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FINAL REPORT

THE FANTASTIC FAUCET


THE SELF POWERED AUTOMATIC SINK

Team 5D

Benjamin Clark
Mike Kinney

4 May 2010

Executive Summary
The Fantastic Faucet is a self powered automated sink accessory which can easily be installed on
any existing faucet. The device uses a nozzle which directs the water onto a Pelton water turbine
inside of a transparent housing to drive a small electric generator. The Pelton turbine design was
chosen due to its efficiency with flow characteristics found in a typical faucet. The discharge is
in a vertical downward direction, so the water stream is still usable. The power generated from
the turbine is used to power a motion sensor, which automates the water flow, turning the flow
on when a hand is placed under it. This creates a hands free faucet, perfect for residential use.

The Fantastic Faucet has an attractive, slim profile, hanging only 4 inches below the faucet head,
which allows the faucet to retain all of its functionality. The product is anticipated to retail for
approximately $50 and can produce 0.35 Watts, with an estimated net return of $27 million over
four years.

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Table of Contents _________________________________________________________________
Executive Summary Page 1
1. Introduction Page 3
1.1 Background Information Page 3
1.2 Project Planning Page 3
2. Customer Needs and Specifications Page 4
2.1 Customer Reviews Page 4
2.2 Customer Needs Page 4
2.3 Product Specifications Page 5
3. Concept Development Page 5
3.1 External Search Page 5
3.2 Problem Dissection Page 7
3.3 Concept Generation Page 7
3.4 Concept Selection Page 8
4. System Level Design Page 9
4.1 Preliminary Tests Page 9
4.2 Product Performance Calculations Page 11
4.3 Economic Analysis Page 11
5. Detailed Design Page 12
5.1 Housing Page 12
5.2 Fittings and Nozzle Page 12
5.3 Shaft and Sealants Page 12
5.4 Turbine Page 13
5.5 Testing Page 13
6. Alpha Prototype Page 13
6.1 The Pelton Wheel Page 14
6.2 The Casing Page 14
6.3 Additional Components Page 14
6.4 Conclusions Page 14
7. Test Results Page 15
8. Conclusions and Recommendations Page 15
8.1 Product Viability Page 15
8.2 Design Improvements Page 15
8.3 What the Team Learned Page 16
8.4 Recommendations Page 16
9. References Page 17
Appendices
A. Project Planning and Gantt Chart Page 18
B. Dimensioned Part Drawings Page 19
C. Final Bill of Materials Page 22
D. Needs Metrics Matrix Page 23
E. AHP Weighting Matrix Page 24
F. Concept Scoring Matrix Page 25
G. Mabuchi Motor (Generator) Spec Sheet Page 26
H. Patent Search References Page 27
I. Preliminary Test Procedures and Results Page 32
J. Product Performance Calculations Page 34
K. Net Present Value Analysis Page 36
____________________________________________________________________________________

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1. Introduction
People have become very aware of energy conservation today. More and more consumers are looking for
environmentally friendly products to use in their homes and businesses. In particular, consumers are
looking at residential, green energy devices, including solar, wind, and hydro power. For the final project
in ME 340 – Design Methodology, each team has been tasked with building a small water turbine for
residential use which will mount to the end of a standard faucet. A strict set of specifications has been
included with the project, mandating performance results, size restrictions, installation instructions, and
aesthetic considerations. The team must conduct research about how to design and prototype a cost
effective and efficient turbine design while meeting the specifications and constraints. Additionally, the
product must be aesthetically pleasing, and we must include a concept for an accessory product which
would be powered off of the energy generated.

1.1 Background Information


Hydropower has been harnessed by humans since Egyptian times, where water was used for irrigation and
to power clocks. Hydropower technology improved over time with the emergence of water wheels and
hydraulic power pipes in Switzerland (Hydropower, 2010). Today, advanced water turbines are used
throughout the world to generate electricity for homes and businesses. Approximately 5.8% of the United
State’s electricity and 16% of the world’s electricity is generated from hydropower stations (Cimbala,
2010).

Modern hydropower plants are incredibly efficient, with some turbines having efficiencies around 95%.
These generators have long life spans as well; some have been in operation for over 100 years and are still
working. Plants now have the ability to store hydropower for peak usage times, where the turbines are
converted to pumps which pump water back up into the reservoirs. This mechanical energy storage
proves to be very efficient and much more effective than electrical energy storage in batteries (Cimbala,
2010).

Hydropower has become more and more popular recently, primarily due to the emergence of the green
movement. The world is becoming more environmentally aware, and people are demanding that we look
for alternative fuels and energy generation systems that produce less carbon emissions and pollution.
Hydropower is such a system. There is no pollution or emissions from generating power from water.
Granted, rivers must be modified by building dams and reservoirs, but this is less taxing on nature than
burning coal and oil. Currently, only 100 GW of power is produced from hydropower in the United
States, but by retrofitting existing dams, we could produce an additional 60 GW of power (Cimbala,
2010).

Many individuals are also attempting to be more environmentally minded in their purchases and
consumption today. With this in mind, it would be appropriate to introduce a personal, small scale,
hydropower generator. This can be used to raise awareness of hydropower and how it works.

1.2 Project Planning


In order to begin the project and keep the timelines on track, the team created a series of deadlines and
tasks organized in a Gantt Chart in Appendix A. This is a clear and concise format of tasks and deadlines
that shows what needs to be accomplished and who will accomplish each task (Ulrich, 2008). Deadlines
are marked with a diamond, and correspond to the project deliverables.

The Gantt Chart serves an added purpose in assigning tasks to each group member. We decided to divide
the main elements of the problem dissection up among the team. The turbine, housing, and shaft/gear
assembly are the primary components of the product and were assigned to Mike Ganci, Ben Clark, and
Mike Kinney, respectively. This component will be that member’s primary charge through the external

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search, detail design, and then finally manufacturing of the part. This way, each group member develops
a specialty within the group. The remaining deliverables and project memos were divided evenly to
provide an even workload, with an attempt to accommodate member’s schedules.

2. Customer Needs and Specifications


The team has been tasked with developing a faucet mounted water turbine. The goal of the project is to
develop a small residential device that will produce usable power from a water turbine mounted to a
standard faucet. This product is similar in function to the Sylvania ECOlight Water Powered Shower
Light, so we have used customer reviews from this product to determine customer needs in addition to the
needs and specifications provided with the project prompt.

2.1 Customer Reviews


Customer reviews of the Sylvania ECOlight, posted on websites like Amazon.com which sell the product,
revealed that people like the eco-friendly nature of the product and the easy installation. Users also liked
the range of motion of the shower head, which we have translated to versatility of the outlet side of the
device in relation to the faucet. The product should not alter the usability of the faucet. Aesthetics were
heavily stressed in the reviews. The ECOlight has a gap along its casing which causes it to have an
unfinished and industrial appearance. This was a major detractor for several users.

One major complaint of the ECOlight was its reliability and longevity. Some of the components, like the
threaded connections, are made of plastic and can be easy to damage during installation. The ECOlight
also suffers from a short shelf life; many fail after less than a year in use. Customers are looking for a
quality product that looks and feels like it is robust and can last for many years regardless of water quality
(mineral content of water supply) without any maintenance.

2.2 Customer Needs


We have compiled the above customer needs with the indicated needs of the project prompt to develop a
master list of customer needs. We then created product specifications using a needs metrics matrix,
located in Appendix D (Ulrich, 2008). Once the needs metrics matrix was completed, we used an AHP
weighting matrix, located in Appendix E (Lamancusa, 2007) to determine specific weights for each
specification. This allowed for an easy way to analyze the various concepts based on their ability to
perform in each area. The weights are listed below in Table 1.

Table 1: Concept selection criteria and weights


Need Weight Description
Ease of Installation 7% The products ability to install quickly and easily by the consumer
Aesthetically Pleasing 7% The shell of the product will look attractive in the home
Unobtrusive/Compact 8% The product will not interfere with general use of the faucet
Reliability/Robustness 16% The product must last a long time with no maintenance
Compatible with Home Faucet 9% The product must fit a standard home faucet
Visibility of Mechanics 3% The internal parts will be visible
Maximizes Power Production 20% The product is efficient
Waterproof 8% The product does not leak; electronic elements are protected
Easy to Use 8% The product works right out of the box
Cost 7% The product is economical
DFM/DFA 7% The product must be cheap to build and assemble

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2.3 Product Specifications
The following constraints and specifications have been noted for The Fantastic Faucet design:

 Must attach to a 3/8-18 NPS internal pipe threaded faucet


 Water discharge must be vertically downward
 The outlet of the product must be a 3/8 18 NPS internal pipe thread
 The product must extend no longer than 4 inches from the end of the faucet
 The product should allow visibility to the working components
 The product must be able to work in a wet environment and not leak
 The product must generate at least 1.5V at 10 Ohms resistance
 The product must not exceed $50 MSRP
 The product must be aesthetically pleasing and ergonomically functional
 The product installs easily and with no tools
 Design product with DFA and DFM in mind

3. Concept Development
Our team used extensive research on water turbines and existing patents when developing The Fantastic
Faucet. Many concepts were developed from this knowledge, and a careful concept selection process was
utilized to ensure that the final design met all of our customers’ needs.

3.1 External Search:


In order to design a high performance and customer focused product, the team did an external search on
subjects relating to fluid dynamics, turbines, generators, and power efficiency. We also completed an
extensive patent search, which is summarized in Table 2. Full copies of the patents are available in
Appendix H.

The primary sources of introductory material came from Dr. Lamancusa’s


lectures. Specifically, we learned the background necessary to test and design a
high efficiency water turbine. The external search also turned up many videos
and descriptions of simple turbine systems made out of household items. This
helped the team to start envisioning the designs behind the product and to get the
ideas flowing for concept generation. Furthermore, the team’s external search
revealed many different types of turbine designs. This is relevant because in the
early stages of the design process, the system design must be ultimately focused Figure 1: Francis turbine
around the central component, the turbine.

It is apparent that the Francis turbine, Pelton wheel and Kaplan turbine are the simplest and most efficient
turbines to use in these low flow, low head applications. These three main turbine types are summarized
and analyzed below.

The Francis turbine is a very common turbine used in industrial applications


which combines radial and axial flow concepts (Bruno, 2004). The Francis
turbine is a reaction turbine, which relies on pressure of submerged water flow,
as opposed to an impulse turbine which uses the force of a water jet on the
turbine (Cengel, 2010). Francis turbines are very efficient in industrial
applications, but the team found that the shape and flow characteristics are too
complex to design and machine for this project.
Figure 2: Kaplan turbine A Kaplan Turbine is a propeller-type impulse turbine (Bruno, 2004). It is
essentially a fan or propeller shape, which is driven to spin by water flow

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pressure. However, Kaplan turbines do best in high flow applications, which
is not ideal for this project. Additionally, the axis of rotation must be up
towards the faucet. This orientation makes it much more difficult to
implement the generator into the system.

The Pelton wheel turbine is an impulse turbine that acts like a water wheel; the
buckets on the wheel collect almost all of the flow’s energy, making it a very
efficient turbine (Bruno, 2004). Due to this high efficiency in the turbine, it is
an appealing design choice for the team. Additionally, the turbine orientation
makes it very easy to attach the generator along the same axis as the turbine. Figure 3: Pelton wheel
The Pelton does pose the added challenge of having the water still flow out
despite losing almost all of its energy at the Pelton stage.

Table 2: Patent Search Summary


Home Power Water Turbine Floating Water Hydro Hydro
Station and Brush Head Turbine Turbine Turbine
4122381 4531250 4849647 6409466 6309179

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description:


This product uses a This is a pipe This product uses This patent uses The final product
water turbine to cleaner that a floating turbine and uses a Pelton
generate electricity combines a brush generator and a generator to wheel as a turbine.
with a generator, system that is submerged produce power. It forces the water
and then uses that powered by a water screw-like This also uses a inflows around the
electricity to charge turbine (pumped turbine that sits in nozzle to focus circle, turning the
batteries through the pipe) water below the the water and wheel, and
continuously until and a water flow generator, increase the producing power
the batteries are from the outflow of generating power pressure, thus through the
needed. the turbine to clean from these increasing power generator.
the inside of the currents. generated.
pipe.
Analysis: Analysis: Analysis: Analysis: Analysis:
This system is too This is an This product is This patent is This product
complicated and interesting not that practical useful to us introduces the
large for the team’s combination of (as far as because it idea of using 2
uses, but it uses a power use and applications) but combines the most inputs and 2
similar technology utilization of it is creative. fundamental outputs into a
and an interesting turbine outflow This screw-like concepts of this single turbine, and
alternative power water, which is turbine is design project for also the idea of
application. relevant to this interesting and the team: focusing using a pelton
project. This can be useful in the water and wheel as a turbine.
product is too design of the using a practical
narrow in scope team’s turbine. turbine for the job.

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3.2 Problem Decomposition:
 Turbine: water wheels, Francis, Kaplan, different materials
 Generator: provided, can design own if desired
 Housing: plastic, rubber, metal (screws or clipping) must allow no water to generator.
 Need for high rpm in generator: gears, nozzle, less resistance
 Shaft: metal shaft, gearing, belt
 Attachment to faucet: screw-on, clamping mechanism, adhesive, suction cup
 Power application: see customer needs

3.3 Concept Generation


The team conducted an external search to better familiarize ourselves with the current market of home
hydropower generation systems in use today. We also looked at several commercial hydropower systems,
as this is a much more mature industry. By using scale modeling techniques, we were able to determine
which turbine runner styles would work best for our faucet flow, as each style of turbine is suited to a
specific flow rate, head, and pressure.

Once the team familiarized itself with the various styles of turbines available, we brainstormed several
different ideas, including some unique design concepts, summarized in Table 3. We did not limit our
concept germination process to only turbine styles optimized for our flow. Rather, we generated ideas
looking at the system as a whole: how the turbine would influence the outer shell design and generator
placement. Fluid flow through the entire system was also an important component during the concept
generation phase, considering that the water entered the device vertically and had to discharge from the
outlet vertically as well.

Our brainstorming session arrived at a variety of interesting designs. We looked at how to best direct the
water flow so as to maximize outlet flow while keeping a vertical downward exit stream. One design we
considered was the experimental Tesla turbine. Boundary layer friction can be problematic in smaller
turbines. A turbine style that works specifically off of friction could operate effectively on a small scale.

Table 3: Concept Generation Summary


Francis Turbine Pelton Turbine Lateral Pressure Driven Turbine

Description: Description: Description:


The water enters radially along the The water enters in a vertical manner, This is a custom design; the water fills a
runners and exits axially through the enters a nozzle and stikes the wheel. chamber with directional nozzles. The
center. Bucket like runners catch the water. water discharges through these nozzles,
causing the chamber to spin.
Pros: Pros: Pros:
The product would have a visually The water enters and exits in a vertical This would be a visually interesting
interesting shape. This turbine style is direction. The generator can easily be design to watch. The construction would

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well suited for the given flow mounted away from the water. be fairly simple.
conditions.
Cons: Cons: Cons:
The water leaves 90 degrees from how This turbine typically is used with This may not produce much torque.
it enters, requiring the water to be higher flow head, but should still work There are no equations to base predictions
redirected. in this application. off of. There may be significant head loss
through the product.
Kaplan Turbine Modified Francis Turbine Tesla Turbine

Description: Description: Description:


The water enters vertically and flows The water enters vertically into a This is an experimental design. The
through the runners. The water then splitter. The flow then goes into tubes water enters vertically and passes through
discharges vertically downward. The which spiral around the centrally several closely spaced flat plates. These
generator has been mounted outside of located generator. These tubes change plates are attached to a generator. This
this design, but can be a center mount the flow to enter the Francis turbine in could be modified to be a form of Pelton
as well. a radial manner. water wheel.

Pros: Pros: Pros:


The water enters and exits in a vertical The generator is encased within the This turbine works off of boundary layer
manner. The overall system design is design with easy coupling to the friction which is known to be present in
simple, and the water enters and exits turbine. The water enters and exits in a small turbine designs. It is simple to
in a vertical manner. vertical manner. design and build.
Cons: Cons: Cons:
This type of propeller design is very This is a part intensive design when There are no equations to base predictions
difficult and complex. It may not be compared to other options. from. This is not a tested design and may
visually interesting to watch. not work well.

3.4 Concept Selection


The team had many different ideas with widely different characteristics at the end of our concept
generation phase. We discussed the pros and cons of each idea to narrow our focus down to a pool of six
final design concepts. Once we had a final list, we used a concept scoring matrix (Ulrich, 2008) to
determine the most favorable final design (Appendix F).

The concept scoring matrix determined that the Pelton turbine design was the best option. Reflecting on
these results, the group decided that the Pelton design is the best option. It does not require a change in
the flow direction, and finished product should be compact. The generator can be isolated from the water
flow as well.

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4. System Level Design

Nozzle The primary objective is to create a high efficiency water


turbine that will be reliable and run for many years with no
Pelton maintenance. The basic product design consists of a threaded
Electrical Wheel fitting that attaches to a 3/8-18 NSP internal pipe threaded
Connector faucet. A nozzle directs the water down on to a Pelton wheel.
The wheel buckets are designed to maximize the impulse
delivered by the water stream. The water then collects in the
housing below the wheel and exits in a vertical downward
direction. The inlet nozzle will be sized so as to maximize
efficiency of the Pelton wheel while preventing water backup in
Generator the system, which would otherwise fill the casing with water
and inhibit the effectiveness of the turbine.

The entire outer shell is to be constructed of a transparent


Figure 4: The Fantastic Faucet, Concept material so as to allow viewing of the moving components from
Rendering, rear view
any angle. This will add an exciting aspect to the product while
simultaneously educating people about how water turbines
function. This outer shell will hang from the metal nozzle attachment. The casing also isolates the
generator from the water to protect it. The entire package has a
footprint of less than four inches from any of the three principal
views. The shell will be assembled in the production version with
an ultrasonic welder in order to prevent leaks and lower the cost of
manufacturing. We will attempt to use the ultrasonic welder for
the prototype as well so as to test the alpha and beta versions in as
close to actual conditions as possible.

The Pelton wheel design was selected for this product because it
works well with a high head and low flow that is available from a
household faucet at standard pressure. The housing allows plenty
of space to allow the water to flow away from the turbine. The
generator is attached directly to the turbine via a coupling shaft that
is supported by bushings. This strategy provides for the lowest
manufacturing cost while accurately locating the turbine.
Figure 5: The Fantastic Faucet, Concept
Rendering, side view
4.1 Preliminary Tests
In order to estimate the efficiency of the given electric generator and the power available from the faucet,
the team conducted a series of preliminary tests. These tests aided the team in properly designing an
appropriate system to incorporate the given faucet and generator.

1. Generator Test
A weight was dropped, causing a shaft connected to the generator to spin. The output voltage of the
generator was measured and compared to the power generated by the falling weight. A complete test
procedure and test data can be found in Appendix I. The data was used to compute the efficiency of the
generator, summarized below in Figure 6. We determined the overall efficiency of the generator to be
approximately 28%.

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Figure 6

2. Faucet Test
We tested the volumetric flow rate and pressure from the faucet in room 239 Reber, the competition
faucet. The flow rate was measured across a range of pressures. A complete test procedure and test data
can be found in Appendix I. The resulting data is summarized below in Figure 7.

Because power is directly proportional to the product of volumetric flow rate and pressure, it is necessary
to run the system somewhere around 30 psi and 0.07 gal/sec (shown on graph) in order to maximize the
area under the curve, the power delivered from the faucet. It is also necessary to run the system at a
reasonably high volumetric flow rate because the faucet should still be able to be used for general kitchen
purposes.

Figure 7

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4.2 Product Performance Calculations
We calculated our expected output power from our Pelton wheel design. With a generator efficiency of
28% and a very conservative turbine efficiency of only 1.7%, we calculated an overall system efficiency
of 0.47%. This yields an output power of 0.36 Watts. The required output power is 0.225 Watts. We are
above the minimum requirements for the project. All calculations are provided in Appendix J.

4.3 Economic Analysis


Because the product uses four main plastic parts, the team has decided to use plastic injection molding to
produce these parts cheaply and designed for ease of manufacturing. In order to estimate the cost of the
plastic injection molds, the team used a Java program created by David Kazmer, a Ph.D. specializing in
integrated polymer and process design. This program takes into account the part complexity, the number
of parts, the material, the cavities, the size, and the machining costs of the injection mold to give the team
a very good estimate of the part cost. All cost estimates assume medium grade plastic and 100,000
cycles. The results of the estimations are in Table 4.

Table 4: Cost Analysis of Custom Injection Molded Parts


Plastic Injection Molded Parts
Costs Main Housing Front Cover Back Cover Turbine
Process $0.17 $0.14 $0.14 $0.12
Material $1.22 $1.22 $1.16 $2.20
Tooling $0.90 $0.67 $0.67 $1.00
TOTAL $2.29 $2.03 $1.95 $3.32

For the remaining five parts, the team used all standard or stock parts in order to minimize the price per
part. For the shaft, the team minimized costs by buying aluminum stock of 8 foot rods. Judging how
many shafts could be produced per rod, we determined the number needed to accommodate 100,000
units, and found the price per unit. The Electrical Connector, Generator, Marine Grease, and Bearing
were all standard or given parts that the team found cheapest at the listed vendors. These standard parts
are summarized in Table 5.

Finally, the unit price must include the overhead and assembly cost of the product. Given the eight parts,
including two press fits and assembly orientations, the team estimated the cost per unit of assembly to be
$1.60.

Table 5: Cost Analysis of Stock Parts


Standard Parts
Elec Connector
Shaft and Wires Generator Bearing Lube
Part Desc 3/16" dia, 1 3/4" Given Mabuchi RF-370CA Ball Bearing Marine Grease
Vendor Grainger Barstock Waytek Wire Yeno Electronics Ali Express RestockIt
Quantity 1 1 1 1 approx .05oz
TOTAL $0.91 $0.22 $1.49 $0.97 $0.01

Summing all of the estimated prices per part, per unit and the estimated cost due to assembly per unit, the
unit price of the product is determined to be $14.79. Consequently, our net profit over four years is
estimated to be $27 million, as calculated in Appendix K.

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5. Detailed Design

Nozzle (molded
Electrical into housing)
Connector
Back Cover

Shaft

Generator

Main Housing
Pelton Wheel
Body
Turbine
Front Cover

Figure 8: The Fantastic Faucet, Final Design Rendering, exploded view

5.1 Housing
The housing of the turbine will be plastic injection molded, allowing for tabs to align internal parts and
the housing covers while retaining a transparent outer shell. The front and back covers will be attached
via ultrasonic welding, which will effectively seal the unit so that it is waterproof. Internal threads at the
outlet and external threads at the inlet will be molded directly into the casing, reducing the number of
required parts and decreasing assembly time. The housing is molded into separate compartments, a wet
compartment for the turbine and water flow, and a dry compartment for the generator and electronics.

5.2 Fittings and Nozzle


The Fantastic Faucet attaches to a standard 3/8‖-18 NPS threaded faucet.
The external inlet threads and internal outlet threads are molded directly
into the clear, plastic housing. This allows the faucet to retain all of its
functionality, even when the turbine is attached. A nozzle is used to
restrict the flow, increasing the flow velocity and direct it onto the Pelton
buckets. This is molded into the inlet and is a part of the housing. The
connection to the faucet will be sealed with Teflon tape, typical with
other plumbing connections. The cost savings of using molded plastic
threads in lieu of a metal threaded connector outweigh the decreased
quality of the product.
Figure 9: The Fantastic Faucet,
5.3 Shaft and Sealants Final Design Rendering, front
view with fittings, nozzle, and
The shaft will be made out of 3/16‖ aluminum rod. The turbine will be Pelton wheel
press fit directly onto this shaft. The shaft will rest in a cradle molded
into the front cover on one end and a bearing mounted in the wall
separating the wet compartment wall from the dry compartment. The cradle will act as a bushing for the
shaft, and hydro-sealant grease will be used to lubricate these points of contact. This grease will double

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as a sealant, keeping the wet compartment sealed and keeping the dry
compartment watertight. The rest of the unit will be sealed via ultrasonic
welding of the covers onto the main housing body. This shaft will then
press fit onto the RF-370CA Mabuchi motor (Appendix G) shaft, making a
direct connection to the generator.

5.4 Turbine
The Pelton wheel turbine will be plastic injection molded with a glass filled
nylon, due to the strength of this material. This strength is needed due to the
long term force from the water stream on this part. It will receive high
Figure 10: The Fantastic torques compared to other parts in the design. Since the torque is delivered
Faucet, Final Design via the impulse of the water against the bucket, the buckets have been design
Rendering, side view to maximize this impulse. The water enters the bucket and is direct 174
degrees back on itself. This angle prevents the water stream from hitting the
next bucket but maximizes the impulse received. There is also a notch cut into each bucket to allow for a
better contact angle between the bucket and the stream.

5.5 Testing
We will construct a prototype of this design for initial testing. The unit will be built as specified, and the
voltage will be measured across a 10ohm resistor with a digital multimeter. We should be able to
calculate all necessary information from this data. The prototype will use a gear train so that we can
make adjustments. The gear train will not be used in the final design; this is only for testing purposes.

6. Alpha Prototype
Once we completed our preliminary designs of the
Fantastic Faucet, our team developed an alpha
prototype for initial testing. While this prototype was
not constructed from the final materials or
manufacturing processes, it provided a means to test
turbine efficiency, generator output, and water flow
through the casing. Some modifications were made
during the build time, including the use of
subassemblies to aid in easy assembly and disassembly
for modification. Once all modifications were
complete, the device was sealed completely.

The alpha prototype was built around three main


modules – the turbine module, the gear train module,
and the generator module. This allowed the turbine to
be sealed off from the rest of the system, protecting the Figure 4: Completed alpha prototype, acrylic
electronics from moisture. This design also allowed for casing with RP turbine
easy assembly. The generator module mated with the
gear train module. This subassembly then fit against the turbine assembly, mating the gears.

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TURBINE
MODULE
GEAR TRAIN
MODULE

GENERATOR
MODULE

Figure 5: Modular design of alpha prototype

6.1 The Pelton Wheel


Due to the complexity of the design, the Pelton wheel was built on a rapid
prototyping machine. The part was then coated in epoxy to seal it and provide
additional strength. This wheel was then press fit onto a shaft. This shaft was
also press fit into two ball bearings which mounted to the casing. The shaft
extended from the turbine module to the gear train module where a gear was
press fit onto this shaft as well.

6.2 The Casing Figure 6: Rapid prototyped


The casing was constructed entirely of acrylic so as to maximize visibility to Pelton wheel turbine
the moving parts. To get the required thickness, several sheets of ½in acrylic
were cut and glued together. The exterior cuts were made on a bandsaw, and the interior cuts were made
via a dremel. Once everything was assembled, all parts were sanded down and polished to help increase
the transparency of the acrylic.

The turbine module was made from three cuts of ½in material capped on each end with a piece of 1/8in
material. The gear train module was made from one cut of ½in material and one cut of 1/8in material,
and the generator module was made from four cuts of ½in material and one cut of 1/8in material. All
modules were assembled with epoxy for a watertight seal. Additional holes were cut for the inlet valve
and outlet valve, shaft, and electrical connection.

6.3 Additional Components


All additional parts were constructed from stock parts. A compression fitting was cut down to be used as
a nozzle. A plastic insert was then machined which fit inside of this fitting which could be used to adjust
the exit velocity of the water stream. Stock ball bearings and gears were used for the turbine shaft.
Plastic plugs were machined so that the bearings could mount to the outer walls of the casing. In
production, this would be molded directly into the casing. An O-ring was used as a seal on the turbine
shaft. The generator, electrical connector, and wiring were all stock items used without modification.

6.4 Conclusions
The casing proved to be the most time consuming part of the prototyping process. This was mainly due
to us having to cut each part by hand. The production run housing will be injection molded, significantly
cutting down on the assembly time. We must also ensure that the casing allows for quick and easy
assembly of all parts with self locating components. Pins will need to be used to align the different parts

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 14 of 36


of the housing. We also learned that, when building prototypes, we need a reliable way to align shafts
and mating parts. Trying to keep all parts aligned during the build phase proved challenging. Ultimately,
the final alpha prototype proved to be usable and was close in comparison to the actual design. It also
informed us of several potential assembly problems before we go into production with the design.

7. Test Results
The Fantastic Faucet performed within the estimated performance characteristics. We estimated that our
turbine would output 1.9 volts, and the actual output was 1.85 volts. We were only 3% off of our initial
estimates. With such conservative calculations, we were hoping that the turbine would perform above our
estimates, but this was not the case. With the information learned from the alpha prototype though, we
feel that we could significantly increase our efficiency in the beta prototype.

We did find that our output voltage dropped by nearly 50% on the day of the competition when it was
producing 1.85 volts the night before. We eventually traced the problem to the seal on the faucet.
Drilling a ventilation hole in the top of the casing restored our output. Apparently the leak at the faucet
allowed the turbine to breathe, which prevented water from backing up in the casing. This was a very
important design component that we did not find in initial testing, primarily because we were not testing
under the same conditions present for the competition day.

8. Conclusions and Recommendations


8.1 Product Viability
After the results of the testing of the team’s alpha prototype, we are confident in the viability of the
Fantastic Faucet.

The biggest hurdle for the product is efficiency—the product cannot be produced if it does not supply
enough voltage for the electrical hands-free sensor accessory. However, after researching similar
products, it is apparent that the industry standard is either a 6-Volt DC power supply or four AA batteries
in series, also producing 6 Volts (Air Delights 2010). We are confident that our water turbine can
produce this voltage with improvements to the design and removing losses due to poor manufacturing of
the alpha prototype.

Another design constraint is the volumetric flow rate out of the faucet. Significantly restricting the
outflow will render the product useless. We had been having some problems with our volumetric
outflow, but after switching to a larger nozzle and putting an airflow inlet into our prototype, it became
apparent that the outflow of the turbine produced more than enough flow to be usable by the customer.

The final constraint is that of product size. Our product is relatively large (around four inches by four
inches by four inches). Consequently, this is the biggest room for improvement in our product. However,
the team believes it can be made smaller with the proper manufacturing, without losing any efficiency.
Additionally, even at this size, it will still fit most faucets without being an obstruction.

8.2 Design Improvements


Looking back at the team’s production of the turbine design and alpha prototype, there is much room for
improvement. The biggest room for improvement is making our Pelton wheel smaller and having a
smaller number of buckets. The team is confident that this will increase efficiency because the current
large Pelton is slowed down by its large rotational inertia. Also, this will allow us to make the nozzle
smaller and thus, the whole product smaller.

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 15 of 36


Another place for improvement is the gearing of the product. It became apparent from the prototype that
our turbine was actually limited in efficiency by torque, due to resistance from the load. Therefore, we
were actually hurting our turbine by adding gears. Additionally, the system inevitably experienced losses
due to gear meshing and friction. Finally, making the system direct drive will decrease the price of The
Fantastic Faucet since there are fewer parts and less assembly time.

In learning from our peers, it is apparent that the most successful turbines used small Pelton wheels, a
small nozzle, and a direct drive. Implementing these ideas to the Fantastic Faucet will make it a better
product.

8.3 What the Team Learned


This project was a very good learning process for us. In retrospect, we learned about how to carry out
the entire product development process from start to finish, with numerous very tight deadlines. In
particular, we learned that starting early, and getting a strong background on the subject with an external
search is very important. If done properly, knowledge of the subject will make concept development and
scoring very quick and easy. Once a final concept developed, it is important to make a very simple
prototype with as much variability as possible. The best prototypes in the class were the ones that were
the most simple. Additionally, the success of our product was largely due to the ability to swap nozzles
and gears until the final test. Mike Ganci had the great idea of machining different nozzles out of plastic
on the lathe to fit into the threaded brass nozzle, varying the flow rate and velocity. We learned that this
kind of variability in a prototype is very valuable.

We also learned about how to produce professional and aesthetically impressive technical reports and
project posters. These are very important skills for both the senior design class and also for employment
down the road. Finally, we learned the importance of working together in a team. For all of the parts of
the project, we had very good coordination between group members in communicating between CAD
drawings, tests and calculations, and the writing of reports. All of these things resulted in successful
projects.

Ultimately, this project was a very useful learning experience that cannot be replaced by other classes;
there is no substitute for projects like this with trial and error when it comes to the ―art of engineering.‖

8.4 Recommendations
While we enjoyed this project very much, and the end result was relatively successful, we do have some
recommendations.

1. We think it would have helped us to make the report submissions due at midnight of the due date.
We would frequently not be able to meet on the weekends to work on the report, due to other
commitments, and most of our time to work as a full team on the project was from the end of
class until submission. I think we could have produced better reports if we had those extra two
hours.

2. One difficulty with the project came from writing the detail design report while simultaneously
machining the prototype. It was hard for us to specify things in our detail design that we weren’t
really decided on yet, because it required some help from building and testing our prototype.

3. In terms of our turbine, we need to make a smaller turbine for the beta prototype while decreasing
the overall size of the unit. We will eliminate the gearing and revert back to a direct drive
system.

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 16 of 36


9. References
―Automatic Sensor Faucets‖ Air Delights. May 2, 2010.
<http://www.airdelights.com/faucet.html>

Bonneville Kaplan Turbine. April 14, 2010.


<http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/cepa/pubs/mar00/story11.htm>

Bruno, Leonard. ―Turbine.‖ Gale Virtual Reference Library. The Gale Encyclopedia of Science.
Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 6. 3rd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2004.
p4135-4138.

Cengel, Yunus A., and John M. Cimbala. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications.
Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.

Cimbala, John M. ―Hydropower.‖ 022 Deike Building, The Pennsylvania State University. 1 April 2010.

Holden, Joseph. ―Hydro Turbine.‖ U.S. Patent 6309179. Filed Nov 23, 1999. Issued Oct 30,
2001

―Hydropower.‖ Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 14 April 2010. Web. 14 April 2010.

Kaisha, Kyowa. ―Water Turbine and Brush Head using the water turbine for cleaning pipes.‖
U.S. Patent 4531250. Filed Jun 6, 1983. Issued Jul 30, 1985

Lamancusa, J. S. ―Concept Generation.‖ Spring 2007. Online PowerPoint. Angel.psu.edu. 12


April 2010.

Lamont, John. ―Hydro Turbine.‖ U.S. Patent 6409466. Filed Aug 25, 2000. Issued Jun 25, 2002.

McKenzie, T. ―Floating Water Turbine.‖ U.S. Patent 4849647. Filed Nov 10, 1987. Issued Jul
18, 1989

Stahlkocher. April 14, 2010 <de.wikipedia.com>

Sturm, Zeynab. ―Home Power Station.‖ U.S. Patent 4122381. Filed May 4, 1977. Issued Oct
24, 1978

Ulrich, Karl T., and Steven D. Eppinger. Product Design and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill
Higher Education, 2008. Print.

Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation. April 14, 2010. <http://www.voithsiemens.com>

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 17 of 36


Appendix A – Project Planning and Gantt Chart

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Appendix B – Dimensioned Part Drawings

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ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 20 of 36
ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 21 of 36
Appendix C – Final Bill of Materials

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 22 of 36


operates
be usable

ME 340.5
home faucets
Needs

The unit can get wet


The unit is economical

The unit should not leak


The unit is easy to install

usable for another device

The unit is reliable and robust


The unit is aesthetically pleasing

The unit can be used with typical


The unit is small and unobtrusive

The user should be able to see how it


The unit creates enough energy to be

The water from the faucet should still


Metrics

X
The product will secure to a standard faucet (will fit a standard 3/8-18 NPS pipe thread)
Appendix D – Needs Metrics Matrix

X
The product will attach with no additional tools

Water Turbine – Project Proposal


X
X
The product will be no longer than 4" in length

X
X
The product will discharge water in a vertical, downward direction

5/4/2010
X
The product will retail for $50 or less

X
X
X
The product will isolate the generator and electrical connections from moisture

X
X
The product will be contained in a sealed, decorative casing

X
The product will generate a minimum of 0.225 watts

X
X
X
The product will be designed to maximize ergonomics of the outer casing

X
X
The product will terminate in a standard 3/8-18 NPS internal pipe thread

X
X
The product will be designed with materials not suseptible to water damage

X
The product casing will be constructed with windows or some form of transparent material

Page 23 of 36
Appendix E – AHP Weighting Matrix (Lamancusa)

AHP Weighting Matrix

Compatible with Home Faucet

Maximizes Power Production


Reliability/Robustness

Visibility of Mechanics
Unobtrusive/Compact
Aesthetically Pleasing
Ease of Installation

Waterproof

Easy to Use

DFM/DFA

WEIGHT
TOTAL
Cost
Ease of Installation 1 1 1/3 1 2 1/4 1 1 1/2 2 10.083 0.07
Aesthetically Pleasing 1 1 1/3 1/2 3 1/4 1/2 1 1 2 10.583 0.07
Unobtrusive/Compact 1 1 1/3 1/2 2 1/3 1 2 2 1 11.167 0.08
Reliability/Robustness 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 23.000 0.16
Compatible with Home Faucet 1 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 1 1 2 1 13.000 0.09
Visiblity of Mechanics 1/2 1/3 1/2 1/3 1/2 1/4 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 3.750 0.03
Maximizes Power Production 4 4 3 1 2 4 3 3 4 2 30.000 0.21
Waterproof 1 2 1 1/2 1 3 1/3 1 2 1 11.830 0.08
Easy to Use 1 1 1/2 1 1 3 1/3 1 2 1 11.833 0.08
Cost 2 1 1/2 1/3 1/2 3 1/4 1/2 1/2 2 10.583 0.07
DFM/DFA 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1 3 1/2 1 1 1/2 9.500 0.07
*Based on a scale of relative importance; 1=equal, 2=slightly important, 3=moderately important, 4=extremely
important

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Appendix F – Concept Scoring Matrix

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Appendix G: Mabuchi Motor (Generator) Spec Sheet

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Appendix H: Patent Search References

Patent 1: Home Power Station

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Patent 2: Water Turbine and Brush Head using the Water Turbine for Cleaning Pipes

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Patent 3: Floating Water Turbine

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Patent 4: Hydro Turbine

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Patent 5: Hydro Turbine

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Appendix I – Preliminary Test Procedures and Results

 Generator Test Procedure


1. Attach wires to the leads of the generator, and connect them to a 10 ohm resistor.
2. Monitor the voltage generated across the load by a DMM.
3. Attach a long string to the rotor of the generator.
4. Wrap the string around the cylinder, minimizing overlap, which will change the
radius, and thus, the moment.
5. Attach a known mass to the other end of the string.
6. Raise the mass/generator assembly to a marked level from the ground (approx 100+
in.), for accurate readings.
7. Measure the distance off the floor and the radius of the generator cylinder
8. Drop the weight, measuring the time it takes for the mass to hit the floor and also the
voltage generated on the DMM.
9. In order to find power in, or the mechanical energy into the generator, calculate rpm
from height, radius of cylinder and time.
=h/(tr)
10. Then, find torque using mass, g, and radius (r = 0.153in)
T=ma*r
11. Calculate Power from  and T (ft-lb)
Pin=T/5252
12. In order to calculate Power out, which is the electrical power generated,
Pout=(V^2)/R, because V=IR and P=IV
13. Finally, we have values for the mechanical power into the generator and the electrical
power out of the generator. Comparing these values results in the generator
efficiency.
=Pout/Pin
14. The team found our actual efficiency to be close to 28%
15. The values from our test of efficiency, required current, torque and Power are plotted
against RPM (Appendix G, figure 1).

Generator Efficiency
Time Mass Voltage Height mass Torque Power in power out efficiency Current
(s) (g) (V) (m) (Kg) rad/sec (Nm) (hp) (hp) n (A)
6.42 50 0.87 2.7432 0.05 109.9505 0.0019 0.000281 0.0001015 0.3614567 0.07569
6.42 50 0.83 2.7432 0.05 109.9505 0.0019 0.000281 9.2383E-05 0.3289834 0.06889
2.72 100 1.77 2.7432 0.1 259.5156 0.00381 0.001326 0.00042013 0.3169335 0.31329
2.72 100 1.77 2.7432 0.1 259.5156 0.00381 0.001326 0.00042013 0.3169335 0.31329
1.25 200 3.00 2.7432 0.2 564.7059 0.00762 0.005769 0.00120692 0.2092065 0.9
1.25 200 3.10 2.7432 0.2 564.7059 0.00762 0.005769 0.00128872 0.2233861 0.961
1.23 240 3.00 2.7432 0.24 573.8881 0.00914 0.007035 0.00120692 0.1715494 0.9

 Faucet Test Procedure

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 32 of 36


1. Attach the threaded end of a pressure gauge to the faucet.
2. Attach a valve to the bottom of the pressure gauge.
3. Draw a line at the 2 gallon mark in a medium sized bucket.
4. Beginning at a fully open valve, and thus no pressure of resistance, use a stopwatch to
measure the time it takes to fill 2 gallons. From this, we know the volumetric flow
rate.
Vdot=volume/time=2gal/t
5. With the faucet on, adjust the valve to a more shutoff position by increasing the
pressure valve by 5 psi.
6. Continue this process until the cutoff pressure is reached, the point in which no water
flows through the valve.
7. Finally, plot the pressure versus volumetric flow rate (Appendix G, figure 2).

Faucet Flow Rate vs. Pressure Data


Vol Pressure
time(s) (gal) (psi) Volume Flow rate (gal/s)
18 2 0 0.111111111
19 2 5 0.105263158
21 2 10 0.095238095
23 2 15 0.086956522
23 2 20 0.086956522
26 2 25 0.076923077
30 2 30 0.066666667
33 2 35 0.060606061
39 2 40 0.051282051
52 2 45 0.038461538
183 2 50 0.010928962
99999999 0 55 0

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Appendix J – Product Performance Calculations

Calculating overall turbine efficiency:


Equations for the efficiency of a Pelton wheel turbine were obtained from the Fluids Mechanics textbook
(Cengel, 2010).
4𝑢 𝑉𝑖 −𝑢
ηturbine = (1)
𝑉𝑖 2
where u = linear velocity of wheel
Vi velocity of water flow

In order to find these values, calculate the torque on the wheel.

𝑚𝑟 𝑉 2
𝐹= (2)
2𝑡
where r = radius
and V = linear velocity of the wheel
𝑚
= mass flow rate = υδ = (volume flow rate)(density of Water)
𝑡
1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 .0038 𝑚 3 1000 𝑘𝑔
= 2.5𝑔𝑝𝑚
60 sec 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑚3
𝑚 𝟎.𝟏𝟓𝟖𝐤𝐠
=
𝑡 𝐬

Note: use 4gpm as volume flow rate. This is where the team specified optimum operating flow and is a
realistic point on the graph of pressure versus υ. After testing many nozzles, the team found that a
threaded 4mm nozzle gives a flow of 4gpm.

To find V, use same υ=2.5gpm and υ=V*(area of nozzle)=V(π(.0015)2)


V=10.2 m/s
R=0.0015 m
1
Therefore, F= (0.03)(2.4)2=0.086N
2

To find the torque on the wheel, T=Fr=(0.086)(1 inch)(0.0254 m/in)=.002 N-m(0.737 ft-lb/N-m)=.0017
ft-lb
To find rpm, use the plot of rpm versus Torque, and find that 3000 rpm corresponds to the Torque.
Converting this rpm to rad/s and then to linear velocity of the wheel, we find u=0.471 m/s
Going back to Equation 1, using Vi=V=20.2 m/s and u=0.471 m/s
4u Vi −u 4∗0.471 ∗ 10.2−0.471
ηturbine = = = .017
Vi 2 10.2 2

Calculating overall system efficiency:


Use the decided ideal running conditions, which are proven attainable from the faucet in 239 Reber.

η = efficiency
p = pressure (psi) = 15 psi
υ = volume flow rate (GPM) = 2.5 gal/min
1
P = power (HP) = υ*p*η* (3)
1713

ηturbine = 0.017 (approximately 1.7%)

ME 340.5 Water Turbine – Project Proposal 5/4/2010 Page 34 of 36


ηgenerator = 0.28 (approximately 28%, determined above)
ηtotal = ηturbine * ηgenerator = 0.017*0.28 = 0.0047 = N = 0.47% (4)

Plugging into equation 3:


1 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡
P = 2.5*15*0.0047* = 4.837x10-4HP* 𝐻𝑃 = 0.36 Watts
1713 0.00134

However, this result does not include viscous losses, bearing friction, etc.
Additionally, the Pelton wheel efficiency means this is at steady state, once the wheel has fully
accelerated, since ηturbine is proportional to the speed of the wheel. Therefore, this is a very generous
estimate.

Calculation of power output:


Required by project: 1.5 V over 10 ohm resistor

Therefore, since P=IV (5)


and V=IR (6)

Solving Equations 5 and 6, we obtain:

𝑣2 1.5 2
P= = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐𝟓 𝐖𝐚𝐭𝐭𝐬 (7)
𝑅 10

Comparing the results of the 2 calculations, we see that given this pressure and volume flow rate of the
faucet, it is possible to attain the power required by the project.

As a result, it is apparent that we have more than enough power coming from the faucet, even with an
overall efficiency of 4.97%, as specified in the project constraints.

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K. Net Present Value Analysis

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