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Viscosity is a measure of the ease at which a fluid (a liquid or gas) would flow against a fixed boundary wall such as a pipe wall. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow for a given liquid. The energy losses due to friction in a fluid are dependant on the fluid viscosity. When fluid moves in a pipe the fluid against the wall will flow slower than that further away from the wall. The boundary wall is fixed and offers a large drag on the fluid. The fluid in contact with the wall will essentially be static. In the diagram below, the arrows indicate the velocity of the fluid at intervals between a fixed and moving plate. The fluid in contact with the fixed plate will be essentially static, while that in contact with the moving plate will move at the same rate.

Moving boundary wall. Fluid velocity profile

Fixed boundary wall.

The shear stress (τ), or force per unit area, will be directly related to the velocity gradient (Δv/Δy), the ratio between change in velocity (Δv) and change in layer distance (Δy) in the fluid. The constant of proportionality is the dynamic viscosity (μ). shear stress (τ) = F A = μ . Δv Δy (where μ is the dynamic viscosity)

Question:

What are the units of dynamic viscosity?

The dynamic viscosity (μ) varies considerably with temperature; car engine oil may need to be warmed in very cold climates to allow the engine to be turned over fast enough to start. If the oil is made thinner at the cold temperature, it will likewise be thinner at the engines operating temperature and fail to protect the bearings. Fluids may also be described in terms of their kinematic viscosity (υ), the ratio of dynamic viscosity (μ) and density (ρ) kinematic viscosity (υ) = μ ρ

6 ms 1.5 1100 μ 1000 μ 437 μ 0.1 μ CO2 Air Petrol Water Water Blood Motor Oil Motor Oil Motor Oil Heavy oil Glycerine Example 1 (a) 20°C 20°C 20°C 90°C 20°C 37°C 0°C 20°C 80°C 10°C 20°C A journal bearing surface in a car engine has an effective surface of 10 cm by 2 cm.Viscosity coefficients for some fluids Fluid Temp Dynamic Kinematic viscosity (μ) viscosity (υ) Pa. Assume the engine is at working temperature of 80°C. Find the force required for a journal velocity of 0.s m2/s 15 μ 18 μ 290 μ 320 μ 1m 2m 0.3 μ 1μ 1 N/m2 = 1 Pa 12 μ 15. Dye track in fluid Laminar Transitional Turbulent .03 0. when the velocity of fluid exceeds a certain value the flow becomes turbulent creating eddies in the fluid.11 0. we can no longer analyse the flow in the manner described above. Relatively.108 1. how much more force is required at normal ambient temperature when first started? (b) Laminar and Turbulent Fluid Flow The above descriptions assume laminar fluid flow. − the oil gap is 100 μm.01 0.

Osborne Reynolds produced a method to predict this. so what is lost? It is easier to push the fluid nearer the open end than further up the pipe.d υ where: V is mean fluid velocity d is the pipe diameter υ is kinematic viscosity Example 2 Heavy oil is pumped from the ground at 4 ms 1 average velocity. but it may be better to predict approximately before testing. for the same flow rate. Assume the density of oil to be 930 kg/m3 and extraction temperature around 10°C.Reynolds’s Number It is critical to know if the fluid you are dealing with is in turbulence or not. MANOMETER PRESSURE GAUGE The longer the pipe. if the Reynolds number is below around 2000 it is likely to be laminar flow. if the pipe diameter is 10 cm. This figure has no units (dimensionless) and is found from: Re = V. determine if the flow is likely to be turbulent. You can test it practically. above this it would be turbulent.S.doc/07/12/2010 . so it must be pressure that is ‘lost’. − Pressure Loss in Pipes When an incompressible fluid flows in a pipe friction losses will cause energy loss.Donald//opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2929/47525245. the greater the pipe resistance and hence more force required to get the same flow rate. The emf drops as we move down the resistance to the 0V reference (open end of pipe). This has obvious analogy with electronics. if the resistance is increased the electromotive force must be increased for the same current flow. The velocity must be constant down the pipe. G.

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