and behave
provide a much more refined modulation unpredictably in a manner quite unlike
of such oscillations, and a richer, albeit anything we are familiar with in everyday
more comprehensive, understanding of life.
the dynamics and information processing In the Indian traditional schools of
involved. The problems posed in Sankhya, Nyaya and Vaisheshika, there have
attempting to understand this been attempts to grasp the far from
phenomenon within the framework of obvious nature of the physical world at ever
classical neurophysiology and physics more fundamental levels and in doing so, to
seem to evaporate when approached draw over understanding of phenomena
from a Quantum, or even Quantum-like, that may appear to be disparate. These
perspective. This paper, using the schools have made an effort to understand
evidence presented and taking in hand that complex objects are made from
the known structure and properties of simpler components. As for instance, Nyaya
receptive fields at the microdendritic says, Anu or atom is the simplest state,
processing level (which has already been though not perceptible. While Sankhya
established in Quantum holographic terms emphasises that everything around us,
by Pribram), aims to elucidate some of ourselves included, is composed of Prakriti
the fundamental issues of distributed or the Original Matter. Thus, underlying the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

immense complexity of life is a simplicity

movements and amplitude changes among
of composition. the random fluctuations of a flower. Mind-
Sankhya understanding of Matter or Matter Interrelationships between two
Prakriti is that of an invisible state ofconscious entities are seen to couple
force at it's most fundamental level and information and transfer energy, a dynamic
therefore can't be located like objects and repeatable phenomena that ultimately
with which we are used to in everyday needs some kind of a non-local quantum
life. In particular, the question of explanation. Such information and energy
whether it is a simple force unfolding a transfers are here considered to be the
comples process or it is a complexity resultant of superposition of many distinct
wandering away from minimal complexity subtle states of consciousness arising from
is a puzzling phenomenon. How do we combinations of invocational soundings and
understand this in the modern sense? various mental protocols involving
There have been a number of visualization, imagination, contemplation,
independent reflections on this concept. concentration, meditation, and
May be they suggest common factors, transcendence.
may be they do not. We still do not know An experimental program collects large
what these factorc are. amounts of real-time analog data from
The idea that the Sankhya attempts dozens of sensors to correlate external
to put forth strongly is that, Matter physical parameters relative to the
involves itself in combining the particles
affectations of one consciousness upon
into objects as well as acts as a force, another consciousness, at a distance. The
which is at the basis of all activity. movement of flowers and the magnitudes of
Stranger is the fact which the Sankhya their random fluctuations are found to vary
holds that Matter is pervaded by as a function of the nature of directed
intelligence. mental protocols. A perturbation in
Also, the understanding of Forces inconscious intent or state of being is thus
the context of New Physics, has seen reflected through empirical
undergone a dynamic change from being measurement instruments. With focus
mediated by the effects of various "fields"
directed toward energy transformations,
pervading space and time, for e.g. the Mind-Matter Interrelationships can thus
electromagnetic field and finally to being
become visible through the use of the tools
understood as involving the exchange of of the physicist.
force carrying particles, photons incase of Micron size movements are monitored
electromagnetism, gluons in case of via precision laser-electro-optical systems
strong nuclear force. to microinch resolutions. Instantaneous
Realising this, an attempt is made to temperature fluctuations are monitored to
reflect on the Sankhya paradigm which milli-degrees. A variety of physical and
has contributed for the evolution of physiological sensors at both source and
myriad directions that might have all target sites connect via redundant
along perplexed it, yet made it greater differential measurement and synchronous
inquisitive to explore the mysteries, amplifier techniques to assure high quality
nature has maintained so astutely. experimental integrity with low level
signals. Multi-computer automated
Experimental program on mind-matter measurement systems assure repeatability
interrelationships. Edmond Chouinard all the way from data retrieval, to data
<> (Measurements processing, to data presentation.
Research Inc).
A directing consciousness is seen to Putting Consciousness into the Equations.
correlate with infinitesimal physical Edward Close

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<> approach reveals the question of mind-

(Anodyne, Inc.). matter interface to be the result of
The branch of the physical sciences semantic confusion, and sheds new light on
known as physical cosmology represents the nature of space and time. From this
our best efforts to understand the large- new perspective, many philosophical
scale aspects of the universe in terms of conundrums and metaphysical puzzles
matter and energy evolving in time and simply dissolve, and an optimistic view of
space. The general theory of relativity the future of the scientific study of
plays a central role in explaining the red- consciousness emerges.
shift expanding universe, and provides a
reasonable, if somewhat abstruse, Physics, consciousness and three-
understanding of the physical processes dimensional time. Edward Close <eclose @
involved. Quantum field theory, on the> (Anodyne, Inc.).
other hand, while being very successful in The passage of time is an undeniably
explaining atomic and sub-atomic important aspect of experiences common to
phenomena, has not been as diligently human beings, and in general, we human
applied to cosmology. beings have an instinctive feeling that we
Because our view of the universe is know what time is. Classical physics defined
limited to a small fraction of the total time by formalizing this instinctive feeling:
information spectrum, due to the physical time was considered to be an objective,
limitations of the human sense organs and universal parameter, flowing uniformly
their extensions, our perspective is that from the past to the present, and from the
of the nearly blind, groping in the dark; present to the future. Time, like space, was
and current main-stream theories of the a fixed background against which events
origin and evolution of the universe leave could be distinguished and measured. Of
many questions to be answered. The course, Albert Einstein changed that.
standard “big bang” model has great Thanks to the theory of relativity, we now
difficulty addressing questions of initial know that there is no universal time. Not
or final conditions, and fails entirely to only the perception of time, but even the
be able to shed any light on the mystery measurement of time is observer
of the first cause. The role of dependent. Two events, for example, that
consciousness, when considered at all, are simultaneous for one observer, are not
suffers from the lack of a concise, simultaneous for a second observer who is
workable definition. moving relative to the first observer.
It is the thesis of this paper that the Furthermore, interpretations of quantum
missing element in current physical theory and experimental results from
theory is consciousness itself, and that particle physics have raised questions
quantum mechanics affords an avenue to suggesting that consciousness may be
rectify this error. The strengths and involved in phenomenal reality at the most
weaknesses of the standard cosmological basic level. Conventional mathematical and
model are discussed in light of relativity physical theories are not designed to
and the Copenhagen interpretation of include the functions of consciousness in
quantum mechanics, and a new the scientific description of reality.
mathematical approach affording a Including the involvement of consciousness
means of including consciousness in the in the basic processes of reality requires
equations is proposed. A broad-based new mathematics and a new understanding
theory integrating consciousness and of the nature of time and space. In this
physical reality is offered, along with paper, a new mathematical approach is
definitions of the primary and secondary suggested. This approach leads to the
functions of consciousness. Pursuit of this concept of three-dimensional time.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Formalization of the interaction of study on a mind model based on three

consciousness with matter and energy in values logic. Guido Del Prete
three-dimensional space and three- <> (Progetto per
dimensional time enables us to treat both lo sviluppo del potenziale umano
perceived time and physical time within a “Shambhala”
logically consistent framework.
According to the Stapp model, the mind
Consciousness and the Self: Reflections is a quantum system, in which mental
on Quantum Mind and Indian self states are entangled with quantum events
psychology. Alfred Collins observed by consciousness. So, if a human
<> (Alaska subject observes an uncertain quantum
Neuro/Therapy Center). event, the wave function of that event is
The Indian Sankhya-Yoga tradition of collapsed through collapse of the mental
philosophy and psychology identifies state in that subject, which is manifested in
consciousness with the knower or self recordings of electrical potentials; and then
(jnana and jna, in Sanskrit). Like the orch becomes determined for any subsequent
OR idea, Sankhya-Yoga embodies a subjects observing the same events. In
fundamental split between levels, and literature, statistically significant data
attempts to show how the lower level support the hypothesis that the collapse of
(prakrti, or psychophysical "matter") the wave function is manifested on the ERP
functions in the light of the higher (the (recordings on EEG of event related
knower, jna or purusa). potentials).
The Penrose-Hameroff proposal does Event-related desynchronization of the
not explicitly consider selfhood in its alpha rhythm on the EEG is associated with
understanding of consciousness, but does conscious observation. In hypnagogic state,
allude to a fundamental process that may like during the meditation, instead, is
be parallel to this major tenet of present a well-synchronized EEG profile
Sankhya-Yoga--the idea of purusartha with priority of alpha and theta rhythms. In
(purusa artha), the insight that all action other experimental studies a few subjects
in the psychophysical world is done "for in hypnagogic state, induced by hypnotic
the sake of consciousness or the suggestion or deep meditation, are able to
conscious self." In the context of "free influence meaningfully a REG (Random
will" (the area where a self would seem Event Generator). This circumstance does
most central), Hameroff writes of a not appear in the same subjects in
"hidden (Platonic) non-computable logic wakefulness consciousness state. Further,
inherent in space-time geometry. The always in literature, are present some
way in which this "logic" influences the experiments about transferred potentials
quantum system's reduction might be between subjects during deep meditation;
understood, at least heuristically, as these experiments prove the nonlocality of
parallel to how purusartha describes the brain potential in particular conditions.
prakriti acting in the interests of purusa. The authors suppose, on the basis of
Sankhya-Yoga specifies this influence in these remarks, that the hypnagogic state is
ways that might be helpful to the a privileged mental state that is
Penrose-Hameroff model: prakrti's action characterized by nonlocal effects, as
is done "for the sake of" purusa's transferred potentials and micro-PK, and is
enjoyment (experience) and purusa's required to enable the mind working
liberation (moksa). through a three values logic model, that is
also the logic of quantum physics. The mind
The role of hypnagogic state in the of the subject in hypnagogic state is trained
quantum brain model: A preliminary by a particular procedure (based on mind-

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

body techniques explained in this paper) Quantum models of mind are based on
to think according to this logical model. the possibility of a quantum computing in
In this condition, after training, should to brain microtubules. From this point view,
prove a higher duration of the the information processing is the
superposition state on the ERP during the fundamental question in the understanding
first observation of an event never of the brain mechanisms to produce
observed before. This study offers valid consciousness.
indications to support this hypothesis. The cytoskeleton polimers could make
the store and processing of information
Toward a proof that awareness is not through their dynamical coupling mediate
reducible and the limits of discovery in by mechanical energy.
quantum conciousness. Steven Ericsson We analyse the transfer and store
Zenith <> problem of information in brain
(Independent). microtubules, considering it as a
The mind we are familiar with is the comunication channel. We discuss the
product of a conspiracy between implications in the assumption of the
physiology and awareness. Our physiology consciousness as generated by the
is the emergent biomechanical organism subneuronal processor.
of evolution. However, awareness is not
reducible. There can be no awareness of The conscious mind and the Schrödinger's
the most primitive transduction before cat. Giovanni Fantasia
the organism is aware and we cannot <> (University of
experience awareness before it is so. Milan, Italy Dipartimento di Scienze dell'
What Damasio says (in "The Feeling of Informazione).
What Happens"), while making the most How comes existence? How can we
compelling rationale for emergence, is develop a conceptual framework where our
simply impossible, dependent on magical physical theories could be interpreted
instantiation. coherently? Trying to answer these
Awareness is therefore not emergent questions John Archibald Wheeler (1,2)
but necessarily first order, the equal of proposed an ontology based on elementary
energy/matter. acts of observation. Similar ideas are
By these same limits the search for explained in the work of Herny Stapp (3). In
consciousness in quantum observation these works the world described classically
cannot hope to find the physical in term of objects, space and time is a part
mechanism of awareness but only to of the picture emerging from a mosaic,
identify its presence and the mechanism where the single plugs are these
of its interaction and development - it elementary acts. Existence is the ensemble
cannot produce a complete and internally of transitions from possible to actual:
consistent view of the universe that is possible and actual determines each others
purely physical. in a circular process. Developing this
A formal proof of the irreducibile framework could also be a basis to build a
nature of awareness should be possible theory of consciousness and self-
and this paper discusses what such a consciousness and what kind of role
proof will look like. consciousness has in actualization of being.
In our work we make this further
Information processing in brain hypothesis: mind has the faculty to choose
microtubules. Jean Faber Abreu the set of possible directions of particular
<> (LNCC - National state reductions; these particular state
Laboratory of Scientific Computing). reductions build the part of reality that
mind is aware of. In this way we give a

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

possible solution to the Schrödinger's cat two electrons due to electricity and
paradox: the empirical fact that we don't electrons' gravitational attraction due to
observe Schrödinger's cats is the their masses.
consequence of an asymmetry of mind in This observation comes from study of
observing reality. Mind acts like a filter optics dealing with refraction and
for some state reductions and these reflection from concave mirrors and lenses.
"forbidden" reductions may coincide with The study is a radical departure from
what we call non-local measurements. classical notion that light rays concave
Example of these non-local mirrors reflect produce inverted, real
measurements are the projectors on images resulting from light rays intersecting
states that are linear superpositions of and convergence, and are devoid of
states describing a single particle at physical properties.
different locations. So Schrödinger's cats Instead, concave mirrors displace space
are excluded by a mind that gives a and time in the immediate path of
"localized" direction in the becoming of reflection within the radius of original
things. Finally we discuss some physical sphere from which concave mirrors derive.
facts that could be searched to confirm The displacement is a geometric exchange
this model. of curvature. The resultant curvature is a
negative curvature manifold of hyperbolic
1) J. A. Wheeler " World as a System Self- paraboloid form. The hyperbolic paraboloid
synthetised by a Quantum Networking" is a ruled surface. When reflected from
IBM Journal of Research V.32 No.1 concave mirrors, principal rays follow a
January 1988 ruled surface trajectory of a hyperbolic
2) J. A. Wheeler " Information, Physics, paraboloid to a focal point. The ruled
Quantum: The Search for Links" surface nature of manifold limits degrees of
Complexity, Entropy, and the Physics of freedom of reflected light from a concave
Information, SFI Studies in the Sciences of mirror and confines positions of focal
Complexity, vol. VIII, Ed. W.H.Zurek, points.
Addison-Weslay, 1990 The negative curvature requires light rays
3) H. Stapp "Mind, Matter and Quantum to move as vectors in opposite directions
Mechanics" Springer Verlag, 1993 simultaneously; having equal magnitude,
the resultant force is zero, hence, a real
From gravity to consciousness. Joel image. The focal point is the center of
Fontes <> (MFV gravity of resultant negative curvature
Labs Manifold Vectors Studies). manifold. The curvature exchange
Gravity is the inverted, real image of transition induces a potential difference of
electromagnetism. The force of gravity space and time, thus, rotational motion,
can be deduced from the ratio of relative hence, inverted image.*
strength between force of a distant The inverted, real image produced by
electrically charged object and the force eyesight is similar to process above.
its inverted, real image exerts on an Humanity and by default any bioptic**
infinitesimal mass of given point size creature must perforce perceive incoming
charge. The mass and electrical charge streams of photons, in waveform rather
can be engineered so that strength of its than particle nature. Incoming streams do
inverted, real image is sufficient to not choose either one of two eye lenses by
vanish gravity effect at focal point which to enter. Indeed, entry and passage
relative to infinitesimal mass of point size through both eyes at once requires an
charge. Though relative strength would undisturbed quantum state, akin to a
have increased, ratio remains constant double slit experiment.
and equivalent to repulsion ratio between

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

This suggests natural state of photons perhaps, but inappropriate for the ears of
is a quantum state.*** Tunneling photons, more learned men and women of science.
antedating reality perception, apparent What? Structure duality in a tetrahedral
timelessness, suggest reality inherent to manner and acquire a desktop model that
this natural quantum state is four- directly imparts repeatable units of
dimensional. Four-dimensionality, physical intuition on states, one-half spin,
however, composed of the three known anharmonic motion, AND a *feel* for
spatial dimensions and time, but in a quantum consciousness, all in a few
coherent state of equal identities having moments of just thinking? Preposterous!
potential energy. Yet, a thoughtful person will soon
Decoherence of the natural quantum notice that quantum consciousness is, in
state in the mind begins with a curvature the main, carbon-based, thus these same
exchange resulting in an inverted real five dualic structures resonate throughout
image; precisely here, four- all of quantum consciousness. We do share
dimensionality collapses to three spatial the pattern and the similar patten
dimensions, releasing potential energy recognition systems. The doorway opens
and transferring angular momentum to wider.
beholder who senses illusionary temporal Oddly enough, it turns out that abstract
flow. math symbols and expressions involve
Consciousness originates in the "store/hold/retrieve" morphisms that are
process of the quantum state collapse in not innate in the thing itself. Thus, abstract
keeping with the law of conservation of mathematical symbols and expressions are
energy and momentum. Simultaneously, just not synchronous enough nor robust
consciousness reduces the wave function, enough to convey enough information fast
and consciousness originates as the result enough to spark and sustain a working
of the collapse. awareness of quantum consciousness or any
of the other emerging, more unified
What do you get when you build a models. More robust symbols are required.
tetrahedron out of magnets? (...Or, why The remainder of this paper, that is, in
unification is too big an attribute to be this initial public presentation, using
anything but a primary tenet.). Ralph standard one- and two-frequency magnetic
Frost <> (Frost Low tetrahedra, the author introduces the new
Energy Physics). symbols and traces through the discoveries
What a thoughtful person gets when of (1) the underlying principle of structured
they answer the question posed above is duality, (2) the solar maximum cycle as one
a quick and dirty shortcut to quantum definite quantum gravitational wave in the
consciousness. A secret doorway opens as local region, (3) why the analog
one notices that the five different ways mathematical approach is effective when
to align four rod magnets along the radii modeling the emerging more unified
of a tetrahedron have the same dualic models, (4) why one-half spin is important,
look and *feel* as do the five possible and (5)how binary tetrahedral symbols go
representations of Debye about generating internal sine and cosine
electronegativity vectors in molecules tables with just a bit of torsion, therein
involving tetravalent atoms. That is, relating energy to spin to vision to smell, to
these five patterns dominate in organic memory to angles to math to speech.
chemistry and thus, throughout all of the The author will also describe his view of
lithosphere and biosphere. the notions: (1) "experience exists; time
At first, such a fancifully, naive does not" and (2) "all HEP results only show
notion sounds like compound jargonic that the unified system breaks down in
gibberish: an intriguing word salad trick repeatable ways".

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Lastly, some discussion will be added consciousness. Each level depends on

to show how the improved information interactions at the previous level.
compression ratio that is inherent in such
a quick and dirty analog modeling On the origin and function of biological
approach fits in rather nicely in an synchronisation. Catarina Geoghan
introductory global science and <> (Guest
mathematics educational effort. Researcher Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Research Group Department of Humanities
Gene expression to memory to University of Skövde Sweden).
consciousness. Robert Fujimura An overview of published evidence from
<> (Department of biological synchronisation research is
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, presented, with the aim of establishing to
University of Miami School of Medicine, what extent there is a correlation with the
Miami, FL). frequency harmonics of standing waves in
According to a book by JA Jungerman the earth-ionosphere cavity. It will be
or by the present day process philosophy, shown that there are preliminary
a substance consists mostly of empty indications that there is a close correlation.
space filled with interactions of However, since most research into
subatomic particles, photons, and gluons; synchronisation of cortical and motor
a substance is a series of events. Each rhythms focus on fairly wide frequency
event is connected to earlier events. bands, a clear view is not obtainable until
Each level of organization - atoms, cells, data is available that has been analysed in
organs, organisms, and communities - greater detail.
affects all the other levels in a complex It is proposed that standing waves in
web of interactions or connections. the atmosphere provide a reference
Therefore, matter itself is at the frequency for implicate order enfolding and
microscopic level a dynamic sea of energy unfolding of information (David Bohm,
exchange in a vacuum. Everything we 1980).
observe exists by interactions from
fundamental prticles to the universe. On the dynamic timescale of conscious
The universe and life are evolving toward experience: A novel neuromolecular
complexity. approach. Danko Georgiev
We have two extreme views on <> (Medical
consciousness and many in between. One University Of Varna, Bulgaria).
extreme end is that of Steve Sevush that Both in the classical neuroscience
a single neuron has the neurocore of approach and in the Hameroff-Penrose Orch
consciousness. The other extreme is that OR model it is assumed that the dynamic
of Gerald Edelman and Giulio Tononi, timescale of conscious experience is
who wrote that the neurocore of intimately linked to the timescale of the
consciousness is dynamic networks of traveling membrane potentials. In this
neurons. Richard Sole and Brian Goodwin presentation is settled the basic framework
wrote that single neuron is like an ant in in which the quantum field theory is shown
an ant colony, it does not by itself has to be reliable scientific approach for
consciousness. Such a complex system describing both the processes in the brain
can not be understood by studying a cortex and the conscious 'I'. The neuronal
neuron. Consciousness is based on series microtubules and the confined water
of interactions at increasing levels of molecules inside interact with the local
complexity from gene products to signal electric field generated by the membrane
transduction pathways to synaptic activity. This interaction results in
activities to memories and to spontaneous breaking of the vacuum

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

symmetry generating Nambu-Goldstone entity are “economies.” This paper deals

boson condensates. Further Mavromatos with the economy of the body.
et al. have proposed Rabi coupling All matter exists at a rate of being.
between the tubulin subunits and the Between two things, or between two
layer of water molecules near the states, lies a temporal interval. This
microtubular wall and have modelled the temporal interval is itself dynamic; that is,
processing of information by the tubulins it resonates with the vibration of the
using string theory approach. The difference between the rates of being of
interaction of the tubulins directly with the two states of being. I believe that in
the electromagnetic field can be this temporal interval lies the key to the
understood as a process of inputting dynamic coherence of the energy economy
information to the conscious 'I'. In the of the organic Being. This resonant interval
brain cortex the coherent neuromolecular exists on many levels of organized
lattice composed by microtubules, complexity, from the quantum coherence
neurofilaments and synaptic scaffold within the brain to the ability of creatures
proteins causally affects not the to mediate their environment.
presynaptic membrane activity but the I suggest that the economy of
neuromediator release. The differancial rates within living entities is a
neuromediator molecules modulate consequence of two complementary
ligand-gated ion channels at the systems within them. The first is a step-by-
postsynaptic membrane thus outputting step, rule-following unidirectional circuit
information from the conscious 'I'. The subject to entropy that could be
picosecond protein dynamics that drives adequately described by 19th century
exocytosis via quantum tunnelling and thermodynamic metaphors.
the cytoskeletal protein dynamics is Contemporaneously and co-spatially, there
comparable with the theoretic exists a field of flows, (specifically
predictions for the time to decoherence electromagnetic, but as easily understood
of the quantum coherent protein lattice; as intentions and desires) that predisposes
a necessary condition that makes the and allows for rapid and global transition,
quantum mind idea feasible. The in the form of phase shifting. This field is
proposed model works well even in such best understood in terms of quantum field
intense studied human pathologies like theory with its vocabulary of non-locality,
Alzheimer's disease. The quantum field entanglement, holography, and virtuality.
theory interpretation of the molecular These two modes of being (that is ontic
and clinical data reveals not only a novel modes) exist in a relationship where self
mechanism of pathogenesis but also a and other, same and different are
possibility for experimental verification superimposed.
of the model. These ontic modes differ in being
continuous (that is to say, fields) and
Slowness: An economy of différancial discrete (for example, molecules, cells,
rates of being. Karen Gilbert organs), and in that they call into being,
<> (Wisdom Earth and then exist in, different sorts of spaces.
Democracy A metaphysics of biology in the 21st century
(, Carriage will have to create a discourse that
House Talks (, accounts for this dynamism.
Center for the Study of Culture, Work and What body is called forth in a far-from-
Technology (Graduate Center of the City equilibrium economy of turbulence and
University of New York)). homeorrhesis? With what discourse can we
Models of the distribution and discuss it? This paper aims to answer these
redistribution of goods throughout an questions based on theories of knowledge

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

and ontology put forth by Michel Serres in which, “once a critical point is reached
and Giles Deleuze writing with Felix (in triggering conditions) the transition is
Guattari. The specific notions of what inevitable” (118). He suggested that,
constitutes a “body” and its component “inevitability presupposes some kind of
parts are take from Mae-Wan Ho’s work cooperativity—a change that increases the
on whole system bioenergetics, Gerald propensity of additional change in the same
Pollack’s work on the phase-state shifting direction,” (118) and described the
of cells, and Lynn Margulis and Dorian mechanism involved, which “arises out of
Sagan’s work of symbiogenesis. competition between two or more forces,”
Ho (1993) summarized the problem of (118) in this case the equal tendency of
finding a mechanism for dynamic polymer to bond with itself, or with water.
coherence at metabolic temperatures. Cooperativity of fields is what enables
She reminds us that condensed matter them to be so fast; they create space. The
physics is that study of “the collective link-by-link mechanism of neuronal and
behaviour . . . when molecular disorder – chemical networks is slower; it fills space.
entropy – disappears and the systems no
longer behave statistically but in Does the theory of psychiagenia (TOP)
accordance with dynamical laws” (87). have experimental applications? Ivan
Although typically true only of cold Godfroid <>
systems, biotic entities that were (CHU de Charleroi (Universite Libre de
“nonequilibrium systems subject to Bruxelles), Department of Psychiatry,
energy flow can also undergo transitions Vincent van Gogh Hospital).
to coherent, macroscopic activity¼” (89). The theory of psychiagenia (TOP) was
Using a quantum model of the body, one recently proposed as an alternative to
where “exited molecules vibrate at dualism and materialism (Godfroid, 2002).
various characteristic frequencies,” Ho It can be viewed as a double-aspect
drew on Frolich’s research that revealed monism, where the mind and brain have a
“collective modes of both common root called ‘psychiagenia’ which is
electromechanical oscillations (phonons, not directly assessable (Godfroid, in press).
or sound waves) and electromagnetic Brain mapping and subjective experience
radiations (photons)¼” (91). These are thus considered as truncated
“collective modes,” called by Frolich representations of psychiagenia that cannot
“coherent excitations,” could be easily be ‘correlated’. As the hard problem
synergistically linked. “[C]oherent would then seem simply to have shifted, an
excitations make the system sensitive to analogy with quantum physics’ superstring
specific, weak signals . . . Whole theory (see Randall, 2002) was used to
populations of cells may be poised in explain why psychiagenia is not directly
critical states so that a small, specific assessable. The idea was to show that a
signal would set off a whole train of possible answer to the hard problem of
macroscopic, coherent reactions” (93) consciousness might come out of the logic
And, as in any other solid-state of a theory that has solved another difficult
(condensed matter) system, move problem of science: the relation between
through the system as a standing wave gravity and quantum mechanics. In the
(or, soliton). “[F]requencies are coupled string theory, the messenger particle is no
together so that random energy fed into longer a point but a string vibrating in
any specific frequency can be space-time at different frequencies; these
communicated to other[s]” (91). different harmonics correspond to the
Pollack (2001) documented the same different elementary particles. The
sort of “cooperative” transition between superstring theory only works if space has
condensed and expanded polymer states, extra dimensions, but we are unable to

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

discern these. In TOP, string physics is Godfroid IO. Psychiagenia: a gauge theory
supposed to govern psychiagenia, and the for the mind-brain problem.
mere nature of this common root (like its Neuroquantology, in press.
number of dimensions) is thought to Randall L. Extra dimensions and warped
render its assessment unachievable: geometries. Science 296: 1422-7, 2002.
medical imagery reduces it to a 4-
dimensional brain map, and cognitive No risk of a quantum decoherence in the
psychology to an ‘n-dimensional’ one. brain according to the theory of
The next step in developing TOP is topsychiagenia (TOP). Ivan GODFROID
search for experimental possibilities. On <> (CHU de
the one hand, there are of course future Charleroi (Universite Libre de Bruxelles),
experimentations that should take place Department of Psychiatry, Vincent van
in the field of quantum physics (and a Gogh Hospital).
first step towards this goal is the study of Neuroquantology is a new field of
ordinary aspects of string physics that will
research. It is based on the assumption that
start around 2007 at the European quantum physics and neuroscience can
Laboratory for Particle Physics’ Large unite in the study of consciousness.
Hadron Collider). On the other hand, TOP Although new ideas, and especially
has to take up the challenge of the integrating paradigms, are constantly
classical majors topics of consciousness encouraged in all the scientific journals,
studies (split brain, blindsight, etc.). But
the least we can say is that physicalism is
I would stress here that medicine could not always welcome. Scepticism is however
offer some other promising ways of fruitful when a real debate is possible. As it
investigation that have been largely was stated in the first announcement of the
neglected until now: pseudocyesis (a Quantum Mind 2003 congress, critics mainly
disease where the false conviction of contend that “the brain is too warm for
pregnancy induces anatomical
quantum computation which in the
modifications), aphasia (where the technological realm requires extreme cold
preservation of thought after a stroke in to avoid ‘decoherence’, loss of seemingly
the language area of the brain has been delicate quantum state by interaction with
described), dementia (characterised by a the environment”. Several authors have
backward erasing of all knowledge along attempted to demonstrate that a quantum
with neuronal lesions), and most of all, effect could nonetheless be possible in the
the placebo effect. Placebo effect is brain (e.g., Donald, 1990, to see how a
certainly one of the most fascinating and physicist deals with the difficulty; and
controversial aspects of medicine. It can Rocha et al., 2001, for a biological
be viewed as evidence that a mind state approach).
can be indirectly linked to a somatic Tackling the problem from another
effect through a far more complex point of view, I would like to stress that the
mechanism than a neural correlate. In theory of psychiagenia (TOP) clearly avoids
other words, the placebo effect seems this kind of inconsistency. TOP was recently
the most promising way of assessing proposed as an alternative to the usual
psychiagenia by new paradigms, and a answers to the mind-brain problem
first step towards experimentation of (Godfroid, 2002; Godfroid, in press). The
TOP. world according to the TOP is ruled by
string physics (see Antoniadis et al., 1998,
Godfroid IO. Psychiagenia: mind and brain and Randall & Sundrum, 1999, on string
through superstrings. Int J theory’s relevance to macroscopic systems;
Neuropsychophamacol 5 (Suppl 1): S195, and Flanagan, 2001, for an alternative
2002. application to consciousness). Psychiagenia

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

is the name given to the part of this In April, 1999, a paper of mine
world corresponding to a common root (
for the mind and brain. Psychiagenia is .html) appeared in the e-journal "The
currently not directly assessable. Indeed, Enneagram and the MBTI". This paper
only truncated images of it are unified existing circumplex models of
obtainable: the brain is an “objective” personality into one of three types. Each
one, and the mind a “subjective” one. If circumplex type contained 12 two factor
brain and mind are only indirect personality types in three Jungian
representations of psychiagenia, it is personality dimensions. Why were there
because the very tools we use for its three circumplexes? Could the three be
assessment (medical imagery for the merged into one model? What about the
brain, or cognitive psychology for fourth Jungian dimension, extraversion-
emotions and thoughts) lead to a kind of introversion? These were questions left
alteration in their common root. In other unanswered by my first paper. In July,
words, there is no risk of a quantum 1999, John Fudjack, the editor for the e-
decoherence in the brain according to journal with my paper, attended a "Theory
TOP, because the brain is already the of Everything" conference in the Smokey
result of a decoherence of psychiagenia. Mountains that was also attended by string
Now the real question is: which way physicist Brian Greene. Fudjack shared his
forward to the direct assessment of view that the mandala, a symbol of a
psychiagenia? profound organizing principle, plays a vital
role in personality typologies. The mandala,
Antoniadis I, Arkani-Hamed N, according to Fudjack, is structured in such
Dimopoulos S, Dvali G. New dimensions at a way that its 'outermost' rim must be
a millimetre to a fermi and superstring at conceived as identical to its 'innermost'
a TeV. Phys Lett B 436: 257-63, 1998. center, and argues Fudjack, this is because
Donald MJ. Quantum theory and the consciousness is similarly structured. To
brain. Proc R Soc Lond A427: 43-93, 1990. Greene this sounded like the structure of
Flanagan B. Are Perceptual Fields string theory where infinitely large radii are
Quantum Fields? Informacao e Cognicao 3 physically equivalent to zero length radii. I
(2), 2001. decided to look to physics for help with my
Godfroid IO. Psychiagenia: mind and brain personality models. I ended up using Tony
through superstrings. Int J Smith's physics model rather than Brian
Neuropsychophamacol 5 (Suppl 1): S195, Greene's. The reason for this is that Smith's
2002. model is based on the A-D-E series
Godfroid IO. Psychiagenia: a gauge theory progression. D3, for example, has a root
for the mind-brain problem. vector polytope with 12 bivectors in 3
Neuroquantology, in press. dimensions. This was my circumplex model
Randall L, Sundrum R. An alternative to in a nutshell. For Smith, D3 created a "Segal
compactification. Phys Rev Lett 83: 4690- Conformal Gravity". But why did I have
3, 1999. three D3s? Well, when one goes up the food
Rocha AF, Pereira Jr A, Coutinho FAB. N- chain to D4-D5-E6, one finds a curious
methyl-D-aspartate channel and property known as triality supersymmetry.
consciousness: from signal coincidence to For Greene, triality creates a one to one
quantum computing. Prog Neurobiol 64: correspondence between bosons and
555-73, 2001. fermions while for Smith it creates a
supersymmetry between spacetime and the
Is the mandala mind a sign of string matter-antimatter fermions. But why was I
theory in action? John Gonsowski seeing this triality down at the D3 level? In
<>. a sci.physics.rese arch conversation (which

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

is also now at Smith's website), Smith level brain function (it is more than just
explained to me a way to see triality neurons) and removes subjective
down at the D3 level. It was related to experience from the grip of mysterians,
the process of why we perceive four and pan-psychists and representationalists,
not more spacetime dimensions. Going to conferring on it the same mature
D4, Smith gets the negative and positive epistemological status as “mass” and
color/electroweak bosons while I get the “charge”. It provides a basic guide for the
introversion-extraversion Jungian fourth general selective control of the 'qualia' for
personality dimension. D5 gives Smith a given 'sense'. It predicts current lowest
real plus imaginary spacetime dimensions level sensory cortex brain structure ('the
while I get the first and second Jungian little inhibitory loop'), provides some clues
quaternities that were superimposed on for neuroscientists to look for detailed
my D3 Enneagram circumplex (I also get supporting evidence and is also consistent
the fifth factor of the five factor model). with system-level brain pathology
E6 gives Smith matter and antimatter (blindsight, tinitus, depression etc).
while I get the two non-Enneagram Implications for artificial intelligence and
circumplexes. E7 and E8 give Smith connectionists are also reviewed. As a
bosonic strings while I get structures that complete model it based on one postulate
map down to the recognizable personality it has no need of 'proto-consciousness',
dimensions. I detail these A-D-E series although it has identified a candidate for an
structures in a December, 2001 paper equivalent, which is an interesting part of
( the model.
Stability as a criterion to detect tachyons.
Metamatter and mind. Colin Hales The matter-mind continuum: Exploring
<> (Versalog the Sankhya Paradigm in Indian
Systems P/L (Private Company)). philosophy. Syamala Hari
This proposal, as a skeptical review of <> (Axis Staffing LLC).
a quantum mechanical basis for Tachyons may not be hypothetical as
consciousness, does away with the need they are often described. They may be
for quantum mechanical explanations by ingredients of thought processes in the
supplying a detailed physical alternative human brain although they violate causality
based on non-quantum physics. Recent or because they do so. If a theory which is
quantum mechanical solutions to the trying to explain thought processes includes
“hard problem” are microscale and space-like states and if further, certain
mostly centered on quantum computing parameters associated with those states are
within the neural cytoskeletal volume. observed repeatedly in experiments, then it
Using the principle of emergent is possible that the space-like states are
phenomena, this new proposal looks indeed stable. They need not be dismissed
outward at a possible physical solution at as nonphysical because they are non-causal
cellular/extra-cellular scales. An all- but may be regarded as evidence of
preconceptions-aside review of the involvement of tachyons in the observed
nature of matter and reality is process. Acausality of tachyons is
undertaken which results in one interpreted by some researchers as the
particular proposed new theorem. That ability to convey information about the
Despite being just a new way of looking future to the objects they interact with.
at existing matter, it delivers surprising Interestingly, it is our experience that a
predictive clarity in brain person’s present actions almost always,
implementation. The process upgrades depend upon the “desire” to be in a certain
the existing computational model for low future state and therefore on the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

information about the future state (unlike physicists (such as John A. Wheeler – “It
any lifeless physical system. So tachyons from bit”). We enter a universe confined by
in the brain might be supplying this a process boundary (as opposed to a
information about the future to brain physical boundary) that may allow a change
cells. of condition or exchange with another
EEG is a known mechanism, which universe having other processes. Feynman
provides data indicating different might agree that this is a process boundary
psychological conditions of a human by virtue of the “Character of Physical
being. Interestingly, a recently developed Law” true for this dimension. The nature of
theory relates EEG frequencies to space- process is expressed by the most
like vacuum states of a Sine-Gordon fundamental law of all – that which is exists
equation (SG) in one dimension. In the does so in terms of what it is not. Our
neighborhood of space-like vacuum dimension as object is in terms of what it is
states, the SG approaches the Klein- not – either other dimensions with different
Gordon equation for tachyons (KGT). This parameters or “nothingness”. Process not
paper points out that the KGT does only is the foundation for binary existence
possess stable but non-causal solutions but also might be considered analogous to
for small input perturbations. Therefore Aristotle’s “substratum” underpinning all of
the observed EEG frequencies associated what we think of as reality (e.g.,
with the tachyonic states indeed Whitehead).
correspond to stable solutions and may be What we can understand,
considered as evidence of the occurence phenomenologically, is bounded by our
of these states in the brain. capacity to measure. Our scientific
understanding relies upon our ability to
Deep change and the origins of time. conceptualize and verify by observation.
Scott Hitchcock But the boundary parameter set by the
<>. character of process determines the
The connection between 'time' and ultimate measurement limit. We may be
consciousness is explored by introduction able some day to discern that smallest
of the concept of a T-computer in the inflection of space-time, thus apprehending
context of neural network information fundamental process. However, now we
processing systems such as those involved paradoxically are forced to discern its
in the brain. The 'problem of time' can be deductive nature by inductive reasoning,
solved by this approach but leaves us thus knowing something probabilistically.
with a deeper 'problem of change'. We may say, then, this indiscernible
This is an extension of my previous abstract is the Real, and what we take to
work at: be real revealed by our “contaminated” (Heisenberg) measurements is abstract. The
Real consists of that which is and the
The most fundamental law of the underpinning of our dimension. The
ontology of consciousness. Jeremy smallest entity, as the smallest inflection of
Horne <> (RhinoCorps, space-time, forms the basis of that which is
Ltd.), Arianne Bahnson-Palmer. constructed and populates our dimension
Philosophers, especially those in (quarks, atoms, molecules, you, me, and
science, attempt to discern the smallest even ideas). Yet, that which is constructed
in terms of an object, such as a may be altered. Whatever is alterable is
subatomic particle. However, the process abstract and “contaminated” by the means
of repeated Cartesian subdivision takes us of constructing it. What is unchangeable is
to a different and binary world. This is a Real, and that Real is process operating on
world seen by philosophers like Hesiod to the dimensional boundary. Indeed,

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

boundary proximity may generate new methodology studying distant healing in

universes (e.g., Hawking, Steinhardt). North America, Brazil and the Mauritius
More broadly put, process is responsible Islands. Here defining the intention will be
for that which is alterable, but Reality analyzed by case studies recorded on film
has its own will that may permeate us outlining a type of consciousness-mediated
(e.g.: Kafatos). While the abstract has its causality connected with positive
locus, Reality governs the limits of our affirmations.
apprehending space-time and its loci.
The nature of this universe underpins Consciousnees and origin of the principles
the philosophy for scientific methods, of quantum theory. Zbigniew Jacyna-
i.e., uniformity, or the “Principle of Onyszkiewicz <>
Induction”. That is, the future resembles (Faculty of Physics, A.Mickiewicz
the past. However, this approach, drawn University).
in large part from philosophers such as A new interpretation of the quantum
William Whewell (1794-1866), is only an theory is proposed, allowing an explanation
assumption. The methodology that of the origins of the theory principles and
discerns the smallest in terms of process its mathematical formalism. In contrast to
may assist in providing a philosophy of the hitherto interpretations it is based on
uniformity, thus clarifying why scientific the objective idealistic ontology in the
methods "work". version proposed by George Berkeley.
According to Berkeley, the universe is only
Distant intentionality on biological a dynamic, correlated and ordered
systems and healing at a distance (DH). sequence of ideas of a certain consiousness,
James Hurtak <> (Academy showing the properties analogous to human
For Future Science). conscionusness, communicated to the set of
The topic of distant healing (DH) or individual human consciousnesses. The
healing intentionality through different image of the universe in Berkeley's ontology
states of consciousness brings some of the is confusing but simple, coherent and
most controversial and central questions consequent. The interpretation proposed
on the meaning of existence to the area explains - in consistence with the relativity
of consciousness studies and the brain. theory - the results of the correlation
Since the research of Andrija Puharich, experiments implying that an unobserved
M.D. and John Fuller in the 1970s the elementary particle does not exist
scientific community has largely ignored objectively (beyond our consiousness) or
the subject or approached it through the that a quantum system makes a non-divisive
perspectives of psychophysiology and unity bound through non-spacetime
psychoimmunology. The increasing interactions. According to this
disenchantment of many Westerners with interpretation both these possibilities occur
prevailing materialist-reductionist simultaneously.
philosophies, coupled with a growing
interest in techniques for improving Can anomalous brain function point to
human life such as using meditation and evidence of quantum amplification?
prayer for healing has meant that many Sheilla Jones <>
thinkers are seeking an understanding of (University of Alberta, Canada).
mind, not as a by-product of bio- The astounding abilities of people who
mechanistic processes, but mind as a exhibit reduced fronto-temporal lobe
product of consciousness itself. activity, in particular prodigious
The subject of distant healing (DH) mathematical savants, currently defy
will be examined through the pioneering classical explanation. This raises the
efforts of Elisabeth Targ, M.D. and recent question of whether such abilities may be

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

real world examples of quantum asymmetric Bivacuum. The influence of HaF

amplification. As a means of identifying of Bivacuum oscillation on matter is a result
abilities as classical or quantum of induced resonance between virtual
computations, a boundary between the pressure waves (VPW) of Bivacuum and [C -
two is proposed, along with a means of W] pulsation of sub-elementary particles
testing this hypothesis if suitable and antiparticles, forming electrons,
candidates can be found. positrons, quarks of three generation (e,
mu, tau). The system [Bivacuum + Matter]
Unified model of bivacuum, wave- has a properties of the active medium,
corpuscle duality, electromagnetism tending to Golden mean conditions under
and gravitation. Nonlocality and HaF influence. The mechanism of quantum
quantum entalgement. Alex Kaivarainen entanglement is proposed also. The
<> (University of Turku). physical nature of electromagnetic and
The Bivacuum model is a consequence gravitational potentials of elementary
of new interpretation of Dirac's theory, particles can be related to non local
pointing to equal probability of positive equilibrium shift of infinitive number of
and negative energy. Unified Model (UM) Bivacuum fermions and Bivacuum
represents our efforts for unification of antifermions, compensating the local
vacuum, matter and fields from few symmetry shift, induced by zero-point
ground postulates. New concept of longitudinal (z) and transversal (x)
Bivacuum is introduced, as a dynamic vibrations of uncompensated sub-
matrix of the Universe, composed from elementary particles, as respect to (y) axe,
non mixing sub-quantum particles of the coinciding with the axe of their rotation,
opposite energies, forming vortical responsible for the rest mass origination.
structures. These structures, named The pace of time for any closed system is
Bivacuum fermions and antifermions, are determined by pace of kinetic energy
presented by infinitive number of double change of this system, related to in-phase
cells-dipoles, each cell containing a pair change of electromagnetic and
of correlated rotors and antirotors: V(+) gravitational fields. The Unified Model is
and V(-)of the opposite quantized energy, confirmed by logical coherence of many of
virtual mass, charge and magnetic its consequences and fairly close evaluated
moments. magnetic moment of the electron and
experimental one. The full text of
The matter in form of sub-elementary corresponding set of papers is on line:
fermions or antifermions is a result of
double cells symmetry shift towards the ainen_A/0/1/0/all/0/1
positive or negative energy,
correspondingly. Their triplets form EEG evidence of neural signal transfer
elementary particles and antiparticles. between distant subjects who have
The [corpuscle (C) - wave (W)] duality is undergone primordial sound meditation
a result of quantum beats between the (PSM) training. Leila Kozak
'actual' and 'complementary' states of <> (Bastyr University
sub-elementary fermions/antifermions. Research Institute), Leila Kozak (MS/Bastyr
The [C] phase exists as a mass, electric University Research Institute), L. Clark
and magnetic asymmetric dipoles. The Johnson (NeuroResearch Services), Todd
[W] phase exists in form of Cumulative Richards (NeuroResearch Services), Heather
virtual cloud (CVC) of sub-quantum King (Bastyr University Research Institute),
particles. It is shown, that Principle of Leanna J. Standish (Bastyr University
least action is a consequence of Research Institute), Marilyn Schlitz
introduced 'Harmonization force (HaF)' of (Institute of Noetic Sciences), David Simon

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

(Chopra Center for Well Being), Deepak he/she was not stimulated. Subjects whose
Chopra (Chopra Center for Well Being). test results reached p values < 0.01 in any
Purpose: The purpose of this study of the three statistical tests were
was to determine whether brain considered to provide evidence of a
activation triggered by a visual stimulus correlated brain signal associated with their
in one subject of a pair could be detected sending partner’s flicker condition.
in the unstimulated member of the pair Results: Results differed on all 3
when subjects were physically and statistical tests. Of the 16 subjects tested,
sensory isolated from each other. 5 subjects showed significantly higher brain
Methods: Simultaneous digitized EEG activation associated to the sender's flicker
were recorded from 8 pairs of healthy condition in the alpha spectrum test (p <
human adult subjects using a 0.01) while 3 of those pairs were able to
"sender/receiver" paradigm. All subjects replicate the results. For the Runs test, 2
had undergone training in Primordial subjects showed significantly higher brain
Sound Meditation (PSM) and followed a activation associated to the sender's flicker
meditation protocol for 30 days previous condition (p < 0.01) and only 1 subject
to the experimental sessions. Pairs were showed significantly higher brain activation
tested in three consecutive visits. Each of associated to the sender's flicker condition
those visits included 2 sessions in which (p < 0.01) for the Amplitude/Variance test.
both members alternated roles as Discussion: These EEG results indicate
"sender" and "receiver." During each that in some pairs of healthy subjects a
session, the sender was presented with a signal can be detected in the brain of a
series of six alternating stimulus-on and physically and sensory isolated member of
stimulus-off conditions. The stimulus-on the pair when the other member is visually
condition consisted of a flickering black stimulated. The fact that correlated
and white checkerboard pattern signals were found by all three statistical
presented at the rate of 1 per second. tests indicates that signal transfer
The stimulus-off condition consisted of a phenomena may not strictly involve the
static checkerboard pattern. Receiver transfer of visual evoked potentials (VEP's).
EEG data collected during the stimulus- Although these data represent a rigorous
off condition were used to construct a demonstration of correlated event related
within-subject control statistic by which potentials between human brains at a
to compare EEG data collected from the distance, further replication is warranted
receiver during the sender’s flicker to assert the nature and extent of these
condition. Data were analyzed using anomalous findings.
three statistical techniques that were
sensitive to three different activation Is quantum improving the consciousness
measurements. An alpha spectrum test problem? Martin Lukac
was used to identify changes in alpha <> (Portland State
power in the receiver's brain that may be University, Portland, Oregon, USA), Marek
correlated to the sender's flickering Perkowski.
condition. A runs test was applied to Recently a new paradigm was brought
compare EEG ‘hits’ in the receiver’s EEG into the consciousness search. This paper
that would correlate to the sender’s explore what is the improvement brought
flicker condition. An amplitude/variance by this paradigm and points out any until
algorithm was applied to determine now known methods to simulate or explore
whether brain activation during the pre- consciousness are ill situated. No the other
selected 80-180 msec interval in the hand quantum theory brought a possibility
receiver was higher when the sender was of physical basis for consciousness more
visually stimulated compared to when than any other previously used paradigm.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

All these points are discussed and Quantitative Electroencephalography.

explained in this paper. Studies show specific QEEG characteristics
of depression and how depressed people
respond to placebo treatment and
Path Integrals, Bohm Theory and a medication treatment -- similar but
model of the brain: A nonlocal, holistic, different response sets. QEEG studies also
and contextual picture. Frank McLafferty exist to document reliable changes when
<> (Long Island shamans enter a state of possession in the
University Brooklyn, N.Y. 11201), Balinese trance possession ceremony. What
Kathleen Loua Bohm. these studies share are brain mechanisms
We consider Triffet and Green's model involving theta rhythm, particularly in the
of the brain. It is designed to mimic EEG frontal cortex. A QEEG measure that
results. We quantize it by the path integrates relative and absolute power,
integral form of Schweber. We consider called cordance, is also involved, especially
the semiclassical limit which is a picture with frontal theta. Cordance is the best
of competing programs in the quantum EEG predictor of cerebral blood flow.
computer analogy. Collective Quantum Concordance refers to a state of brain
jumps are possible and are interpreted as characterized by cordance symmetry. We
changes in perception. We then consider present pilot data showing that the use of
generalized Bohm theory. The picture is an amethyst crystal during a healing
that of a stochastic computer. We then ceremony has demonstratble effects on the
transform to the Wigner form and for the QEEG, with changes in relative power in
pure state formally solve the model. The frontal theta, theta cordance in frontal
result is nonlocal, holistic (the state of lobes, and increases in occipital alpha. We
one neuron depends on all the rest) and suggest that crystals function in a similar
contextual. The model predicts changes manner to homeopathic remedies through
in the EEG if quantum effects are storing information in their molecular
important. structure and transmitting this information
during use. We speculate that this
Effects of amethyst crystals upon QEEG. information transfer represents a non-local,
Lewis Mehl-Madrona quantum process, with QEEG emerging as a
<> (University of potential biofield marker to document the
Arizona Department of Psychology Center interaction of non-local quantum-level
for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science processes with the physical biological
and Program in Integrative Medicine realm.
(Department of Medicine)), Daniel Lewis,
Sabrina Lewis, Iris Bell, Gary Schwartz, Systems science, psychiatry, and non-
Scott Ferrell. locality. Lewis Mehl-Madrona
Since antiquity, crystals have been <> (University of
thought to be healing. In Native America, Arizona Department of Psychology Center
crystals were thought to store healing for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science
energy and then release that energy and Program in Integrative Medicine
when worn or used in healing practices. (Department of Medicine)).
The Cherokee were especially adept at How would psychiatry be practiced in
the use of crystals for healing. Modern quantum mind is real? How would we
science has tended to discount the use of reinterpret common psychiatric
crystals as frivolous, superstitious, or phenomenon in a quantum universe. Could
New Age drivel. Methods now exist, schizophrenia be re-conceptualized as a
however, to document the effect of non-local transfer of information without
crystals upon the brain -- that of the usual filtering mechanisms of ordinary

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

consciousness. Studies exist documenting technical university, Molecular physics

unusual instances of information transfer.
In this presentation, the author proposes An analysis of the processes of
a re-visioning of psychiatric science to information reception, pattern recognition,
match the concept of quantum mind. In and decision making by an information
this re-visioning, the thoughts and intent
system have led to the following
of the treating practitioners are as conclusions:
important as those of the receipient - Learning of an information system is
patient, since we must assume that all impossible, because new (unrecognized)
these factors are immediately available information received by the system is not
to the larger system in which treating valuable, while valuable information (that
physician and patient are both points in a
matches reference samples) is not new,
curved topological space interacting - Conditioned and unconditioned
where fields are defined that allow them reflexes do not differ fundamentally. It is
to do so. Within this conception of impossible to form a nonprogrammed
treatment, we realize that the larger conditioned reflex in an organism. The
systems in which patient and physician organism does not receive new valuable
are embedded and entangled must always information in both cases,
be considered, and that, consistent with - The behavior of man and animals is
chaos theory, subtle interventions, can fully determinate. If a new signal appears
be magnified until systems are moved to in the environment, a priori programs are
far from equilibrium conditions. The started (or not started) in the organism,
transition into healing and the transition - In the presence of noise some
into sickness both represent such far from
programs may fail in the system. In this
equilibrium conditions, with health and case the system will behave itself less
illness serving as attractor basins that adequately. New programs will not appear.
may have large energetic separations. The deterministic model of organisms
Within this framework, we can no longer behavior was proposed. In this model
perform linear science, since small organism described as adaptive automaton.
interventions may have large effects and Possible mechanisms of mind working are
large interventions may dampen the discussed:
system. Likewise, intervention on À) Proteins and other macromolecules
multiple levels may be required to properties (including conformational
achieve a synergy to overcome thresholds changes) are determined by fine tuning of
for energetic activation. The methods of fundamental constants.
quantum physics for measurement and Á) Complex internal structure of an
consideration of measurement devices elementary particle. In this case a particle
may need to be modified to psychiatry to may represent a quantum computer with
serve as a philosophy of measurement many degrees of freedom. If the internal
that includes the persons performing structure of a particle is prepared such that
assessments as part of an entangled internal degrees of freedom are excited
system with the persons or systems being only in the presence of a certain
measured. Implications for further environment, the behavior of this particle
research to document and substantiate will not contradict basic experiments of the
these concepts are discussed. quantum physics and can be described by a
wave function. A Schrödinger equation (or
Quantum consciousness and internal an equivalent expression depending on the
structure of elementary particle. Alexei particle spin) can be written for this
Melkikh <> (Ural state function. The equation will contain the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

particle mass as a whole, the particle to be a third Einsteinian theory or relativity

charge, etc. he calls “vibrational relativity theory
If assigned conditions are fulfilled, (VRT)”. VRT is a scientific theory with
quite certain internal degrees of freedom profound metaphysical implications,
of a particle are excited (this was suggesting an integration of science and
prohibited by selection rules) and the spirituality. VRT suggests a vibrational and
particle starts functioning as a quantum relativistic continuum between the
computer: it recognizes patterns and Newtonian (physical) and the quantum
makes decisions. Excitation of internal (spiritual) universes aligned along the 4-
degrees of freedom may be viewed as a dimensional time axis of a thoroughly 4-
pulsed control of the particle motion, dimensional Kosmos. It supports the
which can only be observed in special epistemology and ontology of the Great
experiments. Chain of Being wherein “matter”, “body”,
In this case the Hamiltonian and the “mind”, “soul”, and “spirit” exist along a
wave function (and, hence, all mean continuum of “vibrational planes”. VRT
values) change in a preset manner during provides a literal science of the soul
a short period of time. After a decision is wherein “mind” does not strictly equate
made, the internal control system cease with brain, but supports a model wherein
functioning and the particle again mind and soul (“psyche”) may be located
behaves itself according to the rules of within the light/energy vibrations within
quantum mechanics for a material point. the 4-dimensional atoms of our bodies
Thus proteins (and other which are in turn anchored within the
macromolecules) cooperative behavior in nondual “quantum realm” (spirit).
the cell might result from the operation Vibrational relativity supports the perennial
of this quantum computer. For example it philosophy, the integral philosophy of the
is possible to control channels opening in contemporary spiritual philosopher Ken
biomembranes of neurons. Wilber, and the teachings of many mystics.
VRT could be an important piece of a grand
"Vibrational Relativity Theory: A third unified field theory of physics integrating
Einsteinian Theory of Relativity which gravitational theory and quantum physics,
integrates science and spirit." Kenneth pointing toward a thoroughly 4-dimensional
Miller, MD spiritual Kosmos as opposed to an
<> essentially 3-dimensional strictly material
(Forum Foundation Seattle, WA). (and reductionistic) “cosmos”. The theory
Is it possible to “spin” in an otherwise provides an explanation for many (if not all)
massless universe? Would you experience “psi” phenomenon not explained by modern
centrifugal forces in such a universe “orthodox” physics. The presenter’s
without an external frame of reference to scientific and philosophical writings on
“spin” relative to? What experiment vibrational relativity theory may be found
could you perform to determine if you at
were spinning? As a physics major in
college with a profound interest in Turning philosophies into hypothesis:
Einsteinian physics and aspirations to Scrutinizing materialism vs. primacy of
become an astrophysicist (before other consciousness using diverse consciousness
interests deterred him into medicine) the studies data sets and quantum mechanics.
presenter formulated this question and Nathan Munn, M.D. <>
pondered it for the next 20 years until, in (Munn Psychiatric Clinic).
an explosive moment of insight, the Looming behind consciousness studies
presenter not only answered his own are tenacious philosophical quagmires. The
question but discovered what he believes author proposes considering two

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

philosophical positions, materialism and

<> (Systems
consciousness as a primary aspect of the
ThinkTank "Internatura"), Mr. Victor
universe, as hypothesis. From this stance,
Tolkachev, Ms. Zlata Dikaya.
diverse areas of consciousness studies areSystem Completion Theory is a
reviewed. Not dismissing data sets on metaphysical system organized around
philosophical grounds, the fields of principle of the quantum supersymmetry.
Neuroscience, Mysticism, Parapsychology
According to Supersymmetry, bosons/waves
and Healing Techniques such as
obey statistical rules permitting any
Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy, Chi
number of identical bosons to occupy the
Kung and Distant Healing are included as
same quantum state, while
initial fields for examination. In three of
fermions/particles obey statistical rules
these data sets, a body of statistically
requiring that not more than one in a set of
significant literature exists. In Mysticism,
identical particles may occupy a particular
common “findings” of mystics across quantum state. Also, it establishes that
cultures and epochs are considered. every boson must have a fermionic
Quantum Mechanics (QM) are used as an counterpart and vice versa. System
explanatory system with which these data
Completion Theory suggests that the
sets may be explained. Principles of QM
Universe as a whole consists of two
such as superposition, nonlocality andcomplimentary parts (Wave and Particle
entanglement are considered, as are functions) represented by bosons and
coherence and decoherence, and the fermions that continuously and
correspondence principle. In this analysis,
supersymmetrically collapse into and
a primacy of consciousness is supported
reproduce each other. Intersecting
by available data. A theory proposing a
convergence of these two parts
position of Primacy for Consciousness ©
supersymmetrically organized in Time,
with aspects of Meaning (m), Perception
Space, Information and Energy gives rise to
(p), and Intention (i) is applied to the
quantum particle wave probability System Completion Theory identifies
function per se and then expanded to Energy, Information, Time and Space as
quantum field and electromagnetic field
four supersymmetrically organized
theories of brain dynamics. The components that characterize both the
emergence of a subjective experience of
Wave and the Particle functions of the
a separate “self”, a phenomena requiring
Universe. These four components cannot
explanation in any theory of
exist separately from each other and there
consciousness, is explained by applying
is a very specific way of their coexistence:
complexity theory and vector analysis to
Space, Time and Information together
©m,p,i states within the brain. Specific
constitute Energy. Therefore, any change in
brain disorders such as Major Depression
either Space, Time or Information of any
and Schizophrenia are also examined object in the Universe, including the
using this theory. The author concludes
Universe itself, will necessarily lead to a
by calling for a rigorous study of change in Energy and vice versa.
consciousness sans pre-conceived
Theory views Human Consciousness as a
philosophical parameters given the direct particle-based holographic reflection
importance of the subject matter and the
of simultaneous processes of collapse of the
intractable nature of the philosophical
Wave function and reproduction of the
arguments. The current theory is a step
Particle function of the Universe.
towards this goal. Properties of Human Consciousness directly
correspond to the current stage of the
System completion theory of Universe evolution characterized by the
consciousness. Anatoly Nichvoloda above two processes. Theory offers a

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

solution to the hard problem of Human ordinates Xk for space and imaginary co-
Consciousness by identifying ordinate X4= iCt for time and consider
Consciousness as the place and the means Lawrence’s transformations…” (W. Pauli.
by which the Wave function of the Works on Quantum Theory. M. “Nauka”,
Universe collapses and gets 1977, see article “About Mathematical
supersymmetrically reproduced into its Matrix Theory Of Dirak”, p. 5, “Lawrence’s
Particle function. In other words, our Transformations of Dirak’s Wave
Consciousness creates the Universe by Functions”, p. 233). The phrase “as usual”
transforming the Wave function into the can be considered here as a kind of a witty
Particle function. intellectual provocation, which means that
Theory also offers a solution to the the above-mentioned procedure can be
easy problems of Consciousness by performed not “as usual”, but in “an
identifying eight Sensory/Function organs unusual way”. But how? It is not difficult to
within a human being. Sensory/Function say: we try to maintain the material co-
organs are the mechanisms that connect ordinate for time and consider 3 spatial co-
Consciousness to the environment and ordinates imaginary. Then Minkowsky’s
form structural organization of the four-dimensional pseudoeuclidean
Consciousness. Each Sensory/Function continuum will transform into some unusual
organ is equipped with its own Bottom- variety, which we shall call “Quaternion
Up/Top-Down information-processing time-space”.
paradigm that forms its own The appearance of the term
neurological/psychological vector. Neural “quaternion” here is evident: it is easier to
networks of each Sensory/Function organ present 4 numbers, expressing co-ordinates
possess distinct information processing (one material, three – imaginary) as
algorithms that correspond to the nature quaternion. But quaternion is algebraic
of the environmental stimuli (light, numbers, and four-dimensional space-time
sound, etc) that each Sensory/Function is continuum. If it is so, are there enough
organ evolved to process. Neural reasoning to make them correspondent? We
networks of all eight Sensory/Function shall try to answer this question later and
organs form a flexible multilevel for the present we shall consider
biochemical marketplace of Conscious, quaternion time-space as some pure logical
Subconscious and Unconscious drafts. construction, which can be seen as a whole
These drafts dynamically reflect an and analyzed in particular. It is also
individual’s environment and compete for important to mention that the term
neural resources (attention, memory, “space” in modern science is not connected
etc) depending on the goals that this any more with distance measuring, and
person pursues in this particular nothing disturbs us to make a four-
environment. dimensional space, where a measure in [t]
is put on the axis. But as time is of physical
Numbers in Space 1. Transformation of character, which reflects the important
four-dimensional space-time into aspect of reality, not formal mathematical
quaternion time-space. 2. Rotation as a qualities of the made-up construction, but
kind of motion, non-reduced to its physical interpretation will be of
rectilinear one. 3. Non-interrupted greatest interest to us in this article.
continuum and varieties of numbers. Thus we have a four-dimensional
Pavel V. Polyan <> variety, where the material axis is pure
(Krasnoyarsk State Univerersity). time, and the rest three ones are spatial
One of the Wolfgang Pauli’s scientific co-ordinates transformed into imaginary
texts begins with a remarkable phrase: temporal axes. While building Minkowsky’s
“Let us introduce, as usual, material co- four-dimensional pseudoeuclidean

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

continuum, all the co-ordinates were divided into 2 “π” – h/2π). I believe that is
measured in [x] as a result of true, that quaternion time-space is a
multiplication of a temporal co-ordinate mathematical expression of the real aspect
and co-efficient C which is velocity of of microphysical reality, where the
light [m/s]. That is why in our quaternion constant S = h/e2 measured in [s/m] is as
time-space a ‘one-measurement’ is important as velocity of light for
achieved in analogical way: Multiplication Minkowsky’s four-dimensional continuum.
of imaginary spatial co-ordinates and
some co-efficient S, measured in [s/m]. Using the Quantum Mind Theory For
One can say that it is ‘the reverse multidimensional visualization. Denis
velocity of light’, but it is not. The Perevalov <> (Ural
reverse velocity of light 1/c, as real State University).
physical quantity cannot be an unknown The classical psychological theory
co-efficient, while the scale of reverse claims that human brain cannot directly
velocities is irregular. In classical notion perceive geometrical objects of four and
velocity is a ratio, where the numerator more dimensions because our eyes deal
is the distance segment, and the with 3D structures only.
denominator is time period, time as Using the quantum mind theory, it
independent variable quantity. Then seems possible to create techniques for
dealing with ‘reverse velocity’, where the loading high-multidimensional objects into
numerator and the denominator exchange the brain. In work we study this possibility.
their places, there appears not only new, Within the quantum mind theory, one
but also irregular measuring scale: 1[m/s] can imagine the process of visual
= 1[s/m], 2[m/s] = 1/2 [s/m], 3 [m/s] = perception like the hyperparallel processing
1/3 [s/m], 4 [m/s] = 1/4 [s/m], etc. It on huge array of the visual images. The
seems that due to this reason quaternion array is constructing during the perception
time-space cannot be analogue of the phase inside the brain. The hypothesis:
four-dimensional continuum. But it easy under special conditions, its possible to
to find the way out, if we do not consider replace inner array to a set of images which
S to be ‘reverse velocity’, but some co- we want. And more, the brain can process
efficient measured in [s/m]. it and extract necessary information.
Let us turn from mathematics to What happens if we push there the set
physics. If co-efficient C in Minkowsky’s of images which consists of the two-
pseudoeuclidean continuum is a concrete dimensional slices of given object, lying in
physical quantity – velocity of light, n-dimensional euclidean space?
which has in different measurement- We believe that the brain will process it
system concrete numerical realization, in and extract geometrical informantion like
our quaternion time-space co-efficient S connectedness, convexity, curvature,
must be some physical constant quantity, existence of holes in the object.
different in itself from velocity of light, Its unknown, can the brain fuse slices
but having a measurement [s/m]- a into whole model of object, or just check
reverse one to the measurement of some slices for getting answer. But we can
velocity. We can offer a combination of prove, the set of slices is sufficient for
constant h/e2 to suit this new constant, both.
where h is Plank’s constant, and e is the How one can push huge set of images
charge of an electron. It is well known into the brain? Obviously, special
that this combination as well as C is techniques of visualization is needed.
included in the expression of the non- We had developed computer system for
measured constant of thin structure 1/• = slices visualization. The system use speed,
•C/e2 = 137. 0306… (• is Plank’s constant noncontinuous rendering and stroboscope

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

effect for showing all the object's slices or conditions from which universe(s) is
in short time. emerged.
Unfortunately, no positive results As energy is is separated into different
about "hyperperception" were obtained time lines, total energy is equal to no. of
yet. time frames,which will be decreased to
Despite negative results, the mentioned only one the moment collective
ideas seem well promised. consciousness satisfies the conditions at the
If our ideas will be realized, the creation of universe (s).An ever expanding
system of multidimensional visualization universe is the only solution for this.Thus
will help to the topologists to see indicating consciousness as physical
threedimensional manifolds (which benchmark.
mainly did not realizable in 3D space) and
to solve famous Poincare's conjecture. The map of the mind. Bill Potter
And of course this will give additional <> (Australian Centre
scores to the quantum mind theory. for Consciousness).
The Map of The Mind is an integrative
References model of consciousness which provides
1. S. Hameroff, Quantum computation in insights into the concepts of self and
brain microtubules? The Penrose- physical and psychical awareness. The
Hameroff "Orch OR" model of relational axes of the map are space, time,
consciousness. Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. reason and emotion, the primary ordering
London (A) 356:1869-1896 (1998). principles of conscious experience. The self
and the brain are at the origin of these
2. D.S. Perevalov, P.A. Vasev, On axes, the ground reference point for
Development of Methods of individual consciousness.
Multidimensional Visualization. Proc. of The region between the space and time
12-th Int. Conf. on Comp. Graphics axes represents physical awareness, the
"GraphiCon" Nizhny Novogorod 431-437 extrinsic aspect of consciousness and that
(2002). between reason and emotion represents
psychical awareness, the intrinsic aspect of
consciousness. The concepts of these
Time is energy where consciousness is regions grow out of our extrinsic and
regarded as physical benchmark. intrinsic perception respectively. Those
Amarjeeth Pinnamaneni furtherest from the self are the most theory
<> (Andhra laden and most removed from our
University, Visakhapatnam, India). immediate perception.
Matter which has a tendency to reach Thus the notion of an object is that
lowest energy levels is governed by laws which has only spatial extension and of an
of particular time frame.consciousness event that which has only temporal
has the capacity to transcend through extension. However the theory laden
different time frames. Because energy concepts of particle and wave are viewed in
transfers from high energy level to low Quantum Physics as complementary aspects
energy level we have to select more of physical phenomena, and space and time
energy time line.This selection by are viewed as a unified manifold in
consciousness itself makes low energy Relativity Theory.
lines to move in the same direction of our Similarly facts are considered to have
line.This can be easily done by collective only rational significance and values are
Consciousness with much discretion.So considered to have only emotional
we have to move to be governed by laws significance. However research in
Neurophysiology and Anthropology is

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

showing that thought and feeling are describes the basic rules according to which
complementary aspects of psychical the universe functions then it must apply to
phenomena and reason and emotion the mind as well, as long as we consider the
constitute a unified framework in latter a part of the universe. Thinking
Information Theory. historically, the Schroedinger equation is a
The map reveals further insights into product of the mind, not vice versa. On the
the nature of consciousness. For other hand, the mind cannot reveal its own
example, the focus of the left hand blueprint, because, if it could, it would be
region of the map is static and causal to itself, which is impossible, as long
characterized by structure. The focus of as we adhere to our traditional concept of
the right hand region is dynamic and causality, which is the only one we have.
characterized by process. The congruence Thus, the Schroedinger equation does not
and resonance between the upper and causally apply to the mind, although it does
lower halves of the map suggest a apply to the universe, or the functioning of
transformal relationship between the the mind.
intrinsic and extrinsic. What follows is that the concepts and
This transformal relationship is algorithms of QM describe the mind,
clearly evidenced in the concepts of neither the brain nor physics - or, at least
entropy and information which were not necessarily so - where "describe" has to
initially developed independently in be understood as the process of attaching
physical and psychical contexts the best attribute possible to phenomenal
respectively. Subsequently, their reality. The process of attributing, and the
mathematical definitions were shown to forms of the attributes, i.e. the natural
be identical save for a change of sign. laws and constants, describe the mind, not
The ontological status of energy in Nature. Therefore a functional paradigm is
scientific theory provides the conceptual needed that by itself comprises this
basis for explaining this relationship functioning. It is to be valued by its
between the intrinsic and the extrinsic. capability to explain and predict the
Energy is the link between the matter of attributes or parameters the mind has
physical awareness and the substance of tagged or will be tagging Nature with. The
psychical awareness. Hence The Map of "deepest" or "highest" achievements or
The Mind supports the view that a theory insights the mind has accomplished need to
unifying the psychical and the physical is be part of the model. Therefore, the issue
possible with the concepts of energy and of creating this paradigm is equivalent to
information playing central explanatory integrating the Schroedinger equation as
roles. the highest achievement the mind has
mustered so far into one. Not before we
Modelling cognition using Schroedinger's succeed in building a paradigm of cognition
cat. Walter Ratjen <wratjen@uni- that functionally integrates the> (University of Bremen, Schroedinger equation can we maintain to
Germany). have reached the status of the scientific
Two interpretations compete as to study of the mind.
the philosophy of QM, namely, whether to The paradigm used by this author to get
take Psi to be an algorithm that has this accomplished is the one of the
proven to hold sway under any condition Schroedinger Cat as revised by Roger
of empirical testing, and nothing more, Penrose (in "Shadows", 1994). That
or, in addition, to describe physical paradigm of a Hermetic space that permits
reality. for uncertainty but excludes error is used to
What does this imply for the study of describe cognition mathematically,
the mind? If the Schroedinger equation integrating the Schroedinger equation

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

functionally, and applying this paradigm processing network, which would decide on
to cognition instead of physics. the resultant action of the cell.
This approach is a synopsis of the My future research will aim to create a
theories of Reinhard Olivier (Bonn, model of cytoskeletal information
Germany, Dept. of Mathematics), Roger processing based on the structure of the
Penrose, and Otto E. Rossler (Tubingen, paramecium. In order to focus on the
Germany, Dept. of Theoretical development of cytoskeletal functioning,
Chemistry), all three of which refer to the simulation of overall cell functionality
gravity as their cornerstone, although in would require significant simplification.
different ways. The synopsis is This would entail omission of some or all of
accomplished by transforming Penrose's the following functionality, which might be
Cat into a virtual reality. If the latter is considered to be non-critical to the
found to correctly predict cognition, processing system: respiration, metabolism,
provided a mathematical form of gravity growth and genetic inheritance. The
is inherent in the form it was constructed existence of such cell characteristics could
by, then we can say to have discovered still be implied in the model, but would not
this very form, and, by the way, to have be simulated to any great level of detail.
eliminated time, or evolution, from the Ideally, the completed work would be a
progress of science. virtual adult paramecium cell that would
respond to pseudo-infrared stimulation, and
Paramecium-based cytoskeletal potentially other forms of stimulation, in a
information processing model. Barry virtual environment. The primary goal,
Ridge <> (Nous Research), however, is to successfully emulate
Sean O Nuallain. microtubule processing of generic
The paramecium, the most complex stimulation which would form the basis for
of all protists, has long been observed to modeling of the entire cell. Major
exhibit intelligent behavior. Using the considerations for subsequent development
cilia on the surface of it’s body to would include cell motility, mitosis,
maneuver, it searches for food, it reproduction and adherence to realistic
sexually reproduces, it avoids obstacles physical laws.
and it fires tiny darts at enemies, all In such a model, given the nature of
without the benefit of a nervous system. present resources, it will not be feasible to
However, like all eukaryotes, it does extend past the tubulin detail level, but it
contain a cytoskeletal network which is hoped that this will not be to the
many believe to be the key to it’s curious detriment of the overall goals.
behavior. It has been hypothesized that a If successful, the academic
pair of centrioles in the centrisome of ramifications of this project would be two-
protists such as the paramecium may act fold. Firstly, neural models would be shown
as a cellular ‘eye’, by which the organism to be non-essential and potentially
would recognise infrared pulses from redundant in the development of non-
other protists. These pulses, which are symbolic artificial intelligence. Secondly, it
thought to be generated by mitochondria, would further ratify the Orch-OR model of
would be picked up by the two centrioles, quantum consciousness by showing that
which would use both their shape and microtubules can indeed be used to process
relative positions, as well as the blind- information, albeit without the quantum
like nature of their bunched microtubules element. The project will be developed
to isolate the direction and possibly the with extensibility in mind. The possibility of
distance of the signals. These signals linking such software to future quantum
would subsequently be relayed to the computers is a long-term, esoteric
proposed cytoskeletal information-

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

objective, but certainly one worthy of brain’s dynamics, where perception is

consideration. closer to each developing oscillation, we
have another, perhaps more vibrant quality
Subject, object and time. Stephen of red. But equally, scale implies extent.
Robbins The extent of the past specified for the
<> heron-like fly is far less than in the
(Metavante Corp.) “buzzing” fly. Supporting perception of
Bergson’s framework for a theory of these (past) extents, without invoking a
consciousness, laid out in 1896 in "Matter memory that attempts to store “instants”
and Memory," anticipated the fall of or states of this field, is the non-
classical mechanics, the birth of quantum differentiable motion of the universal field.
wave mechanics (Gunter, 1969), and The mechanical essence of Bergson’s
aspects of a holographic theory. Within model, in modern terms, is to conceive of
it, he employed a model of the the brain as a reconstructive wave within a
relationship of mind to time yet to be holographic field (Robbins, 2002). This
grasped, a relation summed in his brain-supported wave is specific to the
statement: "Questions relating to subject past, i.e., to a composite of past "states" of
and object, to their distinction and their the field taken at a certain scale of time –
union, must be put in terms of time the “buzzing” fly, or the “heron-like” fly. It
rather than of space" (1896/1912, p. 77). is simultaneously a specification of the
This principle has been a missing key in subset of the field relatable to the body’s
discussions of consciousness, holography action. The information modulating this
and the implications of modern physics. brain-supported reconstructive wave can be
At the base of this principle was a taken to be the invariance laws defining
critique of "abstract" space and time, a events described by Gibson (1979),
conceptual framework originating in required, as in the physical theory, by the
perception and the “objects” upon which fact that the brain’s dynamics, in defining
it can act. It would lead Bergson to insist scale, determines variable space-time
that motion must be treated as partitions on the field. There is no
indivisible, or in the terms of Feynman homunculus in this model viewing a
(1965) and Nottale (1996) – non- projected wave front (or image). Body and
differentiable. The “motions” of field are undifferentiated at the null scale.
“objects” now become changes or Rather, the wave is specific to a time-
transferences of state within a scaled subset or form of the elementary
dynamically changing, and ultimately perception defined over the entire field.
holographic, whole. Implicit in this field, This is the essence of Bergson’s
due to its indivisible motion and framework. Within it is a radically different
holographic properties, when taken at model of memory, for perception is not
the null scale of time, is an elementary occurring solely within the brain. Also
form of perception. within is an intrinsic relativity principle,
The hierarchical dynamics of the and many other implications yet to be
brain imposes the scale of time on this explored.
field. Scale implies quality. The
“buzzing” fly of our normal scale is a References
certain quality; a heron-like fly, barely Feynman, R. P. & Hibbs, A. R. (1965).
flapping his wings, is another quality. The Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals.
color red, a proportion over trillions of New York: MacGraw-Hill.
oscillations of a field for but a second, is Gibson, J. J. (1979) The Ecological
a certain quality. At a higher degree of Approach to Visual Perception. Boston:
the velocity of processes underlying the Houghton-Mifflin.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Gunter, P. A. Y. (1969). Bergson and the input or to assemble thoughts by stringing

Evolution of Physics. University of together correlated memories from
Tennessee Press. anywhere in the brain.
Nottale, L. (1996). Scale relativity and Is the above brain binding? Or, at
fractal space-time: applications to minimum, is it an essential element of it? If
quantum physics, cosmology and chaotic it is, then into-the-bargain one can almost
systems. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 7, catch glimpses of: the "neural correlates of
877-938. consciousness" (Crick and Koch 1990); the
"global workspace" (Baars 1988); the
Does the brain produce binding by "Neural Global Workspace" (Newman and
combining a correlated redundant Baars 1993); the generation of instinct and
neural network with a speed-of-light human nature (The question that begs itself
neural network? David Saunders is: if there are two correlated memories at
<>. every synapse, then what in the brain
If the synaptic architecture of the establishes these memory correlations and
classical neural network is altered slightly upon what values and priorities is this
so that there are two discrete, correlated process based?); the replacement of
memories at every synapse, one of these neurons, no memory lost; dreaming; the
memories being redundant from a push-pull ontogenetic and evolutionary
preceding synapse, and then such a development of the brain; the ability of the
correlated redundant neural network is brain to recover or cope with some success
combined with a simultaneously after suffering trauma or lesions; the
functioning speed-of-light neural reason for some pathologies; ... and much
network, a rather straight forward more.
solution to the brain binding problem
suggests itself. The manner in which the Is there space for non-locality in a causal
above architecture would function is that world? Stefan Schmidt <sschmidt@ukl.uni-
when a synapse fires, both memories at> (Institute of Environmental
that synapse are flashed across the brain Medicine University Hospital Freiburg).
at the speed-of-light. The only places Until Einstein's, Podolosky's, and Rosen's
where either memory will interact is paper on non-local correlations in 1935 and
when they encounter themselves at a the empirical proof of these correlations in
synapse in some other brain center where the early eighties causality was the only
of course each memory will be paired principle to describe change within nature.
with a different correlated memory (the In a materialistic and mechanical world
nature of these correlations will be view the notion of causality leads to the
determined by the main function of these principle of locality. Any change in nature
other brain centers such as vision, is brought about by local impact of material
hearing, faces, experiences, etc.). The parts; that is Aristotle's efficient causality.
interaction of a memory with itself in the The introduction of the speed of light as a
various other brain centers triggers a maximum speed for these local impacts
process that leads to the firing of a assigned precise limits to the notion of
synapse there and the resultant flashing locality.
of that same memory back across the Causality is the ubiquitous principle for
brain to interact with itself at, among any description of our world. Even
other places, the original synapse causing experiments on non-local correlations or
it to refire. And then the whole sequence non-deterministic quantum events have
starts over again. Such an architecture their hypotheses formulated in terms of
and function would in a very fast parallel cause and event. The introduction of non-
manner allow the brain to process sensory locality has limited causality to only one of

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

at least two principles to describe change expressed between biological systems as

in nature but nevertheless it is biofield entanglement, may be inferred
completely predominant in our scientific from behavioral measurements of bioenergy
and also daily approaches to the world. detection as a function of bioenergy
Many examples show that humans tend to awareness training and individual
see causal connections even if there are differences in conscious “absorption.”
none. This predominance of causality in Twenty-seven subjects between 36 and 66
the world we experience has several years old received a five day intensive
reasons that will be outlined: (i) Our bioenergy healing training course with
perception of ourselves as subjects with Roslyn Bruyere, a distinguished biofield
free will. As such we have intentions that therapist. Fifty-six percent of the subjects
lead to actions in the world, letting us were physicians in the Associate Fellowship
experience a causal relationship. This Program of the Program in Integrative
experience can be traced back to its (ii) Medicine at the University of Arizona’s
phylogenetic and (iii) ontogenetic origin. College of Medicine. The remaining
Examples from the process of subjects were nurses, psychologists, and
evolutionary selection and development other health-care professionals. Subjects
psychology are illustrating these origins. were pre and post tested on a variety of
On the basis of this analysis the subjective (questionnaires, including
notion of a non-local correlation will be Tellegen’s Absportion Scale), behavioral
revisited. Until today there is no proof for (e.g. bioenergy detection), physiological,
any macroscopic non-local correlation. and biofield measurements (e.g. high
But some experimental approaches are frequency X ray and gamma ray recordings).
indicating that findings in parapsychology The bioenergy detection task required that
can be linked to the notion of non-local the “receivers” sit blindfolded with their
correlation. Thus the principle of non- hands resting on their legs and with their
local correlation might not only be of palms facing upwards. The “senders” sat
scientific importance but also for the facing the receivers. Written sheets
world we experience. The possibilities informed the senders on each trial whether
and limits of this development beyond they were take their dominant hand and
mere speculation and vague holistic place it a few inches above the receivers’
thinking are outlined. left hand or right hand. The trial length was
30 seconds; the inter-trial interval was
Bioenergy detection and biofield approximately 90 seconds. At the end of
entanglement: The role of awareness each trial, the senders were to say “left” or
training and individual differences in “right.” There were twenty-four trials,
absorption. Gary Schwartz twelve left-and twelve-right. They were
<> (Center for structured in blocks of four trials (two left
Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, The and two right, order randomized from block
University of Arizona), Summer Swanick, to block). All subjects served as both
Willow Sibert, Daniel Lewis II, Sabrina receivers and senders. Chance detection,
Lewis, Lonnie Nelson, Shamini Jain, by definition, was 50%. We hypothesized
Laurel Mallory, Linda Foust, Kay Moore, that bioenergy detection would increase
Deboray Tussing, Iris R. Bell. following bioenergy awareness training,
Can quantum particles such as especially in those subjects who scored high
photons and electrons become entangled on Tellegen’s Absorption Scale (a self-
through conscious intention and training? report measure of conscious immersion in
The present experiment provides sensory, cognitive, and emotional
observations consistent with the experience). A repeated measures analysis
hypothesis that quantum entanglement, of variance revealed a significant increase

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

in percent bioenergy detection from pre is constituted by the relationship between

test to post test (F=4.4247, p<.05). The an object and a mind by virtue of a sign. A
group average percent detection sign is both affected by the object and is
increased from 52% to 55.5%. There were capable of affecting the mind thus
substantial individual differences in producing an effect (or meaning) called by
degree of detection increase; as Peirce the interpretant of the sign. The
prediction, greater increases in energy object to which a sign >refers may not have
detection was found to be correlated a solely physical existence, but may be a
significantly with higher absorption scores thought, a dream, or altogether "fictive",
(r = .421, p<.05). The question arises, are virtual and imaginary, yet meaningful,
these bioenergy detection effects entity by virtue of its possible effects. The
mediated by a quantum biofield formal, albeit vague, rule of abduction,
entanglement process? Future research enable mind to reason from the premise to
measuring biophotons between senders the conclusion thereby breaking the dyadic
and receivers has the potential to causal influence. The interference of a
examine this hypothesis. Supported in quasi-cause constitutes the tradic nature of
part by NIH P20 AT00774-01. signs-relations and extends the narrow idea
of causality, as has been asserted first in
Probability and a five-dimensional 1952 by W. Pauli who posited the so-called
model of experience. Amanda Seipel "acausal connection principle" in
<> (University of collaboration with Jung.
Texas at Arlington). 2. The mental world in Penrose's
Is it easier to understand human scheme thereby (and in accord with Jung-
experience when one uses a model of Pauli synchronicity principle) is capable of
reality with probability as a fifth both projection and introjection. It is
dimension? When the uncollapsed state of possible to juxtapose a semiotic triadic
matter is considered as a fifth dimension relation between object-sign-interpretant
of reality, many aspects of human onto the "three worlds" in Penrose's diagram
cognition take on a new role in defining thereby "objectifying" the subjective world
experience, and the mechanism of the of the mind. As Peirce was saying, it is not
observer can finally be understood. This consciousness that is in us: rather we
presentation will suggest ways in which ourselves are in the field of consciousness.
neurological and psychological constructs "Mind" therefore acquires a status of
facilitate movement of the observer "objective psyche", as Jung called it. So
through a reality where spacetime is tied first and foremost--and prior to appearing
to the quantum duality of matter. as mental representations in consciousness
-- the objective mind (the collective, that
The triadic mind. Inna Semetsky is impersonal, unconscious that perhaps
<> (Columbia constitutes the "Platonic world" in Penrose's
University). scheme) presents itself via signs, or
1.As a point of departure, this paper potential tendencies that, DESPITE BEING
addresses a relationship between "three OUT OF SUBJECTIVE CONSCIOUS
worlds" as posited by Rodger Penrose. AWARENESS, nevertheless possess an
The paper asserts that there is nothing ontologocial status as patterns of
mysterious in such a triadic relationship-- UNCONSCIOUS HABITS (similar perhaps to
especially if one adopts a model of triadic Whitehead's occasions capable of
semiotics as derived from the philosophy prehensions).
of American pragmatist Charles Sanders 3. To concluse my paper I will present a
Peirce. According to Peirce, semiosis -- or triadic vectorial model of the action of
the action of signs in mind and nature -- abduction, which is, for Peirce, an

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

unconscious inference (quite a us of the situation in quantum physics.

contradiction in terms, isn't it?). This Although, in the present case, we can be
model again may be superposed onto concerned only with more or less fitting
Penrose's scheme in order to demonstrate analogies, yet we can hardly escape the
the absence of mystery in such a triadic conviction that in the facts which are
relationship. The purpose of the model is revealed to us by the quantum theory and
to show how the unconscious becomes lie outside the domain of our ordinary
available to consciousness. We earlier forms of perception we have acquired a
posited the action of signs as means of elucidating general philosophical
encompassing the realm of the imaginal. I problems. This allows us to use the
am going to use a vector-field comprising complementary mode of description in the
imaginary and real numbers and to development and clarification of quantum
construct a model of consciousness on a approaches to understanding the mind.
complex plane. Consciousness by Next we try to show how consideration of
definition always already includes the the kind can help us to explain the
unconscious in itself. Due to the enigmatic features of consciousness. Our
projective and reciprocal function of starting-point is that any observation of
Peircean abduction the meaningful atomic phenomena will involve an
relation between the unconscious and interaction with the agency of observation
consciousness is established. Such indeed not to be neglected. Finally, we discuss
was the task of Jung's depth psychology briefly the old truth that we are both
that aimed towards integration of onlookers and actors in the great drama of
unconscious contents into conscious existence.
mind. I will address the possible ways of
integration in brief for the purpose of Anomalies and constraints - Psi within
practical application of this model. known physics? Richard Shoup
<> (Boundary
Consciousness and complementarity. Institute).
Mikhail Shatnev <> We consider the unnecessarily
(Institute for Theoretical Physics,antagonistic relationship between
National Scientific Center " Kharkov anomalies such as psychic phenomena
Institute of Physics and Technology", (‘Psi’) and theoretical physics.
Kharkov, Ukraine ). Characteristics of Psi are discussed with
Following Niels Bohr, we first consider possible explanation and mechanism in
the observational problem in quantum terms of a new view of quantum physics. A
mechanics and the notion ofhypothetical Psi experiment is used to
complementarity. Such consideration not explore the behavior of random processes
only aim at making us familiar with the where constraints are present, some of
situation in physical science, but might which may be due to future interactions. A
on account of the comparatively simple simple rotation of the experiment diagram
character of atomic problems be helpful suggests nonlocality phenomena in quantum
in clarifying the conditions for objective physics. A revision of our thinking about the
description in wider fields. Then we concepts of time, causality, and
discuss the complementary approach to randomness are argued as key to a deeper
problems of biology, sociology, and understanding of Psi and of the quantum
psychology in more detail. In general realm in general.
philosophical perspective, it is very
important that, as regards analysis and Consciousness based solutions to
synthesis in these fields of knowledge, we mysteries and paradoxes of quantum
are confronted with situations reminding

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

mechanics. Avtar Singh the GNM, which shows that the widely
<>. accepted and tested classical formulation
The observed spontaneity or of gravity can also explain the observed
consciousness in nature, specifically the gravitational effects at or below quantum
spontaneous decay of particles, has been scales.
mathematically described in this work to
formulate a Gravity Nullification model Spiritual consciousness: Causality and
(GNM) that integrates a Modified Theory reality. Paul Skinner
of Relativity, spontaneity that allows <> (University of
transformation of mass, energy, space Arizona).
and time to satisfy the laws of Apparently the Quantum Wave Collapse
conservation and classical gravity into emerges from fundamental (quantum) mind
one simple model. Gravity Nullification and consciousness, and probability, via
Model (GNM) provides the missing physics "mind and matter" through observation and
in the theory of relativity to explain the measurement. Such a "collapse" presumably
fundamental relationship between space, precedes matter and brain to establish an
time, mass and energy. Some "observer created reality." Is this science or
fundamental assumptions in the is it magic? Is this reality or is it illusion?
Einstein’s specific theory of relativity are Critical examination of this process reveals
reinterpreted or modified to provide that observation and measurement may
answers or explanation to existing actually "collapse" the Q Wave into illusions
paradoxes of science including classical rather than reality. This conclusion can be
physics, quantum mechanics and tested directly and verified experientially.
cosmology. Using this model a Thus one may ask, "Is locality or non-
mathematical relationship is derived locality reality?" Which is illusion? Which is
relating the wavelength of a particle reality?
mass and velocity as a substitute for the
famous de Broglie equation. Observed EEG evidence of neural signal transfer
non-locality and effective speed of light between distant subjects who have
are explained using GNM. undergone primordial sound meditation
A physical understanding of the inner (PSM) training. Leanna Standish.
workings of Quantum Mechanics is <> (Bastyr University
developed using GNM. The Heisenberg’s Research Institute), Leila Kozak, (Bastyr
uncertainty is revisited and reformulated University Research Institute), L. Clark
using relativistic formulations of the Johnson, (NeuroResearch Services), Todd
GNM. Paradoxes of quantum mechanics Richards, (NeuroResearch Services),
such as the observer paradox (the Heather King, (Bastyr University Research
collapse of the wave-function, non- Institute), Marilyn Schlitz, (Institute of
locality, quantum entanglement, Noetic Sciences), David Simon, (Chopra
formation and behavior of Bose-Einstein Center for Well Being), Deepak Chopra,
condensates, particle spin etc. are (Chopra Center for Well Being).
explained using the GNM physical models. Purpose: The purpose of this study was
The theory of parallel universes widely to determine whether brain activation
accepted by scientists to explain the triggered by a visual stimulus in one subject
inner workings of quantum mechanics is of a pair could be detected in the
explained in terms of the relativistic unstimulated member of the pair when
parameters within the framework of the subjects were physically and sensory
GNM. isolated from each other.
Effects of gravity at quantum and Methods: Simultaneous digitized EEG
classical scales have been evaluated using were recorded from 8 pairs of healthy

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

human adult subjects using a spectrum test (p < 0.01) while 3 of those
"sender/receiver" paradigm. All subjects pairs were able to replicate the results. For
had undergone training in Primordial the Runs test, 2 subjects showed
Sound Meditation (PSM) and followed a significantly higher brain activation
meditation protocol for 30 days previous associated to the sender's flicker condition
to the experimental sessions. Pairs were (p < 0.01) and only 1 subject showed
tested in three consecutive visits. Each of significantly higher brain activation
those visits included 2 sessions in which associated to the sender's flicker condition
both members alternated roles as (p < 0.01) for the Amplitude/Variance test.
"sender" and "receiver." During each Discussion: These EEG results indicate
session, the sender was presented with a that in some pairs of healthy subjects a
series of six alternating stimulus-on and signal can be detected in the brain of a
stimulus-off conditions. The stimulus-on physically and sensory isolated member of
condition consisted of a flickering black the pair when the other member is visually
and white checkerboard pattern stimulated. The fact that correlated signals
presented at the rate of 1 per second. were found by all three statistical tests
The stimulus-off condition consisted of a indicates that signal transfer phenomena
static checkerboard pattern. Receiver may not strictly involve the transfer of
EEG data collected during the stimulus- visual evoked potentials (VEP's). Although
off condition were used to construct a these data represent a rigorous
within-subject control statistic by which demonstration of correlated event related
to compare EEG data collected from the potentials between human brains at a
receiver during the sender?s flicker distance, further replication is warranted
condition. Data were analyzed using to assert the nature and extent of these
three statistical techniques that were anomalous findings.
sensitive to three different activation
measurements. An alpha spectrum test Consciousness and the Measurement
was used to identify changes in alpha Problem of Quantum Mechanics. Michael
power in the receiver's brain that may be Steiner <> (11911
correlated to the sender's flickering Gordon Ave., Beltsville MD).
condition. A runs test was applied to The interaction of two independent
compare EEG “hits” in the receiver’s EEG quantum systems A and B is treated
that would correlate to the sender’s quantum mechanically in terms of
flicker condition. An amplitude/variance Schrödinger's equation. We assume that A is
algorithm was applied to determine a large system of particles and that B is
whether brain activation during the pre- composed of a single particle or is
selected 80-180 msec interval in the otherwise small. The interaction is then
receiver was higher when the sender was considered with regard to conscious
visually stimulated compared to when physical processes. When it is assumed that
he/she was not stimulated. Subjects system A is a conscious process and
whose test results reached p values < becomes aware of system B through an
0.01 in any of the three statistical tests interaction, it is proven that the mechanics
were considered to provide evidence of a that govern the interaction cannot
correlated brain signal associated with generally have occurred according to
their sending partner’s flicker condition. Schrödinger's equation and hence a
Results: Results differed on all 3 different process must be involved.
statistical tests. Of the 16 subjects Furthermore it is rigorously shown that
tested, 5 subjects showed significantly under fairly general conditions, systems of
higher brain activation associated to the particles that interact in agreement with
sender's flicker condition in the alpha Schrödinger's equation cannot be conscious.

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

This effectively rules out single particle activities of the brain are registered and
quantum systems exhibiting substantial measured by EEG-spectralanalysis: the
consciousness. Consciousness apparently frequencies of EEG-signals from different
is at least a mesoscopic multi-particle locations were analysed by fast-Fourier-
phenomenon. Moreover, it is shown that transformation (FFT) separating their
consciousness either 1) contains a partial portions and presented as a
particular property or 2) is precisely that chronospectrogram. Thus very high time-
property, which is responsible for the related resolution is attained providing
measurement process. It is conjectured informations about subconscious emotions
that consciousness contains a particular and reactions.
property as opposed to being that In this CAVE 7 healthy persons have
property. That is, consciousness is been monitored by EEG-spectralanalysis for
symptomatic of the property. The evaluation of psychic effects of virtual 3D
particular property of matter that may be geometric structures on the brain. The
responsible for the measurement process, chosen structure was a mathematically
and for which conscious systems contain constructed pyramid, consisting of small
this property, is discussed. light lines in front of a black background.
Height and location of pyramid was
Virtual reality causing EEG-alterations. changed by the software giving the
Hendrik Treugut <> impression of movement relative to the
(Deutsche Gesellschaft für Energetische pyramid within the CAVE. We chose a
und Informationsmedizin e.V. energy pyramid about 6 meter high and movements
medicine (DGEIM), G.Haffelder (Institut up and down, ahead and back. The person
für Kommunikation u. Gehirnforschung, was seated in the middle of the CAVE,
Stuttgart), A. Roessler (ICIDO GmbH, connected to the EEG, the eyes completely
Stuttgart). covred by a mask and the pyramid moved.
A combination of a special type of The setting in the CAVE was monitored
EEG (EEG-spectralanalysis) and CAVE, a from outside.
special type of VR was used looking for There were significant alterations in the
possible interactions between mind and EEG synchronous to the movement of the
virtual reality (VR). pyramid: while there was normal brain
The Competence Center Virtual activity during steady movement a specific
Reality at the Fraunhofer Institute for pattern appeared when the direction of the
Industrial Engineering (IAO) in movement was changed or when it started
Stuttgart/Germany has created a or stopped. Similar alterations showed up in
combination of hard- and software for a another very specific situation: when the
3D visualisation system to be used as a 3D head of the person penetrates the virtual
workplace (CAVE). The core of the 3D surface of the pyramid.
visualisation is a virtual reality-software EEG alterations consisted of very short
system which combines the relevant data interruptions of normal brain activity
with projection and interaction devices bihemispherically and the appearance of a
to a real time application. Digital mock- new pattern during a few milliseconds
ups and processes present clear and vivid (attention syndrome) with total decrease of
in a quasi holographic quality, thus alpha-activity, partial decrease of delta-
avoiding the disadvantages of these activity and localized increase of specific
systems, the lack of an object, and frequencies in the theta-segment.
enable interactive and stereoscopic The observations demonstrate the
presentation. ability of human brain to perceive events in
In the Institut für Kommunikation und a surrounding virtual reality without using
Gehirnforschung in Stuttgart/Germany physiological senses of the body. The

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

mathematical-mental constructions of and sevoflurane have been used to suppress

the VR seem to exist at a lower level of intra-cellular motility. Long-term delayed
“reality”, but within perception faculty photon storage can be related to
of human brain. So the central intracellular motility.
observation of this study implies, that Spontaneous photon emission has been
virtual reality (VR) shows interaction with studied less often, most likely because its
the brain, part of "real" reality. intensity is extremely low. Recently, in
studies on spontaneous emission the Fourier
A student's map to quantum mechanics. spectrum analysis has been introduced for
Guy Vandegrift <> analysing photon count data. The most
(Purdue University North Central). important conclusion for mammalian
Beginning students of physics can fibroblastic cells was that they have no
explore quantum mechanics with a detectable photon emission above the
concept map that uses only the most photon emission of culture medium.
elementary solutions to Schroedinger’s However, they are able to modulate the
equation. The content has been slightly frequency spectra of photon emission of
modified from the traditional culture medium. The use of specific
introduction to the subject because the cytoskeletal inhibitors shows that
issue of interpretation is postponed until modulation is dependent on the intactness
Parseval’s theorem is reached and used of the cytoskeleton. Fourier spectrum
to postulate two fundamental equations analysis of spontaneous photon emission of
of probability, simultaneously. A set of A. acetabulum cells has presented evidence
canonical but approximate equations can for cell-specific high frequency oscillations
describe wavepacket motion for most (with periods in the second and minute
linear waves. range). The main oscillations are related to
the endogenous activity of the
Cellular photon emission and cytoskeleton. The latter characteristics
cytoskeletal activity. Roeland Van Wijk were studied for their response upon, weak
<> (Utrecht magnetic fields and healing intention.
University, Utrecht, The Netherlands). It is concluded that the technique of
There is a need for techniques that photon counting, when highly sensitive, is
quantitate collective phenomena and appropriate for dealing with the dynamics
internal dynamic organization of living of internal organization, in particular with
organisms. In studies on collective the functioning of processes regulated by
phenomena in cell populations the the cytoskeleton.
attention has been focussed on the
characteristics of spontaneous and light- Preliminary results on the effect of
induced photon emission (delayed intentionality on ultra-weak photon
luminescence) of organisms and cells. (biophoton) emission from the human
Two types of studies that suggest inter- hand. Manish Vekaria
and intracellular collective behavior in <> (California Institute
cell populations are discussed. The first for Human Science, 701, Gardenview Court,
type deals with the anomalic inter- Encinitas, CA, 92024.), Cheatan Chevalier.
cellular behavior of the concentration- The role of intention in healing is
dependency of delayed luminescence in becoming more recognized with the help of
normal and tumor mammalian cells multidisciplinary approaches to understand
populations. The second deals with the a number of diseases. There are several
delayed luminescence of single cells of evidences gathered in the field of
Acetabularia acetabulum. In these studies psychophysics, psychophysiology and more
anaesthetics like chloroform, isoflurane recently psychoneuroimmunology about the

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

positive reinforcement of the intention and Pranic Healing, etc. emphasize the
on health. This new concept of self- beneficial effect of the ‘intentional touch’
regulation sheds new light on mind and on health. Despite the fact that the
immunity, that what we think and feel quantity of photon emission is considered
and visualize have biological negligible to attain biological relevance,
consequences that can promote healing. any influence of intention on photon
There is a consistent increase in the emission can be seen as a qualitative
evidences of the efficacy of certain variation of photon emission that might
treatments piling up in the field of mind- account for such effects. Qualitative
body medicine. However, mind-body variations can be attributed towards
medicine pays relatively less attention to quantum character of photon emissions.
the possibility that people can Preliminary results of ultraweak photon
consciously and deliberately use thoughts emission (biophoton) from the human hand
and images to influence their own and are gathered from 10 subjects, who are
other’s physiology and health. It pays intentionally trying to influence photon
much more attention to (seems almost emission from their right hand. Results
preoccupied with) the neurochemical indicate strong correlation between
effects and biochemical basis of these intention and photon emission.
emotions. Nevertheless, if a person can
exert some control over physiology and Reference:
health simply by telling the body what to 1).Popp, F. A. et al. (1988), Biophoton
do, then this act, – one might say role of emission. A multi author review.
mind/intention is theoretically and Experientia, 88, p.543 –600.
practically as important as the other 2).Van Wijk, R. et al. (1992), Biophoton
arguments. How important is it to use the emission, stress and disease. A multi author
mindful intentionality to influence one’s review. Experientia, 48, p. 1029-1102.
own health and influence the physiology 3).Van Wijk, R. (2001), Biophoton and Bio-
and health of other people? Living communication. Journal of Scientific
systems continuously emit photons of Exploration, Vol. 15, No.2, pp. 183-197.
ultraweak intensity within the optical
range from 200 to 800 nm. These are How Delineating Cosmological Structure
called biophotons. Biophotons are Leads to an Understanding of
characterized by their quantum character Consciousness. Jerry Wheatley
and are supposed to escape from <>
coherent electromagnetic fields. Photon (Independent).
emission from living systems can be R.Penrose has stated consciousness
considered as stochastic point process. should be defined by the unification of
The ‘point process’ designates a quantum theory with relativity. H. Stapp
sequence of time at which event occurs. has intimated that the fundamental
In the Vitalistic approach to processes of nature lie outside space and
understanding living systems, biophotons time; i.e., that it is nonlocal. M.Kafatos
are seen as coherent states of modern supposes the undivided wholeness of reality
quantum optics. Even with low intensities is a quantum system. He figures the
biophoton emission provides an ideal non- ultimate principle will not be revealed via
invasive tool to explore living systems as mathematical physics. He links the Big Bang
a whole. In this respect it is interesting to singularity to the null set. L.Smolin
observe photon emissions from the hand mentions that the three contemporary
when a person is trying to influence it approaches to quantum gravity should unify
intentionally. Many ‘hands on therapies’ under a single principle. And, that the
like Reiki, Qi-gong, Therapeutic touch, principle should ultimately define reality as

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

a "hologram." A.Goswami has suggested expanding into itself, then there is a

reality is conceptually represented by difference between expanding space and
monistic realism where consciousness the space into which it is expanding. A
collapses the wave function. Einstein clear understanding of the Ultimate
thought the Ultimate Principle must be Principle explains the Big Bang and the
simple enough that a child could nature of the singularity. It also defines the
understand it. difference between space itself and
Such questions are a lot to consider. extended spatiality. And, it explains why
Yet, the ultimate principle must address there was a Big Bang. The Ultimate
these ideas and more. The point is that Principle not only explains cosmogenesis,
the ultimate principle must either but does so by explaining experience as a
directly or indirectly define "projection" of consciousness. Moreover,
consciousness. So, what is a reasonable there is a different but simple way to
way to determine the nature of understand space and time that includes
consciousness? History of studying the the idea of quantum nonseparability.
human body provides a clue. After Presentation will briefly describe:
determining body structure (anatomy), methodology, hierarchical structure and
the focus shifts to understanding the functional levels of reality, derivation of
functionality of its parts (physiology). Theory of Everything Equation, and how
Determine cosmological structure; Ultimate Principle (TOE) explains and
determine the functionality of its parts. defines the nature of consciousness.
Therefore, all "lesser" questions must first
be answered. A dark matter model of consciousness.
The grand idea of physics is to Richard Yannopoulos-Ruquist
understand everything in one conceptual <> (Retired PhD from
scheme called the "Theory of Everything" Harvard in Applied Physics 1966).
(TOE). Ideally, everything is explained as A model of consciousness may be based
a reductive function of a single all- on the supposition that an axionic
embracing principle. Contemporary superfluid is the major component of Dark
physics sets the stage for realization of Matter. We assume that consciousness
that goal. requires, as one of its components, a
The Structure of Reality has been macroscopic quantum coherent medium,
delineated after 30 years of full-time namely a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC).
research. It is now explainable how this We also presume that BECs cannot exist at
structure leads to a clear understanding room temperature in the physical world of
of the Ultimate Principle. The principle is electrons and protons. Perhaps Dark Matter
represented by a compelling equation-- contains a BEC as one of its constituents.
one that defies all other possibilities. The cosmic axionic field, if it exists, is both
An excellent candidate for the TOE a local and cosmic BEC.
has been found and tested by what it can Astronomical observations of other
explain. The final Test of the Ultimate spiral galaxies indicate that dark matter
Principle is Consciousness and the Big permeates and extends well beyond the
Bang Problem. The Big Bang seems visible galaxy. The mass of the axion,
paradoxical. How did it happen? How can thought to be 10^-5 eV or about 2x10^-38
it be explained as an expansion of space? grams, is about one trillionth the mass of a
How can it be explained as a function of proton; but about 10 trillion axions exist for
consciousness? every proton and neutron. So axions are
Simply: How does space expand from expected to be a major component of dark
the singularity?--OR--What is space matter; and the huge number of them
expanding into--if not itself? If space is indicates that the superfluid is local as well

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

as cosmic. However, there is still a In the report, a hypothesis of time

serious problem. system (construction) is put forward and
Human consciousness is physical. For
analyzed. The essence of the hypothesis
sure the visible component of human proposed is the statement that general
consciousness is physical and not a time system is, from the point of view of an
quantum consciousness. (The dreamstate external observer, a linear order relation
could be otherwise). If quantum on an abstract set of states displayed at
consciousness exists in the axion some moments of his (the observer’s) own
superfluid, it must be invisible. So we are
time. For an internal observer of the time
faced with the problem of how the system this set is an indefinable set of
invisible axion consciousness couples with
events identified with the set of all the
the visible physical consciousness. time moments in his system. The observer
This is an unsolved problem. But itis considered as a subsystem of the time
reminds us of the fundamental
system, as a unidirectional automatic
wave/particle duality of quantum theory.
device with memory, similar to Tsetlin
In one interpretation, both waves and automatic devices. It is shown that such an
particles exist, but at different times,
automatic device, in order to optimize its
with the invisible waves collapsing or behavior, should measure the states by the
reducing into visible particles, so that
number of their repetitions in the circuit of
particles of different kinds can exchange
events. On this basis, a new principle of
energy and information. For example, measuring the extent of the own space of
eyesight involves the reduction of the time system by the number of repeating
electromagnetic fields into photons that
states is offered. The axioms of time
can interact with electrons on the Planck
system are formulated. The theorems of
scale (where all particles are alike). the order and the lemma of discreteness of
The hypothesis is then that axion time are proved. It is shown that these and
waves couple into physical processes some additional general reasons are enough
when they collapse into axion particles.
to arrive at the basic laws of geometry,
Penrose has already suggested that as akinetics, thermodynamics, kinematics,
basis of consciousness in a slightly dynamics and field theory of the own
different context, and the Penrose physical world of a time system. And
hypothesis is consistent with Ohatim’s moreover, these laws are similar to those
measurements of microlepton half-life. known in our world. The results of research
Penrose and others have also suggested of mathematical transformations labeled as
several physical processes that might be
supervisionary, which are necessary for
BEC capable at room temperature. We transition from the internal observer to the
now presume that none are, but that external one and from dynamic to kinetic
some or one of these physical processesdescription of a point movement (and vice
might be capable of coupling with axionversa), are given. Some ontological
particles. The Froehlich/Marshall
problems of a time system are put forward
hypothesis, where metabolic or electrical
for a discussion, such as the problem of
stimulation of membrane dipoles is existence, inertia of existence, depth of
required for physical consciousness, isthe layer of actual reality, reality of a point
preferred here, as it correlates with the
as a subsystem of the time system,
human experience of going asleep and relativity of the notions of matter, field and
waking up. substance, as well as the problem of
consciousness as one of the kinds of
The system of time and its own worlds. interaction between the subsystems of a
Alexander Zaslavsky <> time system.
(Oblik corp.).

NeuroQuantology 2003, Vol 3, Suppl 1 Quantum Mind 2003, March 15-19, Tucson, Arizona

Essence of the consciousness. Xin-Yan

Zhang <>.
The energy of information that a mind
gains from sense organs or from other
external sources may trigger the
production of consciousness but
themselves may never appears as
consciousness in the mind. The
consciousness is an energy produced by
the lives in the mind. Whenever
consciousness occurs in a mind, the mind
is not gaining or feeling the energy but is
only producing it. Consciousness is
produced in brain's hereditary parts.
After being produced, the consciousness
will flow further to the acquired parts of
the brains and undergo life changes
together with memory there.
The energy of consciousness is not the
whole mind but only a component part of
it, which is produced by the other parts
of the mind that do not present as
consciousness. The consciousness alone
does not sense, does not remember or
recollect, does not think, does not feel or
will, does not move the limbs and trunk,
does not speak or smile, and does not
drive or rule the mind.